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Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng

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Xt hm s bc ba :
3 3 2
3 3 = + + + = + + y ax bx cx d y ax bx c
DNG 1. TM IU KIN V S CC TR CA HM S
Nu a = 0 th 3 0
3
= + = =
c
y bx c y x
b

Trong trng hp ny hm s c 1 cc tr.
Nu a 0 :
+ Hm s khng c cc tr khi y khng i du, tc l phng trnh y = 0 v nghim hoc c nghim kp, tc
l 0.
+ Hm s c 2 im cc tr khi y i du hai ln, tc l phng trnh y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit.
T ta c iu kin hm s c hai cc tr l > 0.
Vy, vi hm bc ba th hm s ch c hai cc tr hoc khng c cc tr.
V d 1: Bin lun s cc tr ca hm s ( ) = +
3 2
1
1 1
3
y x m x mx ty theo gi tr ca tham s m.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c ( )
2
2 1 . = + + y x m x m
Hm s khng c cc tr khi y khng i du trn min xc nh (hay hm s lun ng bin hoc nghch bin trn
min xc nh), iu xy ra khi y = 0 v nghim hoc c nghim kp.
T ta c iu kin ( )
2
2
3 5 3 5
0 1 0 3 1 0 .
2 2
+
+ m m m m m
Hm s c hai cc tr khi y i du trn min xc nh, iu xy ra khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit.
2
3 5
2
0 3 1 0
3 5
2

+
>

> + >


<

m
m m
m

Kt lun :
- Hm s khng c cc tr khi
3 5 3 5
2 2
+
m
- Hm s c hai cc tr khi
3 5 3 5
; .
2 2
+
m m
V d 2: Bin lun s cc tr ca hm s ( ) = + + +
3 2
2 2 3 y mx m x mx m ty theo gi tr ca tham s m.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c ( )
2
3 2 2 2 . = + + y mx m x m
TH1 : m = 0.
Khi 4 ; 0 0 = = = y x y x , trong trng hp ny hm s c mt cc tr.
TH2 : m 0.
Hm s khng c cc tr khi
2
0
2 2 6
2 2 6
0 0
5
5
0 5 4 4 0
2 2 6
2 2 6
5
5

+

+


m
m
m m
m
m m
m
m

Ti liu tham kho:
02. CC TR HM BC BA
Thy ng Vit Hng
Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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Hm s c hai cc tr khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit
2
2 2 6 2 2 6
0 0
5 5
0 5 4 4 0
0

+
< <


> + <

m m
m
m m
m

Kt lun :
- Hm s khng c cc tr khi
2 2 6 2 2 6
; .
5 5
+
m m
- Hm s c mt cc tr khi m = 0.
- Hm s c hai cc tr khi
2 2 6 2 2 6
5 5
0

+
< <

m
m

BI TP LUYN TP:
Bi 1. Tm m cc hm s sau y c cc i v cc tiu:
a)
( )
3 2 2
2 1 2 = + + y x mx m x
b) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2
3 1 2 3 2 1 = + + y x m x m m x m m
Bi 2. Tm m hm s ( ) ( )
3 2
1 2 2 2 = + + + + y x m x m x m khng c cc tr.
Bi 3. Bin lun theo m s cc tr ca hm s ( ) ( )
3 2
1
1 3 2 1
3
= + + + + y m x mx m x
DNG 2. TNH CHT CC TR CA HM S
Cc bi ton xt n tnh cht cc tr ca hm bc ba ch p dng khi hm s c hai im cc tr (gi l cc i v cc
tiu).
Gi honh cc im cc i, cc tiu l x
1
; x
2
. Khi x
1
; x
2
l hai nghim ca phng trnh y = 0.
Theo nh l Vi-t ta c
1 2
1 2

+ =

B
x x
A
C
x x
A

Phng php thc hin :
+ Tm iu kin hm c cc tr : y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit > 0, (*)
+ Tm iu kin ca tham s cc tr c tnh cht K no chng hn.
+ i chiu gi tr tm c vi iu kin (*) c kt lun cui cng.
Ta xt mt s dng tnh cht in hnh.
Tnh cht 1: Hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti im x = x
o

