For review, see AP Biology – Semester I Final 1) Scientists a) Chargaff ~chemist that looked at base composition *separated out

nucleotides to get a percent *discovered base pairing (complementary bases) ~discovered a 1:1 ratio of purines to pyrmidines b) Hershey & Chase (1952) ~labeled T2 virus in E. Coli with 32p (radioactive phosphorus) or 35S (radioactive sulfur) *DNA contains phosphorus but not sulfur vs. proteins contain no phosphorus ~result: 35S remained outside the cell / 32p was found inside the cell *DNA carries information from parent to offspring not protein c) O.T. Avery, MacLeod & McCarthy (1944) ~concluded that DNA was a gene and not a protein *took a boiled “S” strain and divided it into protein and DNA *injected “R” strain into mouse; DNA fraction transform “R” strain to kill the mouse ~DNA was not pure d) Griffith (1928) ~tried to find a cure for streptococcus pneumonia (strep throat) ~discovered 2 strains: 1) “S” strain was smooth with a protective coat *[normal] into mice = died *[boiled] into mice = lived 2) “R” strain was rough without a protective coat *[normal] into mice = live ~[combination of “R” and “S” boiled] into mice = killed with R strain capsulated *“S” strain transformed “R” strain calling it the “transforming factor” e) Meselson & Stahl ~confirmed daughter cells receive an old parental strand and a new matching strand *DNA replicates by the semi-conservative mechanism

AP Biology – DNA SG

f) Watson & Crick (1953) ~published the double-helix structure of DNA in chromosomes *used x-ray crystallography by Franklin and Chargaff’s rules to describe the helix 2) DNA ~determined to have two chains held by anti-parallel hydrogen bonds ~two sides are made of a sugar (ribose) and a phosphate *perpendicular steps are formed by nitrogenous bases called rungs 1

II. derived from the old molecule.A) Replication ~topoisomerase changes the surface of a coiled DNA (relaxes) ~binding proteins protect and coat chains of DNA ~replication begins at origin – a specific nucleotide sequence – and is bidirectional *always proceeds in the 5’ to 3’ direction ~helicases unwind and melt DNA to break hydrogen bonds *opens the helix – replication fork B) Synthesize ~DNA polymerases I. and one newly made strand. consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group 2 . capable of determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins and replication Complementary Bases: guanine = cytosine / adenine = thymine Anti-parallel: the opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix Semi-conservative Replication: a type of DNA replication in which the replicated double-helix consists of one old strand. ½ new + ½ old Replication: when DNA copies itself during interphase. IV are involved (enzymes: – “ase”) ~strands are created in opposite direction: 3’ to 5’ direction ~new strand created is started by a primer *proceeded by nucleotides formed by RNA primase 3) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) ~errors are made that are not complementary to the template strand *DNA polymerase proofreads and removes wrong nucleotides Vocabulary DNA: a double stranded. grouped as purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrmidines (cytosine and thymine) Nucleotide: the building block of a nucleic acid. III. helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of a nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogenous base. specifically “S” phase Nitrogenous Base: a base with nitrogen.

DNA polymerase III and I play a major role in the DNA replication of prokaryotes m) Replication Fork: a “Y-shaped” region on a replicating DNA molecule where the parental strands are being unwound and new stands are growing n) RNA Primase: an RNA polymerase that synthesizes a short RNA primer sequence to initiate DNA replication. and rejoins DNA strands. separates the two strands and making them available as template strands k) Topoisomerase: a protein that breaks. during the DNA replication. swivels. joined together by DNA Ligase r) DNA Ligase: a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication.h) Template: the DNA strand that provides the pattern for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript i) Origin of Replication: the site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides in an RNA strand j) Helicases: an enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks. many of which are used to make the lagging strand in new DNA. o) Leading Strands: the new complementary DNA strand synthesized continuously along the template strand toward the replication fork in the mandatory 5’ to 3’ strand p) Replication Bubble: an area created once the polymerases have opened the DNA molecule q) Okazaki Fragments (Lagging Strands): a short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication. topoisomerase helps to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork l) DNA Polymerases: an enzyme that catalyzes from the elongation of a new DNA strand by addition to the 3’ end of an existing chain. catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3’ end of one DNA fragment to the 5’ end of another DNA fragment 3 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.