[G.R. No. 104768. July 21, 2003] Republic of the Philippine , petitioner, vs. !"n#i$"nb"y"n, %"&o' Gene'"l Jo ephu (. R")" "n# *li+"beth ,i)""no, respondents. DECISION CARPIO, J.

: The Case Before this Court is a petition for review on certiorari seekin to set asi!e the Reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an %&irst Division' !ate! () Nove*#er (++( an! ,- .ar/h (++, in Civi" Case No. 0012. The first Reso"ution !is*isse! petitioner3s A*en!e! Co*p"aint an! or!ere! the return of the /onfis/ate! ite*s to respon!ent E"i4a#eth Di*aano, whi"e the se/on! Reso"ution !enie! petitioner3s .otion for Re/onsi!eration. Petitioner pra$s for the rant of the re"iefs sou ht in its A*en!e! Co*p"aint, or in the a"ternative, for the re*an! of this /ase to the San!i an#a$an %&irst Division' for further pro/ee!in s a""owin petitioner to /o*p"ete the presentation of its evi!en/e. Ante/e!ent &a/ts I**e!iate"$ upon her assu*ption to offi/e fo""owin the su//essfu" EDSA Revo"ution, then Presi!ent Cora4on C. A5uino issue! E6e/utive Or!er No. ( %7EO No. (8' /reatin the Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent %7PC998'. EO No. ( pri*ari"$ taske! the PC99 to re/over a"" i"": otten wea"th of for*er Presi!ent &er!inan! E. .ar/os, his i**e!iate fa*i"$, re"atives, su#or!inates an! /"ose asso/iates. EO No. ( veste! the PC99 with the power 7%a' to /on!u/t investi ation as *a$ #e ne/essar$ in or!er to a//o*p"ish an! /arr$ out the purposes of this or!er8 an! the power 7%h' to pro*u" ate su/h ru"es an! re u"ations as *a$ #e ne/essar$ to /arr$ out the purpose of this or!er.8 A//or!in "$, the PC99, throu h its then Chair*an ;ovito R. Sa"on a, /reate! an A&P Anti:9raft Boar! %7A&P Boar!8' taske! to investi ate reports of une6p"aine! wea"th an! /orrupt pra/ti/es #$ A&P personne", whether in the a/tive servi/e or retire!. Base! on its *an!ate, the A&P Boar! investi ate! various reports of a""e e! une6p"aine! wea"th of respon!ent .a<or 9enera" ;osephus =. Ra*as %7Ra*as8'. On ,2 ;u"$ (+)2, the A&P Boar! issue! a Reso"ution on its fin!in s an! re/o**en!ation on the reporte! une6p"aine! wea"th of Ra*as. The re"evant part of the Reso"ution rea!s: III. &INDIN9S an! E>A?@ATION:

Evi!en/e in the re/or! showe! that respon!ent is the owner of a house an! "ot "o/ate! at (-:Aakan St., ?a >ista, =ue4on Cit$. Be is a"so the owner of a house an! "ot "o/ate! in Ce#u Cit$. The "ot has an area of 1,1,2 s5uare *eters. The va"ue of the propert$ "o/ate! in =ue4on Cit$ *a$ #e esti*ate! *o!est"$ at P200,000.00. The e5uip*entCite*s an! /o**uni/ation fa/i"ities whi/h were foun! in the pre*ises of E"i4a#eth Di*aano an! were /onfis/ate! #$ e"e*ents of the PC Co**an! of Batan as were a"" /overe! #$ invoi/e re/eipt in the na*e of CAPT. E&REN SA?IDO, RSO Co**an! Co$, .SC, PA. These ite*s /ou"! not have #een in the possession of E"i4a#eth Di*aano if not iven for her use #$ respon!ent Co**an!in 9enera" of the Phi"ippine Ar*$. Asi!e fro* the *i"itar$ e5uip*entCite*s an! /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent, the rai!in tea* was a"so a#"e to /onfis/ate *one$ in the a*ount of P,,)20,000.00 an! D-0,000 @S Do""ars in the house of E"i4a#eth Di*aano on 1 .ar/h (+)E. Affi!avits of *e*#ers of the .i"itar$ Se/urit$ @nit, .i"itar$ Se/urit$ Co**an!, Phi"ippine Ar*$, statione! at Ca*p E"!ri! e, ?os BaFos, ?a una, !is/"ose! that E"i4a#eth Di*aano is the *istress of respon!ent. That respon!ent usua""$ oes an! sta$s an! s"eeps in the a""e e! house of E"i4a#eth Di*aano in Baran a$ Ten a, Itaas, Batan as Cit$ an! when he arrives, E"i4a#eth Di*aano e*#ra/es an! kisses respon!ent. That on &e#ruar$ ,-, (+)E, a person who ro!e in a /ar went to the resi!en/e of E"i4a#eth Di*aano with four %G' atta/he /ases fi""e! with *one$ an! owne! #$ .9en Ra*as. Sworn state*ent in the re/or! !is/"ose! a"so that E"i4a#eth Di*aano ha! no visi#"e *eans of in/o*e an! is supporte! #$ respon!ent for she was for*er"$ a *ere se/retar$. Takin in toto the evi!en/e, E"i4a#eth Di*aano /ou"! not have use! the *i"itar$ e5uip*entCite*s sei4e! in her house on .ar/h 1, (+)E without the /onsent of respon!ent, he #ein the Co**an!in 9enera" of the Phi"ippine Ar*$. It is a"so i*possi#"e for E"i4a#eth Di*aano to /"ai* that she owns the P,,)20,000.00 an! D-0,000 @S Do""ars for she ha! no visi#"e sour/e of in/o*e. This *one$ was never !e/"are! in the State*ent of Assets an! ?ia#i"ities of respon!ent. There was an intention to /over the e6isten/e of these *one$ #e/ause these are a"" i"": otten an! une6p"aine! wea"th. Here it not for the affi!avits of the *e*#ers of the .i"itar$ Se/urit$ @nit assi ne! at Ca*p E"!ri! e, ?os BaFos, ?a una, the e6isten/e an! ownership of these *one$ wou"! have never #een known.

