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Elva Tang Period 1 Chapter #13:The Rise of a Mass Democracy Big Picture Themes 1.

. Andrew Jackson felt hed been robbed the presidency in 1824. This motivated the regular folks to political action. He vowed to win for the peoples sake, and did so. 2. A conflict started to brew between the north and the south. The issue was the tariff (import tax) and whether the south had the right to nullify or wipe it out. The trouble was worked out, but it foreshadowed bigger trouble to come, over slavery. 3. Jackson distrusted bankshe thought they were tools for the rich to milk money off the poor. He killed the National Bank and threw the whole banking system into chaos. 4. By the time William Henry Harrison ran for president in 1840, popular, mass politics had grown into the circus-like monster that its known as today. IDENTIFICATIONS: American System An economic plan created by Henry Clay that included tariffs to promote domestic industry, a national bank, and internal improvements Corrupt Bargain John Quincy Adams made a bargain with Clay who was leader of the House of Representatives and said that if Clay got him to win the vote, then he would make Clay Secretary of State. Even if Jackson got the popular vote Tariff of Abominations Tariff that raised the tax significantly. Angered Southerners who thought it was unfair for the North and West to benefit from this and not them Nullification South Carolina threatened to nullify, or to separate from the United States. Force Bill Jackson threatened to use military forces to force people to pay taxes even if they didnt want to Five Civilized Tribes The Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles were numbered by whites among the Five Civilized Tribes because they made strong efforts to learn the

Elva Tang Period 1 way of the whites such as opening schools, writing constitutions, and even turning to slavery Trail of Tears Where Jackson forced the relocation of over 100,000 Indians. Thousands died and ironically the Five Civilized Tribes took the heaviest blows. Nicholas Biddle President of the Bank of the United States who had an immense amount of power over the nations finances Democrats vs. Whigs Whigs thought of themselves as conservatives but were progressive in their support of active government and claimed to be defenders of the common man and declared Democrats the party of cronyism and corruption South Carolina Exposition and Protest Secretly written by John C. Calhoun which was a protest against the Tariff of Abominations and denounced it as unjust and unconstitutional Martin Van Buren Eighth president who was from New York. Though a very competent president, he inherited all of Jacksons enemies and issues Specie Circular Order issued by Jackson and carried out by Martin Van Buren which required payment for government land to be in gold Hayne-Webster Debate Debate between Senator Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne over protecting tariffs The Alamo Pivotal event in Texas Revolution where after a thirteen day siege, Mexican troops launched an attack on the Alamo Mission and killed all the Texian defenders which rallied the Texians to unite and defeat the Mexicans

Elva Tang Period 1 GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The "Corrupt Bargain or 1824 Know: Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, King Caucus, Corrupt Bargain 1. What was unusual about John Quincy Adams's victory in the presidential election of 1824? John Quincy Adamss victory was unusual because even though Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, Adams ultimately became president. Because it was decided that four candidates was too many choices to vote over, the candidate with the least popular vote was eliminated which happened to be Henry Clay. This led to the Corrupt Bargain where Adams made a deal with leader of the House of Representatives, Henry Clay, that if he could get him the vote, Adams would make him Secretary of State. Though no concrete evidence has been found to prove that Adams and Clay were in a formal bargain, even if such a bargain was struck it would not have been necessarily corrupt since that was the nature of politicians in that time.

A Yankee Misfit in the White House Know: John Quincy Adams 2. Was John Quincy Adams well suited to be president? Explain. John Quincy Adams was not well suited to be president from the start because he had failed to win the popular vote and less than one-third of the voters voted for him. Because he was accused of corruption, he refused to oust efficient officeholders to create vacancies for his supporters. Also, he still continued to hold nationalistic views while most of the country was turning towards states rights and sectionalism. He continued to fund the creation of roads and canals and even astrological education which angered the Southern states especially who believed that if the government could afford this, then the states would be forced to continue to pay heavy taxes.

