TEORI DASAR

ANALISA VIBRASI

Oleh : DARYANTO Predictive Maintenance – CRM PT KRAKATAU STEEL - CILEGON

TUJUAN MONITORING GETARAN 1. Menentukan kondisi mekanis mesin. 2. Merencanakan jadwal pemeliharaan. 3. Memeriksa hasil repair/overhaul.

4. Menghentikan mesin untuk mencegah gangguan serius.
5. Lokalisasi gangguan. 6. Pengesahan aspek keselamatan.

What Is Vibration Caused By ? Imperfections in the Machine: Design Manufacture Assembly Operation

Installation

Maintenance

What Are Some Common Machine Problems? That Generate Mechanical Vibration: ● Misalignment ● Unbalance ● Worn belts & pulleys ● Bearing Defects ● Hydraulic Forces ● Aerodynamic Forces ● Reaction Forces ● Reciprocating Forces ● Bent Shafts ● Rubbing ● Gear Problems ● Housing Distortion ● Certain Electrical Problems ● Frictional Forces What Are Some Common Machine Problems That Amplify Mechanical Vibration (But Don't Cause It):

• •

Resonance Looseness

The Raw Signal

The Actual Signals Used To Generate

The Resulting FFT

1x rpm w/ amplitude of 1.8 (pk-pk), '+' peak on y-axis 2x rpm w/ amplitude of 0.45 (pk-pk) 3x rpm w/ amplitude of 0.05 (pk-pk), '-' peak on y-axis

FFT Analysis

What Vibration "Characteristics" Do We Measure ?
AMPLITUDE – How Much movement Occurs

FREQUENCY – How Often The Movement Occurs How many “cycle” in a period of time: a second or a minute

PHASE - In What Direction Is The Movement Relative To Other Locations On The Machine At A Given Moment In Time

AMPLITUDO
v rms [inch/ s] 0,80 0,78 0,76 0,74 0,72 0,70 0,68 0,66 0,64 0,62 0,60 0,58 0,56 0,54 0,52 0,50 0,48 0,46 0,44 0,42 0,40 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 0,30 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,22 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 f [cpm] (2955,00 / 0,43) M RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 2955,00 cpm (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 0,43 inch/ s Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BH4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 22/ 11/ 2011 9:10:07
a rms [g] 0,80 0,78 0,76 0,74 0,72 0,70 0,68 0,66 0,64 0,62 0,60 0,58 0,56 0,54 0,52 0,50 0,48 0,46 0,44 0,42 0,40 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 (2955,00 / 0,342) M RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 2955,00 cpm (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 0,342 g Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BH4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 22/ 11/ 2011 9:10:07

English or Metric - G's (1 g = force of gravity)

English or "Imperial": Inches per Second (ips -or- in/sec) Metric: Millimeters per Second (mm/sec) Conversion::1 ips = 25.4 mm/sec

0,30 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,22 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 f [cpm]

s rms [mils] 1,60 1,55 1,50 1,45 1,40 1,35 1,30 1,25 1,20 1,15 1,10 1,05 1,00 0,95 0,90 0,85 0,80 0,75 0,70 0,65 0,60 0,55 0,50 0,45 0,40 0,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0,05 0,00 0

Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BH4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 22/ 11/ 2011 9:10:07

(2955,00 / 1,378) M

RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 2955,00 cpm (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 1,378 mils

English or 'Imperial' Units: Mils (1 mil = 0.001")

Metric Units::Microns (1 um = 0.001 mm)
Conversion::1 Mil = 25.4 um

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

11000

12000

13000

14000

15000

16000

17000

18000

19000

20000

21000

22000

23000 24000 f [cpm]

Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration

Displacement = mils Velocity = in/sec Acceleration = g's Frequency = cycles/min Displacement = (19,231 x V) / F

English Units:

Displacement = um Velocity = mm/sec Acceleration = g's Frequency = cycles/min Displacement = (19,231 x V) / F

Metric Units:

Velocity = 0.000052 x D x F
Acceleration = 0.00027 x V x F

Velocity = 0.000052 x D x F
Acceleration = 0.0000107 x V x F

Vibration Amplitude Measurement
The following definitions apply to the measurement of mechanical vibration amplitude.

