You are on page 1of 2

Quy phm sn thit b v kt cu thp trong xy dng dn dng v cng nghip

t vn :
Hin ti cc nh cung cp sn u c hng dn s dng cho tng loi sn m ho cung ng cho khch
hng. Tuy nhin m bo cht long ca mng sn thnh phm cn phi c mt quy phm thi cng
thng nht v nhng nt c bn. V vy Vin Vt liu XD bin son Quy phm sn thit bj v kt cu thp
trong xy dung dn dng v cng nghip. Ni dung quy phm ny bao gm cc ni dung chnh sau:
1. Phm vi p dng,
2. Cc tiu chun v dn
3. Quy jnh chung
4. Lm sch b mt trc khi sn
5. Thi cng sn
6. Kim tra v nghim thu cng vic
7. An ton trong thi cng sn
Cc ni dung chi tit ca tng ni dung c th trong bn Quy phm oc B Xy dung ban hnh. Trong bi
ny gii thiu v phn tch mt s chi tit bit r hn.
X l lm sch b mt:
Trong cng tc sn ni chung cng nh sn b mt thp ni ring, vic x lm sch b mt trc khi tin
hnh sn l cng vic ht sc quan trong, c tnh quyt jnh n su bm dnh cng nh cht long ca
mng sn thnh phm. X l b mt l to ra mt b mt sch, khng cha cc bi bn, u m, gi, cc vt
l... i vi b mt sn sa li cn phi loi b sch lp sn c. Trong cc tiu chun quc t, c cc tiu
chun ring dnh cho vic x l b mt thp trc khi sn; c tiu chun v yu cu k thut v phng
php th cho cc loi ht mi dng trong phng php phun thi lm sch. X l lm sch b mt quyt jnh
kh nng bm dnh ca mng sn, do quyt jnh c cht long tui tho ca mng sn thnh phm.
Tuy theo tng loi b mt m yu cu, phng php x l lm sch khc nhau. Di y gii thiu cc
phng php x l lm sch b mt thp, vt liu ch to cc thit bj v kt cu thp trong xy dung dn
dng v cng nghip.
1. Yu cu v mc sch ca thp trc khi sn.
1.1 Cc loi tc nhn cn x l tch khi b mt thp:
Cc tc nhn cn oc lm sch khi b mt thp trc khi sn l cc dj vt sau: Nc, bi, t ct, du
m, cc vy gi, vy thp, vt sn c, xi hn...
1.2 Mc gi:
Trong qa trnh bo qun, vn chuyn thp b mt c th bj gi mc khc nhau nh ghi trong bng 1
(Bng - xem ti tp nh km). Su phn cp ny c lin quan n vic nghim thu lm sch b mt bng hnh
nh theo tiu chun Quc t SO 8501: 1988.
1.3 Mc sch:
Mc sch ca b mt thp sau khi x l c cc mc yu cu khc nhau tuy theo loi cng trnh, cng
nng lm vic ca n v tui tho ca mng sn. Trong thuc t xy dung dn dng v cng nghip, cng nh
theo tiu chun quc t, khi lm sch b mt bng phng php c hoc (phun thi ht ct kim loi bng kh
nn) mc sch ca b mt oc chia ra lm 4 mc nh ghi trong bng 2 (Bng - xem ti tp nh km).
Nu lm sch bng th cng v cc dng c c kh, mc sch oc k hiu bng St gm 3 mc nh ghi
trong bng 3 (Bng - xem ti tp nh km).
2. Cc phng php x l lm sch b mt thp.
Mc ch ca cng vic x l lm sch b mt thp trc khi sn l nhm tng cao kh nng bm dnh ca
mng sn vi b mt cn sn, qua nng cao bn ca mng sn thnh phm, nng cao kh nng bo
v, tnh cht thm m... ca chng. Tuy theo yu cu lm sch, trng thi lm vic ca b mt cn sn v
mc gi ca n, iu kin, phng tin thi cng m lua chon phng php lm sch ph hop. Trong bi
chi gii thiu mt s phng php c bn c th s dng lm sch b mt thp ca cc thit bj v kt cu
thp trong xy dung dn dng v cng nghip.
2.1.X l lm sch du m (phng php ho hoc)
Cng vic u tin trong x l b mt trc khi sn l lm sch du m (c bit l i vi b mt mi sn
ln u). S d c du m trn b mt tp l do trong qu trnh bo qun ngi ta thng bi ln b mt
thp hn ch hoen gi, hoc do vng vi dnh vo trong qa trnh gia cng v s dng. Du m ny c
th l du thuc vt d x phng ho ho tan trong dung djch kim. Chng c th l du khong khng th x
phng ho m c th ho tan trong dung mi hu c. i vi du m tuc vt, m bo lm sch ngi ta
thng dng dung djch kim ty ra nhu ghi trong bng 4 (Bng - xem ti tp nh km).
