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This draft: January 14, 2013

Have a suggestion? Want to contribute a solution? Contact ruina@cornell.edu with Subject: Solutions Manual

Note, the numbering of hand-written solutions is most-often wrong (corresponding to an old numbering scheme). The hand-written problem numbers should be ignored.

9.1.15 Consider a force F .t/ acting on a cart over a 3 second span. In case (a), the force acts in two impulses of one second duration each as shown in ﬁg. 9.1.15. In case (b), the force acts continuously for two seconds and then is zero for the last second. Given that the mass of the cart is 10 kg, v.0/ D 0, and F0 D 10 N, for each force proﬁle, a) Find the speed of the cart at the end of 3 seconds, and b) Find the distance travelled by the cart in 3 seconds. Comment on your answers for the two

cases. F(t) F0

(a)

0 F(t) F0 1 2 3 t (sec)

(b)

0

Filename:pfigure9-1-fcompare

1

2

3 t (sec)

Problem 9.15

2

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

Chapter 9.1. Force and motion in 1D

Problem 9.1.16

3

9.1.16 A car of mass m is accelerated by applying a triangular force proﬁle shown in ﬁg. 9.1.16(a). Find the speed of the car at t D T seconds. If the same speed is to be achieved at t D T seconds with a sinusoidal force proﬁle, F .t/ D Fs sin t T, ﬁnd the required force magnitude Fs . Is the peak higher or lower? Why?

F(t) FT

(a)

0 F(t) Fs T/2 T t

(b)

0

Filename:pfigure9-1-fcompare2

T/2

T

t

Problem 9.16

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

Write this sentence as a differential equation.22 9. which is a known constant v t .22 A grain of sugar falling through honey has a negative acceleration proportional to the difference between its velocity and its ‘terminal’ velocity. Solve the equation assuming some given initial velocity v0 . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. deﬁning any constants you need.4 Chapter 9.1.1. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. . Force and motion in 1D Problem 9.1.

b) Assume the bullet has effectively stopped when its speed has dropped to 5 m=s. Assume that the bullet has mass m D l AL where l is the density of lead. The drag on the bullet is about FD D cw v 2 A=2 where w is the density of water. Force and motion in 1D Problem 9. what is the penetration distance in the limit t ! 1? d) How would you change the model to make it more reasonable in its predictions for long time? Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.Chapter 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. A is the cross sectional area of the bullet and L is the length of the bullet (approximated as cylindrical). entering velocity v0 D 400 m=s.1. what is its total penetration distance? c) According to the equations implied above. A is the cross sectional area of the bullet. a) Plot the bullet position vs time. and c is a drag coefﬁcient which is about c 1. Assume m D 2 grams.1. and bullet diameter d D 5:7 mm.1. v is the instantaneous speed of the bullet. .26 A bullet penetrating ﬂesh slows approximately as it would if penetrating water. l =w D 11:3.26 5 9.

Force and motion in 1D Problem 9.26 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. .6 Chapter 9.1.1.

Force and motion in 1D Problem 9. .Chapter 9.26 (continued) 7 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.1.1. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

8 Chapter 9.8 1.4 1.6 1. Force and motion in 1D Problem 9.1.1.6 0.2 position (m) 1 0. .8 0.26 (continued) Plot of position vs time 1.2 0 0 5 10 time (s) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.4 0. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. PK .3 9 9.2.2.Chapter 9. At t D 2 s evaluate (give numbers and units): a) a.3 A force F D F0 sin. velocity v D 5 m=s at t D 2 s. c) P . d) E e) the rate at which the force is doing work.2. F0 D 4 N and c D 2= s. . Energy methods in 1D Problem 9. b) EK .ct/ acts on a particle with mass m D 3 kg which has position x D 3 m.

2.3 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2. . Energy methods in 1D Problem 9.10 Chapter 9.

Upon hitting the ground with straight legs.10 A kid (m D 90 lbm) stands on a h D 10 ft wall and jumps down. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012..2. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. ﬁnd F=mg ). she bends them so her body slows to a stop over a distance d D 1 ft.2. numbers and numbers of body weight (i. Energy methods in 1D Problem 9.2.e. Assume constant deceleration as she brakes the fall.10 11 9. accelerating with g D 32 ft=s2 . Neglect the mass of her legs. a) What is the total distance her body falls? b) What is the potential energy lost? c) How much work must be absorbed by her legs? d) What is the force of her legs on her body? Answer in symbols.Chapter 9. .

The draw force varies from about Fdraw D 25 lbf for a bow made for a small person to about Fdraw D 75 lbf for a bow made for a big strong person. An ar- row has mass of about 300 grain (1 grain 64:8milli gm. the draw length `draw .2. Energy methods in 1D Problem 9. so an arrow has mass of about 19:44 20 gm 3=4 ounce).12 Chapter 9. but for this problem neglect air friction)? Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.11 9.2. varies from about `draw D 2 ft for a small adult to about 30 inch for a big adult. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. when pulling an arrow back the force starts from 0 and increases approximately linearly up to the peak ‘draw force’ Fdraw .2. a) What is the range of speeds you can expect an arrow to ﬂy? b) What is the range of heights an arrow might go if shot straight up (it’s a bad approximation.11 In traditional archery. Give all answers in symbols and numbers. The distance the arrow is pulled back. .

11 (continued) 13 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2.Chapter 9. Energy methods in 1D Problem 9. .2.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. time.14 Chapter 9. a realistic drag force of :006 lbf=.2. a) What is the peak (steady state) speed of the cyclist? b) Using analytic or numerical methods make an accurate plot of speed vs.2.16 9. Energy methods in 1D Problem 9. say. Neglect other drag forces. Assume a mass (bike + rider) of 150 lbm. . ft= s/2 v 2 .2. c) What is the acceleration as t in this solution? d) What is the acceleration as t in your solution? !1 ! 0 e) How would you improve the model to ﬁx the problem with the answer above? Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Assume a rider starts from rest and uses this constant power.16 The power available to a very strong accelerating cyclist over short periods of time (up to. about 1 minute) is about 1 horsepower.

2. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Energy methods in 1D Problem 9.16 (continued) 15 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .2.Chapter 9.

16 Chapter 9. .16 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Energy methods in 1D Problem 9.2. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2.

6 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. soft spring if the initial stretch is large. It only moves vertically.Chapter 9.l0 C mg=k/ into your differential equation and note that the equation is simpler in terms of the variable x O. Simple Harmonic Oscillator Problem 9. e) What is the meaning of that solution? (That is. the position x of the mass. b) Write the equation of linear momentum balance. What is the motion of the mass? h) What is the period of oscillation of this oscillating mass? i) Why might this solution not make physical sense for a long.6 Mass m hangs from a spring with constant k and which has the length l0 when it is relaxed (i..6 17 9.3.l0 C mg=k/. what is wrong with this solution if D > `0 C 2mg=k ? l0 k x m Filename:pg141-1 Problem 9. c) Reduce this equation to a standard differential equation in x .e. d) Verify that one solution is that x. when no mass is attached). In other words.3. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.) f) Deﬁne a new variable x O D x . Substitute x D x O C . a) Draw a Free Body Diagram of the mass.t/ is constant at x D l0 C mg=k . describe in words what is going on.3. g) Assume that the mass is released from an an initial position of x D D . .

8 A person jumps on a trampoline. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. The person is modeled as a rigid mass m D 150 lbm. what is the pe- riod of this motion (note. a neat graph of height vs time will help.3.] Filename:pfigure3-trampoline Problem 9.8 9.3. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.8: A person jumps on a trampoline.18 Chapter 9. a) What is the period of motion if the person’s motion is so small that her feet never leave the trampoline? b) What is the maximum amplitude of motion (amplitude of the sine wave) for which her feet never leave the trampoline? c) (harder) If she repeatedly jumps so that her feet clear the trampoline by a height h D 5 ft. g D 32:2 ft=s2 . .3. Simple Harmonic Oscillator Problem 9. The trampoline is modeled as having an effective vertical undamped linear spring with stiffness k D 200 lbf= ft. the contact time is not exactly half of a vibration period)? [Hint.

.3. Simple Harmonic Oscillator Problem 9.3.Chapter 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.8 (continued) 19 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

Simple Harmonic Oscillator Problem 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.3.20 Chapter 9.3.8 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .

9. the constant force F . and t .k3 .14 21 The primary emphasis of this section is setting up correct differential equations (without sign errors) and solving these equations on the computer. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. k1 . x2 x1 k1 Filename:p-f96-f-3 F k2 m2 c k3 m1 Problem 9.4. C .t/ for 10 units of time. k2 . Your equations should be in terms of any or all of the constants m1 .14 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.Chapter 9. m2 . plot x1 vs t for enough time so that decaying erratic oscillations can be observed. a) Write the governing equations in a neat ﬁrst order form. c) For constants and initial conditions of your choosing. Make up appropriate initial conditions.4.4. The governing equations for the system shown can be written in ﬁrst order form if we deﬁne v1 x P 1 and v2 x P2. The force F acts on mass 2. The displacements x1 and x2 are deﬁned so that x1 D x2 D 0 when the springs are unstretched. . b) Write computer commands to ﬁnd and plot v1 .14 Two masses are connected to ﬁxed supports and each other with the three springs and dashpot shown. Coupled motion in 1D Problem 9. The ground is frictionless. Getting the signs right is important.

Coupled motion in 1D Problem 9.4.14 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.4.22 Chapter 9. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

Coupled motion in 1D Problem 9.14 (continued) 23 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.4.Chapter 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.4. .