Average = 0.637 Peak Amp.

Root Mean Square Amplitude (RMS) is the square root of the average of the squared values of the waveform. In the case of the sine wave, the RMS value is 0.707 times the peak value

FREQUENCY
v rms [inch/ s] 0,50 0,48 0,46 0,44 0,42 0,40 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 0,30 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,22 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 f [cpm] (2955,00 / 0,43) M RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 2955,00 cpm (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 0,43 inch/ s Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BH4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 22/ 11/ 2011 9:10:07

v rms [inch/ s] 0,50 0,48 0,46 0,44 0,42 0,40 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 0,30 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,22 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 0,0 0,2

Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BH4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 22/ 11/ 2011 9:10:07

(1,00 / 0,43) M

RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 1,00 - (2955,00 cpm) M(y) : 0,43 inch/ s

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

1,4

1,6

1,8

2,0

2,2

2,4

2,6

2,8

3,0

3,2

3,4

3,6

3,8

4,0

4,2

4,4

4,6

4,8

5,0

5,2

5,4

5,6

5,8

6,0

6,2

6,4

6,6

6,8

7,0

7,2

7,4

7,6

7,8 8,0 Orders [-]

v rms [inch/ s] 0,50 0,48 0,46 0,44 0,42 0,40 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 0,30 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,22 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 0

Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BH4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 22/ 11/ 2011 9:10:07

(49,25 / 0,43) M

RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 49,25 Hz (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 0,43 inch/ s

Frequency Unit Cycles / Second (Hertz) Hertz x 60 = Cycles / Minute (CPM) Order

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

380

f [Hz]

400

Recommended Frequency Ranges for Different Amplitude Units

Displacement Units: < 600 cpm (< 10 Hz) Velocity Units: 300 - 120,000 cpm (5 - 2,000 Hz) Acceleration Units: > 60,000 cpm (> 1,000 Hz)

Spectrum Resolution =

Max Frequency (Fmax) # of Lines of Resolution

Lines of Resolution : 200, 400, 800,1600, 3200, 6400, 12800

Fmax = # Lines / Time Sample Fmax [Hertz] = 800 / 0.1 seconds = 8000 Hz Fmax [CPM] = 8,000 Hz x 60 = 480,000 cpm

Contoh Perhitungan Frekuensi

Compressor Schematic Motor Speed = 3580 rpm

Frequency Name 4-Lobe Rotor Speed 4-Lobe Pass Frequency 6-Lobe Rotor Speed 6-Lobe Pass Frequency Bull Gear Mesh Freq: Pinion GMF 2x GMF 3x GMF

Calculation 3580 x 48T/36T 4773 x 4 4773 x 4T/6T 3182 x 6 3580 rpm x 48T 4773 x 36T 2 x GMF

Frequency 4773 rpm 19092 cpm 3182 rpm 19092 cpm 171,840 cpm 171840 cpm 343,680 cpm 515,520 cpm

Standar ISO 2372

Standar ISO 10816-3

Standar ISO 10816-3

VIBRATION TRANSDUCERS
The Proximity Probe
The Velocity Probe

Velocity Transducer

The Accelerometer

Piezo-Electric Accelerometer

Accelerometer Tranduser

Prinsip Kerja Gambar diagram sederhana dari tipe accelerometer dengan sebuah penguat didalamnya. Apabila tranduser ini ditempelkan pada bagian mesin yang bergetar, maka getaran mekanis tersebut diteruskan melalui Case insulator ke bahan piezoeletric, sehingga bahan tersebut mengalami tekanan sebanding dengan getarannya Bahan piezoelectric tersebut mempunyai kemampuan untuk menimbulkan muatan listrik sebagai respon terhadap gaya mekanis yang bekerja terhadapnya. Getaran mekanis yang menghasilkan gaya akan mengenai bahan piezoeletric dan bahan tersebut akan menimbulkan muatan listrik yang seband¬ing dengan besarnya percepatan dari getaran tersebut. Muatan listrik yang ditimbulkan oleh bahan piezoelectric tersebut sangat kecil jika dibandingkan dengan output velocity tranduser. Karena muatan listrik yang ditimbulkan langsung oleh bahan piezoelectric begitu kecil, maka di dalam tranduser ini dibuat rangkaian penguat electronik untuk memperkuat muatan listrik yang dihasilkan oleh bahan piezoelectric, tersebut. Besarnya muatan yang dihasilkan langsung oleh bahan piezoelectric biasanya dalam picocoulombs per g. Sedangkan besarnya sinyal yang dihasilkan setelah melalui penguat, mempunyai sensitivitas 50 mv per g