Cch 1 (s dng iu kin cn v ):
+ Hm s t cc i hoc cc tiu ti ( ) 0 . = =
o o
x x y x m
+ Vi m tm c, thay vo hm s ri kho st, t bng bin thin ta c kt lun v hm s t cc i, hay
cc tiu ti im x
o
hay khng.
Cch 2 (s dng y) :
+ Hm s t cc i ti
( )
( )
0
.
0
=

<

o
o
o
y x
x x m
y x

+ Hm s t cc tiu ti
( )
( )
0
.
0
=

>

o
o
o
y x
x x m
y x

Ch : Hm s t cc tr ti
( )
( )
0
0
=

o
o
o
y x
x x
y x

V d mu: Cho hm s = + +
3 2
1
( 2) 1.
3
y x m x mx
a) Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) Tm m hm s t cc i ti ti x = 0.
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c) Tm m hm s t cc tiu ti x = 2.
Hng dn gii :
Ta c ( )
2
2( 2) 2 2 2 . = + = + y x m x m y x m
a) Hm s c cc tr khi phng trnh y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit
2
1
0 5 4 0
4
>
> + + >

<

m
m m
m

b) Tm m hm s t cc i ti ti x = 0.
Cch 1:
+ Hm s t cc i ti x = 0 th ( ) 0 0 0. = = y m
+ Vi m = 0 th ta c
2
0
4 0
4
=
= =

=

x
y x x
x

Ta c bng bin thin:
x 0 4 +
y + 0 0 +
y
C +

CT
T bng bin thin ta thy hm s cho t cc i ti x = 0.
Vy m = 0 l gi tr cn tm.
Cch 2:
Hm s t cc i ti
( )
( )
0 0
0
0 0
2( 2) 0 0 0
=
=
= =

+ < <

y
m
x m
m y

Vy m = 0 th hm s cho t cc i ti x = 0.
c) Tm m hm s t cc tiu ti ti x = 2.
Cch 1:
+ Hm s t cc tiu ti x = 2 th
( )
4
2 0 4 4( 2) 0 5 4 .
5
= + = = = y m m m m
+ Vi
2 2
2
4 4 4 12 4
2 2 0
2
5 5 5 5 5
5
=
| |

= = + = + =
|

=
\

x
m y x x y x x
x

Ta c bng bin thin:
x

2
5
2 +
y + 0 0 +
y
C +

CT
T bng bin thin ta thy hm s cho t cc tiu ti x = 2.
Vy
4
5
= m l gi tr cn tm.
Cch 2:
Hm s t cc tiu ti
( )
( )
4
2 0
5 4 0
4
2 . 5
2 0 5 2 0
0

=
+ = =
= =

> >

<

y
m m
x m
m y
m

Vy
4
5
= m th hm s cho t cc tiu ti x = 2.
BI TP LUYN TP:
Cho hm s
3 2
(2 1) 2 3. = + + y x m x mx
a) Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) Tm m hm s t cc tiu ti ti x = 1.
c) Tm m hm s t cc i ti x = 3.
Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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Tnh cht 2: Cc im cc tr c honh cng dng, cng m, cng ln hn hoc nh hn cho trc.
Hai im phn bit cc tr cng c honh dng.
Khi ta c
1 2
2 1
1 2
0
0
0
0
0
B
S x x
A
x x
P x x C
A

>

= + >

> >

= >


>


Hai im cc tr cng c honh m.
Khi ta c
1 2
1 2
1 2
0
0
0
0
0
B
S x x
A
x x
P x x C
A

<

= + <

< <

= >


>


Hai im cc tr c honh tri du.
Khi ta c
1 2 1 2
0 0 0
C
x x P x x
A
< < = < <
Hai im cc tr cng c honh ln hn .
Khi ta c
( )( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
2 1
1 2
0 0
0

2 2
2
C B
x x x x
x x
A A
x x
B
x x B
A
A
| |
+ > + + >
|
>

\
> >

+ > >

>


Hai im cc tr cng c honh nh hn .
Khi ta c
( )( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
0 0
0