Find the impulse of mass A on mass B and the velocities of the two masses after the collision.5. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.5.24 Chapter 9.5.6 9. The ities of vA B coefﬁcient of restitution is e D :5. . have veloc D 6 m=s and v D 2 m=s.6 Before a collision two particles. mA D 7 kg and mB D 9 kg. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. 1D Collisions Problem 9.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. 1D Collisions Problem 9. .5.Chapter 9.5.6 (continued) 25 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

26 Chapter 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. .6 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. 1D Collisions Problem 9.5.5.

2 1 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.5.5. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.6 (continued) 27 Problem 9.Chapter 9. You get this by solving vB = 7 m/s h) 4 kg m/s j) 67 J k) 0.84 + If you assumed vA = 6 m/s. than the following answers will change d) 6 kg m/s f) 14 kg m/s + g) −4 kg m/s. . 1D Collisions Problem 9.

. falling with it and then bouncing against it after the basketball hits the ground. is a small rubber ball with mass mr that has a coefﬁcient of restitution er with the basketball. g .5.5.10 9. for given h.10 A basketball with mass mb is dropped from height h onto the hard solid ground on which it has coefﬁcient of restitution eb . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. what mass and restitution parameters maximize the height of the bounce of the rubber ball and what is that height? Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.5. mr . 1D Collisions Problem 9. a) In terms of some or all of mb . eb and er how high does the rubber ball bounce (measure height relative to the collision point)? b) Assuming the coefﬁcients of restitution are less than or equal to one. h. Just on top of the basketball.28 Chapter 9.

1D Collisions Problem 9. .Chapter 9.5. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.10 (continued) 29 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.5.

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.12 9.5. . unless energy is created in the collision (as in an explosion). 1D Collisions Problem 9. that the loss of system kinetic energy is maximized by e D 0.12 According to the problem above.30 Chapter 9. Show that. 1 e 1.5. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.5. for given masses and given initial velocities.

5.Chapter 9.5.12 (continued) 31 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. 1D Collisions Problem 9.

.12 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. 1D Collisions Problem 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.5.32 Chapter 9.5.

1D Collisions Problem 9.5. .5.12 (continued) 33 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.Chapter 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

34 Chapter 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.5.5.12 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. . 1D Collisions Problem 9.

12 (continued) 35 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. 1D Collisions Problem 9. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.5.Chapter 9.5. .

c) What is the position of the mass at an arbitrary time t ? d) What is the speed of the mass when it passes through x D `0 (the position where the spring is relaxed)? 0 d m Filename:s97f1 Problem 10.10. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. At time t D 0 the mass is released from rest with the spring stretched a distance d . a) What is the acceleration of the mass just after release? b) Find a differential equation which describes the horizontal motion x of the mass. . Measure the mass position x relative to the wall.2 A spring k with rest length `0 is attached to a mass m which slides frictionlessly on a horizontal ground as shown.1.2 36 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

.1. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2 (continued) 37 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.1. Free Vibration of a SDOF System Problem 10.Chapter 10.

1. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Free Vibration of a SDOF System Problem 10.38 Chapter 10.1.

Free Vibration of a SDOF System Problem 10.1. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.1. .Chapter 10.2 (continued) 39 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

x1 .3.3 x1 .3 10.t/ are measured positions on two points of a vibrating structure. Which of the x2 .3.3.t/ could possibly be associated with a normal mode vibration of the structure? Answer “could” or “could not” next to each choice and brieﬂy explain your answer (If a curve looks like it is meant to be a sine/cosine curve. Normal Modes Problem 10. it is.t/ are shown. Some candidates for x2 . .3 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.t/ and x2 .40 Chapter 10.t/ is shown.) X1(t) a) X2 ? X2 ? X2 ? X2 ? X2 ? b) c) d) e) Filename:pfigure-blue-144-1 Problem 10. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

L k m L x1 k m L x2 k m L x3 k Filename:pfigure-blue-160-2 Problem 10.8 41 10.3. Normal Modes Problem 10.3. k . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. x2 .3.) b) Make a neat plot of x2 versus x1 for one cycle of vibration with this mode.Chapter 10. a) What is the angular frequency ! for this mode? Answer in terms of L.8 For the three-mass system shown. One of the normal modes is described with the initial condition . . m. x3 / D .1. 1/. (Hint: Note that in this mode of vibration the middle mass does not move.8 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. and g .x10 . assume x1 D x2 D x3 D 0 when all the springs are fully relaxed. 0.

3.3.42 Chapter 10. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Normal Modes Problem 10.8 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .

3. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.3. Normal Modes Problem 10. .Chapter 10.8 (continued) 43 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

b) Write the equation of linear momentum balance for the mass. . The acceleration of shown is a D the object at the position O O 0:2| O C 2:0k m=s2 . You may ﬁnd these tensions by using hand algebra with the scalar equations. 0:6{ a) Draw a free body diagram of the mass. z T2 T1 m 1. c) Find the three tensions T1 . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. or by using a cross product on the vector equation.22 Filename:pfigure-s94h2p9 4m T3 2m 1m y 2m C 44 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. and T3 at the instant shown.11.1.5m x Problem 11. using a computer with the matrix equation. Use ’s as unit vectors along the strings. T2 .22 An object C of mass 2 kg is pulled by three strings as shown.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.Chapter 11.22 (continued) 45 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.1. .1.

where supplied.26 O | 11.46 Chapter 11. her velocity. people jump up from the ground while being pulled up by a rope that runs over a pulley at O and is connected to a stretched spring anchored at B. the person has a mass of 100 kg. in your ﬁnal answer. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.26: Conceptual setup for a bungy jumping system. The inextensible massless rope from A to P has length `r D 8 m. a ﬁnal numerical answer is desired). Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11. c) Find the answer to part (b) with pencil and paper (that is.26 Bungy Jumping. b) Given that bungy jumper’s initial position and velocity are * r0 D O 5 m| O and v0 D 0 write com1 m{ puter commands p to ﬁnd her position at t D = 2 s. no contact after jump off Filename:s97p1-3 Problem 11. and the other parameters given. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.1. For the situation shown the spring AB has rest length `0 D 2 m and a stiffness of k D 200 N= m. . mass. In a relatively safe bungy jumping system. ˆ O 10 m A k B ˆ ı g = 10 m/s2 m P ground. Take O to be the origin of an xy coordinate O and system aligned with the unit vectors { a) Assume you are given the position O C y| O and the of the person * r D x{ OC velocity of the person v D x P{ O. Then use the numbers given. Find her acceleration in terms y P| of some or all of her position.1. ﬁnd an analytic solution to the differential equations. The ideal pulley has negligible size.1. and friction.

1.Chapter 11.26 (continued) 47 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.1. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11. .

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.1.1. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.48 Chapter 11. .26 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

as follows. the coefﬁcient of resistance b . b) Pick values for the gravitational constant g . Make a computer simulation of the ﬂight of the baseball. what is a qualitative description for the curve described by the path of the ball? Show this with an accurate plot of the trajectory.1. d) Use your simulation to ﬁnd the initial angle that maximizes the distance of travel for ball. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. e) If the air resistance is very high.1. solve the equations numerically.30 49 11. and initial speed v0 .30 The equations of motion from problem ?? are nonlinear and cannot be solved in closed form for the position of the baseball. (Make sure to integrate long enough for the ball to get back to the ground. solve for the x and y coordinates of the ball and make a plots its trajectory for various initial angles 0 . Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11. . Runge-Kutta. with and without air resistance. a) Convert the equation of motion into a system of ﬁrst order differential equations. Instead.Chapter 11.1. c) Use Euler’s. or other suitable method to numerically integrate the system of equations.) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

v_x=z(3).g).1.1. %function to define ODE Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.30 (continued) b).' degrees']). y =z(:.3). xlabel('x(m)').xmax.y). %set grid.b. v_y=z(:.2008 b=1.m. % give values for b. v_xdot=-(b/m)*v_x*(v_x^2+v_y^2)^0.ymax axis([0.4). %the linear momentum balance eqns xdot=v_x.b. %initial position %magnitude of initial velocity (m/s) theta0=20. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. y0=0. See attached codes and results %problem 10. ydot=v_y. %angle of initial velocity (in degrees) z0=[x0. %plot the results plot(x.30(a) function solution1030a %solution to 10.v0*cos(theta0*pi/180).1). .001:5]. %Unpack the variables x= z(:.m.30 %September 23.[].30 (continued) 10. ylabel('y(m)').tspan.v0*sin(theta0*pi/180)]'.ymin. title(['Plot of Trajectory for theta= '.xmin.y0. v_x = z(:.5]). end %-----------------------------------------------------------------------% function zdot = rhs(t. %solves the ODEs [t.z] = ode45(@rhs.m and g here %Initial conditions and time span tspan=[0:0. v0=50.50 Chapter 11. m=1. v_y=z(4).z0.5. y=z(2).2). %integrate for 50 seconds x0=0.0.5. g=10. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.z.num2str(theta0).g) x=z(1).

ydot. %this is what the function returns (column vector) end %-----------------------------------------------------------------------% Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.1. zdot=[xdot.30 (continued) 51 v_ydot=-g-(b/m)*v_y*(v_x^2+v_y^2)^0.Chapter 11. v_xdot. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.5.1. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. v_ydot]. .