PENGAMBILAN DATA VIBRASI

RUANG LINGKUP PENGUKURAN VIBRASI
1. Kelompok penggerak mula (prime mover) – mesin-mesin yang mampu mengolah daya sendiri. Contohnya: Elektric Motor, Steamturbin, Gasturbin, Hydraulic & Pneumatic Motor dll. 2. Kelompok sistem transmisi – peralatan untuk memindahkan daya. Contohnya : Gearbox, Coupling, V-Belts dll. 3. Kelompok mesin bukan penggerak mula – peralatan produksi yang harus digerakkan oleh penggerak mula. Contohnya : Compressor, Centrifugal Pump, Hydraulic Pump, Fans, Reciprocating Pump, Cooling Tower Fans, Rolling Machines dll.

Persiapan untuk pengukuran vibrasi

MACHINE DATA SHEET
1. Plant Name

2. Train Name
3. Machine Name 4. Machine Description

5. Machine Sketch
6. Position 7. Direction

8. Measurement Units
9. Point Identification 10. Coupling Type

11. RPM
12. Number of Gear Teeth 13. Bearings (Type, manufacture, Number of balls/Series Number)

MENENTUKAN ARAH PENGUKURAN

Horizontal machines

Vertical machines

ANALISA DATA VIBRASI

Following is an example of forcing frequency calculation for a gear-driven machine:

Let us assume that the motor/gear/fan components have the following element counts: Elements of Component
Fan Blades Rotor Bars Gear Teeth Gear Teeth

Machine Component
Motor Cooling Fan Motor Rotor Drive Pinion Driven Gear

Number of Elements
11 42 36 100

Fan

9

Let us assume that the motor is again running at 1780 RPM.
Divide the drive pinion tooth count by the driven gear tooth count:

or

Next, multiply this ratio by the motor shaft RPM to find the fan shaft RPM;

We would now say that the fundamental frequency of the motor is 1780 CPM and the fundamental frequency of the fan is 640.8 CPM.
Motor Shaft
Rotation Motor Cooling Fan Motor Rotor Drive Pinion

Elements
1 11 42 36

Forcing Frequency, CPM
1,780 19,580 74,760 64,080

Fan Shaft
Rotation Driven Gear Fan

Elements
1 100 9

Forcing Frequency CPM
640.8 64,080 5,767.2

Formulas for Calculating Belt Frequencies: You can calculate belt RPM with the following: 3.14 x PS1 x PD1/BL = Belt RPM - or 3.14 x PS2 x PD2/BL = Belt RPM Belt Length = 1.57 x (PD1 + PD2) + 2(SD) PS = Pulley rpm (PS1 = Driver Pulley Speed, PS2 = Driven Pulley Speed) PD = Pulley diameter (PD1 = Driver Pulley Dia., PD2 = Driven Pulley Dia) SD = Distance between shaft centers BL = Belt Length

Spectrum Interpretation (Troubleshooting chart) The following pages are designed to provide typical examples of the vibration spectrums that will result from different problems a machine might experience. They are probability based and field testing should always be performed regardless of how "sure" you are of the diagnosis. Remember:
EVERY diagnosis made from an FFT interpretation can be characterized as:

An ASSUMPTION based on an ESTIMATE

Unbalance

Typical Radial FFT Generated By Unbalance

Single Plane Unbalance

Typical Radial FFT Generated By Unbalance

Two-Plane Unbalance

Typical Axial FFT Generated By Unbalance

Overhung Rotor Unbalance

Typical Radial FFT Generated By Unbalance

MISALIGNMENT

Misalignment

Typical FFT Generated By Angular Misalignment Definition: Shaft Centerlines Intersect But Are Not Parallel

Angular Misalignment

Typical FFT Generated By Offset Misalignment Definition: Shaft Centerlines Are Parallel But Do Not Intersect

Offset Misalignment

Belt-Drive Problems Pulley Misalignment

FFT Typical Of Pulley Misalignment This Condition Often Results In High Axial Vibration At Both Components 1x RPM.