2 2
2
C B
x x x x
x x
A A
x x
B
x x B
A
A
| |
+ > + + >
|
>

\
< <

+ < <

<


Hai im cc tr c honh tha mn x
1
< < x
2
.
Khi ta c ( )( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 0
| |
< < < + + < + <
|
\
C B
x x x x x x x x
A A

Tnh cht 3: S dng Vi-t cho honh cc im cc tr.
Hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
. Khi x
1
; x
2
l hai nghim ca phng trnh y = 0.
Theo nh l Vi-t ta c
1 2
1 2

+ =

B
x x
A
C
x x
A

V d 1: Cho hm s = + +
3 2
( 1) 3 . y x m x mx m
a) Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
tha mn + =
1 2
1 2
1 1
2 . x x
x x

c) Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh u ln hn 2.
d) Tm m honh im cc i ca hm s nh hn 1.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2
3 2( 1) 3 = + y x m x m
a) Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi phng trnh y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit
( )
2 2
7 3 5
2
0 ( 1) 9 0 7 1 0 *
7 3 5
2

+
>

> + > + + >


<

m
m m m m
m

Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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Vy vi
7 3 5
2
7 3 5
2

+
>


<

m
m
th hm s cho c cc i, cc tiu.
b) Gi x
1
; x
2
l honh im cc i, cc tiu. Khi x
1
; x
2
l hai nghim ca phng trnh y = 0.
Theo nh l Vi-t ta c
1 2
1 2
2(1 )
3

+ =

m
x x
x x m

Ta c
2 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 1 2(1 ) 1 13
2 2 2 3 1 0 .
3 6
+
+ = = = + = =
x x m
x x x x m m m m
x x x x

i chiu vi iu kin (*) ta c
1 13
6
m
+
= l gi tr cn tm.
c) Gi x
1
; x
2
l honh im cc i, cc tiu. Khi x
1
; x
2
l hai nghim ca phng trnh y = 0.
Theo nh l Vi-t ta c
1 2
1 2
2(1 )
3

+ =

m
x x
x x m

Theo bi ta c
( )( )
( )
1 2 1 2
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 4 0 4(1 )
2 2 0 4 0
2 3
2(1 )
4 4
1 6
3
+ + >
> + >

> >

+ > >

>

x x x x m
x x m
x x
m
x x
m

8
8 0
8 5. 3
5
5
+
> >
< <

<

<

m
m
m
m
m

i chiu vi iu kin (*) ta c
7 3 5
8
2
m

< < l gi tr cn tm.
d) Ta c
1
2
1 2
2
1
6
0 3 2( 1) 3 0
1
6

= =

= + = <

+
= =

m
x x
y x m x x x
m
x x

Bng bin thin
x x
1
x
2
+
y + 0 0 +
y
C +

CT

Ta thy hm s t cc i ti im c honh
1
1
6

=
m
x
Theo bi ta c
( )
1 2
5 0
1
1 1 6 5
6 5


= > > <

<

m
m
x m m
m

2 2
5 5
8 5.
3 24 7 1 10 25

<

> + + < + +
m m
m
m m m m m

i chiu vi iu kin (*) ta c
7 3 5
8
2
m

< < l gi tr cn tm.
// V d ny thy tnh nhm nh, h h //
V d 2: Cho hm s = + +
3 2
3( 1) 9 . y x m x x m
Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
tha mn
1 2
2. x x
Hng dn gii:
Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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Ta c
2
3 6( 1) 9. = + + y x m x
Hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit
1 2
; 0 > x x
( )
2
1 3
( 1) 3 0 *
1 3

> +
+ >
<

m
m
m

Theo nh l Vi-et ta c
1 2
1 2
2( 1)
3
+ = +

x x m
x x

Khi : ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 4 4 4 1 12 4 ( 1) 4 3 1 + + + x x x x x x m m m
i chiu vi iu kin (*) ta c
3 1 3
1 3 1

<

+ <

m
m
l cc gi tr cn tm.
V d 3: Cho hm s = + + + +
3 2
(1 2 ) (2 . ) 2 y x m x m x m
Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
tha mn >
1 2
1
.
3
x x
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2
3 (1 2 . ) 2 2 = + + x m x m y
Hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit x
1
; x
2