1:1:89.m and g here %Initial conditions and time span tspan=[0 50]. %arrays to record x distance at y=0 for each angle for i=1:length(theta0) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.52 Chapter 11. we use ‘stopevent’ to terminate the integration at y=0. %initial position %magnitude of initial velocity (m/s) %angle of initial velocity (in degrees) theta0=[0.1]'.1. Disregard this question. d).30(d) function solution1030d %solution to 10. %problem 10. m=1.30 (continued) c). This question intends to ask you develop your own ode solver similar to ode45. % give values for b.1 degree with an increment of 1 degree. y0=0.1 to 89. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. To find out x distance. using Euler’s method or more sophisticated method (Ruger-Kutta method). %integrate for 50 seconds x0=0. distance=zeros(size(theta0)).2008 b=1. g=10. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11. Then loop over for theta from 0. v0=50.30 %September 23. .1.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.z.g).1.v0.y0.m.z. v_xdot=-(b/m)*v_x*(v_x^2+v_y^2)^0. end %function to define ODE Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. maxd.xmax.xmin.Chapter 11.'*') xlabel('theta(degrees)'). isterminal. fprintf(1. %set grid.30 (continued) 53 z0=[x0.b.'\nThe maximum distance is %6.m.theta0(j)).% the last component of x is the distance we want end plot(theta0. dir=-1. dir]= stopevent(t.ymax title(['plot of x distance for various theta']). ydot=v_y. v_ydot=-g-(b/m)*v_y*(v_x^2+v_y^2)^0.b.z] = ode45(@rhs.4f m when theta=%2. %print the results end %-----------------------------------------------------------------------% function zdot = rhs(t.g) x=z(1). v_x=z(3). %Unpack the variables x= z(:. v_y=z(4). .m.z0.v0*sin(theta0(i)*pi/180)]'.options. isterminal=1. y=z(2). y=z(2).j]=max(distance). %solves the ODEs [t.5.ymin. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11. [maxd. distance(i)=x(end).tspan. ylabel('distance(m)').theta) % terminate the integration at y=0 x=z(1). v_xdot. ydot. v_ydot]. %this is what the function returns (column vector) end %-----------------------------------------------------------------------% function [value.distance.g.v0*cos(theta0(i)*pi/180). value= y.1).1.5. @stopevent).0f degrees\n'. options=odeset('events'.b. %the linear momentum balance eqns xdot=v_x. zdot=[xdot.

1. The trajectory looks like . which is approximately a triangle. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.30 (Continued) The x distance at y=0 for various theta is plotted below e).1.3806 m when theta=23 degrees 10.54 Chapter 11. . 100000. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Use the code for (a) and change b to a very large number.30 (continued) Matlab out put: The maximum distance is 3.

b) has that embedded in a loop so that there is an angle(i) and a range(i) c) Makes a nice plot of range vs angle d) uses MAX to find the maximum range and corresponding angle e) has good numerics to show that the trajectory shape converges to a triangle as the speed -> infinity.1.30 (continued) 55 10.1. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.30 Another solution (more detailed) The m file attached does the following. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.Chapter 11. . a) uses events and x(end) to calculate range. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

71(11).1 oz 1.1001). % density of air in kg/m^3 0. disp(['Start time: ' datestr(now)]) cla % % % % % % % % % (a) ODEs are in the function rhs far below. % with and without air friction. % give plenty of time n = 45.1. Nov 2003. % number of simulations angle = linspace(1. J. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.100. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11. 5. . % First case: No air friction. % Calculates maximum range for given speed. subplot(3. % initial position and velocity Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. one simulation for % each launch angle. % mass of baseball. this is typical 9. theta0 = angle(i)*pi/180.1.23. % Shows shape of path at high speed.n). (b) Coefficients for a real baseball taken from a google search. Phys. for i = 1:n inspeed = 44.2. % net coeff of v^2 in drag force % All m = rho = r = A = C_d = g = b = %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % (b-d) Use typical homerun hit speed and look % at various angles of hit.81. tspan=linspace(0. Greg Sawicki. % baseball radius (1. 0.44 in) pi*r^2. % typical homerun hit (m/s). % varies.89.56 Chapter 11.35. The 'event' fn that stops the integration when the ball hits the ground is in 'eventfn' even further below. %launch velocity z0=[r0. by the way. v0].30 (continued) function baseball_trajectory % Calculates the trajectory of a baseball. learned some dynamics in TAM 203 from Ruina at Cornell. b = 0.1) hold off % Try lots of launch angles. which finds a paper Sawicki et al. % cross sectional area of ball 0. Am. 98 mph. % typical g on earth C_d*rho*A/2.0366.145. % initial angle this simulation v0=inspeed*[cos(theta0) sin(theta0)]'. parameters in MKS. % launch from 1 to 89 degrees r0=[0 0]'. % Launch x and y position.

2). %Solve ODE x=zarray(:.tspan.2). no air friction') xlabel('x. ylabel('y.@eventfn). axis('equal') axis([0 200 0 200]) hold on % save plot for over-writing end % end of for loop for no-friction trajectories %Plot range vs angle. [t zarray]=ode45(@rhs. title('Baseball trajectories.1). no friction case subplot(3.y).range).z0.g.m).3) hold off % clear plot overwrites % Try lots of launch angles for i = 1:n % inspeed = 44. %Unpack positions range(i)= x(end). y=zarray(:. theta0 = angle(i)*pi/180. % x value at end. % x value at end. title('Jane Cho: Baseball trajectories.1. 98 mph. no air friction') xlabel('Launch angle. when ball hits ground plot(x.y).@eventfn). meters').Chapter 11.options. in meters') % Pick out best angle and distance [bestx besti] = max(range). ylabel('y. % net coeff of v^2 in drag force subplot(3. %Unpack positions range(i)= x(end).30 (continued) 57 options=odeset('events'. [t zarray]=ode45(@rhs.1). %launch velocity z0=[r0. hold off. axis('equal') axis([0 120 0 120]) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.b. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.z0. meters'). meters'). plot(angle. y=zarray(:. % initial angle this simulation v0=inspeed*[cos(theta0) sin(theta0)]'. in degrees') ylabel('Hit distance.2. % typical homerun hit (m/s). meters').b.g.options.m). %Solve ODE x=zarray(:.1.tspan. when ball hits ground plot(x.2. b = C_d*rho*A/2. . with air friction') xlabel('x. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.2). disp(['No friction case:']) best_theta_deg = angle(besti) bestx % Second case: WITH air friction % Identical to code above but now b is NOT zero. v0]. title('Range vs hit angle. % initial position and velocity options=odeset('events'.

% speeds from 1 to 100 million m/s for i = 1:30 % inspeed = speeds(i).z0. v0].1). % initial position and velocity options=odeset('events'. title('Trajectories.1. meters'). . no friction case subplot(3.g. in degrees') ylabel('Hit distance.4).m %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % Governing Ord Diff Eqs.@eventfn). with air friction.range). when ball hits ground plot(x. with air friction') xlabel('Launch angle.1.y).options.2. % typical homerun hit (m/s).2. axis('equal') axis([0 2000 0 2000]) hold on % save plot for over-writing end % end of for loop for range at various speeds disp(['End time: ' datestr(now)]) end % end of Baseball_trajectory.30 (continued) hold on % save plot for over-writing end % end of for loop for with-friction trajectories %Plot range vs angle. plot(angle. various speeds ') xlabel('x. disp(['With Friction:']) best_theta_deg = angle(besti) bestx %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % Now look at trajectories at a variety of speeds % Try lots of launch angles subplot(3.b. title('Range vs hit angle. %Solve ODE x=zarray(:. [t zarray]=ode45(@rhs. meters').2).^linspace(1.30). c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.58 Chapter 11. % x value at end. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. in meters') %Find Max range and corresponding launch angle [bestx besti] = max(range). %launch velocity z0=[r0. theta0 = pi/4.8.6) hold off speeds = 10. % initial angle is 45 degrees at all speeds v0=inspeed*[cos(theta0) sin(theta0)]'. %Unpack positions range(i)= x(end).m). Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11. 98 mph. ylabel('y. y=zarray(:.tspan.

vy=z(4).m) % Unpack the variables x=z(1).g. y=z(2).vydot]. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. end %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % 'Event' that ball hits the ground function [value isterminal dir] = eventfn(t. % 1 means stop. ydot=vy. zdot= [xdot.30 (continued) 59 function zdot=rhs(t. dir= -1.g. .b. v = sqrt(vx^2+vy^2).1. value = y. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.g.vxdot.ydot. % Packed up again. vx=z(3). % -1 means ball is falling when it hits end Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. integration stops isterminal = 1. vydot=-b*vy*v/m .z.Chapter 11.m) y=z(2). vxdot=-b*vx*v/m. % When this is zero. %The ODEs xdot=vx.z.b.1.

with air friction. in meters Baseball trajectories. Dynamics of a particle in space Problem 11.1. meters 100 50 0 Hit distance. in meters Jane Cho: Baseball trajectories. meters 1000 500 0 0 1000 x. . meters Hit distance.60 Chapter 11. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. with air friction 100 100 y. no air friction 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 x. with air friction 120 150 100 50 0 0 50 Launch angle. meters 2000 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.30 (continued) 150 y. no air friction 200 Range vs hit angle. various speeds 2000 1500 y. meters 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 x. meters 200 0 50 Launch angle. in degrees 100 Trajectories. in degrees Range vs hit angle.1.

Chapter 11.1. Dynamics of a particle in space

Problem 11.1.30 (continued)

61

Baseball. For the first 4 plots realistic ball properties are used and the launch speed is always 44 m/s (typical home run hit). Spin is ignored.

Jane Cho: Baseball trajectories, no air friction 200 Range vs hit angle, no air friction 200

Hit distance, in meters

150 y, meters

A whole bunch of trajectories. The one launched at 45 degrees goes the farthest.

150

100

100

50

50

**As expected from simple calculations, the best angle, when there is no friction, is 45 degrees.
**

0 20 40 60 Launch angle, in degrees 80 100

0

0

50

100 x, meters

150

200

0

Baseball trajectories, with air friction 120 100 80 y, meters 60 40 20 0 120

Range vs hit angle, with air friction

Hit distance, in meters

Note that with friction the ball doesn’t go as far. Nor as high when popped up.

100 80 60 40 20 0

With friction, the best launch velocity is less. At this speed, 44 m/s, the best angle is about 41 degrees.