Belt/Pulley Wear, Improper Tension & Belt Resonance

Typical FFT Showing Belt/Pulley Wear Problems

Pulley Eccentricity / Bent Shaft (Near Pulley)

Typical FFT Showing Pulley Eccentricity / Bent Shaft Near Pulley

Eccentricity Causes High Vibration At 1x RPM Of The Problem Component. Bent Shaft Near Pulley Causes Same Symptom

Bent Shaft @ Bearing

Typical FFT Generated By Shaft Bent Through The Bearing

Mechanical Looseness

- Bearing / Shaft (Bearing Looseness) - Bearing / Housing (Bearing Looseness) - Internal bearing clearances (Bearing Looseness) - Adjacent, fastened surfaces (Structural) - Areas of the base (Structural)

Housing Distortion (Soft Foot, Pipe Stress, etc.)

Typical Axial FFT Generated By Housing Distortion

Soft Foot Or Other Housing Distortion Such As Pipe Stress Can Cause Bearings Within A Component To Misalign And Can Throw Off Normal Clearances

Typical Radial FFT Generated By Housing Distortion

Structural Looseness

Typical Radial FFT Generated By Mechanical (Structural) Looseness

Looseness Allows Movement In The Direction Of The Looseness

Bearing Looseness

Typical Radial FFT Generated By Bearing Looseness

Bearing Looseness

Rolling Element Bearings Earlier Failure Stage Symptoms

Typical Enveloping Plot Showing Impacts At Bearing Defect Frequency

Defect Causes Impacts At A Frequency Equal To The Component Multiplier x RPM

Typical Velocity FFT Showing Early Stage Bearing Defect

Two Frequencies Are Produced. The Frequency Of The Bearing Assembly Resonance Affects The FFT Plot While The Frequency Of The Impacts Affects The Enveloping Plot

Rolling Element Bearings Later Failure Stage Symptoms

Typical Enveloping Plot Showing Impacts At Bearing Defect Frequency. Amplitudes May Actually Decrease As Bearings Continue To Worsen

Typical Velocity FFT Showing Early Stage Bearing Defect. Amplitudes Can Be Very Low In Early Stages. It Should Be Noted That The Acceleration Spectrum Will Show The High Frequency Peaks Far More Clearly Than The Velocity Spectrum

Hydraulic Problems: Recirculation & Flow Related Problems

Typical Spectrum Showing High Vane Pass Frequency ("VPF" = # of Vanes x RPM). Symptoms normally in the radial directions but may also be seen axially

Cavitation

Typical Spectrum Showing Cavitation (Random, Very Broad Haystack-Like Appearance). Symptoms normally in the radial directions but may also be seen axially. Cavitation - occurs when there is insufficient flow into or pressure out of a pump. This causes the fluid entering to literally be torn apart. Vacuum pockets are created and then implode. This occurs in a random, unpredictable manner and can be extremely destructive to the impeller and internal pump components

Flow Turbulence

Typical FFT Showing Flow Turbulence. Occurs In Compressors And High Pressure Blowers When Surging Or Load Variations Occur That The Machine Is Affected By. Often, A Reservoir Or Surge Suppressor Can Be Used To Eliminate This Feedback

Elliptical Stator, Stator Weakness & Winding Shorts

AC Induction Motor Problems:

Typical Spectrum Showing Indications Of Variation In Air Gap, Winding Shorts, Stator Weakness

Motor Construction

Winding Construction

Elliptical Rotor
FLine = Electrical line frequency - 60 Hz(3600 cpm) or 50 Hz(3000 cpm) 2 x FLine = Torque Pulse Frequency P = # of poles on the motor FSynch = Synchronous electrical speed = 2 x FLine / P Fslip = Slip frequency = FSynch - rotor RPM (actual speed) FPole = Pole pass frequency = P x FSlip WSPF = # Winding Slots x RPM RBPF = # Rotor Bars x RPM

