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Example:- Wild Cucumber Time:- 5:45 Date:- 12-Sept-2013 Location:- Hadamtala Common name:- Wild Cucumber Scientific name:-

Echinocytes Lobata Family:- Cucurbit

Example:- Common Bamboo Time:- 5:36 Date:- 12-Sept-2013 Location:- Hadamtala Common name:- Common Bamboo Scientific name:- Bambusa Valgaris Family:- grass

Introduction To Roots
The root system of a plant constantly provides the stems and leaves with water and dissolved minerals. In order to accomplish this the roots must grow into new regions of the soil. The growth and metabolism of the plant root system is supported by the process of photosynthesis occurring in the leaves. Photosynthate from the leaves is transported via the phloem to the root system. Root structure aids in this process. This section will review the different kinds of root systems an look at some specialized roots, as well as describe the anatomy of the roots in monocots and dicots.

4 Characteristics Of Roots
Roots anchor the plant in the soil. Roots absorb water and mineral salts from the soil. Roots may store food. Roots form a passage way for water and dissolved substances from the root into the stem and also for foods from the stem down into the root. Roots also holds the surrounding soil thus preventing it to get eroded.

Types Of Roots
1. Fibrous Profusely branched roots that occupy a large volume of shallow soil around a plant's base. (petunias, beans, peas) 2. Taproot Main, downward- growing root with limited branching, where soils permit. (carrots, beets, radishes) 3. Adventitious roots arise at an unexpected place. For example, the brace roots on corn and the short whitish bumps along a tomato stem are adventitious roots. 4. Aerial roots arise from above-ground stem tissues. On English ivy and poison ivy, the aerial roots support the vine. Aerial roots are common on philodendrons, pathos, and Christmas cactus.

Taproot : Modifications Of Taproot

1) For Food Storage : Fusiform :- In radish the modified tap root is thickened in the middle and tapers towards both ends. Napiform :- In beetroot the modified tap root is greatly swollen at the base, but abruptly narrows into a tail-like portion. Conical :- In carrot the modified tap root is conical. It is broad at the base and gradually tapers towards its apex. Tuberous :- This roots Enlarges and contains several storage glands.

2) Nodulated Roots :- The roots having the irregular or the round mass or a lump called nodules within the cells are known as nodulated roots.The roots of leguminous plants possess these characteristic swelling nodules which are caused by colonies of nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium). 3) Breathing Roots :- Breathing roots are a special adaptation to plants, notably in the Mangroves. These special roots grow up to reach the air they need to survive. Some examples of these species of plants include the Rhizophora, Avicennia and Sonneratia.

Adventitious Roots :Modification

1 ) For Food Storage:a) Tuberous Roots :- Here, the modified adventitious root is swollen without any definite shape. It is always produced singly and not in clusters. b) Fasciculated Roots :- In Dahlia and Asparagus a number of adventitious roots arise as a cluster, from almost the same level at the base of the stem. c) Nodulose Roots :- Here, the root becomes swollen at its tip. d) Buttress Roots :- a tree root that extends above ground as a platelike outgrowth of the trunk supporting the tree. Buttress roots are mainly found in trees of tropical rain forests

2) For Support :a) Fibrous Root :- Plants with fibrous roots systems are excellent for erosion control, because the mass of roots cling to soil particles. b) Prop Root :- a root that grows from and supports the stem above the ground in plants such as mangroves. c) Stilt Roots :- a root that grows from and supports the stem above the ground in plants such as mangroves. d) Climbing Roots :- These roots arise from the nodes and help in attaching the climbing stem firmly to a support like a tree or a wall, by various mechanisms.

3) For Vital function :a) Epiphytic Root :- the roots which are grown on the external surface of a plant for the purpose of mechanical support are called as epiphytic roots. b) Photosynthetic Root :- Roots that can carry out photosynthesis are called photosynthetic roots.These are aerial roots ( Hanging in the air ) and thus are exposed to light .They develop photosynthetic ( Green with chlorophyll chloroplasts ) tissue and thus carry out the function. c) Parasitic Root :- Adventitious Roots found in the parasitic plants are called parasitic Roots. d) Contractile Roots :- A specialized thickened root that serves to pull down a corm, bulb, rhizome, etc. to an appropriate level in the soil.