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Dr. Ing. Zdena Sant
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 4
2 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE.............................................................................. 9
2.1 Velocity....................................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Acceleration ............................................................................................................... 11
2.2.1 Classification of motion ....................................................................................... 12
2.3 Orthogonal transformation....................................................................................... 14
2.3.1 Orthogonal Transformation of Vector Quantities.................................................. 14
2.3.2 Velocity in matrix form using the orthogonal transformation................................ 16
2.3.3 Acceleration in matrix form using the orthogonal transformation ......................... 16
2.4 particle in Cylindrical coordinate system  z r , ,ϕ .................................................... 17
2.4.1 The position vector .................................................................................................. 17
2.4.2 The velocity......................................................................................................... 17
2.4.3 The acceleration................................................................................................... 18
2.4.4 Special cases............................................................................................................ 18
2.5 Particle trajectory...................................................................................................... 19
2.5.1 Rectilinear motion................................................................................................ 19
2.5.2 Curvilinear motion................................................................................................... 20
2.6 Harmonic motion....................................................................................................... 20
2.6.1 Composition of harmonic motions in the same direction ...................................... 22
2.6.2 Composition of two perpendicular harmonic motions........................................... 23
2.7 Motion of a set of particles ........................................................................................ 23
3 SOLID BODY MOTION......................................................................................... 24
3.1 Translation motion of a solid body........................................................................... 24
3.1.1 Investigating kinematic quantities ........................................................................ 24
3.2 Rotation of a solid body around fixed axis................................................................ 25
3.2.1 Finding the velocity of an arbitrary point.............................................................. 26
3.2.2 Finding the acceleration of an arbitrary point B.................................................... 27
3.2.3 Solid body kinematics consequences (the geometrical dependency) ..................... 29
3.3 Universal planar motion............................................................................................ 31
3.3.1 The position............................................................................................................ 31
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3.3.2 The velocity......................................................................................................... 32
3.3.3 The pole of motion............................................................................................... 33
3.3.4 Finding the acceleration........................................................................................... 35
3.3.5 The instantenous centre of acceleration – the pole of acceleration........................ 37
3.4 centre of the trajectory curvature............................................................................. 38
3.5 Combined motion ...................................................................................................... 41
3.5.1 Kinematical quantities by means of combined motion.......................................... 42
3.5.2 The velocity......................................................................................................... 42
3.5.3 The acceleration................................................................................................... 42
3.5.4 Coriolis acceleration ............................................................................................ 43
3.5.5 Finding the pole of motion by means of combined motion ................................... 44
3.6 Spherical motion of a Body ....................................................................................... 45
3.7 universal Space Motion Of a body ........................................................................... 47
4 SYSTEM OF BODIES........................................................................................... 48
4.1 Simultaneous rotations around concurrent axes ...................................................... 48
4.2 Simultaneous rotations around parallel axes............................................................ 49
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1 INTRODUCTION
Design and analysis are two vital tasks in engineering.
Design process means the synthesis during the proposal phase the size, shape, material
properties and arrangements of the parts are prescribed in order to fulfil the required task.
Analysis is a technique or rather set of tools allowing critical evaluation of existing or proposed
design in order to judge its suitability for the task.
Thus synthesis is a goal that can be reached via analysis.
Mechanical engineer deals with many different tasks that are in conjunction to diverse working
processes referred to as a technological process.
Technological processes involve transportation of material, generation and transformation of
energy, transportation of information. All these processes require mechanical motion, which is
carried out by machines.
To be able to create appropriate design of machine and mechanism the investigation of relation
between the geometry and motion of the parts of a machine/mechanism and the forces that cause
the motion has to be carried out. Thus the mechanics as a science is involved in the design process.
Mechanics represents the science that includes Statics, Dynamics, and Mechanics of Materials.
Statics provides analysis of stationary systems while Dynamics deals with systems that change
with time and as Euler suggested the investigation of motion of a rigid body may be separated into
two parts, the geometrical part and the mechanical part. Within the geometrical part Kinematics
the transference of the body from one position to the other is investigated without respect to the
causes of the motion. The change is represented by analytical formulae.
Thus Kinematics is a study of motion apart from the forces producing the motion that is
described by position, displacement, rotation, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
In Kinematics we assume that all bodies under the investigation are rigid bodies thus their
deformation is negligible, and does not play important role, and the only change that is considered
in this case is the change in the position.
Terminology that we use has a precise meaning as all the words we use to express ourselves
while communicating with each other. To make sure that we do understand the meaning we have a
thesaurus/glossary available. It is useful to clarify certain terms especially in areas where the
terminology is not very clear.
Structure represents the combination of rigid bodies connected together by joints with intention
to be rigid. Therefore the structure does not do work or transforms the motion. Structure can be
moved from place to place but it does not have an internal mobility (no relative motion between its
members).
Machines & Mechanisms – their purpose is to utilize relative internal motion in transmitting
power or transforming motion.
Machine – device used to alter, transmit, and direct forces to accomplish a specific objective.
Mechanism – the mechanical portion of a machine that has the function of transferring motion
and forces from power source to an output. Mechanism transmits motion from drive or input link
to the follower or the output link.
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Planar mechanism – each particle of the mechanism draws plane curves in space and all
curves lie in parallel planes. The motion is limited to twodimensional space and behaviour of all
particles can be observed in true size and shape from a single direction. Therefore all motions can
be interpreted graphically. Most mechanisms today are planar mechanism so we focus on them.
Spherical mechanism – each link has a stationary point as the linkage moves and the stationary
points of all links lie at a common location. Thus each point draws a curve on the spherical surface
and all spherical surfaces are concentric.
Spatial mechanism – has no restriction on the relative motion of the particles. Each
mechanism containing kinematical screw pair is a spatial mechanism because the relative motion
of the screw pair is helical.
The mechanism usually consists of:
Frame – typically a part that exhibits no motion
Links – the individual parts of the mechanism creating the rigid connection between two or
more elements of different kinematic pair. (Springs cannot be considered as links
since they are elastic.)
Kinematic pair (KP) represents the joint between links that controls the relative motion by
means of mating surface thus some motions are restricted while others are allowed.
The number of allowed motions is described via mobility of the KP. The mating
surfaces are assumed to have a perfect geometry and between mating surfaces there
is no clearance.
Joint – movable connection between links called as well kinematic pair (pin, sliding joint,
cam joint) that imposes constrains on the motion
Kinematic chain is formed from several links movably connected together by joints. The
kinematic chain can be closed or opened according to organization of the
connected links.
Simple link – a rigid body that contains only two joints
Complex link – a rigid body that contains more than two joints
Actuator – is the component that drives the mechanism
Last year we started to talk about the foundation of Mechanics – Statics and later on about the
transfer of the forces and their effect on the elements of the structure/machine. Our computation of
the forces was based on the Statics only and at the beginning we assumed that the forces exist on
the structure or are applied very slowly so they do not cause any dynamical effect on the structure.
This situation is far from real world since there is nothing stationary in the world. (Give me a fixed
point and I’ll turn the world. Archimedes 287 BC – 212 BC Greek mathematician, physicist )
Kinematics deals with the way things move. It is a study of the geometry of motion that
involves determination of position, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
This investigation is done without consideration of force system acting on an actuator.
Actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system.
Therefore the basic quantities in Kinematics are space and time as defined in Statics.
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Kinematics describes the motion of an object in the space considering the time dependency.
The motion is described by three kinematics quantities:
The position vector gives the position of a particular point in the space at the instant.
The time rate of change of the position vector describes the velocity of the point.
Acceleration – the time rate of change of the velocity
All quantities – position, velocity, and acceleration are vectors that can be characterized with
respect to:
Change of a scalar magnitude – uniform motion
Uniformly accelerated motion
Nonuniformly accelerated motion
Harmonic motion
Character of the trajectory  3D (motion in the space)
2D (planar motion)
The type of trajectory can be specified as: Rectilinear motion
Rotation
Universal planar motion
Spherical motion
Universal space motion
Complex motion
The set of independent coordinates in the space describes the position of a body as a time
function thus defines the motion of a body.
The number of independent coordinates corresponds to the degree of freedom of the object or
set of coupled bodies and it is expressed as the mobility of the object.
Mobility – the number of degrees of freedom possessed by the mechanism. The number of
independent coordinates (inputs) is required to precisely position all links of the mechanism with
respect to the reference frame/coordinate system.
For planar mechanism:
∑
− − =
DOF
j n i ) 1 ( 3
For space mechanism:
∑
− − =
DOF
j n i ) 1 ( 6
Kinematical diagram – is “stripped down” sketch of the mechanism (skeleton form where only
the dimensions that influence the motion of the mechanism are shown).
Particle – is a model body with very small/negligible physical dimensions compared to the
radius of its path curvature. The particle can have a mass associated with that does not play role in
kinematical analysis.
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How to find the degree of freedom?
1. Consider an unconstrained line moving in the space
The nonpenetrating condition between points
A, B
l const AB = = .
number of degrees of freedom for a line in 3D:
two points 2*3 = 6 DOF
nonpenetrating condition: l AB =
Thus 5 1 6 = − = i DOF
Conclusion: A free link AB has five degrees of
freedom when moving in the space.
2. Consider an unconstrained body in the space
How many points will describe position of a body?
Three points: 3*3 = 9 DOF
Nonpenetrating condition (assume rigid
body):
. const AB = ; . const AC = ; . const BC =
thus m = 3
and 6 3 3 * 3 = − = i DOF
Conclusion: A free solid body has six
degrees of freedom when moving in the space.
To be able to evaluate DOF the kinematical diagram of the mechanism has to be created.
Diagrams should be drawn to scale proportional to the actual mechanism in the given position.
The convention is to number links starting with the reference frame as number one while the joints
should be lettered.
The adopted strategy should consist of identifying on the real set of bodies:
the frame, the actuator, and all the other links
all joints
any points of interest
and draw the kinematical diagram according to the convention.