( )
2 2
5
(1 2 ) 3(2 ) 4 5 0 * 4
1

>

= = >

<

m
m m m m
m

Theo nh l Vi-et ta c
1 2
1 2
(1 2 )
3
2
2
.
3

+ =

m
x x
m
x x

Khi ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
1
4 4(1 2 ) 4(2 1
1
9 3
) = + > > > x x x x m x m x x x
2
3 29
8
16 12 5 0
3 29
8

+
>

>


<

m
m m
m

i chiu vi iu kin (*) ta c
3 29
8
1

+
>

<

m
m
l cc gi tr cn tm.
V d 4: Cho hm s = + +
3 2
1 1
( 1) 3( 2) .
3 3
y x m x m x
Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
tha mn + =
1 2
2 1. x x
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2
2( 1) 3( 2). = + y x m x m
Hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit x
1
; x
2

2
5 7 0, = + > m m m
Khi ta c
( )( )
1 2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2
2( 1) 1 2 2( 1) 3 2
3( 2) 3( 2) 1 2(2 2 ) 4 3
2 1 2 1 3( 2) 3 2 4 3 3 6
+ = + = =

= = = =


+ = + = = =


x x m x x m x m
x x m x x m x m m
x x x x x x m m m m

2
4 34
8 16 9 0 .
4

+ = = m m m Vy
4 34
4

= m l cc gi tr cn tm.
V d 5: Cho hm s = + + + +
3 2
(1 2 ) (2 ) 2. y x m x m x m
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu ng thi honh im cc tiu nh hn 1.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2
3 2(1 2 ) 2 ( ). = + + = y x m x m g x
Do h s a = 3 > 0 nn yu cu bi ton tr thnh y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit x
1
; x
2
tha mn
Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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2
1 2
4 5 0
5 7
1 (1) 5 7 0
4 5
2 1
1
2 3


= >

< < = + > < <

= <

m m
x x g m m
S m

V d 6: Cho hm s = +
3 2
4 3 . y x mx x
Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
tha mn =
1 2
4 . x x
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2 2
12 2 3 36 0. = + = + > y x mx m Khi
1 2
1 2
1 2
4
9
.
6 2
1
4

+ = =

x x
m
x x m
x x

BI TP LUYN TP:
Bi 1: Cho hm s
3 2
( 2) ( 1) 2. = + + + y x m x m x
a) Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) Tm m hm s t cc tiu ti ti x = 3.
c) Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
; x
2
tha mn
2 2
1 2
10. + < x x
d) Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh u nh hn 1.
Bi 2: Cho hm s ( ) ( )
3 2 3
2 3 3 6 5 1 4 1. = + + + y x m x m x m
a) Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) Tm m hm s c hai im cc tr c honh u nh hn 2.
Bi 3: Tm m hm s ( ) ( )
3 2
1 2 2 2 = + + + + y x m x m x m c hai im cc i, cc tiu ng thi honh im
cc tiu nh hn 2.
Bi 4: Cho hm s ( ) ( )
3 2 2
2
1 4 3 2.
3
= + + + + + + + y x m x m m x m Gi x
1
, x
2
l honh d hai im cc tr ca hm s.
a) Tm m hm s t cc tr ti t nht mt im c honh ln hn 1.
b) Tm m sao cho biu thc ( )
1 2 1 2
2 = + P x x x x t gi tr nh nht.
Bi 5: Cho hm s
3 2
1
( 6) 1.
3
= + + + y x mx m x
Tm gi tr ca m
a) hm s c cc tr.
b) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti x
1
, x
2
tha mn
1 1
1 2
1 1
.
3
+
+ =
x x
x x

c) hm s t cc i ti im c honh x = 1.
d) hm s t cc tiu ti im c honh x = 0.
Tnh cht 4: Cc cc tr nm cng pha, khc pha vi cc trc ta .
+ Cc im cc tr nm cng pha vi trc Oy khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit cng du.
+ Cc im cc tr nm khc pha vi trc Oy khi y = 0 c hai nghim tri du.