The State*ent of Assets an! ?ia#i"ities of respon!ent were a"so su#*itte! for s/rutin$ an! ana"$sis #$ the Boar!3s /onsu"tant. A"thou h the a*ount of P,,)20,000.00 an! D-0,000 @S Do""ars were not in/"u!e!, sti"" it was !is/"ose! that respon!ent has an une6p"aine! wea"th of P(0G,(1G. E0. I>. CONC?@SION: In view of the fore oin , the Boar! fin!s that a pri*a fa/ie /ase e6ists a ainst respon!ent for i"": otten an! une6p"aine! wea"th in the a*ount of P,,+2G,(1G.00 an! D-0,000 @S Do""ars. >. RECO..ENDATION: Hherefore it is re/o**en!e! that .a<. 9en. ;osephus =. Ra*as %ret.' #e prose/ute! an! trie! for vio"ation of RA 10(+, as a*en!e!, otherwise known as 7Anti:9raft an! Corrupt Pra/ti/es A/t8 an! RA (12+, as a*en!e!, otherwise known as 7The A/t for the &orfeiture of @n"awfu""$ A/5uire! Propert$.8 Thus, on ( Au ust (+)2, the PC99 fi"e! a petition for forfeiture un!er Repu#"i/ A/t No. (12+ %7RA No. (12+8' a ainst Ra*as. Before Ra*as /ou"! answer the petition, then So"i/itor 9enera" &ran/is/o I. Chave4 fi"e! an A*en!e! Co*p"aint na*in the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines %7petitioner8', represente! #$ the PC99, as p"aintiff an! Ra*as as !efen!ant. The A*en!e! Co*p"aint a"so i*p"ea!e! E"i4a#eth Di*aano %7Di*aano8' as /o:!efen!ant. The A*en!e! Co*p"aint a""e e! that Ra*as was the Co**an!in 9enera" of the Phi"ippine Ar*$ unti" (+)E. On the other han!, Di*aano was a /onfi!entia" a ent of the .i"itar$ Se/urit$ @nit, Phi"ippine Ar*$, assi ne! as a /"erk:t$pist at the offi/e of Ra*as fro* ( ;anuar$ (+2) to &e#ruar$ (+2+. The A*en!e! Co*p"aint further a""e e! that Ra*as 7a/5uire! fun!s, assets an! properties *anifest"$ out of proportion to his sa"ar$ as an ar*$ offi/er an! his other in/o*e fro* "e iti*ate"$ a/5uire! propert$ #$ takin un!ue a!vanta e of his pu#"i/ offi/e an!Cor usin his power, authorit$ an! inf"uen/e as su/h offi/er of the Ar*e! &or/es of the Phi"ippines an! as a su#or!inate an! /"ose asso/iate of the !epose! Presi!ent &er!inan! .ar/os.8 The A*en!e! Co*p"aint a"so a""e e! that the A&P Boar!, after a previous in5uir$, foun! reasona#"e roun! to #e"ieve that respon!ents have vio"ate! RA No. (12+. The A*en!e! Co*p"aint pra$e! for, a*on others, the forfeiture of respon!ents3 properties, fun!s an! e5uip*ent in favor of the State. Ra*as fi"e! an Answer with Spe/ia" an!Cor Affir*ative Defenses an! Co*pu"sor$ Counter/"ai* to the A*en!e! Co*p"aint. In his Answer, Ra*as

/onten!e! that his propert$ /onsiste! on"$ of a resi!entia" house at ?a >ista Su#!ivision, =ue4on Cit$, va"ue! at P200,000, whi/h was not out of proportion to his sa"ar$ an! other "e iti*ate in/o*e. Be !enie! ownership of an$ *ansion in Ce#u Cit$ an! the /ash, /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent an! other ite*s /onfis/ate! fro* the house of Di*aano. Di*aano fi"e! her own Answer to the A*en!e! Co*p"aint. A!*ittin her e*p"o$*ent as a /"erk:t$pist in the offi/e of Ra*as fro* ;anuar$:Nove*#er (+2) on"$, Di*aano /"ai*e! ownership of the *onies, /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent, <ewe"r$ an! "an! tit"es taken fro* her house #$ the Phi"ippine Consta#u"ar$ rai!in tea*. After ter*ination of the pre:tria", the /ourt set the /ase for tria" on the *erits on +:(( Nove*#er (+)). On + Nove*#er (+)), petitioner aske! for a !efer*ent of the hearin !ue to its "a/k of preparation for tria" an! the a#sen/e of witnesses an! vita" !o/u*ents to support its /ase. The /ourt reset the hearin to (2 an! () Apri" (+)+. On (1 Apri" (+)+, petitioner fi"e! a *otion for "eave to a*en! the /o*p"aint in or!er 7to /har e the !e"in5uent properties with #ein su#<e/t to forfeiture as havin #een un"awfu""$ a/5uire! #$ !efen!ant Di*aano a"one 6 6 6.8 Neverthe"ess, in an or!er !ate! (2 Apri" (+)+, the San!i an#a$an pro/ee!e! with petitioner3s presentation of evi!en/e on the roun! that the *otion for "eave to a*en! /o*p"aint !i! not state when petitioner wou"! fi"e the a*en!e! /o*p"aint. The San!i an#a$an further state! that the su#<e/t *atter of the a*en!e! /o*p"aint was on its fa/e va ue an! not re"ate! to the e6istin /o*p"aint. The San!i an#a$an a"so he"! that !ue to the ti*e that the /ase ha! #een pen!in in /ourt, petitioner shou"! pro/ee! to present its evi!en/e. After presentin on"$ three witnesses, petitioner aske! for a postpone*ent of the tria". On ,) Septe*#er (+)+, !urin the /ontinuation of the tria", petitioner *anifeste! its ina#i"it$ to pro/ee! to tria" #e/ause of the a#sen/e of other witnesses or "a/k of further evi!en/e to present. Instea!, petitioner reiterate! its *otion to a*en! the /o*p"aint to /onfor* to the evi!en/e a"rea!$ presente! or to /han e the aver*ents to show that Di*aano a"one un"awfu""$ a/5uire! the *onies or properties su#<e/t of the forfeiture. The San!i an#a$an note! that petitioner ha! a"rea!$ !e"a$e! the /ase for over a $ear *ain"$ #e/ause of its *an$ postpone*ents. .oreover, petitioner wou"! want the /ase to revert to its pre"i*inar$ sta e when in fa/t the /ase ha! "on