Once we evaluated the mobility (degrees of freedom) we can identify the corresponding set of
independent coordinates (parameters) and start the kinematical analysis of the mechanism
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proceeding through the subtask:
a) define the reference frame (basic space in which the motion will be described)
b) define the position of a point/particle with respect to the reference frame
c) describe the type of motion (constrained or unconstrained)
d) write the nonpenetrating conditions
e) define the independent coordinates
f) find the velocity and acceleration
Joint analysis:
A …. pin …. 2 dof
3(6 1) (5 2 3 1) i = − − ⋅ + ⋅
The kinematical analysis of the whole set of connected bodies can be done if we would be able
to describe the motion of each segment/body and then identify the kinematical quantities at the
point of interest in the required position or time.
Thus let’s start with the Kinematics of a Particle that is shown on the diagram as a point.
Foundation
Crate
Pulley
Pulley
Motor/Actuator
Link
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
A
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2 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE
The position vector r
A
describes the position of a
particle/point A, with respect to the reference frame (CS
x,y,z).
Character of a position vector depends on the arbitrary
coordinate system
At the instant the point A has a position
) ( ) ( t f t
A
= = r r
during the time interval ∆t the point moves to a new
position A
1
that can be described by a position vector r
A1
r r r ∆ + =
A A1
where: ∆r ....represents the position vector increment in time interval
∆s …represents the trajectory increment in time interval
The Distance represents the measure of the point instant position with respect to the origin.
Trajectory/path of the particular point is the loci of all instant positions of that point.
The unit vector of the trajectory:
τ ττ τ …unit vector in the tangent direction
ds
d
s
t
r r
τ =
∆
∆
=
→ ∆ 0
lim
then
( ) k j i k j i τ
ds
dz
ds
dy
ds
dx
z y x
ds
d
+ + = + + =
where
t
ds
dx
α cos =
;
t
ds
dy
β cos =
;
t
ds
dz
γ cos =
are the directional cosines of the tangent to the trajectory, and angles α
t
, β
t
, γ
t
are
the angles between axes x, y, z and the tangent vector τ ττ τ
n …unit vector in the normal direction to the trajectory has positive orientation
towards the centre of the trajectory curvature
ϑ ϑ d
d
t
τ τ
n =
∆
∆
=
→ ∆ 0
lim
taking into account the trajectory curvature radius R then
and
thus
ds
d
R
R
ds
d τ τ
n . = = . Substituting for τ ττ τ we get
k j i
r
n
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
ds
z d
R
ds
y d
R
ds
x d
R
ds
d
R + + = =
. ds R dϑ =
ds
d
R
ϑ =
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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where:
n
ds
x d
R α cos
2
2
= ;
n
ds
y d
R β cos
2
2
= ;
n
ds
z d
R γ cos
2
2
= are the directional cosines of the
normal to the trajectory, and
α
n
; β
n;
γ
n
are the angles between axes x, y, z and the normal
In case of 3D motion the trajectory is a 3D curve thus third unit vector in binormal direction has
to be defined:
b … unit vector in the binormal direction to the trajectory is oriented in a way that
the positive direction of binormal vector forms together with normal and tangent
right oriented perpendicular system.
n τ b × =
2.1 VELOCITY
Is the time rate of change of the positional vector.
The average velocity of change is defined as
t
avr
∆
∆
=
r
v
Our interest is to find an instant velocity, that represents the limit case of average velocity. The
time limit for computation of the instant velocity is approaching zero.
The instant velocity is define as: r
r r
v ɺ = =
∆
∆
=
→ ∆
dt
d
t
t 0
lim
What is the direction of the instant velocity?
A common sense or rather to say intuition suggests that the velocity has the tangent direction to
the trajectory. So let’s prove this statement mathematically:
v lim lim lim
0 0 0
⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ =
∆
∆
⋅
∆
∆
=
∆
∆
⋅
∆
∆
=
→ ∆ → ∆ → ∆
τ τ
r r r
v s
dt
ds
ds
d
t
s
s s
s
t
t t t
ɺ
since v lim
0
= =
∆
∆
=
→ ∆
dt
ds
t
s
s
t
ɺ
Having a positional vector defined as: k j i r z y x + + =
then the velocity can be described by its components, since:
( ) k j i k j i k j i
r
v
Z Y x
dt
dz
dt
dy
dt
dx
z y x
dt
d
dt
d
v v v + + = + + = + + = =
where v
x
, v
y
, v
z
are components of the velocity in the direction of the axes of coordinate system.
The magnitude/modulus of velocity:
2
z
2
y
2
v v + + =
x
v v
with directional cosines:
v
x
v
cos =
v
α ;
v
y
v
cos =
v
β ;
v
z
v
cos =
v
γ
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2.2 ACCELERATION
The acceleration of a change of position is the time rate of change of velocity.
To derive the expression for acceleration we need to draw velocity vector diagram so called
velocity hodograph.
Constructing hodograph
based on the knowledge of
path of a point and its
velocity in particular
position A and A
1
:
Let’s have arbitrary
point P through which both
velocities v
A,
and v
A1
will
pass. The end points of their
vectors are creating the desired curve hodograph.
Based on hodograph
v v v ∆ + =
A A1
The average acceleration is given as
t
a
avr
∆
∆
=
v
The instant acceleration is given as the limit value of average acceleration for time
interval
r v
v v
a ɺ ɺ ɺ = = =
∆
∆
=
→ ∆
dt
d
t
t 0
lim
The direction of acceleration can be found from
( )
dt
v
v v
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
τ
τ
τ
v
a + = ⋅ = =
Thus
dt
v
v
dt
v
v
dt
ds
dt
v
v
ds
ds
2
d
ds
d d
ds
d d
dt
d
τ
τ
τ
τ
τ
τ
a + ⋅ = + ⋅ ⋅ = + ⋅ ⋅ =
Since the direction of the normal is given as
ds
d
R
τ
n . = then we can substitute
ρ
n τ
=
ds
d
where
ρ represents the radius of the curvature at the instant. Therefore:
t n
s s
dt
d
a a τ n τ n a + = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ = ɺ ɺ ɺ
2
2
1 v v
ρ ρ
Where
ρ
2
v
⋅ = n a
n
is the
acceleration in normal direction,
and
s
t
ɺ ɺ ⋅ = τ a is the tangential
component of the acceleration.
0 t ∆ →
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The direction of normal acceleration is always oriented to the center of instant curvature of the
trajectory. The tangent component of acceleration captures the change of magnitude of a velocity
while the normal component captures the change of direction of a velocity.
The resultant acceleration forms an angle β with normal direction:
n
t
a
a
= β tan
Thus the acceleration expressed in the rectangular coordinate system would have form:
( )
x y z x y z
v v v a + a + a
d d
dt dt
= = + + =
v
a i j k i j k
( )
d
x y z x y z
dt
= + + = + + a i j k i j k ɺ ɺ ɺɺ ɺɺ ɺ ɺɺ
and the magnitude of acceleration:
2 2 2
x
a a a
z y
+ + = a
Orientation of the final acceleration is given by directional cosines:
a
x
a
cos
a
= α ;
a
y
a
cos
a
= β ;
a
z
a
cos
a
= γ
and at the same time 1 cos cos cos
2 2 2
= + + γ β α
Precise description of the motion of a particle is given by function capturing all kinematic
quantities ( ) 0 , , , , = t f
n t
a a v r
2.2.1 Classification of motion
Consider the motion of the particle along the straight line (in the direction of xaxis).
The tangential component of acceleration captures the change of velocity magnitude, thus it can
be used to distinguish motion as:
Uniform motion
Mathematical description: 0 =
t
a thus 0 = =
dt
dv
a
t
that implies . const v =
In case that the tangent takes the direction of axis x then . const v
x
= and equation
dt
dx
v
x
=
represents the simple differential
equation solved by separation of
variables
∫ ∫
=
x
x
t
x
dx dt v
0
0
, thus giving
the solution t v x x
x
⋅ + =
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time [s]
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
[
m
]
,
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
[
m
/
s
]
distance traveled
velocity
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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Uniformly accelerated/decelerated motion
Mathematical description: . const a
t
=
In case that the tangent takes the direction of axis x then . const a
x
= and
dt
dv
a
x
x
= thus
∫ ∫
=
v
v
x
t
x
dv dt a
0
0
leading to solution t a v v
x x
+ =
0
at the same time
dt
dx
v
x
= therefore ( )
∫ ∫
= +
x
x
t
x
dx dt t a v
0
0
0
that gives the solution:
2
0 0
2
1
t a t v x x
x
+ + =
The solution lead to an equation of trajectory of the point expressed as a function of time.
Nonuniformly accelerated motion
Mathematical description: kt a a a
x t
± = =
0
(the function could be define differently)
Thus
dt
dv
const a
x
x
= ≠ . therefore ( )
∫ ∫
= ±
v
v
x
t
dv dt kt a
0
0
0
with solution
2
0 0
2
1
kt t a v v
x
± + = since
dt
dx
v
x
= then
∫ ∫
= 
¹

\

± +
x
x
t
dx dt kt t a v
0
0
2
0 0
2
1
that gives the
trajectory equation
3 2
0 0 0
6
1
2
1
kt t a t v x x ± + + =
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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Motion with other changes of kinematic quantities
In this case the acceleration is given as a function of other quantities ( ) t v r f a , , =
2.3 ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATION
You can see very clearly that velocity and acceleration directly depend on the positional vector.
The positional vector form will vary according to the type of the coordinate system. Thus in
rectangular coordinate system ( z y x , , ) the kinematical quantities in vector form are:
k j i r
z y x
r r r + + = (positional vector)
( ) k j i k j i v
z y x z y x
r r r
dt
d
v v v + + = + + = (velocity)
( ) ( ) k j i k j i k j i a
z y x z y x z y x
r r r
dt
d
v v v
dt
d
a a a + + = + + = + + =
2
2
(acceleration)
Let the point A be attached to the moving
coordinate system
2 2 2
, , z y x with its origin
coinciding with fixed coordinate system
1 1 1
, , z y x ;
2 1
O O ≡
The vector form of a position of the point A in
CS1:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
k j i r
A
z
A
y
A
x
A
r r r + + =
and in CS2:
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
k j i r
A
z
A
y
A
x
A
r r r + + =
in matrix form:
A
A
z
y
x
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
1
1
1
1
r and
A
A
z
y
x
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
2
2
2
2
r ;
or [ ]
1 1 1 1
z y x
AT
= r and [ ]
2 2 2 2
z y x
AT
= r
To express the positional vector
A
2
r in CS1the vector has to be transformed. This process is
called Orthogonal Transformation of Vector Quantities
2.3.1 Orthogonal Transformation of Vector Quantities
The mathematical operation is using matrix form of a vector.