+ Cc im cc tr nm khc pha vi trc Ox khi th ct trc Ox ti ba im phn bit hoc hm s c cc tr vi
y
C
.y
CT
< 0.
+ Cc im cc tr nm cng pha vi trc Ox khi th ct trc Ox ti mt im hoc hm s c cc tr vi y
C
.y
CT
>
0.
V d 1: Cho hm s = + + +
3 2
3 2 y x x mx m , vi m l tham s.
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu v cc im cc i, cc tiu nm v hai pha ca trc honh.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2
3 6 = + + y x x m, hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi phng trnh y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit.
Tc l 9 3 0 3. = > < m m
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Phng trnh honh giao im ca (C
m
) v Ox:
( )
3 2
2
1
3 2 0
( ) 2 2 0, 1
=
+ + + =

= + + =

x
x x mx m
g x x x m

Hm s c 2 im cc tr nm v 2 pha i vi trc Ox khi (1) c 2 nghim phn bit khc 1
Ta c iu kin
3 0
3
( 1) 3 0


= >
<

m
m
g m

Vy m < 3 l gi tr cn tm.
V d 2: Cho hm s = + + +
3 2 2
(2 1) ( 3 2) 4 y x m x m m x , vi m l tham s.
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu v cc im cc i, cc tiu nm v hai pha ca trc tung.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2 2
3 2(2 1) ( 3 2)

= + + + y x m x m m
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit ( ) ( )
2
2
0 2 1 3 3 2 0 > + + > m m m
2
13 3 21
2
13 5 0
13 3 21
2

+
>

+ >


<

m
m m
m

Hm s c cc im cc i, cc tiu nm v hai pha ca trc tung khi y = 0 c hai nghim tri du
( )
2
3 3 2 0 1 2. + < < < m m m
Kt hp iu kin ta c 1 < m < 2 tha mn yu cu bi ton.
V d 3: Cho hm s = +
3 2
1
(2 1) 3
3
y x mx m x , vi m l tham s.
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu v cc im cc i, cc tiu nm v cng mt pha ca trc tung.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
2
2 2 1

= + y x mx m
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit
2
0 2 1 0 1 > + > m m m
Hm s c cc im cc i, cc tiu nm v cng mt pha ca trc tung khi phng trnh y = 0 c hai nghim cng
du
1
0 2 1 0 .
2
> > > ac m m
Kt hp iu kin ta c
1
1
2
< m tha mn yu cu bi ton.
Tnh cht 5: Cc bi ton cc tr khi y = 0 gii c nghim p
Khi phng trnh y = 0 c ( )
2
ax b = + th iu kin hm s c cc tr l ( )
2
0 0 .
b
ax b x
a
> + >
Khi ,
1
2
0
x x
y
x x
=
=

=

v s dng yu cu ca bi gii ra tham s.


V d 1: Cho hm s = + +
3 2 2 3
3 3( 1) . y x mx m x m m
Tm gi tr ca m hm s c cc tr. Khi , tm m khong cch t im cc i n gc ta bng 2
ln khong cch t im cc tiu n gc ta O.
Hng dn gii :
Ta c
2 2 2 2
3 6 3( 1) 0 2 1 0 = + = + = y x mx m y x mx m
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit 1 0, = > m
Khi
( )
( )
1 1; 2 2
0
1 1; 2 2
=
=

= + +

x m A m m
y
x m B m m

Do h s a = 1 > 0 v m + 1 > m 1 nn A l im cc i v B l im cc tiu ca hm s.
Theo bi ta c
2
3 2 2
2 6 1 0
3 2 2

= +
= + + =
=

m
OA OB m m
m

Vy 3 2 2 = m l cc gi tr cn tm.
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V d 2: Cho hm s
( )
= + +
2
3
3 1
1
(3 2) 1.
3 2
m x
y x m x m
Tm gi tr ca m
a) hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh ln hn 2.
c) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh x
1
; x
2
tha mn + >
3 3
1 2
28 x x
d) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh x
1
; x
2
tha mn + =
2 2
1 2
2 12 x x
Hng dn gii :
Ta c ( ) ( )
2 2
3 1 3 2 0 3 1 3 2 0. y x m x m y x m x m = + = + =
a) Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit.
Ta c iu kin ( ) ( )
2
2
0 3 1 4. 3 2 0 9 18 9 0 1 m m m m m > > + >
b) Vi
( )
( )
3 1 3 1
1
2
1 0
3 1 3 1
3 1
2
m m
x
m y
m m
x m

