Homosexuality Within Our Society
Homosexuality is a lifestyle that arises many questions in today’s research. The main question that is constantly being researched what causes people identify themselves as homosexual whether it be gay or lesbian. Many of the research studies that have been employed have used twin studies to yield very similar results. Most researchers have found that there are both biological factors that play a role as well as environmental factors. There isn’t a known gene yet that contributes to this biological factor but there are many current research projects trying to pin point that out. Delineating the etiology of homosexuality will allow people the scientific evidence to make decisions in regards to politics, morality, equal rights and so on. Beliefs about homosexuality and where it is derived from directly effects individuals who identify themselves that way. Therefore, I’ve decided to also research how the society around us views homosexuality. Whether it be the general population of even the health care providers and future health care providers. Most of the articles used in this annotated bibliography are scholarly research journals that have been done over the course of the last few years. They types of authors that wrote many of my sources are highly qualified medical professionals, long time researchers, Professors, etc. Within this medical centered discourse community many discussions on homosexuality have been ongoing for decades. Different theories of the etiology have been brought to light as well as ways to change the societies perspective on homosexuality so that better relationships are established like doctor-patient relationships. The intended audience for this research is mostly doctors, therapists, families that are affected by homosexuality in their homes, as well as anyone else who is interested. This research
Gonzalez 2 is cutting edge research and is still pretty new which is why there are still a lot of gaps within it. This lifestyle of homosexuality has become prominent in the more recent generations. Expectations of much more research and discoveries are to come but for now this annotated bibliography discusses the current research that is out there on this topic.
Dahan, Rachel, Rotem Feldman, and Doron Hermoni. "Is Patients' Sexual Orientation A Blind Spot Of Family Physicians?." Journal Of Homosexuality 55.3 (2008): 524-532. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
In this research article published by the journal of homosexuality, Rachel Dahan, a medical doctor whose done many years of research with this topic, decided to investigate a sample of family physicians’ common practice regarding their patients sexual orientation. Even though certain health needs of the LGBT community may be unique and different then those of heterosexuals, according to her research, most doctors usually don’t ask patients about their sexual orientation for reasons such as being to personal, or some doctors just aren’t as open minded about this type of lifestyle. Most of the physicians that were surveyed in this study knew less then 0.5% homosexuals in their practice, 44.4% did not even know of any homosexual patients in their practice. Only one physician in this study regularly asked his patients about their sexual orientation. This is an issue with the LGBT community because it negligence of asking this question can lead to receiving less medical quality care. This source was included in my annotated bibliography because it goes into how doctors perspective on this lifestyle can affect the medical care that these people receive just by simple negligence.
Donald L. Gabard PhD (1999) Homosexuality and the Human Genome Project, Journal of Homosexuality, 37:1, 25-51.
In this academic journal Donald L. Gabard, an associate professor in the division of physical therapy at Chapman University, evaluates existing research about the idea of nature vs. nurture in the case of homosexuality. Using a sample of 56 pairs of identical twins, 54 pairs of fraternal twins, 142 non-twin brothers of the twins, and 57 pairs of brothers who were adopted, found that the concordance rate for homosexuality among the identical twins of the initially identified homosexual twins was 52%, among fraternal twins it was 22%, between non-twin biological brothers it was 9.2%, and for adopted brothers it was 11%. According to this research both genetics and environment appear to have the potential to influence sexual orientation. This source relates to my research because it shows the relationship between twins and their genetic correspondence to try and determine what is the etiology of homosexuality.
HESTON, L. L., and JAMES SHIELDS. "Homosexuality In Twins: A Family Study And A Registry Study." Archives Of General Psychiatry 18.2 (1968): 149-160. PsycINFO. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
This article written by Heston, a professor at the Iowa State Medical School, investigated a family with 14 children in which there were 3 pairs of monozygotic twins, and of these 3 pairs, 2 sets were homosexual. No different environmental factors were detected that may
Gonzalez 4 have played a big role in the etiology of the orientation. The fact that 4 out of the 12 kids in that family are homosexual show a strong correlation with genetics as a big factor in homosexual etiology. This source was selected to be presented in this annotated bibliography because it shows more evidence that might soon lead to a specific etiology of homosexuality.