The CS1 is associated with basic frame/space that serves as a fixed reference frame that does
not move.
The moving point A is connected to the CS2, which moves with respect to the reference frame.
Thus position of the point A in CS1 is
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
k j i r
A A A A
z y x + + = and in CS2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
k j i r
A A A A
z y x + + =
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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How do we interpret positional vector r
2
A
in CS1?
The task is to project vector r
2
A
into CS1.
Thus projecting vector r
2
A
into the x
1
direction:
( )
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
i k j i i r ⋅ + + = ⋅ =
A A A A A
z y x x
where:
1 2 1
2
1
1
cos cos α α ⋅ = ⇒ = i i
i
i
2 2 1
2
1
2
cos cos α α ⋅ = ⇒ = j i
j
i
3 2 1
2
1
3
cos cos α α ⋅ = ⇒ = k i
k
i
Thus
3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
cos cos cos α α α k k j j i i i k i j i i
A A A A A A A
z y x z y x x + + = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
( )
3 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
cos cos cos α α α
A A A A A A A A
z y x z y x x + + = ⋅ + + = ⋅ = i k j i i r
( )
3 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
cos cos cos β β β
A A A A A A A A
z y x z y x y + + = ⋅ + + = ⋅ = j k j i j r
( )
3 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
cos cos cos γ γ γ
A A A A A A A A
z y x z y x z + + = ⋅ + + = ⋅ = k k j i k r
rewriting these three equations in matrix form will give
⇒
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A A
z
y
x
z
y
x
2
2
2
3 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
1
1
1
cos cos 1 cos
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
γ γ γ
β β β
α α α
A A
2 21 1
r C r ⋅ =
where
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
21
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
γ γ γ
β β β
α α α
C
Analogically transformation from CS1 into CS2 gives:
A A
1 12 2
r C r ⋅ =
where
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
= =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
21 12
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
γ β α
γ β α
γ β α
T
C C
and
I C C = ⋅
T
21 21
The planar motion is special case when at any time of
the motion
ϕ α =
1
;
ϕ
π
α + =
2
2
;
2
3
π
α =
ϕ
π
β + =
2
3
1
;
ϕ β =
2
;
2
3
π
β =
1 2
z z ≡
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
2
1
π
γ =
;
2
2
π
γ =
;
0
3
= γ
and
(
¸
(
¸
−
≡
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
=
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
cos sin
sin cos
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
21
C
Once the positional vector is expressed in matrix form and the orthogonal transformation is
used then the velocity and acceleration can be expressed in the same form.
2.3.2 Velocity in matrix form using the orthogonal transformation
Velocity is the first derivative of the positional vector
( )
A A A A A
dt
d
2 21 2 21 2 21 1 1
r C r C r C r v ɺ
ɺ
ɺ + = = =
If the point A does not change its position with respect to the origin CS2 then r
2
A
=const. and
therefore 0
2
=
A
rɺ and
A A
2 21 1
r C v ⋅ =
ɺ
2.3.3 Acceleration in matrix form using the orthogonal transformation
Acceleration is the first derivative of the velocity and a second derivative of the positional
vector, thus
A A A A A A A
2 21 2 21 2 21 2 21 1 1 1
r C r C r C r C r v a ɺ ɺ ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = = =
If the point A does not change its position with respect to origin CS2 then r
2
A
=const. and
therefore 0
2
=
A
rɺ and 0
2
=
A
rɺ ɺ thus giving
A A
2 21 1
r C a ⋅ =
ɺ ɺ
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
2.4 PARTICLE IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM  z r , ,ϕ
2.4.1 The position vector
in CS2
2 2 2
A
z ρ = ⋅ + ⋅ r i k
In matrix form
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
z
A
0
2
ρ
r
Thus
A A
2 21 1
r C r ⋅ =
and since
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
=
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
21
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
C
A A
2 21 1
r C r ⋅ =
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
z
0
ρ
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
2
sin
cos
z
ϕ ρ
ϕ ρ
in vector form:
1 1 1 1
cos sin
A
z ρ ϕ ρ ϕ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ r i j k
2.4.2 The velocity
Expressed in vector form ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A
d d
z z z
dt dt
ρ ρ ρ = = ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
r
v i k i i k k
ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ
where unit vector k
2
remains constant (magnitude as well as direction does not change with
time), therefore 0
2
= k
ɺ
The unit vector i
2
rotates in the plane x, y around the origin thus the velocity is given as
2
2
2 2
k
i
i v
dt
dz
dt
d
dt
d
A
+ + = ρ
ρ
where
ω
ϕ
⋅ = × = × =
2 2 2
2
j i ω i
i
z
dt
d
dt
d
represents the transverse vector perpendicular to unit vector i
2
.
Thus the velocity
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A
d d dz
z
dt dt dt
ρ ϕ
ρ ρ ϕ ρ = + + = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ v i j k i j k ɺ ɺ ɺ
Where
2 ρ
ρ ⋅ = i v ɺ represents the radial component of velocity
2 t
ϕ ρ ⋅ ⋅ = j v ɺ represents the transverse component of velocity
2 z
z ⋅ = k v ɺ represents the zcomponent of velocity
in matrix form: the transpose velocity in CS2 [ ] z
T
ɺ ɺ ɺ ϕ ρ ρ =
2
v
in CS1
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
−
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
= ⋅ =
z z
A A
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ϕ ρω ϕ ρ
ϕ ρω ϕ ρ
ϕ ρ
ρ
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
cos sin
sin cos
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
2 21 1
v C v
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
2.4.3 The acceleration
in vector form
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A
d d d
z z
dt dt dt
ρ ρ ρ ρ ϕ = = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
v
a i i k i j k
ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ ɺ ɺ
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A
z ρ ρ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ a i i j j j k
ɺ ɺ
ɺɺ ɺ ɺ ɺ ɺɺ ɺ ɺɺ
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A
z ρ ρ ω ρ ω ρ α ρ ω = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ a i j j j j k
ɺ
ɺɺ ɺ ɺ ɺɺ
where: ω ⋅ − = × =
2 2
2
i j ω
j
z
dt
d
Thus giving acceleration
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
A
z ρ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ ρ ω = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ a i j j i k ɺɺ ɺ ɺ ɺɺ ɺɺ
2
2 2 2 2
( ) ( 2 )
A
z ρ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ a i j k ɺɺ ɺ ɺɺ ɺ ɺ ɺɺ
where
ρ
ϕ ρ ρ a = − ) (
2
ɺ ɺ ɺ
represents the radial acceleration
p
a = + ) 2 ( ϕ ρ ϕ ρ ɺ ɺ ɺ ɺ
represents the transverse acceleration
z
a z = ɺ ɺ
represents the acceleration in the zaxis direction
in matrix form:
2
2
2
AT
z ρ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ
(
= − ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
¸ ¸
a ɺɺ ɺ ɺɺ ɺ ɺ ɺɺ
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
−
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
= =
z
A A
ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ
ϕ ρ ϕ ρ
ϕ ρ ρ
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
2
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
2
2 21 1
a C a
In this presentation we associated angle ϕ with angular vector coordinate
1 2
ϕ ϕ ϕ = ⋅ = ⋅ k k
thus angular velocity
1 1
ϕ ϕ ω = ⋅ = ⋅ = k k ω ɺ ɺ
and angular acceleration
1 1
ϕ ϕ ω = ⋅ = ⋅ = k k α ɺɺ ɺɺ ɺ
2.4.4 Special cases
a) z=0 , ρ = ρ = ρ = ρ = const., ϕ ( , ϕ ( , ϕ ( , ϕ (t)
The particle (the point A) is restricted to the plane
x,y only and moves in a way that the trajectory of the
point A is a circle in the plane x,y.
The velocity and acceleration expressed in general
coordinates in the previous paragraph is:
2 2 2 2
A
z ρ ϕ ρ = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ v i j k ɺ ɺ ɺ
2
2 2 2 2
( ) ( 2 )
A
z ρ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ ρ ϕ = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ a i j k ɺɺ ɺ ɺɺ ɺ ɺ ɺɺ
Thus for our particular case in CS2:
2 2
A
ϕ ρ = ⋅ ⋅ v j ɺ
in CS1:
1 1 1
sin cos
A
ρ ϕ ϕ ϕ ρ ϕ = − ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ v i j ɺ ɺ
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
and acceleration in CS2:
2
2 2 2
A
ρ ϕ ρ ϕ = − ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ a i j ɺ ɺɺ
where
2
2 2
A
n
ρ ϕ = − ⋅ a i ɺ
represents the normal acceleration oriented always towards the
centre of curvature of the trajectory
2 2
A
τ
ρ ϕ = ⋅ ⋅ a j ɺɺ
represents the tangential component of an acceleration
in CS1:
2 2
1 1 1
( cos sin ) ( cos sin )
A
ρ ϕ ϕ ρ ϕ ϕ ρ ϕ ϕ ρ ϕ ϕ = − ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ a i j ɺ ɺɺ ɺɺ ɺ
where
2
cos
nx
a ρ ϕ ϕ − ⋅ = ɺ is the xcomponent of the normal acceleration in CS1
sin
x
a
τ
ρ ϕ ϕ − ⋅ = ɺɺ is the xcomponent of the tangential acceleration in CS1
cos
y
a
τ
ρ ϕ ϕ ⋅ = ɺɺ is the ycomponent of the tangential acceleration in CS1
2
sin
ny
a ρ ϕ ϕ − ⋅ = ɺ is the ycomponent of the normal acceleration in CS1
b) z=0 , ρ( ρ( ρ( ρ(t), ϕ( ϕ( ϕ( ϕ(t)
The particle (point) moves in the plane x,y and description of the problem uses polar
coordinates (ρ,ϕ)
2.5 PARTICLE TRAJECTORY
The motion could be classified with respect to the trajectory as:
2.5.1 Rectilinear motion
The position of a point is described as a function of curvilinear coordinates s : r = r(s)
where
d
ds
=
r
τ
and
2
1 = τ
The necessary condition for rectilinear motion is
given as: τ ττ τ = const.