0 20 40 60 Launch angle, in degrees 80 100

0

20

40

60 80 x, meters

100

120

At right are a bunch of trajectories. The slowest launch is 10 m/s, the fastest is 100,000,000 m/s. Such a ball would burn up, tear apart etc... but ignore that. Note that as the speed gets large the trajectory gets closer and closer to, its a strange and beautiful shape, to a triangle. The same would happen if the speed were fixed and the drag progressively increased.

y, meters

Trajectories, with air friction, various speeds 2000

1500

1000

500

0 With no friction the range increases with the 0 500 1000 1500 2000 x, meters square of the speed. With quadratic drag, at high speeds the range goes up with the log of the launch speed. Like the penetration distance of a bullet.

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

62

Chapter 11.2. Momentum and energy for particle motion

Problem 11.2.22

11.2.22 At a time of interest, a particle with mass m1 D 5 kg has position, veO, * locity, and acceleration * r1 D 3 m { v1 D * 2 O, and a1 D 6 m=s | O, respec 4 m=s| tively. Another particle with mass m2 D 5 kg has position, velocity, and acceleraO, * O, and tion * r2 D 6 m { v2 D 5 m=s| * 2 O, respectively. For this a2 D 4 m=s | system of two particles, and at this time, ﬁnd its a) linear momentum L,

*

**b) rate of change of linear momentum
**

* P L

c) angular momentum about the origin * H =O , d) rate of change of angular momentum about the origin H=O , e) kinetic energy EK , and

*

P

PK . f) rate of change of kinetic energy E

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

Chapter 11.2. Momentum and energy for particle motion

Problem 11.2.22 (continued)

63

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

" " e O i/ 3D II a t 3D -^° I/ H rr ' (y r O O Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. use the following values: m D 1000 kg = missile mass g D 10 m=s2 at the earth’s surface. < o X V* 00 C o O ^r in rr N o E O y * 8 3O 4- . 400. If you need numbers. 45 from horizontal (both measured relative to a Newtonian reference frame). Write the linear momentum balance equation. You can think of this problem as twodimensional in the plane shown. V) J3 ^ II § "2 O . and v0 D 9000 m=s.] On the same plot draw a (round) circle for the earth. y 45o x Filename:pfigure-s94q12p1 Problem 11. modelled as a particle.5 Experts note that these problems do not use polar coordinates or any other fancy coordinate systems. R D 6.t/.3. is launched on a ballistic trajectory from the surface of the earth. When it is launched from the equator it has speed v0 and in the direction shown. For the purposes of this calculation ignore the earth’s rotation. • CO a *> Q_ Q_ . The distance of the missile from the center of the earth is r. Break this equation into x and y components.64 Chapter 11.3. a) Draw a free body diagram of the missile. Central force motion Problem 11.3. The force on the missile from the earth’s gravity is F D mgR2 =r 2 and is directed towards the center of the earth. Write appropriate initial conditions for the ODE’s. b) Using the computer (or any other means) plot the trajectory of the rocket after it is launched for a time of 6670 seconds. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. 11.5 An intercontinental misile. [Hint: use a much shorter time when debugging your program.5: In intercontinental ballistic missile launch.I. Such descriptions come later in the text. 000 m = earth’s radius. Rewrite these equations as a system of-4 ﬁrst order ODE’s suitable for computer solution. At this point we want to lay out the basic equations and the qualitative features that can be found by numerical integration of the equations using Cartesian (xyz ) coordinates.

6400000. yO= 0. g= 9.61 b . y= z(2). 2008 % VARIABLES (Assume consistent units) % r = displacement vector [x. end % THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION f The Right Hand Side1 function zdot = rhs(t.g) % Unpack variables x= z(1).2).Matlab code function Probl061() % Problem 10. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. % pack variables tspan= [0 6670].z. 10.Chapter 11. vyO= vO*sind(theta). vxO= vO*cosd(theta). zO= [xO yO vxO vyO] 1 . . theta= 45.zO/[].y] % v = velocity vector = dr/dt [vx. vy= z(4 ) .tspan.R. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.y.ey. R. ey= R*sin(t). % seconds [t zarray]= ode45(@rhs. % Unpack Variables x= zarray(:.g). Central force motion Problem 11.5 (continued) 65 a/-.3.3.m.81. % % % % % Mass of satellite (kg) Radius of Earth (m) Gravity acceleration (m/sA2) Initial velocity (m/s) Launch angle (degrees) % INITIAL CONDITIONS xO= R. ex= R^cos (t). vx= z(3). title(fPlot of Earth and Satellite Orbit1) xlabel(?x [m] ? ) ylabel(fy [m]f) axis(1000000*[-8 15 -8 15]) hold on.fbf).vy] m= 1000.1). y= zarray(:.R.61 Solution % March 27. % Draw the Earth t= 0:pi/100:2*pi. plot(x.m. plot(ex.fr—'). vO= 9000.

end 10.5 (continued) % The equations xdot= vx. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.Satellite Orbit Plot 6 15 x10 Plot of Earth and Satellite Orbit \ 10 0 -5 -5 0 10 x[m] 15 6 x10 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.61b . vydot= -g*RA2/ (xA2+yA2)A (3/2) *y.3. ydot= vy. % Pack the rate of change of x. Central force motion Problem 11.3.y.66 Chapter 11.vx and vy zdot= [xdot ydot vxdot vydot]'. . vxdot= -g*RA2/ (xA2+yA2)A (3/2) *x.

but change the initial conditions slightly. b) Same as above.x2. Use these unusual and special initial positions: For each of the problems below show accurate computer plots and explain any curiosities. \ s V. Plot each with a different color.cos<v?:i<v\ o o v ma.vx1. each mass is attracted to the other by F D Gm1 m2 =r 2 where r is the distance between them.\\ . say m D 1.x3. x1. vy3/=2: Pa •4/1 11. d) Same as above. but change the initial conditions more and run for a much longer time. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. vy2/ D .lO cocia orxi p*o*s -for .12. vy3/=2 D .x1.1. c) Same as above. y1/ .0.vx3. = (5m + -gj 3 £ -?. Qt- -) Pa.6 cl\15pUcerr^xt'r ploV v'-s Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.vx3.. but run for 10 time units. Run the program for 2. vy1/ .CcO. y2/ . 0/ and initial velocities .10 Montgomery’s eight. y1/ . m.-To . a) Use computer integration to ﬁnd and plot the motions of the particles. 67 .0:93240737. vy3/ . That is. . Three equal masses. = 8.vx2.1 time units. 0:24308753/ .vx3. y3/ D D D . 0:97000436. 0:86473146/ D . are attracted by an inverse-square gravity law with G D 1.

plot(r2(:. v3dot= G^m^((rl-r3)/(sqrt(sum((rl-r3). .97000436 0. r3= z (5:6).2). v3dot]. 86473146] f .. m= 1.m) % Unpack variables rl= z(l:2) . zO= [rOl..A2)))A3+. % Initial Conditions r01= [-0.A2)))A3+.A2)))A3+.10 Solution % April 1.1. G. v02. f end % THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (RIGHT HAND SIDE) function zdot = rhs(t. tspan. (r2-rl)/(sqrt(sum((r2-rl). 'g-. v03] . r2= z (3:4). % pack variables tspan. (r2-r3)/(sqrt(sum((r2-r3). r2dot= v2. % The equations rldot= vl. r2(:. vldot. 3 : 4 ) . v2dot. vOl.68 Chapter 12.A2)))A3). . Pack the rate of change variables zdot= [rldot. r02. 2008 % VARIABLES G= 1. r03= [0 0]'. r03.l)f r3(:. zO.. end Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. [ ] . v01= -l/2*v03. v02= -l/2*v03. Coupled motions of particles in space Problem 12. v2dot= G^m*((rl-r2)/(sqrt(sum((rl-r2).93240737 0 . 5 : 6). vl= z(7:8). [t zarray]= ode45 (@rhs. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. hold on.A2)))A3). v3= z (11:12). 'r').m) / % Unpack variables rl= zarray ( : r 1 : 2 ) ..1.G. vldot..A2)))A3). (r3-r2)/(sqrt(sum((r3-r2). r02 = -rOl. r3dot= v3. r3dot.[0 10] .l). v03= [0. v2 = z(9:10). r3= zarray ( : .10 (continued) function ProblllO () % Problem 11. r2dot.24308753]'. 'b~ f plot(r3(:.G*m*((r3-rl)/(sqrt(sum((r3-rl)..z.2). r2= zarray ( : .

(q) S'l 9'I \ S'D 9'0 / \ \ \ \ 0 0 S'Q- E'O- 0 Z'Q E'O t'Q- I'D- E'O- I'D 0 E'O I'D fr'O .1.Chapter 12.1. Coupled motions of particles in space Problem 12. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.10 (continued) 69 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

1. .70 Chapter 12.10 (continued) r un CD CO CD CD o I CN CD CO CD CD CD I un1 un un cb UO CD un un CD un CD o un• ' Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Coupled motions of particles in space Problem 12.1.

Puck A is initially at rest. .2. The coefﬁcient of restitution is e D 0:9. and .7 71 12.VA /i D 0.2.VB /i D 1:0 m=s.2. (VA)f (VB)f γ (VA)i=0 A φ (VB)i Filename:Danef94s2q8 B Problem 12.7 Two frictionless equal-mass pucks sliding on a plane collide as shown below. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.VA /f D 0:5 m=s.7 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. ﬁnd the approach angle and rebound angle . Collisions and explosions Problem 12. .Chapter 12. Given that .

2.2. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Collisions and explosions Problem 12.7 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.72 Chapter 12.