Going "Whole Hog" for Jackson in 1828 Know: Old Hickory, Mudslinging, Rachel Robards 3. Describe the tone and tactics used in the 1828 election. Before the election of 1828, the temporarily united Republicans of the Era of Good Feelings had split into the National Republicans who supported Adams and the DemocraticRepublicans who supported Jackson. The Democratic-Republicans presented Old Hickory as a frontiersman and a champion of the common man and denounced Adams as a corrupt aristocrat. Mudslinging reached new lows and even if Adams refused to stoop so low, his followers continued to attack his enemy. Jacksons men also accused Adams of gaining a little too much of a salary and for being a pimp. Most of Jacksons support came from the West and South while New England supported Adams.

Elva Tang Period 1 Old Hickory as President Know: Inaugural Brawl, King Mob 4. What was there about Andrew Jackson which made him a man of the people? Andrew Jackson, the first president of the West, was shown to be a man of the people in the beginning at the Inaugural Ball which was initially held only for the upper classes to celebrate his inauguration. However, Jackson decided that it was only right for all social classes to be able to attend and the White House was so crowded that people had to be forced to leave and the event was thus dubbed as the Inaugural Brawl. His inauguration ultimately seemed to symbolize the ascendancy of the masses. King Mob reigned triumphant as Jacksonian vulgarity replaced Jeffersonian simplicity and to faint-hearted conservatives, it seemed like the end of the world.

The Spoils System Know: Spoils System, Rotation in Office 5. Defend Andrew Jackson's use of the Spoils System. Andrew Jackson introduced the Spoils System on a large scale by rewarding his political supporters with public office. He defended this system by saying that every man is as good as his neighbor and perhaps equally better. This was supposed to be true because his routine was office was thought to be easy enough for any American to learn and didnt want to encourage the development of a longstanding aristocratic, officeholding class. He believed that a rotation in office allowed for new ideas and a new turn at the public trough. Despite the undeniable abuse, the spoils system was an important element of the soon to be twoparty order which relied on loyalty to parties rather to the country as a whole and was based on economic class or geographic region. The Tricky Tariff of Abominations Know: Tariff of Abominations (of 1828), Denmark Vesey 6. What circumstances led to the passage of the Tariff of Abominations? Tariffs protected American industry against competition from European goods, but they also greatly increased American prices and had negative effects on American agricultural exports overseas. At the cost of the agrarian business, the wool and textile industries were thriving and wanted an even higher tariff. Jacksons supporters promoted a more severe tariff bill expecting it to be vetoed by President Adams and thus making his reputation decline, but to their surprise, it passed onto Jacksons presidency. The Southerners who relied heavily on manufactured goods were outraged and dubbed the tariffs as the Tariff of Abominations (of 1828). However, a deeper issue of slavery also affected the Southerners anger and was fanned even more by a slave rebellion in Charleston led by a free black named Denmark Vesey.

"Nullies" in South Carolina

Elva Tang Period 1 Know: Nullies, Henry Clay, Tariff of 1833, Force Bill 5. Describe the nullification crisis. South Carolina took the lead in trying to nullify the tariff and many of its nullifiers were called nullies. They worked hard to try to get the necessary two-thirds vote for nullification in the South Carolina legislature but were blocked by a determined minority of Unionists. Andrew Jackson was not intimidated by the nullies and enforced the Force Bill which threatened to use the military to force citizens to pay the tariffs. The civil war was on the brink of happening. However, Henry Clay, though a supporter of the tariffs himself, proposed a compromise bill that would gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by about 10 percent over a period of eight years. This was known as the Tariff of 1833, and though neither Jackson nor the nullies won a clear victory, Henry lay was the true victor who temporarily saved peace in the country.

The Trail of Tears Know: Cherokees, Five Civilized Tribes, Indian Removal Act, Trail of Tears, Indian Territory, The Bureau of Indian Affairs, Seminoles 8. What was particularly unfair about the treatment of the Cherokee Tribe?

Although many tribes tried their hardest to resist white encroachment, some such as the Cherokees made strong efforts to learn the ways of the whites. They abandoned their seminomadic life and adopted an agrarian way of life and private property. They also opened schools and wrote legal constitutions with legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. Some Natives even prospered in the cotton business and had slaves of their own. Because of these attempts at being civilized, the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles were called the Five Civilized Tribes. Yet despite their efforts, Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act which forced hundreds of thousands of Indians to move west onto the Trail of Tears. Some Seminoles tried to fight back over a course of seven years, but the spirit was eventually broken in 1837.