Thi gian lu gi dung djch ty ra trn b mt cn lm sch khong 10 pht, sau ra sch cht ty ra
bng nc.
ty ra du m khong ngi ta thng dng xng cng nghip, hoc tricloetilen. C th ty ra bng
cch nhng b mt cn lm sch vo thng cha dung mi hoc phun dung mi ln b mt. Cng c th lm
sch du m bng cch lm bay hi tricloetilen. Cho tricloetilen v cu kin cn lm sch b mt vo thng
ty du, trong thng c lp thit bj bc hi. Phng php ny oc coi l phng php ty du t hiu qu
nht.
2.2 X l lm sch bng c hoc
Cc phng php c hoc lm sch b mt oc dng ty gi, ty vy st, lp xy ho, thuc hn, xi hn.
Phng php ny oc thuc hin sau khi lm sch du m bng phng php ho hoc.
2.2.1 X l lm sch bng phng php th cng.
Phng php ny oc dng lm sch b mt cc b, nhng ch hoen gi nh, nhng vj tr khng th
dng cc phng php khc. N oc dng lm sch cc vy, gi lng lo cc mng bo v hoc cc
mng khc lin kt yu vi b mt thp, thuc hn, xi v xy hn.
Cc dng c s dng l bn chi st, gi mi (c gn ct), cng c th dng ct rc ln b mt v dng gi
nh, da, ba tay... Phng php ny hiu qu khng cao, nn chi oc s dung i vi nhng b mt c
mc gi nh, dng trong vipc sa cha mng sn.
Cc dng c lm sch th cng nn oc ch to bng thp cng c, oc ti v lm nhm mt nng
cao kh nng no ty v nn c kch thc v hnh dng ph hop tng kh nng lm sch.
tng hiu qu lm sch v nng sut lao ng, cc chi st c th gn vo my mi. X l lm sch b
mt bng phng php th cng khng sch i vi din cn lm sch ln, hn na hiu qu lm sch
cha cao, c bit n cha to nn mt b mt nhm lm tng kh nng bm dnh ca mng sn.
2.2.2. X l lm sch b mt bng cc phng php c kh ho.
Phun thi l phng php s dng kh nn, cc vi phun c bit phun cc ht mi (ht ct hoc ht kim
loi) ln b mt cn x l. Phng php ny cho b mt sch v nhm do cc dng ct hay kim loi to nn
khi chng bn vo b mt di tc dng ca dng kh nn.
thc hin lm sch bng phng php phun ht kim loi,chng c yu cu k thut ring nh trnh by
trong bn 5 v 6 (Bng - xem ti tp nh km).
Sau khi vic x l lm sch b mt oc nghim thu, cn phi tin hnh cng vic sn ngay trnh b
mt bj nhim bi bn hoc gi tr li. V vy cc nh thu phi b tr cng vic m bo yu cu ny vi iu
kin cho php nh sau:
- Khng qu 4 gi nu m khng kh trong khu vuc thi cng nh hn 60%.
- Khng qu 3 gi nu m khng kh trong khu vuc thi cng t 60% n di 75%.
- Khng qu 2 gi nu m khng kh trong khu vuc thi cng t 75% n di 85%.
!"n ti"u chu#n$ %t cu thp & !i"u chu#n thit k '(t))* structur)s & +)sign
st,nd,rd-
S tiu chun: TCXDVN 383 : 2005
C quan ban hnh: B Xy dung ban hnh theo Quyt jnh s 17/2005/Q-BXD ngy 31 thng 5 nm 2005.
Ngn ng: Vit Nam. S trang: 124.
ja chi ti liu: TCM.001781. Th vin KHCN - B Xy dung.
Phm vi p dng:
- Tiu chun ny dng thit k kt cu thp cc cng trnh xy dung dn dng, cng nghip. Tiu chun
ny khng dng thit k cc cng trnh giao thng, thu loi nh cc loi cu, cng trnh trn ng, ca
van, ng ng...
- Khi thit k kt cu thp ca mt s loi cng trnh chuyn dng nh kt cu l cao, cng trnh thu cng,
cng trnh ngoi bin hoc kt cu thp c tnh cht c bit nh kt cu thnh mng, kt cu thp to hnh
ngui, kt cu ng luc trc, kt cu khng gian..., cn theo nhng yu cu ring quy jnh trong cc tiu
chun chuyn ngnh.