#een rea!$ for tria". The San!i an#a$an or!ere! petitioner to prepare for presentation of its a!!itiona" evi!en/e, if an$. Durin the tria" on ,1 .ar/h (++0, petitioner a ain a!*itte! its ina#i"it$ to present further evi!en/e. 9ivin petitioner one *ore /han/e to present further evi!en/e or to a*en! the /o*p"aint to /onfor* to its evi!en/e, the San!i an#a$an reset the tria" to () .a$ (++0. The San!i an#a$an, however, hinte! that the re:settin was without pre<u!i/e to an$ a/tion that private respon!ents *i ht take un!er the /ir/u*stan/es. Bowever, on () .a$ (++0, petitioner a ain e6presse! its ina#i"it$ to pro/ee! to tria" #e/ause it ha! no further evi!en/e to present. A ain, in the interest of <usti/e, the San!i an#a$an rante! petitioner E0 !a$s within whi/h to fi"e an appropriate p"ea!in . The San!i an#a$an, however, warne! petitioner that fai"ure to a/t wou"! /onstrain the /ourt to take !rasti/ a/tion. Private respon!ents then fi"e! their *otions to !is*iss #ase! on Republic v. Migrino. The Court he"! in Migrino that the PC99 !oes not have <uris!i/tion to investi ate an! prose/ute *i"itar$ offi/ers #$ reason of *ere position he"! without a showin that the$ are 7su#or!inates8 of for*er Presi!ent .ar/os. On () Nove*#er (++(, the San!i an#a$an ren!ere! a reso"ution, the !ispositive portion of whi/h states: HBERE&ORE, <u! *ent is here#$ ren!ere! !is*issin the A*en!e! Co*p"aint, without pronoun/e*ent as to /osts. The /ounter/"ai*s are "ikewise !is*isse! for "a/k of *erit, #ut the /onfis/ate! su* of *one$, /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent, <ewe"r$ an! "an! tit"es are or!ere! returne! to E"i4a#eth Di*aano. The re/or!s of this /ase are here#$ re*an!e! an! referre! to the Bon. O*#u!s*an, who has pri*ar$ <uris!i/tion over the forfeiture /ases un!er R.A. No. (12+, for su/h appropriate a/tion as the evi!en/e warrants. This /ase is a"so referre! to the Co**issioner of the Bureau of Interna" Revenue for a !eter*ination of an$ ta6 "ia#i"it$ of respon!ent E"i4a#eth Di*aano in /onne/tion herewith. SO ORDERED. On G De/e*#er (++(, petitioner fi"e! its .otion for Re/onsi!eration. In answer to the .otion for Re/onsi!eration, private respon!ents fi"e! a ;oint Co**entCOpposition to whi/h petitioner fi"e! its Rep"$ on (0 ;anuar$ (++,. On ,- .ar/h (++,, the San!i an#a$an ren!ere! a Reso"ution !en$in .otion for Re/onsi!eration. the

Ru"in of the San!i an#a$an The San!i an#a$an !is*isse! the A*en!e! Co*p"aint on the fo""owin roun!s: %(.' The a/tions taken #$ the PC99 are not in a//or!an/e with the ru"in s of the Supre*e Court in Cruz, Jr. v. Sandiganbayan an! Republic v. Migrino whi/h invo"ve the sa*e issues. No previous in5uir$ si*i"ar to pre"i*inar$ investi ations in /ri*ina" /ases was /on!u/te! a ainst Ra*as an! Di*aano. The evi!en/e a!!u/e! a ainst Ra*as !oes not /onstitute a prima facie /ase a ainst hi*. There was an i""e a" sear/h an! sei4ure of the ite*s /onfis/ate!.

%,.'

%1.'

%G.' The Issues

Petitioner raises the fo""owin issues: A. RESPONDENT CO@RT SERIO@S?A ERRED IN CONC?@DIN9 TBAT PETITIONER3S E>IDENCE CANNOT .AIE A CASE &OR &OR&EIT@RE AND TBAT TBERE HAS NO SBOHIN9 O& CONSPIRACA, CO??@SION OR RE?ATIONSBIP BA CONSAN9@INITA OR A&&INITA BA AND BETHEEN RESPONDENT RA.AS AND RESPONDENT DI.AANO NOTHITBSTANDIN9 TBE &ACT TBAT S@CB CONC?@SIONS HERE C?EAR?A @N&O@NDED AND PRE.AT@RE, BA>IN9 BEEN RENDERED PRIOR TO TBE CO.P?ETION O& TBE PRESENTATION O& TBE E>IDENCE O& TBE PETITIONER. RESPONDENT CO@RT SERIO@S?A ERRED IN BO?DIN9 TBAT TBE ACTIONS TAIEN BA TBE PETITIONER, INC?@DIN9 TBE &I?IN9 O& TBE ORI9INA? CO.P?AINT AND TBE A.ENDED CO.P?AINT, SBO@?D BE STR@CI O@T IN ?INE HITB TBE R@?IN9S O& TBE S@PRE.E CO@RT IN CR@J, ;R. v. SANDI9ANBAAAN, (+G SCRA G2G AND REP@B?IC v. .I9RINO, ()+ SCRA ,)+, NOTHITBSTANDIN9 TBE &ACT TBAT:

B.