= =

=
+
= =


Honh cc im cc i, cc tiu ln hn 2 khi 3 1 2 1. m m > >
Vy vi m > 1 th hm s cho c cc i, cc tiu v honh cc i, cc tiu ln hn 2.
c) Ta c ( )
3
3 3
1 2
4
28 1 3 1 28 3 1 3 .
3
x x m m m + > + > > >
d) Do vai tr bnh ng ca x
1
; x
2
nn ta c hai trng hp xy ra
Vi ( )
2
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 10
1; 3 1 2 12 2 3 1 12 3 1 10
3
x x m x x m m m

= = + = + = = =
Kt hp vi iu kin tn ti cc tr ta c
1 10
.
3
m

=
Vi ( )
2
2 2
1 2 1 2
22 2 22
3 1; 1 2 12 2 3 1 1 12 3 1
2 6
x m x x x m m m

= = + = + = = =
Kt hp vi iu kin tn ti cc tr ta c
2 22
.
6
m

=
V d 3: Cho hm s + = +
3 2
3 y x x m
Tm m hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im A, B sao cho

. =
0
120 AOB
Hng dn gii :
Ta c
2
0
3 6 0
2 4
= =
= + =

= = +

x y m
y x x y
x y m

Vy hm s c hai im cc tr A(0 ; m) v B(2 ; m + 4).
Ta c (0; ), ( 2; 4). = = + OA m OB m



0
1
120 cos
2
= = AOB AOB
( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2
4 0 ( 4) 1
4 ( 4) 2 ( 4)
3 24 44 0
2
4 ( 4)
4 0
12 2 3 2
4
12 2 3
3 3
3
< < +
= + + = +

+ + =

+ +
< <
+
= = +

=

m m m
m m m m
m m
m m
m
m
m

Vy
2
4
3
= + m l gi tr cn tm.
V d 4: Cho hm s = +
3 2
3 3 1 y x mx m
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu v cc im ny i xng nhau qua (d): x + 8y 74 = 0.
Hng dn gii :
Ta c
( )
2
0
3 6 3 2 0
2
=
= + = =

=

x
y x mx x x m y
x m

Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit m 0
Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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Khi d, cc im cc tr ca hm s l
3 3
(0; 3 1), (2 ; 4 3 1) (2 ; 4 ) A m B m m m AB m m


Trung im I ca AB c to
3
( ; 2 3 1) I m m m
ng thng d: ( ) : 8 74 0 + = d x y c mt vc t ch phng (8; 1) =

u .
A v B i xng vi nhau qua d ( )
3
8(2 3 1) 74 0
2
. 0
+ =
=


m m m I d
d m
AB d
ABu

Vy m = 2 l gi tr cn tm.
V d 5: Cho hm s ( ) = + +
3 2
3
3 1 1
2
m
y x x m x
Tm m
a) hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) hm s t cc tiu ti im x = 2.
c) hm s t cc i ti x = 0.
d) hm s khng c cc i, cc tiu.
e) ng thng qua cc im cc i, cc tiu song song vi ng thng d: y = 9x + 1
Hng dn gii :
a) Ta c ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 2
3
3 1 1 3 3 3 1 3 1
2
m
y x x m x y x mx m x mx m = + + = + = +
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit.
Ta c iu kin ( )
2
0 2 0 2. m m > >
Vy vi m 2 th hm s cho c cc i, cc tiu.
b) Hm s t cc tiu ti im x = 2 khi h sau c nghim
(2) 0
, ( )
(2) 0
=

>

y
I
y

Ta c y = 6x 3m, khi
4 2 1 0 3
( ) 3
12 3 0 4
m m m
I m
m m
+ = =
=

> <


Gi tr m = 3 tha mn iu kin (*) nn l gi tr cn tm.
c) Hm s t cc i ti im x = 0 khi h sau c nghim
(0) 0
, ( )
(0) 0
=