The velocity is given as:
s
dt
ds
ds
d
ds
ds
dt
d
dt
d
ɺ ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = = τ
r r r
v
and acceleration: ( )
d d
s s
dt dt
= = ⋅ = ⋅
v
a τ τ ɺ ɺɺ
If: . const s = ɺ therefore 0 = sɺ ɺ …uniform rectilinear motion
. const s ≠ ɺ thus 0 ≠ sɺ ɺ …..accelerated rectilinear motion
for . const s = ɺ ɺ then uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion
for . const s ≠ ɺ ɺ then nonuniformly accelerated rectilinear motion
20
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
2.5.2 Curvilinear motion
In case of curvilinear motion r = r(s) and s = s(t)
and velocity is expressed as:
s
dt
ds
ds
d
ds
ds
dt
d
dt
d
ɺ ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = = τ
r r r
v
Where
2
1 = τ
as well as τ ττ τ
. const ≠
since the unit vector
changes its direction
The acceleration is:
2
1
( )
n
d d
s s s
dt dt
τ
ρ
= = ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ = +
v
a τ τ n a a ɺ ɺɺ ɺ
In case that:
a) . const s = ɺ then 0 = sɺ ɺ
therefore
n
s a n a = =
2
1
ɺ
ρ
and the point moves along the circular trajectory with uniform
velocity .
b) . const s ≠ ɺ then 0 ≠ sɺ ɺ and motion is nonuniformly accelerated or
. const s = ɺ ɺ where
ρ
2
s
s
ɺ
ɺ ɺ n τ a + = motion is uniformly accelerated
2.6 HARMONIC MOTION
The motion of a point (particle) that is described by equation sin( ) x A t ω ϕ = ⋅ +
where A represents the amplitude (max. deviation from neutral position) [m]
ω represents the angular frequency [s
1
]
ϕ represents the phase shift [rad]
x represents the instant distance of the particle
is called the harmonic motion
Velocity is in this case is given as: v cos( )
dx
A t
dt
ω ω ϕ = = ⋅ ⋅ + and
Acceleration is given by:
2
v
a sin( )
d
A t
dt
ω ω ϕ = = − ⋅ ⋅ +
For the initial condition: t = 0, x = x
0
, v = v
0
, a = a
0
the kinematical quantities are:
ϕ sin
0
A x =
;
ϕ ωcos v
0
A =
;
ϕ ω sin a
2
0
A − =
21
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Graphical interpretation of harmonic motion can be represented as the rectification of all
kinematical quantities in time
Where T represents the period
ω
π 2
= T [s] thus frequency
T
f
1
= [Hz]
Amplitude of the motion can be expressed from ϕ sin
0
A x = and
ϕ ω cos v
0
A =
2
2
0 2
0
v
ω
+ = x A
and
0
0
v cos
sin
tan
ω
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
x
= =
Thus the kinematical quantities can be expressed as function of rotating vector r
x,
r
v
, r
a
Where r
x
 = A;
r
v
 = Aω;
r
a
 = Aω
2
harmonic motion harmonic motion harmonic motion harmonic motion
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
81
1
.
2
1
.
4
1
.
6
1
.
82
2
.
2
2
.
4
2
.
6
2
.
83
3
.
2
3
.
4
3
.
6
3
.
84
time
x, v, a
distamce x [m]
instant vlocity v [m/s]
instant accel. [m/s^2]
ωT = 2π
22
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
2.6.1 Composition of harmonic motions in the same direction
a) If ω
1
= ω
2
= … = ω
n
= ω then
) (
1 1 1 1
1
) sin(
ϕ ω
ϕ ω
+
= + =
t i
e A t A x
) (
2 2 2 2
2
) sin(
ϕ ω
ϕ ω
+
= + =
t i
e A t A x
.
.
) (
) sin(
n
t i
n n n n
e A t A x
ϕ ω
ϕ ω
+
= + =
The resulting motion is again harmonic motion described as:
( )
1 1 1 1
sin( )
j j j
n n n n
i t i i
i t i t
j j j j j j
j j j j
x x A t A e A e e e A e
ω ϕ ϕ ϕ
ω ω
ω ϕ
⋅ +
= = = =
= = ⋅ + = = ⋅ =
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
thus
( )
v
i t
v
x A e
ω ϕ ⋅ +
=
substituting for t = 0 we get :
v
i
v
e A x
ϕ
=
from where we get the final amplitude and phase shift
2
1
2
1
) sin ( ) cos (
∑ ∑
= =
+ =
n
j
j j
n
j
j j v
A A A ϕ ϕ
and
∑
∑
=
=
=
n
j
j j
n
j
j j
v
A
A
1
1
cos
sin
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
b) If ω
1
≠ ω
2
≠ .... ≠ ω
n
then each motion is described by its own equation
1 1
( )
1 1 1 1 1
sin( )
i t
x A t Ae
ω ϕ
ω ϕ
⋅ +
= ⋅ + =
2 2
( )
2 2 2 2 2
sin( )
i t
x A t A e
ω ϕ
ω ϕ
⋅ +
= ⋅ + =
( )
sin( )
n n
i t
n n n n n
x A t A e
ω ϕ
ω ϕ
⋅ +
= ⋅ + =
and the final motion is described by equation:
∑ ∑ ∑
=
+
= =
= + = =
n
j
t i
j
n
j
n
j
j j j j
j j
e A t A x x
1
) (
1 1
) sin(
ϕ ω
ϕ ω
The final motion composed from harmonic motions with different angular frequencies is not a
harmonic motion, since the resulting amplitude is not constant.
In case that
T
n
1
1
2π
ω = and
T
n
2
2
2π
ω = and at the same time the ratio
2
1
2
1
n
n
=
ω
ω
is a rational
number the resulting motion is said to be periodic motion.
23
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
2.6.2 Composition of two perpendicular harmonic motions
The motion of two particles moving in two perpendicular directions is defined by
equations:
) (
1 1 1 1
1 1
) sin(
ϕ ω
ϕ ω
+
= + =
t i
e A t A x and
) (
2 2 2 2
2 2
) sin(
ϕ ω
ϕ ω
+
= + =
t i
e A t A y
These equations define curves known as Lissajous picture.
The solution is quite demanding and beyond our scope.
The relatively simple solutions exists for special cases, when ω
1
= ω
2
and assumption A
1
= A
2
leading to equation of ellipse on conjugate axes.
2.7 MOTION OF A SET OF PARTICLES
Set of particles can be either connected set or particles
or number of two or more unconnected particles moving in
the same reference system.
Thus the relationship between particles has to be taken
into consideration. Let’s take the case of particle A and B
as shown on diagram:
Both particles are connected via inextensible cable
carried over the pulleys. This imposes nonpenetrable
condition between them:
( ) 2
A B
l s h h s = + + −
The additional length of the cable between the upper
datum and the ceiling as well as the portion of the cable
embracing the pulleys will remain constant during the
motion thus does not play any role in the kinematical
description.
Investigating mobility of the set of particles would define the number of independent
coordinates that in our case is 1 i =
The path of a particle A is not identical with path of the particle B and the relation
between them has to be described based on the joints involved. Thus except of the no
penetration condition the support at A has to be taken into consideration as well as the supports
for the pulleys and body B.
Having the basic condition of the inextensible length we can evaluate the relation
between velocities of the particle A and B as a time derivative of the l. Thus
0 2
A B
v v = + ⋅
Then we can conclude that for motion of the particle A in positive direction (away from the datum
in the direction of s
A
) the particle B will move upwards with velocity
2
A
B
v
v = .
24
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
3 SOLID BODY MOTION
As we announced before the model body adopted in kinematics is again nondeformable,
therefore the distance between two points A, B on a solid body will follow the rule mathematically
expressed as: . const AB =
3.1 TRANSLATION MOTION OF A SOLID BODY
The position and
trajectory of two points
A, B is investigated.
If two moving points
will draw their
trajectory in two
parallel planes, thus
their trajectories are
parallel curves. The
change of position from
point A to A’ and B to
B’ is described by
vectors p that are
parallel. The advance
motion is rectilinear
(solid line) if vector p is
a straight line and curvilinear if it is a curve (dotted line).
The change of position of the point A is p r r + =
A
A
'
of the point B
p r r + =
B
B
'
Thus
B
B
A
A
' '
r r r r − = − or rearranged
' '
A B
A B
r r r r − = −
Expressing vectors r
B
and r
B
’with respect to the reference point A/A’ we can prove previous
statement about parallel vectors r
BA
= r
B’A’
= const.
3.1.1 Investigating kinematic quantities
Position
Point A is the reference point attached to the body associated
with moving CS2 (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
). Position of a point B is given as
BA
1
A
1 1
r r r + =
B
and
3 2 2 2 1 2 1
cos cos cos α α α
BA BA BA BA
z y x + + = r
25
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
thus the position of the point B in CS1 is
3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
cos cos cos α α α
BA BA BA A B
z y x x x + + + =
3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
cos cos cos β β β
BA BA BA A B
z y x y y + + + =
3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
cos cos cos γ γ γ
BA BA BA A B
z y x z z + + + =
or in matrix form
BA A B
2 21 1 1
r C r r ⋅ + =
Transformation matrix C
21
contains the cosines of all angles among axes of coordinate system.
Since all vectors remain parallel vectors the angles between particular axes are constant. Therefore
.