/an on"$ investi ate the une6p"aine! wea"th an! /orrupt pra/ti/es of A&P personne" who fa"" un!er either of the two /ate ories *entione! in Se/tion . San!i an#a$an. are /"ear"$ not app"i/a#"e to this /aseK An$ pro/e!ura" !efe/t in the institution of the /o*p"aint in Civi" Case No. throu h the A&P Boar!. su#or!inates an! /"ose asso/iates. The PC99 ave this task to the A&P Boar! pursuant to the PC993s power un!er Se/tion 1 of EO No. re"ative. v. Migrino.(. RESPONDENT CO@RT SERIO@S?A ERRED IN BO?DIN9 TBAT TBE ARTIC?ES AND TBIN9S S@CB AS S@. The Co**ission sha"" #e /har e! with the task of assistin Presi!ent in re ar! to the fo""owin *atters: %a' the . su#or!inate or /"ose asso/iate.. The PC99 taske! the A&P Boar! to *ake the ne/essar$ re/o**en!ations to appropriate overn*ent a en/ies on the a/tion to #e taken #ase! on its fin!in s. inf"uen/e 6 6 6K or %. whether "o/ate! in the Phi"ippines or a#roa!. takin un!ue a!vanta e of their pu#"i/ offi/e or usin their powers. re"atives.@NICATIONS E=@IP.EHE?RA AND ?AND TIT?ES CON&ISCATED &RO.ENT. 0012 was /ure! an!Cor waive! #$ respon!ents with the fi"in of their respe/tive answers with /ounter/"ai*K an! The separate *otions to !is*iss were evi!ent"$ i*proper /onsi!erin that the$ were fi"e! after /o**en/e*ent of the presentation of the evi!en/e of the petitioner an! even #efore the "atter was a""owe! to for*a""$ offer its evi!en/e an! rest its /aseK ne/essar$ in or!er to a//o*p"ish an! to /arr$ out the purposes of this or!er. !oes not /"ai* that the Presi!ent assi ne! Ra*as3 /ase to the PC99. 6 6 6. an! Repu#"i/ v. in/"u!in the takeover an! se5uestration of a"" #usiness enterprises an! entities owne! or /ontro""e! #$ the*.ar/os. TBE BO@SE O& RESPONDENT DI. un!enia#"$ *akin hi* a su#or!inate of for*er Presi!ent ..r. .. . !ire/t"$ or throu h no*inees. Jr. Ra*as3 /ase shou"! fa"" un!er the first /ate or$ of A&P personne" #efore the PC99 /ou"! e6er/ise its <uris!i/tion over hi*.S O& .ere position he"! #$ a *i"itar$ offi/er !oes not auto*ati/a""$ *ake hi* a 7su#or!inate8 as this ter* is use! in EO Nos.ar/os in the sense /onte*p"ate! un!er EO No. %#' C. The PC99 /reate! the A&P Boar! to investi ate the une6p"aine! wea"th an! /orrupt pra/ti/es of A&P personne". inf"uen/e. v. Petitioner.ONEA. . ( ave the PC99 spe/ifi/ responsi#i"ities. his i**e!iate fa*i"$. 1. to wit: SEC. whether in the a/tive servi/e or retire!. ( an! its a*en!*ents. CO. of EO No.8 EO No. (12+.' A&P personne" invo"ve! in other /ases of raft an! /orruption provi!e! the Presi!ent assi ns their /ases to the PC99. ( 7to /on!u/t investi ation as *a$ #e . Petitioner ar ues that Ra*as was un!ou#te!"$ a su#or!inate of for*er Presi!ent . !urin his a!*inistration. The /ases of Cru4. . supra. (. Sandiganbayan an! Republic v. He ho"! that PC99 has no su/h <uris!i/tion. These are: %(' A&P personne" who have a//u*u"ate! i"": otten wea"th !urin the a!*inistration of for*er Presi!ent .ar/os #e/ause of his position as the Co**an!in 9enera" of the Phi"ippine Ar*$. #$ takin un!ue a!vanta e of their pu#"i/ offi/e an!C or usin their powers. .AANO HERE I??E9A??A SEIJED AND TBERE&ORE ELC?@DED AS E>IDENCE. He ho"! that Ra*as was not a 7su#or!inate8 of for*er Presi!ent . . The re/over$ of a"" i"": otten wea"th a//u*u"ate! #$ for*er Presi!ent &er!inan! E.i rino. The PC99. authorit$. /onne/tions or re"ationship.. The pri*ar$ issue for reso"ution is whether the PC99 has the <uris!i/tion to investi ate an! /ause the fi"in of a forfeiture petition a ainst Ra*as an! Di*aano for une6p"aine! wea"th un!er RA No.ar/os #$ #ein the "atter3s i**e!iate fa*i"$. however. Petitioner /"ai*s that Ra*as3 position ena#"e! hi* to re/eive or!ers !ire/t"$ fro* his /o**an!er:in:/hief. (G an! (G:A a#sent a The Court3s Ru"in First Issue: C!!"s Jurisdiction to Investigate rivate Respondents This /ase invo"ves a revisitin of an o"! issue a"rea!$ !e/i!e! #$ this Court in Cruz. supra. (. The investi ation of su/h /ases of raft an! /orruption as the Presi!ent *a$ assi n to the Co**ission fro* ti*e to ti*e.ar/os. . Therefore.

