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Power Transformer Rupture and Mitigation

Transformer Tank Design Criteria per Current IEEE Standards: C57.12.10 Power Transformers: o T!e "omp#ete#$ assem%#e transformer s!a## %e designed to wit!stand& wit!out permanent deformation& a pressure 25' greater t!an t!e ma(imum operating pressure). o Tanks s!a## %e designed for *a"uum fi##ing in t!e fie#d.) T!e ma(imum operating pressure depends of t!e t$pe of #i+uid preser*ation s$stem se#e"ted: Sea#ed Tank: Inert 0as Pressure: Conser*ator Tank: Interna# gas pressure wi## not e("eed ,- kPa .10 PSI/. Interna# gas pressure wi## not e("eed 55 kPa .1 PSI/. Interna# gas pressure wi## not e("eed 23 kPa .5 PSI/.

Power transformer tanks are designed for *a"uum fi##ing in t!e fie#d. T$pi"a# design pressure is 15 psi.

Tank and Cover Design 4a(imum un5%ra"ed pane# %etween %ra"es t$pi"a##$ se#e"ted for a stress "#ose to t!e $ie#d stress of t!e materia# used. 6esu#ting e#asti" deformations during pressure or *a"uum "an rea"! *a#ues of o*er 1 in"!. Se"tion modu#es of t!e %ra"es se#e"ted for a stress "#ose to t!e $ie#d stress of t!e materia# used. Stresses in t!e "orners of t!e tank "an %e !ig! depending of t!e t$pe of 7oints used:

8ig!er Stress

9ower Stress

Position of t!e tank we#d seams ma$ resu#t on !ig!er stresses t!an e(pe"ted due to *ariations in t!e we#ding pro"ess. T!ese seams "an %e a potentia# weak spot during an o*erpressure e*ent and ma$ #ead to tank rupture.

Co*er %ra"e #o"ation& its si:e and si:e of inspe"tion openings are ke$ fa"tors in t!e strengt! of t!e "o*er to wit!stand o*erpressure.

Co*er edges are areas of !ig!est stress. Condition of we#d to t!e edge of t!e tank is "riti"a# for t!e tank and "o*er to wit!stand an o*erpressure. 8ig! stresses on we#d seams at t!e ends of t!e %ra"es. ;e#d "ondition at t!ese ends is "riti"a#. Domed "o*ers !a*e a !ig!er intrinsi" strengt! t!an f#at "o*ers& redu"ing t!e pro%a%i#it$ of water a""umu#ation and rust.