21
const = C
Velocity
In vector form the velocity of point B is given as:
A BA A
B
B
dt
d
dt
d
1 1 1
BA
1
A
1
1
1
) ( v v v r r
r
v = + = + = = since the r
1
BA
= const.
In matrix form :
BA BA A B B
2 21 2 21 1 1 1
r C r C r r v ɺ
ɺ
ɺ ɺ ⋅ + ⋅ + = =
and
0
21
= C
ɺ
since
.
21
const = C
Thus the final matrix form is:
A A B B
1 1 1 1
v r r v = = = ɺ ɺ
Acceleration
In vector form the acceleration of point B is given as:
A A
B
B
dt
d
dt
d
1 1
BA
1
A
1
1
1
) ( a v v v
v
a = = + = = ɺ since v
1
BA
= 0
In matrix form :
A A B B B
1 1 1 1 1
a v v r a = = = = ɺ ɺ ɺ
3.2 ROTATION OF A SOLID BODY AROUND FIXED AXIS
If two points of a moving solid body are stationary then
0 v v
2 1
O
= =
O
then the solid body rotates around axis that passes through these points O
1
and O
2
.
The positional vectors describe their position in CS1 by
r
O1
= const., r
O2
= const.
26
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Any point on the line specified by points O
1
and O
2
can be described as
1 2 1 3
O O O O
r r r λ + =
and the velocity of point O
3
is obtained by the first
derivative of its position, thus
0
3 3
= =
O O
v r
Conclusion: There are infinity of points, laying on
the line specified by points O1 and O2, which have a
zero velocity.
The loci of all points that have a zero velocity is
called the axis of rotation.
The path of a point A that lays in the plane (x,z)
rotating around the axis z, is a circle with radius ρ, which
corresponds to the projection of the position vector r
A
into
the x,y plane.
The instant position of a point A depends on the instant
angle of rotation ϕ = ϕ(t)
further on we assign to this angular coordinate a vector
quantity that follows the right hand rule.
The angular velocity that describes the rate of change of angular coordinate is expressed as
the average value of angular velocity:
t
aver
∆
∆
=
ϕ
ω
The instant angular velocity is given as: ω = =
∆
∆
→ ∆
dt
d
t
t
ϕ ϕ
0
lim thus ϕ ϕ
ϕ
ɺ ɺ e ω = =
In the same way we can express the angular acceleration.
The average acceleration is given as :
t
aver
∆
∆
=
ω
α and
Instant acceleration is α
ω ω
= =
∆
∆
→ ∆
dt
d
t
t 0
lim
thus ϕ
ϕ
ɺ ɺ ɺ e ω α = =
If the solid body rotates around fixed axis then
all point of the body have the same angular velocity
and acceleration.
3.2.1 Finding the velocity of an
arbitrary point
The point B is attached to the rotating solid body
Then the position of a point B in CS2 is given as
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
k j i r
B B B B
z y x + + =
27
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
or with respect to the point O
’
around which the point B rotates with radius ρ
ρ r r + =
'
2 2
O B
Point B moves on the circular trajectory in time ∆t →0 a distance
β ϕ ρ ϕ sin ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
B
r d d dr
in vector form:
ρ r r × = × = ϕ ϕ d d d
B
since vectors r and ρ ρρ ρ lay in the same plane and together with vector ϕ ϕϕ ϕ form the plane to which
the path increment dr is orthogonal (perpendicular).
Thus the velocity of the point B is
ρ ω r ω ρ r
r
v × = × = × = × = =
B B B
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d ϕ ϕ
the module of velocity: ρ ω β ω ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = sin
B B
r v
or in vector from:
( ) ( ) ( )
x y y x z x x z y z z y
z y x
z y x B B
r r r r r r
r r r
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω − + − + − = = × = k j i
k j i
r ω v
then
z y x B
v v v k j i v + + = with module
2 2 2
z y x B
v v v + + = v
The orientation of the linear velocity is given by right hand rule: Grabbing the axis of
rotation with our right hand in a way that the thumb points in the direction of angular velocity
then fingers would show the direction of velocity of the particular point of a body.
If the position of the point B is expressed in matrix form
B B
2 21 1
r C r ⋅ =
then the velocity is the first derivative of position, thus
( )
B B B B B
dt
d
2 21 2 21 2 21 1 1
r C r C r C r v ɺ
ɺ
ɺ + = = =
Since the point B is attached to and rotates with CS2 then
2
const.
B
= r and its first derivative is equal to zero.
The velocity of the point B is given as
B B B B
2 21 1 2 21 1 1
r C Ω r C r v ⋅ ⋅ = = =
ɺ
ɺ
The first derivative of transformation matrix
and finally
3.2.2 Finding the acceleration of an arbitrary point B
In vector form: ( )
B B B B B
dt
d
v ω r α r ω v a × + × = × = = ɺ
and simultaneously
B B B
2 2 21 2 21 1 1
r Ω C r C Ω v ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =
( )
B B
dt
d
v ω ρ α ρ ω a × + × = × =
21 1 21 21 2
= = ⋅ C Ω C C Ω
ɺ
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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Since the point B moves on the circular path the acceleration will have two components
Tangential component
( ) ( ) ( )
x y y x z x x z y z z y
z y x
z y x B B
r r r r r r
r r r
α α α α α α α α α
τ
− + − + − = = × = × = k j i
k j i
r α ρ α a
and normal acceleration
( ) ( ) ( )
x y y x z x x z y z z y
z y x
z y x B
n
B
v v v v v v
v v v
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω − + − + − = = × = k j i
k j i
v ω a
Their modules are:
2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) (
τ τ τ τ
z y x B
a a a + + = a
or
αρ β α
τ
= = sin
B B
r a
and
2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) (
n
z
n
y
n
x
n
B
a a a + + = a
or
ρ
ω ρ ω ω
2
2 2 B
B B
n
B
v
r v = = = = a
In matrix form:
which leads to
then the second derivative of transformation matrix is:
21 1 21 1 21
2
21 1 21 1 1 21 1 21 1 21
2
21 1 21 1 21
= +
= + = +
= +
C Ω C Ω C
C Ω C Ω Ω C Ω C Ω C
C A C Ω C
ɺɺ ɺ ɺ
ɺɺ ɺ ɺ
ɺɺ
Thus the acceleration of the point B is
B B B B
1
2
1 1 2 21
2
1 1 2 21
2
1 21 1 1
) ( ) ( ) ( r Ω A r C Ω A r C Ω C A a + = + = + =
where the first component represents the tangential acceleration
ρ A r A r C A a
1 1 1 2 21 1 1
= = =
B B B
τ
where
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
−
=
0
0
0
x y
x z
y z
A
α α
α α
α α
and the second component represents the normal acceleration
B B B
n
B
1 1 1
2
1 2 21
2
1 1
v Ω r Ω r C Ω a = = =
The course of motion is recorded by the tangential acceleration ρ α α
τ
⋅ =
where ω
ω
α ɺ = =
dt
d
B B B B B B
2 21 2 21 2 21 1 1 1
2 r C r C r C r v a ɺ ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = = =
B B B B
2 21 1 1 1
r C r v a ⋅ = = =
ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ ɺ
29
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
There could be two situations:
a) . const = ω ⇒ 0 = α
Thus 0 =
τ
a and
ρ
ω ρ
2
2
v
= ⋅ =
n
a
These characteristics represent uniform motion of the particle on the circle and the
acceleration that occurs is the normal acceleration.
b) . const ≠ ω ⇒ 0 ≠ α
In this case the angular acceleration α can become:
i) . const = α thus . const = ⋅ = ρ α α
τ
(assuming ρ = const.)
These characteristics represent uniformly accelerated motion on the circular path
– uniformly accelerated rotation.
ii) . const ≠ α thus . const ≠ ⋅ ≠ ρ α α
τ
These characteristics represent nonuniformly accelerated motion on the circle,
nonuniformly accelerated rotation.
In both cases the normal acceleration will occur.
ρ
ω ρ
2
2
v
= ⋅ =
n
a
3.2.3 Solid body kinematics consequences (the geometrical dependency)
Providing the graphical solution for kinematic quantities, we need to record velocity and
acceleration in a graphical form. For this purpose the length and velocity scale has to be given,
while the remaining scales are calculated.
Where l
ρ
B
represents the length of
the radius vector ρ
l
s
l
ρ
ρ
= thus
ρ
ρ l s
l
⋅ =
and velocity
v v
l s v ⋅ =
Therefore the angle α
v
is given as
v
v
l v
v
k
s
s v
l
l
⋅ = ⋅ = = ω
ρ
α
ρ
tan
where k
v
is a velocity scale constant.
Since all points on the body have the same angular velocity ω we can conclude  Sentence
about velocities:
All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the
fixed point of rotation (v=0) under the same angle fixed point of rotation (v=0) under the same angle fixed point of rotation (v=0) under the same angle fixed point of rotation (v=0) under the same angle α αα αv vv v at the insta at the insta at the insta at the instant moment. nt moment. nt moment. nt moment.
30
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Acceleration – the graphical solution
A tangential and normal components of acceleration has to be recorded
The normal component of acceleration:
ρ
ω ρ
2
2
v
= ⋅ =
n
a thus from Euclid’s law about the height in the triangle follows
the graphical construction of normal acceleration.
The acceleration scale has to be calculated!!
Therefore
n
a a
l
v v
n
l s
l s
l s
a ⋅ =
⋅
⋅
=
ρ
2 2
where
ρ
l
l
l
v
a
n
2
= and
l
v
a
s
s
s
2
=
The tangential component of acceleration: ρ α α
τ
⋅ =
The direction of tangential
component corresponds to the
direction of velocity hence further
analogy with velocity is obvious.
τ
τ
τ
α
ρ
α
τ
ρ
a
a
l
a
a
k
s
s a
l
l
⋅ = ⋅ = = tan
where k
a
τ
is a tangential
acceleration scale constant.