!u**ies.ar/os for purposes of EO No.a<or 9enera" !oes not suffi/e to *ake hi* a 7su#or!inate8 of for*er Presi!ent . the resu"t $ie"!e! a fin!in of vio"ation of Repu#"i/ A/ts Nos. thus: (0. in the sa*e *anner that #usiness asso/iates. !u**ies. (. . as in this /ase.ar/os3 a/5uies/en/e in Ra*as3 own a//u*u"ation of i"": otten wea"th if an$. it i ub)itte# th"t uch o)i ion 0" not f"t"l. otherwise known as 7Anti:9raft an! Corrupt Pra/ti/es A/t8 an! RA (12+. #here must be a prima facie sho$ing that the respondent unla$fully accumulated $ealth by virtue of his close association or relation $ith former %res. ! and the close relative. similar to the immediate family member. ( an! its a*en!*ents.n! E!. that the respon!ent is or was a overn*ent offi/ia" or e*p"o$ee !urin the a!*inistration of for*er Presi!ent . it en!s with the fo""owin re/o**en!ation: >. Petitioner3s atte*pt to !ifferentiate the instant /ase fro* Migrino !oes not /onvin/e us. their /"ose re"atives. the reso"ution of the A&P Boar! an! even the A*en!e! Co*p"aint !o not show that the properties Ra*as a""e e!"$ owne! were a//u*u"ate! #$ hi* in his /apa/it$ as a 7su#or!inate8 of his /o**an!er:in:/hief. otherwise known as 7The A/t for the &orfeiture of @n"awfu""$ A/5uire! Propert$. Bowever. re"atives.. an! ne/essari"$ its powers *ust #e /onstrue! to a!!ress su/h spe/ifi/ an! "i*ite! purpose. . The PC99 has to provi!e a prima facie showin that Ra*as was a /"ose asso/iate of for*er Presi!ent . -).showin that he en<o$e! /"ose asso/iation with for*er Presi!ent . vs.ENDATION: MNHOhere enera" wor!s fo""ow an enu*eration of persons or thin s #$ wor!s of a parti/u"ar an! spe/ifi/ *eanin . ?t!. .3 The Hhereas C"auses of EO No. EO No. . admits that the A&P Boar! reso"ution !oes not /ontain a fin!in that Ra*as a//u*u"ate! his wea"th #e/ause of his /"ose asso/iation with for*er Presi!ent . free4es Ma"" assets an! properties in the Phi"ippines in whi/h for*er Presi!ent . (. ( an! its a*en!*ents proves fata" to petitioner3s /ase.G'"ft /o"'# of the Ne0 -')e# 1o'ce of the Philippine #i# not c"te$o'ic"lly fin# " prima facie e2i#ence ho0in$ th"t 'e pon#ent R")" unl"0fully "ccu)ul"te# 0e"lth by 2i'tue of hi clo e " oci"tion o' 'el"tion 0ith fo')e' P'e i#ent %"'co "n#3o' hi 0ife. (.3 NTOhe ter* 7su#or!inate8 as use! in EO Nos. .ar/os.oreover. (G an! (G:A in re"ation to RA No. his i**e!iate fa*i"$. +E Phi". Be"" P Co. .ar/os. the sa*e A&P Boar! Reso"ution #e"ies this /ontention. ( an! re"ate! e6e/utive or!ers wi"" rea!i"$ show what is /onte*p"ate! within the ter* Msu#or!inate. relative. #ut are to #e he"! as app"$in on"$ to persons or thin s of the sa*e kin! or /"ass as those spe/ifi/a""$ *entione! NS*ith.ar/os. 9en. #usiness asso/iates. A"thou h the Reso"ution #e ins with su/h state*ent. and close associate in EO o. su/h enera" wor!s are not to #e /onstrue! in their wi!est e6tent. the A&P Boar! Reso"ution in the instant /ase states that the A&P Boar! /on!u/te! the investi ation pursuant to EO Nos. ( /reate! the PC99 for a spe/ifi/ an! "i*ite! purpose..ar/os were /"ose to hi*. refers to one who en<o$s a /"ose asso/iation with for*er Presi!ent . ( P . an! /"ose asso/iates #oth here an! a#roa!. RECO. Marcos and&or his $ife. or nominee in EO o.' #e prose/ute! an! trie! for vio"ation of RA 10(+. . EO No.a<. (12+. as a*en!e!.ar/os. 666 It !oes not suffi/e..ar/os in the a//u*u"ation of i"": otten wea"th #$ the !epose! Hherefore it is re/o**en!e! that . . su#or!inates.01O. This. ". %E*phasis supp"ie!' Ra*as3 position a"one as Co**an!in 9enera" of the Phi"ippine Ar*$ with the rank of .rs.. Re ister of Dee!s of Davao. or no*inees have an$ interest or parti/ipation.ar/os. a ents. a ents or no*inees of for*er Presi!ent . (G an! (G:A. agent. the PC99 fai"e! to !o. as a*en!e!.osephus =.ar/os. Hhi"e it is true that the 'e olution of the -nti. Ra*as %ret. (G an! (G:A. Petitioner. I*e"!a . /itin B"a/k on Interpretation of ?aws. business associate. Migrino !is/usse! this issue in this wise: A /"ose rea!in of EO No. .. Petitioner asserts that there is a presu*ption that the PC99 was a/tin within its <uris!i/tion of investi atin /ron$:re"ate! /ases of raft an! /orruption an! that Ra*as was tru"$ a su#or!inate of the for*er Presi!ent. 10(+ an! (12+ without an$ re"ation to EO Nos. The .ar/os an!Cor his wife. dummy.8 Thus. Petitioner *ere"$ enu*erate! the properties Ra*as a""e e!"$ owne! an! su este! that these properties were !isproportionate to his sa"ar$ an! other "e iti*ate in/o*e without showin that Ra*as a*asse! the* #e/ause of his /"ose asso/iation with for*er Presi!ent . Petitioner ar ues that un"ike in Migrino. in fa/t. -1.ar/os an!Cor his wife. This a#sen/e of re"ation to EO No.ar/os. a"thou h the PC99 sou ht to investi ate an! prose/ute private respon!ents un!er EO Nos.3 App"$in the ru"e in statutor$ /onstru/tion known as e#usdem generis that is: Presi!ent or #$ for*er Presi!ent . . ( e6press the ur ent nee! to re/over the i"": otten wea"th a*asse! #$ for*er Presi!ent &er!inan! E. Su/h /"ose asso/iation is *anifeste! either #$ Ra*as3 /o*p"i/it$ with for*er Presi!ent .