Jane P. Sheldon PhD , Carla A. Pfeffer MSW , Toby Epstein Jayaratne PhD , Merle Feldbaum BA & Eizabeth M. Petty MD (2007) Beliefs About the Etiology of Homosexuality and About the Ramifications of Discovering Its Possible Genetic Origin, Journal of Homosexuality, 52:3-4.
In this academic journal written by several people, the main author is Jane P. Sheldon, an associate professor in psychology at the University of Michigan, who explores the population’s beliefs of the etiology of homosexuality. The study consisted of a 40-minute structured interview with a national probability sample of 1200 White and Black respondents throughout the United States. Out of these numbers sub samples were taken out of both groups. She categorized their responses in terms of whether they said genes were responsible fully, partly, for some people, or not at all. 25 respondents believed that genes are at least partly the cause of homosexuality, 5 participants said that genes play a role for some people but not for others, and 43 respondents felt that genes play no role. The remaining participants stated that they did not know. This source relates to my research because it delineates the current conversation and beliefs of the population on this topic.
Jeffrey A. East. “Pediatricians’ approach to the health care of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth”. Journal of Adolescent Health. Volume 23, Issue 4, October 1998, Pages 191–193.
In this research study conducted by Jeffery A East, who is in the department of family and preventative medicine at Emory University, 60 pediatricians completed questionnaires. These questions were questions that would give the research a better understanding about how these doctors feel and approach homosexual patients in their office. It was clear that discussions with patients about sexual orientation is really difficult for health care providers. Many respondents believed doctors should assume all patients are heterosexual unless they are told otherwise. From this survey it is evident that doctors don’t like to approach this subject, which may be why patients are more hesitant to tell their health care provider. This was included in my paper because this survey reveals doctors’ perspective on dealing with homosexual patients and it is important because it can have many detrimental effects in the patients’ healthcare if doctors don’t learn how to deal with this better.
Judd Marmor MD (1998) Homosexuality, Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 2:4, 19-28
This is an article written by Judd Marmor, a medical doctor. In this piece he explains the four ways in which the population can view homosexuality from a homophobic perspective. He says that the etiology of sexual orientation can be viewed from a
Gonzalez 6 scientific, ethical, or socio-politico-religious perspective. He claims that societal homophobia rests on four basic assumptions: (1) it is sinful/immoral, (2) it is “unnatural,” (3) it is a chosen form of behavior that can therefore be unchosen, and (4) it is potentially contagious. He says that “if therapists believe homosexuality is an acquired behavior pattern (even if they consider themselves to be neutral with regard to homosexuality), their conscious or unconscious bias in favor of a heterosexual way of life may lead them to exert subtle but significant pressure on the patient towards a heterosexuality which does not come naturally. Such pressures can amplify self-rejection and inferiority. For that reason, the new views on the etiology of homosexuality are indeed important.” This is included in my bibliography because it shows some of the perspectives of people that are against homosexuality and explains the ramifications of it.
Klamen, Debra L., and Linda S. Grossman. "Medical Student Homophobia." Journal Of Homosexuality 37.1 (1999): 53. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.
In this research article written by Debra L. Klamen, a medical doctor interested in homosexual research, she is investigating whether homophobia existed in a sample of second year medical students. She administered a questionnaire to a sample of the secondyear class at an introductory lecture to the course on Human Sexuality. This questionnaire asked twelve questions regarding attitudes about homosexuality. The data indicated significant homophobia. One-quarter of the students reported believing homosexuality is immoral and dangerous to the institution of the family, and expressed distaste to socializing with homosexuals. Nine percent believed homosexuality to be a mental disorder
Gonzalez 7 and 14% felt more homophobia since AIDS. Medical student homophobia, if left unchallenged, will hinder care provided to homosexual patients. Physician homophobia may disable a healthy doctor-patient relationship and may cause a decrease in patients' ability to disclose sensitive issues. This is in my bibliography because it shows how our future doctors feel about homosexuals and how it will impact health care.