2. Collisions and explosions Problem 12.2. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.Chapter 12.7 (continued) 73 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .

measured CCW from +x axis.7273 v2yaft 6. Your program should assume consistent units for all quantities.2. script) should calculate the impulse of mass 1 on mass 2. m2=19 Set values of masses v1zero=[10 20] Initial velocity of mass 1 v2zero=[-5 3] Initial velocity of mass 2 e=.2727 87.7273 v2xaft -1. nx = cosd(theta). a) You should demonstrate that your program works by solving at least 4 different problems for which you can check your answer by simple pencil-and-paper calculations. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. vlyaft -0. show their analytic solution. y comp x & y comps of lin mom bal for syst restitution equation impulse-momentum for m2.2. x comp impulse-momentum for m2. and the velocities of the two masses after the collision. A = [ ml 0 -nx 0 0 0 ml -ny 0 0 m2 0 nx m2 0 0 m2 ny 0 m2 0 0 0 -nx -ny] . -e*sum( (v2bef-vlbef m2*v2bef ] . vlbef = [10 20 v2bef = [-5 3 ml = 3. Two-Particle Collisions Problem 11. and show that the computer agrees. b) Solve the problem given in the sample text given in the initial problem statement.20 Solution April 1. 5. . For example. n = [nx ny]f . ny = sind(theta). code. x comp of lin mom bal y comp of lin mom bal restitution equation impulse-momentum for m2. in radians Your program (function. Type out the solution (crudely). Collisions and explosions Problem 12.9384 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. ANSWER: vlxaft -10.10 Solve the general two-particle frictionless collision problem. write computer code that has lines like this near the start : m1=3.2. These problems should have as much variety as possible. angle (degrees) between n and plus x axis impulse direction vel of ml before collision vel of m2 before collision values of two masses coefficient of restitution Write governing equations in form of Az=b where z is a list of unknowns representing the particle velocities after the collision and the magnitude of the impulse. n) z= A\b.7273 v2yaft P1). x & y comps b = [ml*vlbef + m2*v2bef.74 Chapter 12.10 12. e = . Sketch these problems clearly. m2 = 19. 2008 theta = 45. disp(f vlxaft vlyaft v2xaft disp (z f ) .5 Set coefﬁcient of restitution theta=pi/4 Angle that the normal to contact plane makes.

It then has a sequence of bounces on the horizontal ground.2.Chapter 12. Collisions and explosions A ball m is thrown horizontally at height h and speed v0 .2. A Problem 12. h. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Treating each collision as frictionless with restitution coefﬁcient e how far has the ball travelled horizontally when it just ﬁnishes bouncing? Answer in terms ball m is thrown horizontally at height h of some or all of m. It then has a sequence of bounces on the horizontal ground. Treating each collision as frictionless with restitution coefﬁcient e how far has the ball travelled horizontally when it just ﬁnishes bouncing? Answer in terms of some or all of m. v0 and e . Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. v0 and e . h. g. g.10 (continued) 75 and speed v0 .

Treat all pulleys and wheels as round. .y ._-- f=/4a ^t T=Zlt LF = fi4 &^ b d AA ^ n B &q'ry T :0 r .).1.. wheels stay on the ground.. unless stated otherwise. )+ t x D . Assume all massive objects are prevented from rotating (e. When numbers are called for use g D 10 m=s2 or g D 32 ft=s2 . \ X n =l X ./ \. { 7b . .x .g. ^) *-_-4 8 7 4 I n l_.x . ) + t r P L J= 76 t . x c ) + ( ['l 4 l - x r ) .6 For the various situations pictured. ﬂexible and massless. etc. frictionless and massless.1 = AB = Zoo r'+ r ' ) f = tvlta aa=ffi ) t t = ( x . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. ﬁnd the acceleration of mass A and point B. (a) m A B F (b) m A B F (c) m A F B F (d) m Filename:pulley1 B A Problem 13. treat all strings as inextensible.For all problems.6: Four different ways to pull a mass. 13.. Clearly deﬁne any variables. )+ n ( la^ -r r- Ag Y LXc . coordinates or sign conventions that you use.. = Z X S \ Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.-.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.+o6 'F z * E l = n4 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.ha ^. 6 fs^fi nuud *-7^:**r / { {r l- i-- r) n v \ v* = n 4 6 A'.Chapter 13. 1D constrained motion and pulleys Problem 13. .1.r tz.6 (continued) 77 -\.1.

78 Chapter 13. coordinates or sign conventions that you use.1. 30o m2 60o (c) m A B F massless Problem 13. Filename:pulley4 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. (b) m1 A B g b) Two masses and two pulleys. (a) m A B F a) A single mass and four pulleys.1.14 For the situations pictured.14: Various pulley arrangements. . 1D constrained motion and pulleys Problem 13. ﬁnd the accelerations of mass A and of point B. Clearly deﬁne any variables.14 13.1. c) A single mass and four pulleys. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. .14 (continued) 79 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.Chapter 13.1.1. 1D constrained motion and pulleys Problem 13.

1. .14 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. 1D constrained motion and pulleys Problem 13.1.80 Chapter 13. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

with mass mA . Assume ideal string. B C A D E G x ˆ ı Filename:pfigure-f93q5 Problem 13. mA . is pulled to the right a distance d from the position it would have if the spring were relaxed. pulleys and wheels. The spring has constant k . a) What is the acceleration of block A just after it is released (in terms of k .1. and d )? b) What is the speed of the mass when the mass passes through the position where the spring is relaxed? . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.Chapter 13. It is then released from rest. -^*5 =p = v (q ." os jo e.1.t -at.26 Block A.26 81 13.1.-. ax. o- QC? 'OJ o ( p b ----r^*.26 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. 1D constrained motion and pulleys Problem 13.

11: Uniform plate supported by a hinge and a cable on an accelerating cart.u{o D€ v au<{cr*. . 1D motion with 2D and 3D forces Problem 13.'. *fw (DF .rll-:jj-yr) -kG" f " ( .17."fr . What must the acceleration of the cart be in order for massless rod DE to be in tension? 3 A 2 B D C 4 ˆ E ˆ ı F cart Filename:tfigure3-2D-a-guyed Problem 13. A od .. .rr. X (-*u t) = V..11 Guyed plate on a cart A uniform rectangular plate ABCD of mass m is supported by a rod DE and a hinge joint at point B . 'I-t J o h a^ ^ e 9 4 * ? - Prl go.t:r*.^ *a*s.82 Chapter 13.\ 3t*2i) xT..(k t-i 'AT'.) X --.> <' lo" * J ic.* vH wr t z .b L*ff.. nlo4.i = -vr. ? - = 4.rj. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.' = .'4r^o 3r-l?."s..r^. 1&.2.i-*_&r*:-a.-rx ( naa "t / \ .11 13.9 6. d Lror4x- {" *r) .2.. There is gravity. ) [ i .at -hr.rd{v i' H : .. u tl e f -fAn 2 o3o J a e d r uZ ' l z 7 5 *a*Ef*? Fgu os .2. The dimensions are as shown. u le- Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.cd >D (bo.

11 (continued) 83 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. 1D motion with 2D and 3D forces Problem 13. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2.Chapter 13.2.

84

Chapter 13.2. 1D motion with 2D and 3D forces

Problem 13.2.14

13.2.14 A uniform rectangular plate of mass m is supported by an inextensible cable AB and a hinge joint at point E on the cart as shown. The hinge joint is attached to a rigid column welded to the ﬂoor of the O. There cart. The cart has acceleration ax { is gravity. Find the tension in cable AB . (What’s ‘wrong’ with this problem? What if instead point B were at the bottom left hand corner of the plate?)

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Chapter 13.2. 1D motion with 2D and 3D forces

Problem 13.2.25

85

13.2.25 Car braking: front brakes versus rear brakes versus all four brakes. What is the peak deceleration of a car when you apply: the front brakes till they skid, the rear brakes till they skid, and all four brakes till they skid? Assume that the coefﬁcient of friction between rubber and road is D 1 (about right, the coefﬁcient of friction between rubber and road varies between about :7 and 1:3) and that g D 10 m=s2 (2% error). Pick the dimensions and mass of the car, but assume the center of mass height h is greater than zero but is less than half the wheel base w , the distance between the front and rear wheel. Also assume that the CM is halfway between the front and back wheels (i.e., lf D lr D w=2). The car has a stiff suspension so the car does not move up or down or tip appreciably during braking. Neglect the mass of the rotating wheels in the linear and angular momentum balance equations. Treat this problem as twodimensional problem; i.e., the car is symmetric left to right, does not turn left or right, and that the left and right wheels carry the same loads. To organize your work, here are some steps to follow. a) Draw a FBD of the car assuming rear wheel is skidding. The FBD should show the dimensions, the gravity force, what you know a priori about the forces on the wheels from the ground (i.e., that the friction force Fr D Nr , and that there is no friction at the front wheels), and the coordinate directions. Label points of interest that you will use in your momentum balance equations. (Hint: also draw a free body diagram of the rear wheel.) b) Write the equation of linear momentum balance. c) Write the equation of angular momentum balance relative to a point of your choosing. Some particularly useful points to use are:

the point on the ground straight under the front wheel that is as far below ground as the wheel base is long.

d) Solve the momentum balance equations for the wheel contact forces and the deceleration of the car. If you have used any or all of the recommendations from part (c) you will have the pleasure of only solving one equation in one unknown at a time. e) Repeat steps (a) to (d) for frontwheel skidding. Note that the advantageous points to use for angular momentum balance are now different. Does a car stop faster or slower or the same by skidding the front instead of the rear wheels? Would your solution to (e) be different if the center of mass of the car were at ground level(h=0)? f) Repeat steps (a) to (d) for all-wheel skidding. There are some shortcuts here. You determine the car deceleration without ever knowing the wheel reactions (or using angular momentum balance) if you look at the linear momentum balance equations carefully. g) Does the deceleration in (f) equal the sum of the decelerations in (d) and (e)? Why or why not? h) What peculiarity occurs in the solution for front-wheel skidding if the wheel base is twice the height of the CM above ground and D 1? i) What impossibility does the solution predict if the wheel base is shorter than twice the CM height? What wrong assumption gives rise to this impossibility? What would really happen if one tried to skid a car this way?