Typical Spectrum Showing Indications Of Eccentric Rotor. Similar To Eccentric Stator. Some Cases May Exhibit The Sidebands Seen Here; Others May Propagate Strictly At 2x Line Frequency

Phasing Problems

Loose Rotor Bars

One Possible Spectrum Caused By A Problem With A Short In One Of The Phases Or Feeder Cables

Spectrum Showing Pattern Of Peaks Separated By 2xLine Frequency (Sidebands) In High Frequency Range (30-90xRPM)

Winding Slot Pass Frequency or WSPF = # windings slot x RPM

Another Possible Spectrum Caused By A Problem With A Short In One Of The Phases Or Feeder Cables

Loose in Winding Slots, Iron, End Turns And/Or Connections

Velocity FFT Showing Pattern Of Peaks Separated By 2xLine Frequency (Sidebands) In High Frequency Range (30-90xRPM)

Envelope Plot Showing 2xLine Peak And Harmonics. This Indicates Impacts Occurring At 2xLine Frequency
RBPF = rotor bar pass frequency = #Rotor Bar x RPM

DC Drives Problem

DC Drives Problem

"Normal" FFT Taken On DC Drive

Half-Wave Rectified Velocity Spectrum w/ Drive Problems

Full-Wave Rectified Velocity Spectrum w/ Drive Problems
FSCR : Freq. Silicon Controlled Rectifier

Spectrum on DC Motor w/ Speed Fluctuations

Gear Problems:

PROGRAM PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE 1. Data Collection
• Pemantauan getaran terjadwal (mingguan, bulanan, online)

2. Analysis (diperlukan Software)
• • Domain frekuensi (harus tahu anatomi mesin) Domain waktu

Frek. eksitasi getaran, database bantalan, gearbox dll

3. Diagnosis

• •

Prakiraan sumber masalah
Dibantu oleh Software Human Interface (Tergantung pengalaman)

4. Langkah Perbaikan

ANALISA DATA VIBRASI 1. Trends Data
v [inch/ s] 1,00 Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BA4\ 101 Ov erall v eloc ity >600 0,95

0,90

0,85 RPM : 0 M(x) : 01/ 06/ 2011 19:06:29 M(y) : 0,51 inch/ s

0,80 0,75

0,70

0,65

0,60

0,55

(01/ 06/ 2011 19:06:29 / 0,51) M

0,50

0,45

0,40

0,35

0,30

0,25 0,20

0,15

0,10

0,05

0,00 20/ 07/ 2009 07/ 09/ 2009 26/ 10/ 2009 14/ 12/ 2009 01/ 02/ 2010 22/ 03/ 2010 10/ 05/ 2010 28/ 06/ 2010 16/ 08/ 2010 04/ 10/ 2010 22/ 11/ 2010 10/ 01/ 2011 28/ 02/ 2011 18/ 04/ 2011 date

2. Waterfall Trends Data
v rms [inch/ s] Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BA4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 01/ 06/ 2011 19:06:44

(2955,00 / 0,38) M RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 2955,00 cpm (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 0,38 inch/ s

0,44 0,42 0,40 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 0,30 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,22 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 04/ 05/ 2010 16/ 04/ 2010 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 f [cpm] 17/ 07/ 2010 02/ 06/ 2010 03/ 11/ 2010 19/ 09/ 2010 24/ 08/ 2010 01/ 06/ 2011

3. Single Spectrum
v rms [inch/ s] 0,44 0,42 0,40 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 0,30 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,22 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 22000 24000 f [cpm] (8865,00 / 0,14) 3 (2955,00 / 0,38) M RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 2955,00 cpm (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 0,38 inch/ s D(x) : 20685,00 cpm (7,00 Orders) D(y) : 0,01 inch/ s Fan/ blower No.21 - ARP\ Fan/ blower # 21\ BA4\ 103 Mac h. spec tr. >600 01/ 06/ 2011 19:06:44