Since all points on the body
have the same angular acceleration
α we can conclude:
Sentence about tangential acceleration:
All arrowheads of tangential acceleration vectors, at the points on the rotating body, are at the All arrowheads of tangential acceleration vectors, at the points on the rotating body, are at the All arrowheads of tangential acceleration vectors, at the points on the rotating body, are at the All arrowheads of tangential acceleration vectors, at the points on the rotating body, are at the
instant visible under the same angle instant visible under the same angle instant visible under the same angle instant visible under the same angle α αα αa aa a
τ ττ τ
from the fixed point of rotation (v=0). from the fixed point of rotation (v=0). from the fixed point of rotation (v=0). from the fixed point of rotation (v=0).
The total acceleration is given as a sum of its components
n τ
= + a a a
a
n
k
a
a
= = = =
2 2
tan
ω
α
ρ ω
αρ
β
τ
where k
a
represents the scale constant of total acceleration.
Since α and ω are constant for all points on the body we conclude:
The total acceleration of the point on the rotating solid body makes an angle β from its normal
to the trajectory that remains constant for all points on the body.
And finally we can finalise based on the background:
2 1
tan
ω
α
α
ρ
τ
−
=
−
=
−
l a
a
a
a
m m l l
l
n
together with the angular kinematic quantities α, ω that are the same for all points of the body:
All arrowheads of total acceleration vectors of all points on the rotating body, are at the All arrowheads of total acceleration vectors of all points on the rotating body, are at the All arrowheads of total acceleration vectors of all points on the rotating body, are at the All arrowheads of total acceleration vectors of all points on the rotating body, are at the
instant visible under the same angle instant visible under the same angle instant visible under the same angle instant visible under the same angle α αα αa aa a from the fixed point from the fixed point from the fixed point from the fixed point of rotation (v=0). of rotation (v=0). of rotation (v=0). of rotation (v=0).
31
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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3.3 UNIVERSAL PLANAR MOTION
If all points of a body move in planes parallel to the fixed (stationary) basic plane then we say
that the body moves in planar motion.
If the trajectories of all points that lay on the line perpendicular to that plane are planar curves
then the motion is a universal planar motion.
The initial position of
the body is described via
points A, B. A positional
vector for point B using a
reference point A
describes the initial
position of a body:
BA A B
r r r + =
During the time interval
t their position changes to
a new location A
1
and B
1
thus
1 1 1 1
A B A B
r r r + =
As seen on the diagram
1 1
A B BA
r r ≠
but
1 1
A B BA
r r =
, which
means that the vector changes its orientation but not its magnitude.
Therefore we can imagine the universal planar motion as a sequence of translation motion
followed by rotation that could be expressed in a short way as: GPM = TM + RM
Note: Both motion are happening in the same time and this approach is just imaginary.
3.3.1 The position
of the point B can be expressed in vector or matrix form:
BA
1
A
1 1
r r r + =
B
with use of transformation matrix C
21
:
BA A B
2 21 1 1
r C r r ⋅ + =
that leads to two equations in vector form:
ϕ ϕ sin cos
2 2 1 1
BA BA A B
y x x x − + =
ϕ ϕ cos sin
2 2 1 1
BA BA A B
y x y y + + =
or in matrix form:
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
B
B
B
z
y
x
z
y
x
1
1
1
1
1
1
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
BA
BA
BA
z
y
x
2
2
2
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
3.3.2 The velocity
of a point B can be expressed:
in vector form: ( )
BA A BA A B
dt
d
1 1 1 1 1
v v r r v + = + =
thus
BA A B
1 1 1
r ω v v × + =
or in matrix form:
BA A BA A B
2 21 1 1 1 1
r C v v v v
ɺ
+ = + =
BA A BA A B
1 1 1 2 21 1 1 1
r Ω v r C Ω v v + = + =
There is a rotation of the point B with respect to the point A thus we say that there is a
relative motion of the point B around point A.
Thus
BA BA
1 1
r ω v × =
where ω represents the angular velocity of a relative motion with respect to the point A.
The relative angular velocity is constant for all points of the body thus:
. const
A C
v
A B
v
CA BA
= = = ω
Then we can get the components of velocity:
1 1 1
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
BA
BA
A
y
A
x
B
y
B
x
y
x
v
v
v
v
ω
ω
Graphical solution:
The velocity of a point A is known, thus we need to find the velocity at the point B based on the
vector equation:
BA A B
1 1 1
r ω v v × + =
33
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
3.3.3 The pole of motion
If 0 ≠ ω then there exists just one point on the body that has zero velocity at the instant and
belongs to the moving body (or the plane attached to the moving body). This point is known as
the instantaneous centre of rotation or the pole of motion.
The position of a pole P is given as:
PA A P
1 1 1
r r r + =
in matrix form:
PA A PA A P
2 21 1 1 1 1
r C r r r r
ɺ
+ = + =
Then the velocity of the pole is:
since the linear velocity at this location is zero, then
1 1 1 1
0
A PA PA A
= + → = − v v v v
For arbitrary reference point we would get similar
answer:
B PB PB B
1 1 1 1
0 v v v v − = → + =
To find a position of the pole of a body moving with
GPM we have to multiply the velocity equation by the
angular velocity
Thus ) ( 0
1 1
PA A
r ω ω v ω × × + × =
Rearranging the equation into a form )] ( ) ( [ 0
1 1 1
ω ω r r ω ω v ω ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ + × =
PA PA A
while equating 0
1
= ⋅
PA
r ω and
2
ω = ⋅ ω ω
we get ) ( 0
1
2
1
PA A
r v ω ω − + × =
from where we equate the pole positional vector
[ ] ) ( ) (
1
0
0 0
1 v
1 1
2
1 1 1
2 2
1
2
1
1
A
x
A
y
A
y
A
x
A A
PA
v v
v v
ω ω
ω
ω
ω ω ω
j i
k j i
τ ω v ω
r + − =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
×
=
×
=
PA A P
1 1 1
v v v + =
34
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Graphical solution:
Based on
A PA
1 1
v v − =
and
B PB
1 1
v v − =
The velocity v
A
is known and
velocity at the point B is
BA A B
1 1 1
v v v + =
thus if we know the velocity we
know the direction of a normal to
the trajectory.
The pole of motion is at the
intersection of normal n
A
and n
B
.
Finding the velocity by means of the pole
Position of a point B
BP P B
1 1 1
r r r + =
or
BP P B
2 21 1 1
r C r r + =
Then the velocity is:
BP P B
2 21 1 1 1
r C Ω v v + =
Since the velocity of the pole is zero we get
BP B
2 21 1 1
r C Ω v =
in matrix form
that would result in
BP
y
1
B
1x
v ω − =
and
BP
x
1
B
1y
v ω =
Thus giving the final velocity
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
BP
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
B
1y
2
B
1x 1
r v v ω ω ω ω = + = + − = + =
BP BP BP BP B
x y x y v
Then the angular velocity is
BP
1
B
1
r
v
= ω
From this result follows the interpretation for graphical solution:
v v
r
l
v v
k
l s
l s
BP
α ω tan
r
v
BP
1
B
1
⋅ =
⋅
⋅
= =
thus giving
ω α
v
v
k
1
tan =
1
1 2
0 0 cos sin 0
0 0 sin cos 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
B BP
x
B BP
y
v x
v y
ω ϕ ϕ
ω ϕ ϕ
( ( − − ( (
( (
( (
=
( (
( (
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
35
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Conclusion:
All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the All arrowheads of velocity vectors, for particular points of a rotating body, are visible from the
instantaneous centre of rot instantaneous centre of rot instantaneous centre of rot instantaneous centre of rotation (v ation (v ation (v ation (v
P PP P
=0) under the same angle =0) under the same angle =0) under the same angle =0) under the same angle α αα αv vv v at the instant moment. at the instant moment. at the instant moment. at the instant moment.
3.3.4 Finding the acceleration
Analytically
We have already found the positional vector
r
1
B
and velocity v
1
B
BA
1
A
1 1
r r r + =
B
BA A B
1 1 1
v v v + =
where the velocity v
1
BA
represents the relative
motion of the point B around the point A that can
be expressed as
BA BA
1 1
r ω v × =
in vector form or
BA BA BA
1 1 2 21 1 1
r Ω r C Ω v = =
in matrix form.
Since we proved that v r a ɺ ɺ ɺ = =
we can derive the equation of acceleration
BA A B
1 1 1
a a a + =
Where the acceleration of relative motion of a point B around point A will have two
components since the relative motion is the rotation with a fixed point at A.
Thus
BA BA BA
1 1 1
v ω r α a × + × =
in vector form. The acceleration in the matrix form is a
result of derivation:
BA
2 21
A
1
BA
1
A
1 1
r C r r r r ⋅ + = + =
B
BA A B
2 21 1 1 1
r C Ω v v ⋅ ⋅ + =
BA BA BA A B
2 21 1 2 21 1 2 21 1 1 1
r C Ω r C Ω r C Ω a a ɺ
ɺ ɺ
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + =
in case of solid body
0
2
=
BA
rɺ
since the distance between points A and B does not change, thus
BA BA A B
2 21 1 1 2 21 1 1 1
r C Ω Ω r C A a a ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + =
BA A B
1
2
1 1 1 1
) ( r Ω A a a ⋅ + + =
where
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
−
=
0
0
0
1
x y
x z
y z
α α
α α
α α
A
represents the half symmetrical matrix of angular
acceleration
36
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Graphically
To find the acceleration we will use the leading equation
BA A B
1 1 1
a a a + =
The acceleration of a point A is
given and acceleration of the relative
motion of point B is described by two
components (tangential and normal) in
the respective directions to the path of
the point B.
The normal component of the
acceleration a
BA
is found from the known
velocity v
BA
(graphically by means of
Euclid triangle).
Thus at the instant moment the angle
β between the final acceleration of the
relative motion and the normal to the
path of relative motion is given by
. tan
2
const
a
a
BA
n
BA
= = =
ω
α
β
τ
Conclusion:
The final acceleration of the relative motion around point A makes an angle β ββ β with the
normal component of the acceleration that is constant for all points of the body moving with
relative motion.