the point above the front wheel and at the height of the center of mass; the point at the height of the center of mass, behind the rear wheel that makes a 45 degree angle line down to the rear wheel ground contact point; and

y x C h D

lr

Filename:pfigure-s94h3p6

lf

Problem 13.25

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

86

Chapter 13.2. 1D motion with 2D and 3D forces

Problem 13.2.25 (continued)

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

CF. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. G.Chapter 13. CB.2. ED. z H E D 1m A 1m B x Problem 13.43 87 13. and E are all accelerating in the x -direction with acceleration a D 3 m=s2 {.43 The uniform 2 kg plate DBFH is held by six massless rods (AF.2. 1D motion with 2D and 3D forces Problem 13. C.2. . There is no gravity. The support points A.43 G F 1m C y O for the forces acta) What is f F g¡ { ing on the plate? b) What is the tension in bar CB? Filename:pfigure-s94q3p1 P* Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. and EH) which are hinged at their ends. GH.

any or all of m.2. What is the sideways force from the ground on the right front wheel at B ? Answer in terms of O.47: The left wheels of this car are on ice. g .2.47 13. The negligible-mass front right wheel at B is steered straight ahead and rolls without slip. Dimensions are as celeration * a D a| shown and the car has mass m . The right wheels are on dry pavement.47 A rear-wheel drive car on level ground. .88 Chapter 13. The right rear wheel at C also rolls without slip and drives the O and accar forward with velocity * v D v| O. w . `. The two left wheels are on perfectly slippery ice. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. and { ice m C w/2 h B b ˆ ˆ ı cartoon to show dimensions C Filename:pfigure3-f95p1p3 ˆ k w h B b w w/2 Problem 13. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. b .2. a. 1D motion with 2D and 3D forces Problem 13.

1D motion with 2D and 3D forces Problem 13.2. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.47 (continued) 89 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.2.Chapter 13. .

06n'{n 0. d) What are the x and y coordinates of the particle position at t D t £ ? Mark them on your plot. Differentiate the position give Or and then convert as * r D re the results to Cartesian coordinates. velocity * v and acceleration * a at t D t £ . ^) r) . b) What is the angular rate in revolutions per second? c) Put a dot on the path for the location of the particle at t D t £ D 1=6 s. given as * r D x{ 2. 4 Af O e and OR at t D e f) What are the x and y components OR and e O at t D t £ ? of e f | 9.r'6n i = K7Au= fiA. Assume R D 5 cm and c D 2 s 1 .1.14. . a) Plot the path. OR and e O components of i) Find the e position * r ." i. = cos j = > i n g 3 u *c o s 7t u notrr. Find the velocity and acceleration two ways: 1.= -'zof6r fi= -|'Kb*+K L 90 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. e) Draw the vectors t £.) 0= I rAV 7n5 Zr lrev/5 ftt {= hE X3 T c"(+) y= gEinG) ' d) \ee yr"YA e) \ / +) 3) -$t + = i i n g t r c n s g | +i tu. g) What are the R and components O and | O at t D t £ ? of { h) Draw an arrow representing both the velocity and the acceleration at t D t £.nl| =4t rE'i b r <c = h) eca JrayA i) 7 = R U = R9 0 * l0. Differentiate the position O C y| O. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012..1 A particle goes on a circular path with radius R making the angle D ct measured counter clockwise from the positive x axis. velocity * v and acceleration * a at t D t £ . j) Find the x and y components of position * r .

Cg n6n'.) i * (r (r. . . Y = Xl +Y J t . = Y ( z o )6 .1 (continued) 91 l t .r) = f ( o . Gr & .tt f Z a Ed ) . Kinematics of a particle in circular motion Problem 14.?r+. .K q . 7 ) ( r o ) ' o .Le"d 2 I S. r j i =-91-s.1. +.^7')(r")' r o). r r % ) G d . l T rtl z 4 r = Y€r *n v = Y O. t * n + 4 X I t Y J n 2.rt ? = y( d 6n-f.1. r . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. . t U . F ' t l z c og ( B s l n P + p s i n o i i ) t c o sb gz -'5/ . 1 I 4 4 / l . t v = "t rS x L +Y .0 p 0f Rcssg Xzr) L | 5 ( ..Chapter 14.I j ) 1.(or)'6 r) + ^ : *l oir'i --l fllT u"i Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. .15 14.15 A particle moves in circles so that its acceleration * a always makes a ﬁxed angle with the position vector * r .1.1. For example. Kinematics of a particle in circular motion Problem 14.1. with 0 =2. D 0 would be constant rate circular motion. Assume P0 D 1 rad= s.92 Chapter 14. D =4. R D 1 m and How long does it take the particle to reach b) the speed of light ( 3 ¡ 108 m=s)? c) a) the speed of sound ( 300 m=s)? 1? Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

A bead slides on a rigid.tttN m I T I l-i = .uirl l= #f#) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. ' sroTl0nArUtcirc. Assume gravity is negligible.. qDswrle stging on rigid. vo = + (N *'Ke.rffilffr* -ruNA tNe' C4 md^ . R. lT).2. D 0/ D v0 . & . stationary.) e/g. {rt^NR [T. . & tr.30 93 14.Bead wtre.: tVli -N = nn ^/ ? 6"e3 mKe €". v0 and m? y v m O R θ x Filename:pfigure-s94h10p1 srM x r \/Vor Fed yvil-htruffusrln* hotlrS Longf oFfiCn Rong Problem 14.owq Tnf{ 2f'3C. -r3r).ffi. I =7 '/p NK--Rrn'j y: ".pNoa -J = N = -lr1lR6' e=t LJ. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. what is v P? b) If v.-Sf/ N€' . The coefﬁcient of friction between the bead and the wire is .a.rnK f r n dv d"=Kee" . K . circular wire. m. a) Given v ./*ltt fS KirnDunpl'ty HW+ l-3 d*e.rear5 vo1yi r) t3+5.aF= .2. The bead is loose on the wire (not a tight ﬁt but not so loose that you have to worry about rattling).30 Bead on a hoop with friction.30 & r.R#& Zffio= e.Chapter 14.2.) ffid'* rnV) r-pi'ra -R Krnii 83. how does v depend on . . Dynamics of a particle in circular motion Problem 14. FtsD .u-lw \0t^ 0NeI1 v. &chtrr 36tl2s &oLurlnN TH.e.

30 (continued) 1l vtd) ilb Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .94 Chapter 14. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Dynamics of a particle in circular motion Problem 14.2.2.

IqbLn t\ tctock fiqDrn rdmp a* fr a' = Rei.Chapter 14. Dynamics of a particle in circular motion Problem 14. g R B v0 Filename:s93q4Sachse A Problem 14. .34 A block with mass m is moving to the right at speed v0 when it reaches a circular frictionless portion of the ramp.2. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. &9 oF blocK 0t B in terms aF K.o F=) NJ v _-7 i *J -.*rN -rnKee nnq= v. b) What is the force on the block from the ramp just after it gets onto the ramp at point A? Solve in terms of R. m and g . force is a vector.Vo a.nL+ -mgt J-ffC' -13'& . 4 r Eh= N*+ .34 4 nmp l?ffi-r blocK wfth fnfl$$m) ryeedVo.2. Remember.u -) S daes ^mfrKz nou.. speed FBD +.34 95 14. v0 .-R€6.wrgY N" V .-mKW Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. m and g . rn. -rnKo' . a) What is the speed of the block when it reaches point B? Solve in terms of R.2. B J_^st !rnv"' a+n Enw!.-A $ Etrn+6Ks t Ef * consfianf :we b. v0 .#3 Jzmvr^ = rngh d+ B = Ep t. fn'chonlest .t n ^ JN' 4't. A=* at fr -zF=rnd ^ = c ^ -nnne"erT .

d : K A ee .N €4r t ^ J e _Ko. Z f = ^q 4 / " a .1 .ted.M * rnq : ./ f l r o .n h)f l+ C 0 wti^. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.1 \.96 Chapter 14.F 0-a'.A") r = n( B?€e 4 - . .2..* K a z J ='N' K Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.. Dynamics of a particle in circular motion Problem 14.2.34 (continued) l t .

and3 s. .J.. tg d ( o . ( X. 97 .1.) ( e r c ./ ( / * Soem Q* 7P" (t 1rrrfl. 6 " In. ' il+ obiorl {t'(ul tet ( r " l t 3 w . s = = l e5 t r ot^t."osg. a) From the geometric information given in the ﬁgure. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.o) x b) . b) Using your program. c) Assume that the object rotates with constant angular speed ! D 2 rad=s. y = 30 cm φ = 30o φ O φ x Filename:pfigure13-3-objectrotation Problem 15.8 Write a computer program to animate the rotation of an object. plot the object at D 20 . . Find and plot the position of the object at t D 1 s. 160 . 60 . 7 7 0 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. -rd z\ e) (f *in0. The output should be the rotated coordinates of the object. ( . 2 s.rnr I t.8 l ) .^i.1I' I ? r") -z If z z1 . >ist ?) I\ gt oD ) t ' . I.tt t 2 L I A EL rot ht.o) 0 b bjn & r ^l/s)"( t r ) V * ) l l ? . and 270 . Your input should be a set of x and y coordinates deﬁning the object (such that plot y vs x draws the object on the screen) and the rotation angle . 100 .15.lut flt t---. generate coordinates of enough points to deﬁne the given object.