ar/os that vests <uris!i/tion on PC99. The A&P Boar! Reso"ution an! even the A*en!e! Co*p"aint state that there are vio"ations of RA Nos. Hithout these e"e*ents. thei' " i t"nt . ( an! its a*en!*ents app"$ to respon!ents. "utho'ity "n# influence. othe' 2iol"tion of the -nti. their re"atives an! /ronies. The petition for forfeiture fi"e! with the San!i an#a$an shou"! #e !is*isse! for "a/k of authorit$ #$ the PC99 to investi ate respon!ents sin/e there is no prima facie showin that EO No. PC993s powers are spe/ifi/ an! "i*ite!.&e#ruar$ (+)E fa""s un!er the <uris!i/tion of the O*#u!s*an. (. The O*#u!s*an A/t or Repu#"i/ A/t No. (12+. The ru"e of "aw *an!ates that an a en/$ of overn*ent #e a""owe! to e6er/ise on"$ the powers rante! to it. %E*phasis supp"ie!' . an! 1 of E6e/utive Or!er No.reso"ution of the Anti:9raft Boar! shou"! #e rea! in the /onte6t of the "aw /reatin the sa*e an! the o#<e/tive of the investi ation whi/h was. Petitioner for ets that it is pre/ise"$ a prima facie showin that the i"": otten wea"th was a//u*u"ate! #$ a 7su#or!inate8 of for*er Presi!ent . an! not the PC99. A/ts Nos. Private respon!ents 5uestione! the authorit$ an! <uris!i/tion of the PC99 to investi ate an! prose/ute their /ases #$ fi"in their . This /ase was !e/i!e! on 10 Au ust (++0. Thus. The PC99 /annot e6er/ise investi ative or prose/utoria" powers never rante! to it. 10(+ an! (12+. his i**e!iate fa*i"$.otion to Dis*iss as soon as the$ "earne! of the pronoun/e*ent of the Court in Migrino.. "ccu)ul"te# by fo')e' P'e i#ent %"'co . the PC99 sti"" pursue! this /ase !espite the a#sen/e of a prima facie fin!in that Ra*as was a 7su#or!inate8 of for*er Presi!ent . pursuant to Repu#"i/ A/t Nos. Neverthe"ess.ar/oses. connection o' 'el"tion hip K an! the investi ation an! prose/ution of su/h offenses /o**itte! in the a/5uisition of sai! i"": otten wea"th as /onte*p"ate! un!er Se/tion . (. whi/h e6p"ains wh$ private respon!ents on"$ fi"e! their . as state! in the a#ove.G'"ft "n# 5o''upt P'"ctice -ct not othe'0i e f"llin$ un#e' the fo'e$oin$ c"te$o'ie .. &u'i #iction o2e' uch c" e i 2e te# in the :)bu# )"n "n# othe' #uly "utho'i+e# in2e ti$"tin$ "$encie uch " the p'o2inci"l "n# city p'o ecuto' . In Cruz. ( /"ear"$ pre*ises the /reation of the PC99 on the ur ent nee! to re/over a"" i"": otten wea"th a*asse! #$ for*er Presi!ent . 10(+ an! (12+ in re"ation to E6e/utive Or!er Nos. As state! in Migrino: NButO in view of the patent "a/k of authorit$ of the PC99 to investi ate an! /ause the prose/ution of private respon!ent for vio"ation of Rep. without pre<u!i/e to an$ a/tion that *a$ #e taken #$ the proper prose/utor$ a en/$. 'e6ui'e " p'e2iou "utho'ity of the P'e i#ent fo' the 'e pon#ent P5GG to in2e ti$"te "n# p'o ecute in "cco'#"nce 0ith !ection 2 7b8 of *9ecuti2e :'#e' No.%a' an! 1 of E6e/utive Or!er No. ( an! its a*en!*ents. The proper overn*ent a en/ies. PC993s so"e task is on"$ to re/over the i"": otten wea"th of the . we have he"! that %#' Bowever. .ar/os. whi"e the authorit$ to fi"e the /orrespon!in forfeiture petition rests with the So"i/itor 9enera". EO No. Therefore. Sandiganbayan. the PC99 shou"! have re/o**en!e! Ra*as3 /ase to the O*#u!s*an who has <uris!i/tion to /on!u/t the pre"i*inar$ investi ation of or!inar$ une6p"aine! wea"th an! raft /ases. ( in re"ation with Se/tions (. After the pronoun/e*ents of the Court in Cruz.%a' of E6e/utive Or!er No. !ire/t"$ or throu h his no*inees. (G. whether "o/ate! in the Phi"ippines or a#roa!. 1. Jr. E220 %7RA No. . @n"ess iven a!!itiona" assi n*ent #$ the Presi!ent. (G. 'el"ti2e . (. the 5hief !t"te P'o ecuto' "n# hi " i t"nt "n# the t"te p'o ecuto' . (G an! (G:aK %E*phasis supp"ie!' Su/h o*ission is fata".&e#ruar$ (+)E. .otion to Dis*iss on ) O/to#er (++0. shou"! investi ate an! prose/ute forfeiture petitions not fa""in un!er EO No. shows what the authorit$ of the respon!ent PC99 to investi ate an! prose/ute /overs: %a' the investi ation an! prose/ution of the /ivi" a/tion for the re/over$ of i"": otten wea"th un!er Repu#"i/ A/t No. :the'0i e. The pre"i*inar$ investi ation of une6p"aine! wea"th a*asse! on or #efore . hi i))e#i"te f")ily. (G:A: A /arefu" rea!in of Se/tions . the Court out"ine! the /ases that fa"" un!er the <uris!i/tion of the PC99 pursuant to EO Nos. to sa$ that su/h o*ission was not fata" is /"ear"$ /ontrar$ to the intent #ehin! the /reation of the PC99. by t"4in$ un#ue "#2"nt"$e of thei' public office "n#3o' u in$ thei' po0e' . v. the PC99 /annot /"ai* <uris!i/tion over a /ase. re"atives. Petitioner has no <uris!i/tion over private respon!ents. the PC99 *ust a"so #e en<oine! fro* pro/ee!in with the /ase. ubo'#in"te "n# clo e " oci"te .ar/os. Thus. Petitioner3s ar u*ent that private respon!ents have waive! an$ !efe/t in the fi"in of the forfeiture petition #$ su#*ittin their respe/tive Answers with /ounter/"ai* !eserves no *erit as we"". E2208' vests in the O*#u!s*an the power to /on!u/t pre"i*inar$ investi ation an! to fi"e forfeiture pro/ee!in s invo"vin une6p"aine! wea"th a*asse! after . there is no <uris!i/tion to waive in the first p"a/e. !urin his a!*inistration. su#or!inates an! /"ose asso/iates. 10(+ an! (12+. in/"u!in the take:over or se5uestration of a"" #usiness enterprises an! entities owne! or /ontro""e! #$ the*.