Laura B. Allen. “Adolescent health care experience of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young adults” Journal of Adolescent Health. Volume 23, Issue 4, (1998) Pages 212–220.
This research survey was conducted through Luara B. Allen, who is in the Department of Pediatrics in the school of medicine of the University of Colorado. She got together 102 subjects who identify themselves as either gay, lesbian, or bisexual. A confidential selfadministered survey asked theses subjects for information like sexual orientation information, health care experiences, subjects’ understanding of medical confidentiality during ages 14–18 years, and their suggestions for improving care to gay and lesbian adolescents. The results once analyzed showed that two-thirds of the subjects had never discussed their sexual orientation with their healthcare provider but wanted to do so. Fewer than one-half of subjects remembered being informed about their right to medical confidentiality; those who reported being so informed were three times more likely to have discussed their sexual orientation with their provider. Over 70% of subjects who reported not being informed about their right to medical confidentiality stated that they would have been more likely to discuss sexual orientation with their provider had they been so informed. Only 13 of subjects had disclosed their sexual orientation to their health care
Gonzalez 8 providers. Some of the reoccurring themes of why these subjects didn’t tell their healthcare provider was not only because of confidentiality but because these subjects didn’t know how the doctors felt about homosexuality. This source is in my bibliography because it discloses that healthcare providers aren’t being informed of sexual orientation because many people in the LGBT community don’t want to be judged by their own physicians, and they are a part of this society.
Laura Badenes-Ribera, et al. "Etiology Of Homosexuality And Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Parenting: A Randomized Study." Journal Of Sex Research (2013): MEDLINE. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
This journal article is written by Frias-Navarro D, Monterde-I-Bort H, Pascual-Soler M, and Badenes-Ribera L, who are all members of the Department of Psychology from the University of Valencia. This article focuses on the etiology of homosexuality and attitudes toward same-sex parenting. In this study a sample of the population was surveyed about whether they believed that homosexuality had a genetic etiology or and environmental etiology and how that affected their attitudes toward social rights and same-sex parenting. The sample was composed of 190 Spanish university students with a mean age of 22.07 years. The results showed that participants who believed that sexual orientation had a genetic etiology showed greater support for social rights and less rejection of same-sex parenting. As for the participants who believed it was an environmental factor, they showed a lesser tolerance for the idea of same-sex parenting. This was included in my bibliography mainly because it is a discussion of the potential etiology of homosexuality and the population’s views on it.
Michael G. Shively, John P. De Cecco, “Components of Sexual Identity” Journal of Homosexuality. Vol 3(1), Fall (1977).
The Haworth Press. In this next journal published in the journal of homosexuality, Shively, an associate director for homosexuality education, writes about four main components that are believed to contribute to the sexual orientation of an individual. He believes that these four main factors develop then later combine and conflict to form someone’s sexual preference. These four factors are 1) gender identity, 2) social sex role, 3) biological sex, and 4) sexual orientation. This is his theory to the foundation of homosexuality. This was included in my bibliography because it opens another venue for pin pointing the foundation of this topic.
Nicholas G. Martin, et al. "Genetic And Environmental Influences On Individual Differences In Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: An Australian Twin Study." Behavior Genetics 38.3 (2008): 257-265. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
In a research study done by Nicholas G. Martin, a professor of biological psychology at the VU University, many new findings became known. As previous research has showed, heterosexuals tend to hold a negative attitude towards homosexuality, also known as homophobia. This research provides insight to the etiology of homophobia. In this study information from 4,688 twins were analyzed. The researchers found that males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-
Gonzalez 10 heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. The results suggest that differences in attitudes toward homosexuality are mainly inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor. I included this piece in my bibliography because although my main focus is on homosexuality, homophobia is a big part of this topic when considering the views of the population.