].8 (continued) r0/20/08 ? Johannes Feng ? Soluti-on to 13. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.8 -.6]) . plot (x. ('Rotating object. = point (2. sind(theta) cosd(theta) ] . title by Johannes Feng') .98 Chapter 15. ycirc = 2*f*cosd(phi)*sin(pts) . degrees ? DEFINE COORDINATESFOR NON-ROUNDPART x = . ' :b') .i nf I/varru l'*.8 . ycirc. .of rotation ? CONSTANTS phi = 30. ? original shape ' :b') . y. xcirc = 2*f*cosa (phi) *cos (pts) . end . 'r') i ? rotated shape n] nl/va i r dvr & ^v f e t rrci rcrol- lrl . circle = [xcirc. ? DISPLAY THE RESULTS figure.cosd (phi) O I*sind (phi) 0] ^^. = R*circle.1. yrot .6 1*glnd(phi) O 1*cosd(phi) 2*1*cosd(phi)1 y = [2*1*cosd (phi) lr. :) . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. :) . I J I pts ? DEFINE COORDINATES FOR QUARTER-CIRCLE = linspace(0. hold on.:) . ) .58b..m due L0/2t/08 ? CLEAN UP close all. ? DEFINE ROTATION MATRIX R = [cosd(theta) -sind(theta) ? DEF]NE naintyvl r5g . holC off. Rotation of a rigid body Problem 15. ycirc. L^t rr'l . function animation b I: \animation b. circle = circle(l-. in (in degrees) :\n') . 1000).:).! - ' xrot yrot = point(1. pi/2. plot (xcirc. ? geometry of shape. xcircrot ycircrot = circle (2. .1. : axis ([.6 grid on. ? USER INPUT (angle of rotation) Eheta = input ('Angle . COORDINATES FOR ROTATED SHAPE P * n ynv if n i l rg . plot (xrot.

. ? DEFINE ROTATION MATRIX R = lcos (t*w) -sin (t*w) . . ? original ' :b' ) .6))i grid on. ? USER INPUT (time t = input ( 'Time of ? CONSTANTS given angular of rotation. circle = circle (1. . Rotation of a rigid body Problem 15. : ) xcircrot = circle (2. ? angular sPeed. ? geometry of shape.8 .R*circle. Pi/2' 1000).EAN UP cfose all. .1. . in radians ? DEFINE COORDINATES FOR NON-ROUND PART x = 1g 1*s1nfl(phi) 0 1*cosd(phi) 2*L*cosd(phi)J 0] y = [2*1*cosd(phi) 1*sesfl(phi) O 1*sind(phi) point = [x. . Yrot. yl . Y.o L( x c i r c . (s) : \n'r . 'r').6 .Fi rrra. rotation speed) phi = 30. p l .1. . ^ f J l v u D*n i nl1\ yv+. ycirc . rrnircrnlJvr!vrvet rrl) ! t t: axis(t-.Chapter 15. : ) ycircrot ? DISPLAY .8 -. Y c i r c .2*1*cosa (Phi) *sin (Pts) .v n a i n F / a y v r . . r :b') . . circle = [xcirc. ycirc.8 (continued) 99 L0/20/oB ? Johannes ? Solution function Feng to 13. xcirc = !*f*gesA (phi) *cos (Pts) .i raral' \iut!u!v9.i nts I/vrrru vvar ^!Vu . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. shaPe plot (x. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.7. e /'l \-t \ s .58c. by Johannes Fengr ) . hol-d of f . ? rotated shaPe ptot{xrot. nni ntyv+r.. ^ p l f^Lr ) L /va. ? DEFINE COORDINATESFOR ROTATED SHAPE *^. title hol-d on. t ) ' ) . in degrees w = 2. c animation due Lo/2L/08 animation ? CI. ? DEF]NE COORDINATESFOR QUARTER-CIRCLE pts = linspace(0. sin (t*w) cos (t*w) ] .v. ! + Ya $rv t THE RESULTS ( ' RoEating obj ect.

1.100 Chapter 15. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.8 (continued) ofrotation0=20" ofrotation 0 = 60o Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Rotation of a rigid body Problem 15.1.

. Rotation of a rigid body Problem 15. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.1.8 (continued) 101 ofrotation e = 100" eofrotation0=1 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.Chapter 15.1.

. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.102 Chapter 15.1. Rotation of a rigid body Problem 15.8 (continued) ofrotation 0 =270" Time=1s Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.1.

.1.Chapter 15.1. Rotation of a rigid body Problem 15.8 (continued) 103 Time:2 s Time=3s Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

) i { onI "n^y!r{d wlara 1 : per.rr L o r o t on i (An fry il. r l= 0.2.) ^U rofofes /l Astu&s rol }t^r nof 2rf Y"av.. the velocity s. B ˆ ˆ ı A Filename:pfigure4-3-rp9 Problem 15.o) counler*rloek.14 15. It rotates counter-clockwise at a constant angular speed about a peg whose location is not known.q..IJ L_>i frt tr til -. a) ﬁnd the angular velocity of the rod. 19 Att . If the velocity of end B is * vB D 3 m=s{ the rod has not completed one revolution during this period. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012..fse. After 20 of end B is * vB D 3 m=s| O. .2.# I * 3n1s l r l = lv g 90hl. I h4 fro* /) t7 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.1.2.14 A 0:4 m long rod AB has many holes along its length such that it can be pegged at any of the various locations. O. +^ls) . and b) ﬁnd the location of the peg along the length of the rod.14 t3. 2 r '+ L q ) t zo . At some instant t . Angular velocity Problem 15./s l .104 Chapter 15.T T T ' 9(zo) T |E ueluiQg = aynlav ?= ry= 90 r^)/s b) {rn) lor"tion a o)uy {le leyfA of rod u lrl 0 T .

22 105 15.2. What is the angular velocity !output D !C of the output shaft and the speed of a point on the outer edge of disc C . RB .2.22: Gear B is welded to C and engages with A.22 2-D constant rate gear train. in terms of RA . RC . and !A ? no slip ωA RA A RC ωC RB B C Filename:ch4-3 Problem 15. !input D !A .2. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. The angular velocity of the input shaft (driven by a motor not shown) is a constant. Angular velocity Problem 15. .Chapter 15.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. a) neglecting gravity y ˆ ˆ ı ω O motor Filename:pg85-3 m m x b) including gravity. One end is attached to a hinge at O where a motor keeps the structure rotating at a constant rate ! (counterclockwise). Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .4.10 15. Problem 15. Two uniform bars of length ` and uniform mass m are welded at right angles.106 Chapter 15.4. Dynamics Problem 15.4.10: A bent bar is rotated by a motor. What is the net force and moment that the motor and hinge cause on the structure at the instant shown.10 Motor turns a bent bar.

Dynamics Problem 15.Chapter 15.4.4. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.10 (continued) 107 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .

108

Chapter 15.4. Dynamics

Problem 15.4.20

15.4.20 At the input to a gear box a 100 lbf force is applied to gear A. At the output, the machinery (not shown) applies a force of FB to the output gear. Gear A rotates at constant angular rate ! D 2 rad=s, clockwise. a) What is the angular speed of the right gear? b) What is the velocity of point P ? c) What is FB ? d) If the gear bearings had friction, would FB have to be larger or smaller in order to achieve the same constant velocity?

e) If instead of applying a 100 lbf to the left gear it is driven by a motor (not shown) at constant angular speed ! , what is the angular speed of the right gear?

**no slip RA RC C A FA = 100 lb
**

Filename:pg131-3

FB = ?

RB B P

Problem 15.20: Two gears with end loads.

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

Chapter 15.4. Dynamics

Problem 15.4.20 (continued)

109

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

110

Chapter 15.4. Dynamics

Problem 15.4.20 (continued)

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics, c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

.4. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.4.20 (continued) 111 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.Chapter 15. Dynamics Problem 15.

The distance d from the center of mass of the rod to the peg can be changed by putting the peg at some other point along the length of the rod. and then solve. . The claim is that even if d changes slightly over time due to wear at the support point. Dynamics Problem 15.] d) Find the total energy of the rod (using point C as a datum for potential energy). linearize for small .4. A uniform bar of mass m and length ` hangs from a peg at point C and swings in the vertical plane about an axis passing through the peg. you must ﬁrst ﬁnd the ` equations of motion. what should be the value of d (in terms of `) in order to have the fastest pendulum? h) Test of Schuler’s pendulum. The pendulum with the value of d obtained in (g) is called the Schuler’s Problem 15. a) Find the angular momentum of the rod about point C. b) Find the rate of change of angular momentum of the rod about C. pendulum. It is not only the fastest pendulum but also the “most accurate pendulum”.34 15. g) For the given rod. as a function of m.112 Chapter 15. Verify this claim by calculating the percent error in the time period of a pendulum of length ` D 1 m under the following three conditions: (i) initial d D 0:15 m and after some wear d D 0:16 m.34 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. (ii) initial d D 0:29 m and after some wear d D 0:30 m. Which pendulum shows the least error in its time period? What is the connection between this result and the plot obtained in (c)? A C d θ G m B Filename:pfigure-s94h8p6 R when e) Find D =6. c) How does the period of the pendulum vary with d ? Show the variation by plotting the period against d . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.4. . `. and (iii) initial d D 0:45 m and after some wear d D 0:46 m. d .34 A pegged compound pendulum.4. the period of the pendulum does not change much. [Hint. f) Find the reaction force on the rod at C. and P.

Chapter 15.34 (continued) 113 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Dynamics Problem 15. .4.4.

4. .34 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.114 Chapter 15. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.4. Dynamics Problem 15.