The Bank War Know: Bank of the United States, Nicholas Biddle 9. Do you agree or disagree with Nicholas Biddles nickname, Czar Nicholas I? Explain. I agree with Nicholas Biddles nickname Czar Nicholas I because he held an immense, even arguably unconstitutional, power over the countrys finances through the Bank of America. Though the national government made gold and silver coins, it did not issue paper money. Printing paper money was the job of the private banks and the value changed depending on the success of the bank. To many the bank seemed to go against everything about American democracy since profit and not public service was its first priority. They also won enemies in the West by foreclosing many western farms and by becoming the strongest opposition in Jacksons term.

Elva Tang Period 1 "Old Hickory" Wallops Clay in 1832 Know: Anti-Masonic Party 10. What two things were unique about the election of 1832? Some new features made the campaign of 1832 especially special. For the first time, a third party, known as the Anti-Masonic Party came into play. It opposed the influence and secrecy of the Masonic order and quickly spread its influence throughout the middle Atlantic and New England states. It was also an anti-Jackson party and even attracted support from many Protestant groups who sought to use politics as a way to effect moral and religious reforms. Another unique feature was the calling of national nominating conventions to name candidates. The Anti-Masons and National Republicans adopted formal platforms and publicized their positions on the issues. Though Henry Clay benefited from support from the Bank of the United States, Jackson had the support of the masses and easily defeated Clay. Burying Biddles Bank Know: Mandate, Pet Banks, Specie Circular 11. "Andrew Jackson's killing of the BUS forced him to issue the Specie Circular." Assess. Although the Bank of the United States was already due for expiration in 1836, Jackson, who was convinced that he had a mandate from the voters for its complete extermination, removed federal deposits from the banks vaults. He refused to deposit more funds and this was even viewed as unnecessary and almost unconstitutional by his supporters. However, the death of the Bank of the United States left a financial vacuum in the American economy and extra federal funds were put in several state institutions called pet banks. Without a central bank in control, the small banks flooded the country with paper money and country was undergoing inflation. As a result, Jackson allowed the Treasury to issue a Specie Circular that required all public lands to be purchased with metallic money, ultimately leading to a financial panic and crash in 1837.

The Birth of the Whigs Know: Democrats, Whigs 12. What is so alluring about being associated with the common man? The Whigs first emerged as an identifiable group in the Senate that opposed Jacksons presidency and his removal of the federal deposits from the Bank of the United States. The Whigs thought of themselves as conservatives, yet progressive in their support of active government programs. They called for internal improvements and welcomed the market economy by drawing in support from manufacturers in the North, planters in the South, and merchants and bankers from all over. They despised the aristocratic Jackson and Martin Van Buren and believed they were defenders of the common man while declaring the Democrats as corrupt.

Elva Tang Period 1 The Election of 1836 Know: Favorite Son, William Henry Harrison, Martin Van Buren 13. Describe the development of the second party system from 1828-1836. Jackson chose to appoint Martin Van Buren as his successor in 1836 and carefully rigged the nominations in his favor. However, as the election drew closer, the disunited Whigs were incapable of choosing a single presidential candidate and decided to choose their favorite sons who each had a specific regional appeal. The House of Representatives would then have to choose who the candidate would be. Thus, the favorite son turned out to be General William Henry Harrison who was hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe. Despite that, Martin van Buren still managed to win with a close popular vote and an appropriate margin in the Electoral College.

Big Woes for the "Little Magician" Know: Martin Van Buren 14. Why was Martin Van Buren unpopular? Martin Van Buren was the eighth president and the first to be born under the American flag. He was a New Yorker with a statesman of wide experience in legislative and administrative life and was above average in intelligence, education, and training. However, he faced resentment from many Democrats and many others felt let down by his mellowness and he inherited all of the previous presidents enemies. His term as president was filled to the brim with trouble and when he tried to play the neutral card when a rebellion in Canada threatened to start war with Britain, many antislavery agitators in the North were greatly angered.

Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury Know: Panic of 1837, Speculation, Divorce Bill, Independent Treasury 15. What caused the Panic of 1837, and what was done by the president to try and end it? The Panic of 1837 was caused mainly by over speculation of the western lands which eventually spread to canals, roads, railroads, and slaves. However, Jacksons Bank War and Specie Circular also had significant roles in the cause of the panic. In addition, the failure of two significant British banks caused repercussions in the American economy and hundreds of pet banks collapsed alongside several million government funds. The Whigs called for government interference, but Van Buren refused due to his Jacksonian belief in keeping the government away from direct interference. He also tried to alleviate the panic by passing the Divorce Bill which establishing independent treasuries so that the government could lock its extra money in vaults in larger cities. This way, government funds could be safe.

Gone to Texas

Elva Tang Period 1 Know: Stephen Austin, Davy Crockett 16. What made Texas so appealing to Americans? Texas was enormously appealing to Americans because it was so large and Americans were greedy for land. Spanish authorities wanted to populate this virtually unpopulated area, but before they could, the Mexicans won their independence. Therefore, new arrangements were made for granting large amounts of land to Stephen Austin with the understanding that he would bring three hundred American families into Texas with him. However, the Texas pioneers remained Americans at heart and resented the imposing Mexican government. Though most were law-abiding people, some, such as Davy Crockett were adventurers who were always two steps before the sheriffs.

The Lone Star Rebellion Know: Sam Houston, Santa Anna, Alamo, W. B. Travis, Goliad, Lone Star Republic, San Jacinto 17. How did Texas, a part of Mexico settled by Americans, become independent of both? In early 1836, the Texans declared their independence and named Sam Houston commander in chief while Santa Anna furiously swept into Texas. About two hundred Texans were wiped out at the Alamo after a thirteen day siege but nonetheless delayed Mexican advances and sparked American opposition. Though the federal government had a neutral obligation towards Mexico, the majority of the population was in favor of the Texans and when Jackson left office in 1837, he extended the right hand of recognition to the Lone Star Republic led by his old comrade Sam Houston. Yet, many Texans wanted not only recognition of their independence, but also an outright union with the United States. However, the issue of slavery was what was holding back the annexation and antislavery crusaders in the North blatantly opposed it.

Makers of America: Mexican or Texan? Know: Moses Austin, Stephen Austin, Anglos 18. Did Texans ever really intend to become Mexican citizens, or did they feign allegiance to get land? Moses Austin was devoted to acquiring cheap land and freedom from pesky laws, even if he had to be Spanish. He pledged his allegiance to the king of Spain but was unhappy when the Louisiana Purchase restored his old American citizenship. As a result, he rode back into Texas and asked for permission to establish a colony of three hundred families. The Spanish authorities reluctantly agreed and the job was passed down to his son, Stephen Austin. However, the original Anglos brought with them hostility to authority and they ignored Mexican laws and officials, including restrictions on owning slaves. Like the Americans in the American Revolution, the Anglos took up their guns and asked for rights of Mexican citizens.

Elva Tang Period 1 The Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 Know: Log Cabin, Hard Cider, "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" 19. What does the election of 1840 tell you about politics and voters in America at that time? The Democrats renominated Martin Van Buren while the Whigs, who learned from their previous mistakes, decided on only one candidate, William Henry Harrison. He was known as Old Tippecanoe for his successes against the Indians and was nominated mainly for the reason that he had no enemies and no problems. A dull Democratic writer stupidly insulted the West by calling Harrison an old farmer who should be happy to live in a log cabin with a barrel of hard cider. These ironically became the symbols of his campaign for which they used to depict him as an honest common man while denouncing Van Buren as an overbearing aristocrat. Though campaigners tried their best to temporarily ignore substantive issues, voters actually were faced with the choice of two economic views on how to deal with the nations first major depression. The Whigs wanted to stimulate and expand the economy while the Democrats did not favor government interference.

The Two-Party System 20. Who were the Democrats and what did they believe? The Whigs? Jacksonian Democrats believed in freedom of the individual and despised governmental power. They clung to states rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs as their most fundamental beliefs. Meanwhile, Whigs were in favor of the natural occurrences of society and were willing to use the government for their benefit. They wanted a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms. Though they were both separated by basic philosophical ideals, they had some things in common such as their methods for campaigning by deliberately trying to mobilize as many voters as possible for their own causes. Their differences fostered compromises within each party that prevented either from being too dominant.