Paul Lichtenstein, et al. "Genetic And Environmental Effects On Same-Sex Sexual Behavior: A Population Study Of Twins In Sweden." Archives Of Sexual Behavior 39.1 (2010): 75-80. OmniFile Full Text Mega (H.W. Wilson). Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
Paul Lichtenstein, who is in the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics in a university in Sweden, conducted the biggest twin study up to today. His focus for this research was to determine if there was a propensity for related twins to have a higher chance of homosexual orientation if one of the twins was homosexual. All twin pairs born in Sweden 1959–1985 where both siblings were alive and living in the country were invited to participate in the Swedish Twin Study of Adults. In the largest twin study ever to be conducted the results showed a clustering of homosexuality within a family which supports the idea the some of the etiology does have to do with genetics. The research also shows that there are environmental factors as well that may often play a role as well as genetics. These findings also show similarities with other sources in this annotated bibliography. This source was included in my annotated bibliography because twin studies are really important in the topic to try and pin point the etiology of homosexuality.
Seutter, Ray A., and Martin Rovers. "Emotionally Absent Fathers: Furthering The Understanding Of Homosexuality." Journal Of Psychology & Theology 32.1 (2004): 43-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.
In this article written by a professor at Saint Paul University, Seutter Ray A., A different possible influence on homosexuality is introduced into this conversation. The study explored emotionally absent fathers as one variable in the understanding of homosexuality. Levels of father/son and mother/son connectedness were measured among male Catholic seminarians in Canada. Results indicated that those seminarians who identified their sexual orientation as homosexual scored significantly lower on their level of intimacy with their fathers than did heterosexual seminarians. These differences did not exist in the relationship of seminarians and their mothers. This creates a new theory for the etiology of homosexuality, the “weak father” theory. This was included in my bibliography because it is another possible factor that plays into the etiology of homosexuality.
Strautin, Astra Lydia. "Male and Female Homosexuality: A Review of Differential Factors in Etiology and Implications for Treatment." (1992). ERIC. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.
In this doctoral research paper written by Strautin and Astra Lydia, they go into depth of other research that has been done to try and find the source of one’s sexual identity. With recent studies attempting to determine factors that might indicate a genetic and/or hormonal basis. The results have provided evidence to suggest that some individuals are
Gonzalez 12 biologically predisposed to experience feelings or exhibit behaviors consistent with a homosexual orientation. According to this research paper, developmental, familial, and societal factors appear to contribute to the surfacing of homosexuality as well, although researchers have yet to find conclusive data to indicate which of these factors, and to what degree, influence the formation of one's sexual identity. Once again this source was included in this annotated bibliography because it continues the discussion that the etiology of homosexuality is still a mystery.
W. C. Wong, et al. "Homophobia In Medical Students Of The University Of Hong Kong." Sex Education 9.1 (2009): 65-80. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.
This is an article written by Kan, R. W. M. and a few other people that all are professors at the University of Hong Kong. They examined the extent of homophobia among medical students, the future doctors. This article aims to study attitudes of medical students of the University of Hong Kong towards homosexuality and to identify significant factors affecting their attitudes. Homophobia among health care professionals is well documented but the establishment of a trustful doctor-patient relationship is impossible when homophobia is present. A cross sectional study was preformed with the students of Hong Kong University. Attitudes toward homosexuality were compared between medical students and nonmedical students. More than 25% of the medical students agreed with the statement “homosexuality is a psychological disorder that requires therapy”. More than 15% would avoid any physical contact with homosexuals to minimize the chance of contracting diseases, especially AIDS. Comparison between the medical students and non-medical
Gonzalez 13 students showed that the attitudes of the medical students were significantly more homophobic. This was included in my bibliography because it shows future doctors attitudes toward homosexuality.