It rotates counterclockP D* wise with angular velocity !. At the instant of interest. r D 25 cm.16. b) Write the position vector of point P relative to O in the xy coordinates in terms of given quantities.* !/ . approximately as shown. 115 . A frame x 0 y 0 is ﬁxed to the disk with its origin at the center C of the disk. the disk has rotated by an angle . c) Write the expressions for the rotation matrix R.1 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.* !/. A bolt is ﬁxed on the disk at point P at a distance r from the center of the disk. to C using R. P r y φ x ω y O R θ C x Filename:pfigure14-1-doormat1 Problem 16. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012./ and the angular velocity matrix S .1 A disk of radius R is hinged at point O at the edge of the disk. The bolt position P makes an angle with the x 0 -axis./ and the angular velocity matrix S . D 60 .1. and * rP=0 xy at the instant shown. d) Find the velocity of point P relative e) Using R D 30 cm. ﬁnd * rC=0 xy . a) Write the position vector of point P relative to C in the x 0 y 0 coordinates in terms of given quantities. ﬁnd * vC=0 xy and * vP=0 xy taking other quantities as speciﬁed above. and D 45 . f) Assuming that the angular speed is ! D 10 rad=s at the instant shown.

. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.1.1 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Rigid object kinematics Problem 16.116 Chapter 16.1.

1.1 (continued) 117 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.1. .Chapter 16. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Rigid object kinematics Problem 16.

12 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. As the javelin lands on the ground.118 Chapter 16. ﬁnd the angular velocity of the javelin. C θ vC h ˆ ˆ ı φ G Filename:pfigure14-1-javeline Problem 16.1. a) Given that the javelin is at an angle D 45 at the highest point. Rigid object kinematics Problem 16. its nose hits the ground at G such that the javelin is almost tangent to the path of the center of mass at G. the velocity of the center of mass of a javelin is measured to be * O when the center of mass vC D 10 m=s{ is at its highest point h D 6 m. Neglect the air drag and lift on the javelin. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.12 The center of mass of a javelin travels on a more or less parabolic path while the javelin rotates during its ﬂight. Assume the angular velocity isconstant during the ﬂight and that the javelin makes less than a full revolution.1. .1. In a particular throw.12 16.

Dynamics of a rigid object Problem 16.7 A uniform 1kg plate that is one meter on a side is initially at rest in the po* O sition shown. but can’t do the calculation to ﬁnd it. . d) Run your code and show clear output with labeled plots. and initial conditions. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.Chapter 16.7 119 16.2. You can use hand calculations or the computer for as many of the intermediate commands as you like. a) Find the position of G as a function of time (the answer should have numbers and units). b) Find a differential equation. If you need to calculate any quantity that you don’t know.2. Mark output by hand to clarify any points.7 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. y G x Fγ Filename:S02p2p2flyingplate E Problem 16. that when solved would give as a function of time. is the counterclockwise rotation of the plate from the conﬁguration shown. Hand work and sketches should be provided as needed to justify or explain the computer work. c) Write computer commands that would generate a drawing of the outline of the plate at t D 1 s.2. assume that the value is given. A constant force F D 1 N{ is applied at t D 0 and maintained henceforth.

7 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.120 Chapter 16.2. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Dynamics of a rigid object Problem 16. .2.

2.7 (continued) 121 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Dynamics of a rigid object Problem 16. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.Chapter 16.2.

Dynamics of a rigid object Problem 16. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2. .2.122 Chapter 16.7 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

Dynamics of a rigid object Problem 16. b) the acceleration of point A. . 1 A Filename:pfigure-blue-50-2 2 B L Problem 16. and c) the acceleration of point B .9 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.2.2.2.9 A uniform slender bar AB of mass m is suspended from two springs (each of spring constant K ) as shown.Chapter 16. determine a) the angular acceleration of the bar. Immediately after spring 2 breaks.9 123 16.

2. Dynamics of a rigid object Problem 16.2.9 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. .124 Chapter 16.

power and energy 16. a) Particle paths. Draw the velocity vector (by hand) on your plot. Note that the velocity of the points is perpendicular to the line connecting the points to the ground contact. It rolls 1 1 4 revolutions over the time of interest. and a point that is initially half way between the former two points. P C Filename:pfigure-s94h11p2 Problem 16. b) Velocity of points. Then note that the position of a point is the position of the center plus the position of the point relative to the center. make sure x and y scales are the same. Find the velocity of the points at a few instants in 1 3 the motion: after 1 4 . First ﬁnd a relation between ! and vC . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Accurately plot the paths of three points: the center of the disk C.3. 2 . You can ﬁnd the velocity by differentiating the position vector or by using relative motion formulas appropriately. Kinematics of rolling and sliding Problem 16. c) Acceleration of points.3. Do the same as above but for acceleration. 4 . .3 Rolling at constant rate.3 125 The next several problems concern Work. [Hint: Write a parametric equation for the position of the points.3 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. A round disk rolls on the ground at constant rate.] Draw the paths on the computer. Note that the acceleration of the points is parallel to the line connecting the points to the center of the disk.3. Draw the disk at its position after one quarter revolution. and 1 revolution. a point on the outer edge that is initially on the ground.Chapter 16. Draw the direction accurately and draw the lengths of the vectors in proportion to their magnitude.

3.126 Chapter 16.3. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Kinematics of rolling and sliding Problem 16. .3 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

3.3.Chapter 16.3 (continued) 127 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Kinematics of rolling and sliding Problem 16.

Kinematics of rolling and sliding Problem 16.128 Chapter 16.3 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.3.3.

c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.3. Kinematics of rolling and sliding Problem 16.3.Chapter 16. .3 (continued) 129 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.

3 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .3.130 Chapter 16.3. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. Kinematics of rolling and sliding Problem 16.

4.4. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.6 Spool Rolling without Slip and Pulled by a Cord. Mechanics of contact Problem 16. Dimensions are as marked.6 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. .Chapter 16. The light-weight spool is nearly empty but a lead ball with mass m has been placed at its center. a) What is the acceleration of the center of the spool? b) What is the horizontal force of the ground on the spool? ˆ Ro roll without slip Filename:pfigure-s94h11p5 C Ri ˆ ı F Problem 16. Coordinate directions are as marked. A force F is applied in the horizontal direction to the cord wound around the wheel.6 131 16.4.

4. . radius r ) rolls without slip as a mischievous child pulls the tablecloth (mass M ) out with acceleration A.9 A napkin ring lies on a thick velvet tablecloth. The ring starts at the right end (x D d ). You can make a reasonable physical model of this situation with an empty soda can and a piece of paper on a ﬂat table.132 Chapter 16. a) What is the ring’s acceleration as the tablecloth is being withdrawn? b) How far has the tablecloth moved to the right from its starting point x D 0 when the ring rolls off its left-hand end? c) Clearly describe the subsequent motion of the ring. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.9 16.9 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. The thin ring (of mass m. Which way does it end up rolling at what speed? d) Would your answer to the previous question be different if the ring slipped on the cloth as the cloth was being pulled out? m x d Filename:pfigure-blue-51-1 napkin ring r tablecloth A Problem 16.4. Mechanics of contact Problem 16.4.

4.Chapter 16.4. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. .9 (continued) 133 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Mechanics of contact Problem 16.

9 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.4.134 Chapter 16. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.4. Mechanics of contact Problem 16. .

The angle that the line from the center of the cylinder to the center of the disk makes from the vertical can be used as such a variable. Write the equations of linear and angular momentum balance for the disk. b) FBD. or why not? RC RD Filename:h12-3 Problem 16. Leave as unknown in these equations variables which you do not know. velocities and accelerations of all points.23 A disk rolls in a cylinder. That is. Mechanics of contact Problem 16.4.4. d) Kinematics. Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Draw a neat sketch of the disk in the cylinder. For all of the problems below. c) Momentum balance. Use the point on the cylinder which touches the disk for the angular momentum balance equation.Chapter 16. .] e) Equation of motion. when the disk radius gets arbitrarily small? Why. The sketch should show all variables. [Hint: you’ll need to think about the rolling contact in order to do this part. Write the angular momentum balance equation as a single second order differential equation.23: A disk rolls without slip inside a bigger cylinder. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012. coordinates and dimension used in the problem. the disk rolls without slip and rocks back and forth due to gravity. Find all of the velocities and accelerations needed in the momentum balance equation in terms of this variable and it’s derivative. Draw a free body diagram of the disk. The disk rolling in the cylinder is a one-degree-offreedom system. a) Sketch.23 135 16. f) Simple pendulum? Does this equation reduce to the equation for a pendulum with a point mass and length equal to the radius of the cylinder. the values of only one coordinate and its derivatives are enough to determine the positions.4.

. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.4.23 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.4.136 Chapter 16. Mechanics of contact Problem 16.

Chapter 16.23 (continued) 137 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Mechanics of contact Problem 16.4. . c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.4.

4.4. .23 (continued) Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. Mechanics of contact Problem 16.138 Chapter 16. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.

23 (continued) 139 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics.4. . Mechanics of contact Problem 16. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.Chapter 16.4.

Collisions Problem 16.5.8 An acrobat modeled as a rigid body with uniform rigid mass m of length l .140 Chapter 16.8 16. She then grabs a bar with a ﬁrm but slippery grip.5.5. She falls without rotation in the position shown from height h where she was stationary. c Andy Ruina and Rudra Pratap 1994-2012.8 Introduction to Statics and Dynamics. . What is h so that after the subsequent motion the acrobat ends up in a stationary handstand? [ Hint: What quantities are preserved in what parts of the motion?] DURING h bar BEFORE Filename:pfigure-s94h10p4 AFTER Problem 16.

Rudra pratap singh

Rudra pratap singh

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