>

y
I
y

Ta c y = 6x 3m, khi h
1 0 1
( ) 1
3 0 0
m m
I m
m m
= =
=

< >


Gi tr m = 1 tha mn iu kin (*) nn l gi tr cn tm.
d) Hm s khng c cc i, cc tiu khi y khng i du y = 0 v nghim 0 (m 2)
2
0
Bt phng trnh trn ch c nghim duy nht m =2.
Vy vi m = 2 th hm s cho khng c cc tr.
e) Xt phng trnh y = 0 ta c x
2
mx + m 1 = 0
( )
1 1
2
2
2 2
3 2 2
1
2 2
2
2 3 5 4
1
2 2
m m m
y x m
m
m m m m
x y
+
= = =

=
+ +
= = =



Gi A(x
1
, y
1
) v B(x
2
, y
2
) l cc im cc i, cc tiu. Khi
2
3 8 6
2 ;
2
m m
AB m
| |
+
=
|
\


ng thng qua cc im cc i, cc tiu song song vi d : y = 9x + 1 khi
( )
2
2 2
3 8 6
2
2
/ / 2 4 9 3 8 6 27 74 58 0
9 1
d o
m m
m
AB u m m m m m vn
+

= = + + =




BI TP LUYN TP:
Bi 1: Cho hm s
( )
2
3
2 1
1
2(2 1) 3.
3 2
m x
y x m x

= + +
Tm gi tr ca m
a) hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh m.
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c) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh x
1
; x
2
tha mn
4 4
1 2
17 x x + >
d) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh x
1
; x
2
tha mn
2 2
1 2
2 12 x x + =
Bi 2: Cho hm s
( )
2
3 2
3 1
1
(2 ) 2.
3 2
m x
y x m m x
+
= +
Tm gi tr ca m
a) hm s c cc i, cc tiu.
b) hm s t cc i ti im x = 3.
c) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ti cc im c honh x
1
; x
2
tha mn
2 2
1 2
40 x x =
d) hm s t cc i, cc tiu ng thi cc im cc i, cc tiu nm hai pha ca trc Oy.
Bi 3: Cho hm s
3
3 2 = + y x mx
a) Tm m ng thng i qua im cc i, cc tiu ca hm s ct ng trn tm I(1; 1) bn knh bng 1 ti hai
im phn bit A, B sao cho din tch tam gic IAB t gi tr ln nht.
b) Tm m hm s c C, CT v khong cch t O n ng thng i qua C, CT ln nht.
Tnh cht 6: Phng trnh ng thng qua cc i, cc tiu v mt s ng dng in hnh
Ly y chia cho y ta c . ( ) , = + + y y g x ax b khi ng thng d : y = ax + b chnh l ng thng i qua cc im
cc i, cc tiu ca hm s.
Tc dng ln nht ca vic tm c phng trnh ng thng qua cc i, cc tiu l ly c tung ca chng.
Tht vy, gi M, N l cc im cc i, cc tiu th ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
; , ; + + M x ax b N x ax b , trong x
1
; x
2
l hai nghim ca
phng trnh y = 0 v ta c th dng Vi-et c.
V d 1: Cho hm s ( ) = + + +
3 2 2 3 2
3 3 1 y x mx m x m m
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu. Khi , hy vit phng trnh ng thng qua cc im .
Hng dn gii :
Ta c
2 2 2 2
3 6 3(1 ) 0 2 1 0 = + + = + = y x mx m y x mx m
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit 1 0, = > m
Vy hm s lun c cc i, cc tiu vi mi gi tr ca m.
Chia y cho y ta c
2
1
2
3 3
| |
= + +
|
\
m
y x y x m m
Gi ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
; , ; A x y B x y l cc im cc tr, khi
( )
( )
1
2
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
1
2
3 3
1
2
3 3
| |
= + +
|

| |

= + +
|
\
x
x
m
y x y x m m
m
y x y x m m

Do
( ) ( )
( )
1 2
2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
0 , : 2
2
= +
= = = +

