This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Jazz requires a particular kind of empathy. • Although not absolutely necessary, learning about the fundamental rules and techniques of jazz can deepen one’s understanding and appreciation of the art form.
• Timbre (tone color) refers to the distinctive qualities of a sound, as in the difference between instruments or voices. • We control timbre: the tone of voice can indicate emotions; we can physically change the sound of an instrument with mutes. • Timbral variation is a musical value in jazz and can be used to find one’s own sound.
The Ensemble • Wind Instruments (Horns) – Instruments are often classified by the way the sound is made. – Wind instruments are the largest category of jazz instruments. – These produce sound by vibrating a column of air that can be modified by changing the length of the column (by depressing keys) or overblowing. .
• Valves control the length of tubing. Overblowing also contributes to the sound. .The Ensemble • Wind Instruments (Horns) – Brass Instruments • Sound is made by vibrating lips in a cuplike mouthpiece. The cornet and the flugelhorn are conical. • The trumpet is the most common: it has cylindrical tubing except for the bell.
Harmon. cup. The slide allows for glissando or smear. Half-valving and shaking can also vary timbre. plunger. when the trumpet took over. • Trombone: Uses a slide to change pitch. • Mutes can be used in combination.The Ensemble • Wind Instruments (Horns) • The cornet was used until around 1926. On early recordings it is difficult to tell the difference between the two. . • Various mutes change the trumpet’s timbre: straight.
• Saxophone: alto.The Ensemble • Wind Instruments (Horns) – Reed Instruments • Clarinet: cylindrical. tenor. saxophone became one of the main instruments of American music (especially alto and tenor). soprano. and baritone. • By 1930. . popular in New Orleans and swing jazz but declined in popularity since then. wooden.
and percussion. – The rhythm section consists of instruments that provide harmony. bass. for example. various kinds of solo instruments versus the more fixed types of rhythm section instruments.The Ensemble • Rhythm Section – Another way to classify instruments is by their musical use. .
banjo. organ. electric piano. . The most common rhythm section is bass. guitar. guitar. vibraphone • More than one harmony instrument may be used. A popular combination is guitar and piano.The Ensemble • Rhythm Section – Harmony Instruments • Piano (most important because of its popularity and range). drums. and piano.
• It provides two functions: harmonic support and rhythmic foundation. usually played pizzicato in jazz. • The electric bass is sometimes used instead of the acoustic bass. the tuba provided the bass. . although it is seldom noticed.The Ensemble • Rhythm Section – Bass • It is the foundation of the jazz ensemble. • In early jazz.
and hanging cymbals are all played by one person. snare drum. drum set. . the snare drum. The musician uses all four limbs to play. and cymbals. • The drum set uses the same drums with a foot peddle for the bass drum. or trap set (traps). The bass drum. • It originated from marching band. where separate players played the bass drum.The Ensemble • Rhythm Section – Percussion • Drum kit.
. which is placed in front of the drummer in a semicircle. high-hat (two cymbals controlled by a foot pedal). crash. left hand sticking snare drum or tom-tom. right hand sticking the ride cymbal.The Ensemble • Rhythm Section • Tom-toms (middle-sized drums) can also be used as part of this set. • Right foot on bass drum pedal. left foot on high-hat pedal. • Cymbals: ride.
The Ensemble • Rhythm Section • Can alter timbre: different size sticks. guiro. mallets. maracas. timbales. bongos. . • Latin percussion is sometime used: congas. wire brushes.
this ―pulse rhythm‖ is the basic approach to rhythm used in jazz.From Polyrhythm to Swing • Meter – Meter is related to biological phenomena such as heartbeat. or speed. – Moving at a given tempo. . which is reflected in a steady rhythmic pulse.
g. the cadenza (e.From Polyrhythm to Swing • Meter – Breath rhythm is more flexible and therefore akin to free rhythm.‖ – Beat equals a steady pulse. . – Count along with The Free Bridge Quintet’s ―Midriff. for example.. opening of Louis Armstrong’s ―West End Blues‖).
is regular grouping of beats. duple meter is most common (group pulses by two or four).From Polyrhythm to Swing • Meter – One can hear how pulse is grouped into a meter. . or the distance between downbeats. – A measure. or bar. This can be thought of as a small cycle—a repeated fixed unit. In jazz.
– The foundation layer in jazz (keeping time) is persistent and repetitive: bass and ride cymbal. . there are usually at least two layers of rhythm occurring at the same time in African and Africanderived music.From Polyrhythm to Swing • Polyrhythm – In contrast to European music.