In a similar way we can observe the tangential component of acceleration and the final
acceleration. Thus this angle is given by:
) (
tan
2 2 2
2
l v a
v l
a
a
a
s s s
s s
l l
l
BA
n
BA
ω
α
α
ρ
τ
−
⋅ ⋅
=
−
= where
n
a
v
l
l
l
2
=
ρ
.
Since α and ω are constant in the given time interval for all points of the rigid body then even
the tanα
a
=const.
Conclusion:
The end points of tangent components of acceleration for all points on the body are seen
from the centre of rotation under the same angle α αα α
a
at the instant moment.
37
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
3.3.5 The instantenous centre of acceleration – the pole of acceleration
Similarly as for the pole of velocity P there is a pole of acceleration Q, the point that has zero
acceleration at the instant.
The acceleration for this pole Q is given by:
QA
n
QA A Q
1 1 1 1
a a a a + + =
τ
) (
1 1 1 1
QA QA A Q
r ω ω r α a a × × + × + =
Multiplying by α from left
)] ( [ ) ( 0
1 1 1
QA QA A
r ω ω α r α α a α × × × + × × + × =
we receive
) )( ( ) ( 0
1
2
1
2
1
QA QA A
r α r a α × − + − + × = ω α
and substituting for the expression
QA A QA A QA
1
2
1 1
2
1 1
) ( r a r a r α ω ω + − = − − − = ×
we find the
positional vector of pole of acceleration
4 2
1
2
1
1
ω α
ω
+
+ ×
=
A A
QA
a a α
r
Comparing this expression with the expression for pole of velocity
2
1
1
ω
A
PA
v ω
r
×
=
shows that these two expressions are different, thus the two poles are different and we can
conclude:
The pole of acceleration is not identical with pole of velocity
If 0 ≠ ω and 0 ≠ α then there is one point on the
moving plane that has acceleration a
Q
=0.
This point lays at the intersection of lines that make an
angle β with the directions of total acceleration of each and
every point on the moving plane.
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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3.4 CENTRE OF THE TRAJECTORY CURVATURE
The body, moving with the universal planar
motion, is defined by two points A and B and
their trajectories s
A
and s
B
that the points are
drawing in the plane. Thus the position of the
pole of velocity that lies in the intersection of
two normals can found at any instant.
The body is connected to the moving CS2
and the positions of all instantaneous poles of
velocity are creating a curve pH – the locus of
all such positions is called the moving polode
while the poles connected to the stationary
fixed plane CS1 are creating a curve assigned
the symbol p
N
– the fixed polode.
Thus we can imagine the universal planar
motion as motion created by rollingof the locus
of poles p
H
(associated with moving plane) on
the locus of poles p
N
(associated with the fixed frame).
The pole velocity describes the rate of change of the pole position.
It is possible to find the rate of change of the positional vector using the reference point A with
respect to the fixed frame
And for the pole associated with the moving plane
Since the derived equations of pole velocities
are identical we can assign a symbol v
π
to be its
pole of velocity and conclude:
The point where both loci p
N
and p
H
touch at
the instant is the pole of motion P (the
instantaneous centre of rotation) and at this
point the two curves have a common tangent t
p
.
The pole velocity as the rate of change of the
pole position will lie on the tangent t
p
.
2
ω
A A
A P
N
v α a ω
v v
× − ×
+ =
2
ω
A A
A P
H
v α a ω
v v
× − ×
+ =
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
The task is to investigate the
velocity and acceleration of the
point or define the velocity and
acceleration of the whole body. The
points of the moving body are
drawing trajectories thus at the
instant each point of the body is
characterized by its normal to the
motion and the radius of its
trajectory.
While constructing the normal
component of acceleration
2
1
n
s
ρ
= n a ɺ
the centre of curvature of the
trajectory is needed to identify the
radius ρ.
To find the centre of curvature
we can use different methods.
Only two methods are presented here:
a) analytical – EulerSavary equation
The centre of curvature S
A
associated with
the point A on the moving body that draw the
trajectory s
A
is known. Thus we can find the
pole velocity found by means of Hartman
graphical method is used to show that
sin
A
A
A
v v v r
s r s s
τ
π π
ϑ ω
ρ
= ⇒ =
+
κ ϑ ϑ κ
ω
π
= 
¹

\

+ ⇒
+
= = sin
1 1
sin
r s rs
s r
v
which represents the EulerSavary equation
used in analytical solution to find the centre of
curvature.
40
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
b) Bobillier graphical method
The angle between the normal of a point and axis of collineation is the same as the angle
measured between the normal of the other point and tangent to loci of pole positions in opposite
direction.
There are two tasks:
1. The tangent t
p
and a pair of conjugate points A, S
A
are known and the centre of
curvature of the trajectory of the point C has to be identified.
2. The two pairs of conjugate points A,S
A
, and B, S
B
are known and the centre of
curvature of the trajectory of the point C has to be identified.
41
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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3.5 COMBINED MOTION
The mechanism consisting of number of bodies undergo either planar or space motion that
could be described as a combination of the relative motion between bodies and the
driving/carrying motion of the actuator of the system with respect to the reference frame.
Analysing motion of each body in
the mechanism:
B1 – reference frame
B2 –
B3 –
B4 –
Motion of the bodies attached to
the frame is identified as a rotation
with the fixed centre of rotation at
O
21
or O
41
thus the body motion is
defined by angular velocity and
acceleration, ω and α respectively. In case of a simple motion such as rotation or translation we
are able to identify the trajectory thus evaluate the kinematical quantities without any problem. In
case of a planar or spatial motion of the body the trajectory is not a simple curve and thus there
might be a problem to evaluate the kinematical quantities.
Therefore we introduce the strategy based on combined motion and implement imaginary split
of complex motion into two motions: the motion of reference point and rotation around the
reference point.
We can imagine
This could be recorded by a symbolic equation 31 = 32 + 21
And kinematical quantities can be expressed for identified point B as
Thus
B B B
21 32 31
v v v + =
But
B
cor
B B B
a a a a + + =
21 32 31
To prove this statement, we have to define the velocity at the point B
=
Final motion
31
Relative motion
32
Driving motion
21
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
3.5.1 Kinematical quantities by means of combined motion
The final motion of a point B
symbolically:
31 = 32 + 21 as well as
31 = 34 + 41
The positional vector of a point B is: ) (
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
BA BA A BA A B
y x j i r r r r + + = + =
3.5.2 The velocity
of a point B:
)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
BA BA BA BA A B B
y y x x ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ ɺ j j i i r r v + + + + = =
where
2 21 2
i ω i × =
ɺ
2 21 2
j ω j × =
ɺ
Substituting and rearranging we receive the equation of final velocity at the point B expressed
in CS1
BA
y
BA
x
BA BA A B
v y x
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21 1 1
v ) ( j i j i ω v v + + + × + =
where
the expression
1 21 2 2 2 2 21
( )
A BA BA B
x y + × + = v ω i j v
represents the velocity due to driving
motion. Point B would move with driving velocity v
21
B
when virtually connected to the moving
plane 2 (CS2)
the expression
B
2 2 2 2 32
v v v
BA BA
x y
+ = i j
represents the relative velocity of point B with respect to
the point A. Thus we confirm previous equation
B B B
21 32 31
v v v + =
3.5.3 The acceleration
of the point B is a product of the velocity derivation
1 1 1 21 2 2 2 2 21 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( )
B B A BA BA BA BA BA BA
BA BA BA BA
x x y y
d
x y x x y y
dt
v a v a
= = + × + + × + + +
+ + + +
a v a α i j ω i i j j
i i j j
ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ
Thus
1 1 21 2 2 2 2 21 21 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
21 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) [ ( ) ]
( )
B A BA BA BA BA BA BA
x y
BA BA BA BA
x y x y
x y x y v v
v v a a
= + × + + × × + + +
+ × + + +
a a α i j ω ω i j i j
ω i j i j
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Where the expression
21 1 21 2 2 2 2 21 21 2 2 2 2
( ) [ ( )]
B A BA BA BA BA
x y x y = + × + + × × + a a α i j ω ω i j
represents the acceleration
of the driving motion at the point B
21 2 2 2 2
2 ( )
B BA BA
C x y
v v = × + a ω i j
represents the Coriolis acceleration due to the driving angular
motion and linear velocity of the relative motion
32 2 2 2 2
B BA BA
x y
a a = + a i j
represents the acceleration of the relative motion at the point B
Finally we can conclude that while expressing the final acceleration by means of combined
motion (driving and relative motion) of bodies a component called Coriolis acceleration has to be
introduced.
3.5.4 Coriolis acceleration
Coriolis acceleration expresse in vector form:
21 32
2
B B
C
= × a ω v
And in matrix form:
21 21 2 21 1
2 2
B BA BA
C
= = a Ω C v Ω v
Coriolis acceleration expresses the change of direction of relative velocity due to rotational
driving motion and in the same time the change magnitude of driving velocity due to relative
motion at the reference point.
Analysing the equation expressing the Coriolis acceleration:
The Coriolis acceleration has non zero value a
C
≠ 0 if:
1) ω
dr
≠ 0 the driving motion exists in the form of rotation, GPM, spherical motion
or GSM
2) v
rel
≠ 0 the relative motion between bodies exists
3) ω
dr
┴ v
rel
the angle between angular and linear velocities is different from 0, and π
The direction and orientation of Coriolis acceleration is given by rotating the relative velocity in
the direction of the driving motion by an angle π/2.
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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3.5.5 Finding the pole of motion by means of combined motion
Analyzing the system:
B2 – RM
B3 – GPM
B4 – RM
Thus the body B2 and B4 are
rotating around the fixed point of rotation O
21
and O
41
respectively. Thus the two points O
21
and
O
41
are the poles of rotation for B2 and B4 respectively.
Thus the pole of B3 can be found in the intersection of two normals to the trajectory. The
normal n
A
is given by two points  O
21
and A. The point B draws universal plane curve with
unknown center of curvature.