On + O/to#er (+)+. we ho"! that there was no waiver of <uris!i/tion in this /ase. '(ird Issue: )egality of t(e Searc( and Seizure Petitioner /"ai*s that the San!i an#a$an erre! in !e/"arin the properties /onfis/ate! fro* Di*aano3s house as i""e a""$ sei4e! an! therefore ina!*issi#"e in evi!en/e. The San!i an#a$an ave petitioner *ore than suffi/ient ti*e to finish the presentation of its evi!en/e.8 Sti"" on the !ate set. A ain.) Septe*#er (+)+. The San!i an#a$an /orre/t"$ o#serve! that a /ase a"rea!$ pen!in for $ears wou"! revert to its pre"i*inar$ sta e if the /ourt were to a//ept the Re:A*en!e! Co*p"aint. The San!i an#a$an issue! an Or!er e6pressin its view on the *atter. a""e e!"$ upon the fai"ure of the *i"itar$ to supp"$ the* for the preparation of the presentation of evi!en/e thereon. however. the petition shou"! #e !is*isse! for "a/k of <uris!i/tion #$ the PC99 to /on!u/t the pre"i*inar$ investi ation.a$ (++0 to /ontinue with the presentation of its evi!en/e an! to infor* the /ourt of 7what "ies ahea! insofar as the status of the /ase is /on/erne! 6 6 6. On () Apri" (+)+.ar/h (++0.the parties *a$ raise "a/k of <uris!i/tion at an$ sta e of the pro/ee!in . Conse5uent"$. whi/h wou"! on"$ pro"on even *ore the !isposition of the /ase. (12+. Base! on the fin!in s of the San!i an#a$an an! the re/or!s of this /ase. . He !isa ree. The San!i an#a$an over"ooke! petitioner3s !e"a$s an! $et petitioner en!e! the "on :strin of !e"a$s with the fi"in of a Re:A*en!e! Co*p"aint. the pronoun/e*ents of the Court in Migrino an! Cruz pro*pte! the San!i an#a$an to !is*iss the /ase sin/e the PC99 has no <uris!i/tion to investi ate an! prose/ute the /ase a ainst private respon!ents. Bowever. (12+ is not su#<e/t to pres/ription. petitioner fai"e! to present its evi!en/e. ivin petitioner a*p"e ti*e to prepare its evi!en/e. petitioner fi"e! its Re: A*en!e! Co*p"aint.u"$ (++0. The *otion sou ht 7to /har e the !e"in5uent properties %whi/h /o*prise *ost of petitioner3s evi!en/e' with #ein su#<e/t to forfeiture as havin #een un"awfu""$ a/5uire! #$ !efen!ant Di*aano a"one 6 6 6. we ho"! that the San!i an#a$an !i! not err in !is*issin the /ase #efore /o*p"etion of the presentation of petitioner3s evi!en/e. the San!i an#a$an ave petitioner unti" () . refuse! to !efer the presentation of petitioner3s evi!en/e sin/e petitioner !i! not state when it wou"! fi"e the a*en!e! /o*p"aint. we fin! that petitioner has on"$ itse"f to #"a*e for non:/o*p"etion of the presentation of its evi!en/e. on . on (( . Base! on these /ir/u*stan/es.8 The San!i an#a$an. The PC99 pra$e! for an a!!itiona" four *onths to /on!u/t the pre"i*inar$ investi ation. an! on"$ #e an to present its evi!en/e on (2 Apri" (+)+. (12+.+ . this /ase has #een pen!in for four $ears #efore the San!i an#a$an !is*isse! it. &ina""$.E:.+ Septe*#er an! +:(( O/to#er (+)+. the PC99 *anifeste! in /ourt that it was /on!u/tin a pre"i*inar$ investi ation on the une6p"aine! wea"th of private respon!ents as *an!ate! #$ RA No. petitioner fai"e! to infor* the /ourt of the resu"t of the pre"i*inar$ investi ation the PC99 suppose!"$ /on!u/te!. this Court is now fa/e! with a situation where a /ase a"rea!$ in pro ress wi"" revert #a/k to the pre"i*inar$ sta e. petitioner fi"e!. o#vious"$ petitioner has on"$ itse"f to #"a*e for fai"ure to /o*p"ete the presentation of its evi!en/e. to wit: The Court has one throu h e6ten!e! in5uir$ an! a narration of the a#ove events #e/ause this /ase has #een rea!$ for tria" for over a $ear an! *u/h of the !e"a$ hereon has #een !ue to the ina#i"it$ of the overn*ent to pro!u/e on s/he!u"e! !ates for pre:tria" an! for tria" !o/u*ents an! witnesses. Second Issue: ropriety of $ismissal of Case %efore Completion of resentation of &vidence Petitioner a"so /onten!s that the San!i an#a$an erre! in !is*issin the /ase #efore /o*p"etion of the presentation of petitioner3s evi!en/e. when.uris!i/tion is veste! #$ "aw an! not #$ the parties to an a/tion. Petitioner ha! a"*ost two $ears to prepare its evi!en/e. !espite a five:*onth pause where appropriate a/tion /ou"! have #een un!ertaken #$ the p"aintiff Repu#"i/.oreover. a . on (1 Apri" (+)+. &irst. petitioner *anifeste! its ina#i"it$ to pro/ee! with the presentation of its evi!en/e. The O*#u!s*an *a$ sti"" /on!u/t the proper pre"i*inar$ investi ation for vio"ation of RA No. "a/hes or estoppe".otion for ?eave to A*en! the Co*p"aint. Even #efore the !ate set for the presentation of its evi!en/e. Bowever. the So"i/itor 9enera" *a$ fi"e the forfeiture petition with the San!i an#a$an. !espite this suffi/ient ti*e. Of e5ua" interest is the fa/t that this Court has #een he"! to task in pu#"i/ a#out its a""e e! fai"ure to *ove /ases su/h as this one #e$on! the pre"i*inar$ sta e. . Thus. The San!i an#a$an rante! this re5uest an! s/he!u"e! the presentation of evi!en/e on . Sti"". Thus. Petitioner fi"e! its A*en!e! Co*p"aint on (( Au ust (+)2. The ri ht of the State to forfeit une6p"aine! wea"th un!er RA No. in view of the !eve"op*ents su/h as those of to!a$. This issue #ears a si nifi/ant effe/t on petitioner3s . the San!i an#a$an set the /ontinuation of the presentation of evi!en/e on . on the s/he!u"e! !ate. petitioner sti"" !e"a$e! the presentation of the rest of its evi!en/e #$ fi"in nu*erous *otions for postpone*ents an! e6tensions. This a"one wou"! have #een suffi/ient "e a" #asis for the San!i an#a$an to !is*iss the forfeiture /ase a ainst private respon!ents. an! if warrante!.):.