(5910,00 / 0,06) 2 (11820,00 / 0,04) 4 (14775,00 / 0,02) 5 (17730,00 / 0,01) 6 (20685,00 / 0,01) D

4. Kondisi Bearing
Enveloping Signal Processing(ESP) & High Frequency Domain(HFD)......SKF/DI Spike Energy(gSE) .............Entek/IRD Peakvue ..............................CSI Enveloping Spectrum .........Pruftechnik
a rms [g] 0,90 Fan/ blow er N o. 21 - AR P\ Fan/ blow er # 21\ BH 4\ 250 Env elope Spec t rum Ac c elerat ion 29/ 11/ 2011 16: 50: 04 0,85 (2952,00 / 0,797) 0,80 M RPM : 2953 (49,22Hz) M(x) : 2952,00 cpm (1,00 Orders) M(y) : 0,797 g D(x) : 20664,00 cpm (7,00 Orders) D(y) : 0,030 g

0,75

0,70

0,65

0,60

0,55

0,50

0,45

0,40

0,35

0,30

(5904,00 / 0,264) 2

0,25

0,20

0,15 (8856,00 / 0,094) 0,10 3 (17712,00 / 0,033) (14760,00 / 0,031) (20664,00 / 0,030) (11808,00 / 0,018) 6 5 D 4

0,05

0,00 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000 32000 34000 36000 f [cpm]

5. Time Signal/Time Domain/Time Trace
v [inch/ s] 0,70 0,65 0,60 0,55 0,50 0,45 0,40 0,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0,05 0,00 -0,05 -0,10 -0,15 -0,20 -0,25 -0,30 -0,35 -0,40 -0,45 -0,50 -0,55 -0,60 -0,65 -0,70 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 t [ms] RPM : 870 (14,50Hz) M(x) : 207,28 ms M(y) : 0,45 inch/ s D(x) : 299,26 ms D(y) : 0,54 inch/ s (207,28 / 0,45) M (299,26 / 0,54) D Stand No.5 - E1.455\ Gear Box Std.# 5\ GV6\ 211 VXP Mac hine time signal >120 16/ 01/ 2009 10:10:05

6. Orbit
Y2 [g] Strip Dryer - J1.470\ Fan/ blower Dryer \ BV3\ 285 Orbit 17/ 06/ 2009 18:35:06 90° 0,040 0,038 0,036 0,034 0,032 0,030 0,028 0,026 (-0,04 / 0,021) M 0,024 0,022 0,020 0,018 0,016 0,014 0,012 0,010 0,008 0,006 0,004 0,002 -0,040 -0,035 -0,030 -0,025 -0,020 -0,015 -0,010 -0,005 0,000 0,000 0,005 -0,002 -0,004 -0,006 -0,008 -0,010 -0,012 -0,014 -0,016 -0,018 -0,020 -0,022 -0,024 -0,026 -0,028 -0,030 -0,032 -0,034 -0,036 -0,038 -0,040 270° Y1 [g] 0,010 0,015 0,020 0,025 0,030 0,035 0,040

a [g channel A] 0,050 0,045 0,040 0,035 0,030 0,025 0,020 0,015 0,010 0,005 0,000 -0,005 -0,010 -0,015 -0,020 -0,025 -0,030 -0,035 -0,040 -0,045 -0,050 0 10

Strip Dryer - J1.470\ Fan/ blower Dryer \ BV3\ 285 Orbit 17/ 06/ 2009 18:35:06 RPM : 47897 (798,29Hz) M(x) : 90,00 ° M(y) : -0,037 g

(90,00 / -0,037) M

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

310

320

330

340

350

[°]

a [g channel B] 0,050 0,045 0,040 0,035 0,030 0,025 0,020 0,015 0,010 0,005 0,000 -0,005 -0,010 -0,015 -0,020 -0,025 -0,030 -0,035 -0,040 -0,045 -0,050 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 (90,00 / 0,021) M

RPM : 47897 (798,29Hz) M(x) : 90,00 ° M(y) : 0,021 g

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

310

320

330

340

350

[°]

Pola orbit pada rotary machine yang mengalami unbalance

Pola orbit pads rotary machine yang mengalami misalignment

KESIMPULAN
LOKASI / AREA MESIN MESIN & SPESIFIKASINYA POSISI &

ARAH PENGUKURAN

A M P L I T U D O

Type Spectrum

PUTARAN POROS

TERIMA KASIH