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The total number of theoretical plates, n, in a distillation apparatus is equal to the number of column theoretical plates plus the theoretical plate of the pot. Since the pot has just one theoretical plate the theoretical plates of the column is just n-1. The theoretical plates can be calculated by measurin simultaneously the composition of the !apor at the distillation head and liquid in the pot. The composition is e"pressed as the mole fraction #. $or e"ample, the mole fraction of a propanol in butanol, " sub p, equals the moles of propanol di!ided by the total moles of propanol and butanol. %i&e'ise the mole fraction of butanol is the moles of butanol di!ided by moles of propanol and butanol. HETP 1.jp n ( column theoretical plates ) pot theoretical plate n-1 ( column theoretical plates X ( mole fraction

XP = nP n p + nB XB = nB n p + nB

nP ( moles of propanol, nB ( moles of butanol HETP *. The number of theoretical plates of a distillation apparatus can be determined from this equation 'here " sub p ! and " sub b ! are the mole fractions of propanol and butanol in the !apor at the distillation head. %i&e'ise " sub p l and " sub b l are mole fractions of propanol and butanol in the pot. $or this e"periment, " sub p ! and " sub b ! are obtained from the first fraction that you collect and " sub p l and " sub b l are obtained from the ori inal mi"ture. +lpha is the measure of the relati!e !olatility of the t'o components. ,o' 'e need to calculate the mole fractions to calculate the theoretical plates. HETP *.jp

lo n= X P ,v X B ,v − lo X P ,l X B ,l lo α

#P,! and #-,! ( mole fractions in the head !apor #P,l and #-,l ( mole fractions in the pot #P,! and #-,! from first fraction #P,l and #-,l from ori inal mi"ture α is the !olatility ratio ( 1../

Pac&in

.

let +p be the propanol pea& area.for the sample and this yields eq . and the detector response is plotted 'ith time and a pea& is obser!ed. +lso the sensiti!ity of the detector is usually different for each compound. %ets di!ide the second equation by the first equation and this yields equation 0. . So the sample mole ratio of propanol to butanol is equal to the area ratio of propanol to butanol obtained from the sample chromato ram times the area ratio of butanol to propanol from the standard chromato ram times the mole ratio of propanol to butanol in the standard. 2f the injection contains butanol as 'ell.. Since the area of a pea& is proportional to the amount of compound. The plot is referred to as a chromato ram. temperatures. The mole fractions can be calculated from 1C data that is as chromato raphy. they are a calibration constant for con!ertin the area ratio to a mole ratio. The area of the pea& is proportional to the amount of compound. + detector is used to determine ho' much material e"its the column. 7earran ement yields equation 8. the same is true for a butanol pea&. as is run o!er a stationary phase instead of a liquid. 4ifferent compounds e"it the column at different times dependin on their chemical structures and their affinity for the column pac&in . then the ratio of a propanol pea& area to the moles of propanol for a sample equals the ratio of a propanol pea& area to the moles of propanol for any other sample includin a standard. 1as chromato raph 2njector Column 4etector . 5ultiply both sides by +P6+. HETP .. 2f t'o compounds are injected into the column t'o pea&s are obser!ed. more compound yields a lar er pea& area. that is. This equation allo's us to calculate a mole ratio from the chromato ram area ratios. 3our sample 'ill be run throu h a heated column containin a pac&in material. So the 1C must be calibrated for each compound. 3ou 'ill obtain relati!e pea& areas from the chromato ram. The times are &no'n as retention times and can be used to identify a compound.HETP 0. the ratio of a pea& area to the number of moles is constant. 2n as chromato raphy. Since these t'o terms are constant. etc can chan e the area. This is done by comparin the pea&s from a sample 'ith the pea&s from a standard that contains &no' amounts of the compounds. instrument settin s. $or e"ample. 4ifferent instruments.

9calibration constant: HETP8. Collect #p terms on ri ht side to et equation <. elimination of the common terms in the denominators yields the mole fraction. Substitute the e"pression for the butanol mole fraction into the ratio of mole fractions.#p.+P ( propanol pea& area 9+P6nP:sample ( 9+P6nP:std 9eq 1: +.9+-6n-:std69+P6nP:std 9eq . 7earran e the equation to sol!e for the butanol mole fraction. 5ultiply one and #p by 7 to et equation 8.: 9eq 8: 9eq <: 9eq >: R91 − X P : = X P .9+-6+P:std. 5ultiply both sides of equation 0 by 1 . . $actor #p to et eq > nP X P n p + nB nP = = =R nB XB nB n p + nB X P + X B =1 X B =1 − X P 9eq 1: 9eq *: R = XP 6 XB = R − RX P = X P R = X P + RX P R = X P 91 + R : XP 1− X P 9eq 0 : 9eq .: 9nP6n-:sample ( 9+P6+-:sample.C 9eq <: 9mole ratio: ( 9area ratio:.9nP6n-:std 9eq 8: 9nP6n-:sample ( 9+P6+-:sample. Here 'e di!ide the propanol mole fraction by the butanol mole fraction.ote that the sum of the propanol and butanol mole fractions equals one. substitute the mole e"pression for each. The mole fractions needed to calculate the number of theoretical plates can be deri!ed from the mole ratio.( butanol area pea& 9+-6n-:sample ( 9+-6n-:std 9eq *: 9+-6n-:sample69+P6nP:sample ( 9+-6n-:std69+P6nP:std 9eq 0: multiply by 9+P6+-:sample 9nP6n-:sample ( 9+P6+-:sample. to simplify the deri!ation. 'hich 'e set to 7.=P1.

'e can also e"press the butanol mole fraction as a function of the mole ratio.HETP<. So from the 1C data you calculate 7.equals 1 minus #P. and these mole fractions are used to calculate the number of theoretical plates.l lo α . Since #. The !apor mole fractions come from the 1C measurements but the liquid mole fractions come from the startin mi"ture.v X B .l X B =1 − lo n= X P . R = X P 91 + R : 9eq >: XP = R 1+ R R 1+ R − lo X B . 7 is used to calculate mole fractions #.=P1.v X P .and #P. . then di!ide both sides of eq > by 1 plus 7 to yield an e"pression for the propanol mole fraction as a function of the mole ratio.

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