Thus applying the principle of combined motion we can write symbolically for motion of B3:
31 = 32 + 21
where 32 describes the pole of relative motion of B3 with respect to B2
and 21 describes the pole of driving motion of B2 with respect to the frame (B1)
Therefore applying poles of motion on B3 we get the direction of the normal that can be
recorded symbolically as: n
31
= O
32
+ O
21
Second symbolic equation recording the combined motion of B3 is 31 = 34 + 41
Thus the second normal for B3 is: n
31
= O
34
+ O
41
Conclusion:
The pole of final motion, relative motion and driving motion lies on the same line.
45
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
3.6 SPHERICAL MOTION OF A BODY
Definition of spherical motion:
The body is moving with a spherical motion if one point of the
body remains stationary at any instant.
The points on the body have constant distance from the center O,
thus their trajectories are spherical curves, curves lying on spheres
with common center O.
One point on the body remains stationary during the motion at
any instance thus the new position of the body is given by a single
rotation around the axis that passes through the stationary point.
This axis is called the instantaneous axis of rotation and
coincides with the vector of total angular velocity. Points on instantaneous axis of rotation have
zero linear velocity at the instant.
Thus the cone with the base radius r that is rolling on the plane π shares with this plane one
single line at the instant the instantaneous axis of rotation. This line represents the contact region
between the cone surface and the plane over which the cone is rolling.
Observing the cone motion on the
plane we can describe the motion as a
rotation around the cone axis of symmetry
z
2
axis (the natural axis of rotation) with
angular velocity ϕɺ and the rotation with
angular velocity ψɺ around the axis
perpendicular to the plane that passes
through the stationary point on the body
(y
1
axis).
Associating the second coordinate
system with moving body we can identify
three angles called Euler’s angles:
ϑ the nutation angle  describing the deviation of the natural axis of a body (z
2
) from
the (z
1
) axis of the fixed coordinate system
ψ the precession angle describes the change of position of natural axis of a cone with
respect to CS1
ϕ the angle of natural rotation describes the change of position of a point on the body
with respect to CS2
The total angular velocity is a resultant of angular velocity of nutation, precession, and natural
rotation. The direction of the angular velocity coincides with the instantaneous axis of rotation
(IA).
Thus: ϑ ψ ϕ = + + ω
ɺ
ɺ ɺ
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
The total angular velocity in rectangular CS1 is recorded as k j i ω
z y x
ω ω ω + + =
Since the angular velocities coincide
with particular axes of rotation we need
to transform them into CS1 thus
receiving the components of total angular
velocity:
sin sin cos
sin cos sin
cos
x
y
z
ω ϕ ϑ ψ ϑ ψ
ω ϕ ϑ ψ ϑ ψ
ω ϕ ϑ ψ
= +
= − +
= +
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
ɺ ɺ
The angular acceleration: ( )
d d d d
dt dt dt dt
ω
ω ω
ω
ω ω = = ⋅ = +
e
α ω e e
where
1
d
dt
ω
ω
= × =
e
ψ e α ɺ represents the change of the direction of the angular velocity ω ωω ω
The direction of α αα α
1
is perpendicular to the plane containing ψɺ and
ω
e while the orientation is
given by the right hand rule.
The second component of angular acceleration
2
d
dt
ω
ω
= α e lies on the natural axis of rotation
Thus
1 2
= + α α α therefore the direction of the final angular acceleration does not
coincide with the direction of total angular velocity.
The total angular acceleration in rectangular CS1 is recorded as
x y z
α α α = + + α i j k
47
Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
3.7 UNIVERSAL SPACE MOTION OF A BODY
Definition:
The trajectories of points on the body moving with universal space motion are a universal
space curves. Thus the type of motion is referred to as universal space motion.
Similarly as we described universal planar motion, we can imagine that the body’s final motion
consists of body’s translation and spherical motion, while the translation and rotation are the
motions described with respect to reference point on the body.
If the point A is the stationary point during the spherical
motion then we can select this point to be the suitable
reference point while describing the final motion of the
body.
Then the position of point M on the moving body is given
as:
MA A M
1 1 1
r r r + =
and the velocity and acceleration in CS1 given in vector
form:
MA A M
1 1 1
r ω v v × + =
) (
1 1 1 1
MA MA A M
r ω ω r α a a × × + × + =
where α and ω are instantaneous kinematics quantities
in matrix form:
MA A MA A M
2 21 1 1 1 1
r C r r r r
ɺ
+ = + =
MA A MA A M
1 1 1 2 21 1 1 1
r Ω v r C Ω v v + = + =
MA MA A MA MA A M
1
2
1 1 1 1 2 21 1 2 21 1 1 1
r Ω r A a r C Ω r C Ω a a + + = + + =
ɺ ɺ
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
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4 SYSTEM OF BODIES
The strategy of evaluating kinematical quantities for a single body can be extended as
well for a system of bodies. As it was already mentioned the universal motion of a
particular body can be by described by means of combined motion based on the relative
and driving motion. Both motions, the driving and relative motion, could be of any type 
translation, rotation, and universal planar motion, etc.
Thus the kinematical quantities for a system of bodies can be expressed in the same way.
Prior to the description of the motion for a particular body it is useful if not necessary to
analyse the whole system, describe the kinematical pair between bodies, identify the
mobility of the system, identify the actuator of the system thus define the independent
coordinate, and finally define the type of motion of each body in the system.
4.1 SIMULTANEOUS ROTATIONS AROUND CONCURRENT AXES
The body B3 rotates around its natural
axis of rotation o
32
(the loci of all points
that remain stationary with respect to B3),
while the axis o
32
is positioned on the
body B2 that rotates around its axis of
rotation o
21
.
Point O is stationary at any time
therefore the body B3 moves with
spherical motion that could be interpreted
by symbolic equation as combined motion
31 = 32 + 21
Thus we can write for velocity of point M
31 32 21
M M M
= + v v v
represented in vector form by equation:
31 32 1 21 1
M M M
= × + × v ω r ω r
where
31 31 1
M M
= × v ω r
and finally
31 32 21
= + ω ω ω
Thus the final angular velocity is the sum of angular velocity of relative and driving motion.
The vector of final angular velocity coincides with the instantaneous axis of rotation.
The total angular acceleration ( ) ( )
31 31 31 31
d d
ω
dt dt
= = ⋅ α ω e
Substituting for final angular velocity
( )
31 32 21 32 21
d d d
dt dt dt
= + = + α ω ω ω ω
Then the total angular acceleration is
31 32 32 21 21
d d
ω ω
dt dt
= ⋅ + ⋅ α e e
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Where
( )
32 32
32 32 32 32 21 32 32 32 32 21 32 32
( )
d dω d
ω ω ω
dt dt dt
α ⋅ = + = × + = × +
e
e e ω e e ω ω α
and
21
21 21 21 21 21 21
( )
dω d
ω
dt dt
α ⋅ = = ⋅ = e e e α
therefore the final acceleration is given as
31 32 21 21 32
= + + × α α α ω ω
The last component in the equation is known as Resale angular acceleration
Re 21 32 s
= × α ω ω
The condition for existence of Resal acceleration:
The simultaneous rotations in matrix form:
angular velocity:
32 21
31 32 21 32 21
32 21
1 1
x x
y y
z z
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
( (
( (
= + = +
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
ω ω ω
angular acceleration:
32 21
31 32 21 32 21 21 32
32 21
1 1
x x
res y y
z z
α α
α α
α α
( (
( (
= + + = + + ⋅
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
α α α α Ω ω
4.2 SIMULTANEOUS ROTATIONS AROUND PARALLEL AXES
Investigating kinematical quantities of a mechanism
or part of it requires taking into consideration the
whole setup of bodies and constrains. Thus the first
step is to analyse the mobility based on constrains,
identify the actuator that controls the motion of the
system, and identify the motion of each body.
Thus given system consist of:
B1 – fixed frame
B2 – rotating link
B3 – universal planar motion
The constrains limiting the motion of the system are
two pins both attached to the B2
B2 rotates around its stationary centre of rotation O
1
and its points draw planar curves –
concentric circles.
B3 rotates around the centre of rotation O
2
that connects B3 with B2
dr
≠ ω 0
rel
≠ ω 0
dr rel
ω ω
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Dr. Ing. Zdenka Sant
10/2009
Thus the relative motion is the rotation of B3 with respect to B2 with angular velocity ω ωω ω
32
and
the driving motion is the rotation of B2 with respect to the foundation B1 with angular velocity
ω ωω ω
21
.
Therefore:
31 32 21
ϕ ϕ ϕ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ k k k
with total angular velocity
31 32 21
ω ω ω ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ k k k
and angular acceleration
31 32 21 Res 21 32
since 0 α α α ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ = × = k k k α ω ω
Thus the kinematics quantities for a particular point B can be expressed in vector form:
for position:
1 1 1
B A BA
= + r r r
for velocity
31 32 21
31 32 1 21 1
B B B
B BA B
= +
= × + ×
v v v
v ω r ω r
for acceleration:
( ) ( ) ( )
31 32 21
31 32 32 1 32 1 21 21 1 21 1 21 32
2
B B B B
cor
B BA BA B B BA
= + +
( (
= × × + × + × × + × + ×
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
a a a a
a ω ω r α r ω ω r α r ω v
or in matrix form
for position:
1 1 1
1 21 2 21 2 2 32 3
1 21 2 21 32 3
where
B A BA
B A BA BA BA
B A BA
= +
= ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
r r r
r C r C r r C r
r C r C C r
for velocity:
( ) 31 21 21 2 21 32 3 21 32 32 3
B A BA BA
= ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ v Ω C r C C r C Ω C r
for acceleration:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
31 21 32 21 32 2 21 21 1 1 21 21 32 32 3
2
B BA A BA BA
= ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ a C A C Ω r A Ω r r Ω C Ω C r
Analysing the possibility of motion shows two cases:
1. Simultaneous rotations with the same orientation of angular velocity
2. Simultaneous rotation with angular velocities in opposite direction
In both case the resulting motion is rotation with angular velocity ω
31
Mechanical engineer faces problems related to simultaneous rotations around parallel axis in
number of applications such as the gearbox, planetary gearbox, etc.
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