= +

x x
y x m m
y y A B d y x m m
y x m m

Vy, phng trnh ng thng qua hai im cc tr ca th hm s cho l
2
2 = + y x m m.
V d 2: Cho hm s = +
3 2
3 2 y x x mx
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu v ng thng i qua cc im cc tr song song vi ng thng d: y =
4x + 3.
Hng dn gii :
Ta c
2
3 6 = y x x m
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit ( ) 0 9 3 0 3, * > + > > m m
Chia y cho y ta c
1 1 2
2 2
3 3 3 3
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ \ \
m
x y
m
x y
Gi ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
; , ; A x y B x y l cc im cc tr, khi phng trnh ng thng qua A, B l
( )
2
: 2 2
3 3
| |
= + +
|
\
m m
y x
Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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Theo bi ta c
2
2 4
3
3
2 3
3
/ / : 4 3
| |
+ =
|

\
= = +

m
m
m
d y x
i chiu vi (*) ta c m = 3 l gi tr cn tm.
V d 3: Cho hm s = +
3 2
3 2 y x x mx
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu v cc im ny cch u ng thng (d): y = x 1.
Hng dn gii :
Ta c
2
3 6 = y x x m
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit ( ) 0 9 3 0 3, * > + > > m m
Chia y cho y ta c
1 1 2
2 2
3 3 3 3
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ \ \
m
x y
m
x y
Gi ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
; , ; A x y B x y l cc im cc tr, khi phng trnh ng thng qua A, B l
( )
2
: 2 2
3 3
| |
= + +
|
\
m m
AB y x
Cc im cc tr cch u ng thng (d) : y = x 1 nn xy ra 1 trong 2 trng hp:
TH1: ng thng i qua 2 im cc tr song song hoc trng vi ng thng (d)
2 3
2 1 ,
3 2
| |
+ = =
|
\

m
m (tha mn)
TH2: Trung im I ca AB nm trn ng thng ( )
1 2 1 2
1 1
2 2
+ +
= =
I I
y y x x
d y x
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 3 .2 6 0
3 3 3 3
| | | | | |
+ + + = + + = =
| | |
\ \ \

m m m m
x x x x m
Vy
3
0;
2
= = m m l cc gi tr cn tm.
V d 4: Cho hm s = +
3 2
3 y x x mx
Tm m hm s c cc i, cc tiu v cc im ny i xng nhau qua (d): x 2y 5 = 0.
Hng dn gii :
Ta c
2
3 6 = + y x x m
Hm s c cc i, cc tiu khi y = 0 c hai nghim phn bit ( ) 0 9 3 0 3, * > > < m m
Chia y cho y ta c
1 1 2 1
2
3 3 3 3
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ \
y x y m x m
Gi ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
; , ; A x y B x y l cc im cc tr, khi ( )
2 1 2
2 2
3
:
3 3
| |
+ =
|

=
\
AB
m x m k A m B y
Ta c ( )
1
: 2 5 0
2
= =
d
d x y k
A, B i xng nhau qua (d) th ta phi c ( ) ( )
1 2
. 1 2 1 0
2 3
| |
= = =
|
\
AB d
AB d k k m m
Vi m = 0 th th c hai im cc tr l (0; 0) v (2; 4), nn trung im ca chng l I(1; 2).
Ta thy I (d), do hai im cc tr i xng vi nhau qua (d).
Vy m = 0 l gi tr cn tm.
BI TP LUYN TP:
Bi 1: Cho hm s
3 2
3( 1) 9 2 = + + + y x m x x m
Tm m hm s c im cc i v im cc tiu i xng vi nhau qua ng thng ( )
1
: .
2
= d y x
/s: m = 1
Bi 2: Cho hm s
3 2
3 2 = + y x x mx
Tm m hm s c im cc i v im cc tiu v ng thng qua cc im to vi ng thng
Luyn thi i hc mn Ton nm hc 2012 2013 Thy ng Vit Hng
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( ) : 4 5 0 + = d x y mt gc 45
0
.
/s: . =
1
2
m