. – Syncopation occurs whenever a strong accent contradicts the basic meter. Rhythm section can add layers as well: rhythmic placement of piano chords. drums. central to jazz rhythm.From Polyrhythm to Swing • Syncopation – Jazz soloists add the variable layers of rhythm.
From Polyrhythm to Swing • Syncopation – A downbeat is the first beat of every measure. The backbeat counters or alternates with the downbeat. – Accenting beats 2 and 4 instead of 1 and 3 in a four-four measure is an example of a syncopated rhythmic pattern emphasizing the backbeat. .
– Swing is a type of groove basic to jazz that is difficult to define but occurs when all the rhythms interlock. . four-beat rhythm with a backbeat.From Polyrhythm to Swing • Swing – Groove: the overall rhythmic framework within which rhythmic events occur. for example.
Melody and Harmony • Melody – Scale: a collection of pitches within an octave. The distance between each one is a half step. . A scale of twelve half steps is called a chromatic scale. – The Do Re Mi scale is called a major scale (or mode) and is made up of seven degrees. There are twelve piano keys between two notes of an octave.
. – The minor mode has a different pattern of whole and half steps. regardless of the first note.Melody and Harmony • Melody – A major scale is termed major because its pattern of pitches is made up of the same arrangement or ordering of whole and half steps.
but also a central musical influence. – A system of making melody that includes variable intonation (blue notes. . bent notes).Melody and Harmony • Blues Scale – Not just a set of pitches.
Their clash with underlying major scale sounds is appealing because of its ―otherness‖ in sound.Melody and Harmony • Blues Scale – Blue notes are available on most instruments but the piano is problematic. The solution is to play two neighboring notes simultaneously. .
• The most fundamental chord to Western music is the triad.Harmony • The simultaneous sounding of pitches creates a chord.g. . a three-note chord with the root (from which it takes its name. A) usually located in the bass. e. an A major triad is built upon the root pitch..
a harmonic progression is a fixed series of interrelated chords (usually repeated) played in a strict rhythmic sequence.Harmony • Voicings rearrange specific note ordering within a chord and may include the use of chordal extensions. • In jazz. .
. or resting. point to which most other chords in a key area are directed. – The tonic triad (built on ―do‖—pronounced ―doe‖—is also known as the tonic) is the focal.Harmony • Chords are classified according to the degree of the scale on which they are built and may sound relatively stable (consonant) or unstable and even jarring (dissonant).
.Harmony – The chord built on the fifth degree of the scale(or ―sol. • A cadence occurs at the end of a phrase when a chord progression comes to rest.‖ known as the dominant chord) is at the opposite end of the stability continuum and is especially drawn to move in the direction of the tonic triad.
• The interaction of a half cadence followed by a full cadence mirrors the inflection in one’s voice between posing a question and responding with an answer.Harmony • A half cadence occurs when the end of a phrase sounds temporary and incomplete. a full cadence feels like a full stop (often on ―do‖ with the tonic harmony). .
• Usually melody and harmony are in separate layers. .Texture • Texture refers to the way melody and harmony are balanced. – Homophony • Melody supported by harmonic accompaniment.
Texture • Texture refers to the way melody and harmony are balanced. . but it does not compete with the main melody. • Countermelody (obbligato) occurs when the subordinate instruments have their own melodic interest. • Sometimes in a single layer: block harmony occurs when two or more instruments play the same phrase with the same rhythm but with different pitches filling out the harmony often in the context of soli.
– Monophony • Melody performed by a single solo voice with no harmonic accompaniment.Texture • Texture refers to the way melody and harmony are balanced. . • Rare in jazz but found in early jazz ―breaks.‖ where a musician plays while the rest of the band is silent (usually two bars).
Texture • Texture refers to the way melody and harmony are balanced. as in the case of Armstrong’s unaccompanied introductory fanfare. • Similar to ―stop-time‖ in which band plays short chords at brief intervals while the soloist improvises. or cadenza. at the start of ―West End Blues.‖ . • Monophony can be used to begin or end a piece.
.Texture • Polyphony – Two or more simultaneous melodies of equal interest played at the same time. or Dixieland. – Polyphonic writing is regularly heard in New Orleans jazz.
Big (swing) bands are typically homophonic. while avant-garde jazz often returns to experimentation with more polyphonic textures in a new stylistic context. .Texture • Polyphony – New Orleans jazz uses polyphonic textures.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?