&e#ruar$ (+)2. a person /ou"! not invoke an$ e6/"usionar$ ri ht un!er a Bi"" of Ri hts #e/ause there was neither a /onstitution nor a Bi"" of Ri hts !urin the interre nu*. &ro* the natura" "aw point of view. the overn*ent *a$ /onfis/ate the *onies an! ite*s taken fro* Di*aano an! use the sa*e in evi!en/e a ainst her sin/e at the ti*e of their sei4ure. Thus. As su//in/t"$ state! in Presi!ent A5uino3s Pro/"a*ation No. As the Court e6p"aine! in . Petitioner is part"$ ri ht in its ar u*ents..1:.oreover. . the EDSA Revo"ution was 'done in defiance of the provisions of the !()* Constitution.ar/h (+)E.ar/h (+)E.' whether the prote/tion a//or!e! to in!ivi!ua"s un!er the Internationa" Covenant on Civi" an! Po"iti/a" Ri hts %7Covenant8' an! the @niversa" De/"aration of Bu*an Ri hts %7De/"aration8' re*aine! in effe/t !urin the interre nu*. it is !efine! as that whi/h 7o//urs whenever the "e a" or!er of a /o**unit$ is nu""ifie! an! rep"a/e! #$ a new or!er . the Consta#u"ar$ rai!in tea* serve! at Di*aano3s resi!en/e a sear/h warrant /aptione! 7I""e a" Possession of &irear*s an! A**unition. 1 !ate! .G . to refor* an! to a"ter an$ e6istin for* of overn*ent without re ar! to the e6istin /onstitution. Therefore. that is.+ The resu"tin overn*ent was in!isputa#"$ a revo"utionar$ overn*ent #oun! #$ no /onstitution or "e a" "i*itations e6/ept treat$ o#"i ations that the revo"utionar$ overn*ent.8 It was throu h the &e#ruar$ (+)E revo"ution.etter of -ssociate Justice Reynato S. Petitioner /onten!s that a"" ri hts un!er the Bi"" of Ri hts ha! a"rea!$ reverte! to its e*#r$oni/ sta e at the ti*e of the sear/h. an! *ore popu"ar"$ known as the 7peop"e power revo"ution8 that the &i"ipino peop"e tore the*se"ves awa$ fro* an e6istin re i*e. This revo"ution a"so saw the unpre/e!ente! rise to power of the A5uino overn*ent./ase sin/e these properties /o*prise *ost of petitioner3s evi!en/e a ainst private respon!ents.. The rai!in tea* sei4e! these ite*s: one #a#$ ar*a"ite rif"e with two *a a4inesK G0 roun!s of -. %uno: A revo"ution has #een !efine! as 7the /o*p"ete overthrow of the esta#"ishe! overn*ent in an$ /ountr$ or state #$ those who were previous"$ su#<e/t to it8 or as 7a su!!en. The rai!in tea* sei4e! the ite*s !etai"e! in the sei4ure re/eipt to ether with other ite*s not in/"u!e! in the sear/h warrant. Durin the interre nu*. the !ire/tives an! or!ers of the revo"utionar$ overn*ent were the supre*e "aw #e/ause no /onstitution "i*ite! the e6tent an! s/ope of su/h !ire/tives an! or!ers. .8 Petitioner ar ues that a revo"utionar$ overn*ent was operative at that ti*e #$ virtue of Pro/"a*ation No. The EDSA Revo"ution took p"a/e on .. after the a/tua" an! effe/tive take:over of power #$ the revo"utionar$ overn*ent fo""owin the /essation of resistan/e #$ "o$a"ist for/es up to .8 In Ie"senQs #ook. a re"ative"$ pea/efu" one.G-K /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent. we ru"e that the prote/tion a//or!e! to in!ivi!ua"s un!er the Covenant an! the De/"aration re*aine! in effe/t !urin the interre nu*.000.. an! "an! tit"es. The /orre/t issues are: %(' whether the revo"utionar$ overn*ent was #oun! #$ the Bi"" of Ri hts of the (+21 Constitution !urin the interregnum. Bowever.8 Di*aano was not present !urin the rai! #ut Di*aano3s /ousins witnesse! the rai!.ar/h (+)E %i**e!iate"$ #efore the a!option of the Provisiona" Constitution'K an! %. ra!i/a" an! fun!a*enta" /han e in the overn*ent or po"iti/a" s$ste*.)20. ( announ/in that Presi!ent A5uino an! >i/e Presi!ent ?aure" were 7takin power in the na*e an! #$ the wi"" of the &i"ipino peop"e.8 Petitioner asserts that the revo"utionar$ overn*ent effe/tive"$ withhe"! the operation of the (+21 Constitution whi/h uarantee! private respon!ents3 e6/"usionar$ ri ht. . petitioner ar ues that the e6/"usionar$ ri ht arisin fro* an i""e a" sear/h app"ies on"$ #e innin . On 1 .ar/h 1.-E a**unitionK one pisto". there was no *uni/ipa" "aw hi her than the !ire/tives an! or!ers of the revo"utionar$ overn*ent.000 an! @SD-0. /ash /onsistin of P. !urin the interre nu*. Petitioner wi"" not have *u/h evi!en/e to support its /ase a ainst private respon!ents if these properties are ina!*issi#"e in evi!en/e. 9enera" Theor$ of ?aw an! State. /han e their po"i/$ or effe/t ra!i/a" refor*s in their s$ste* of overn*ent or institutions #$ for/e or a enera" uprisin when the "e a" an! /onstitutiona" *etho!s of *akin su/h /han e have prove! ina!e5uate or are so o#stru/te! as to #e unavai"a#"e. Petitioner wants the Court to take <u!i/ia" noti/e that the rai!in tea* /on!u/te! the sear/h an! sei4ure 7on . a wa$ not pres/ri#e! #$ the first or!er itse"f. Hith the a#ro ation of the (+21 Constitution #$ the su//essfu" revo"ution.8 666 . assu*e! un!er internationa" "aw. (+)E or five !a$s after the su//essfu" EDSA revo"ution. the !ate of ratifi/ation of the (+)2 Constitution. usua""$ effe/te! with vio"en/e or at "east so*e a/ts of vio"en/e. the ri ht of revo"ution has #een !efine! as 7an inherent ri ht of a peop"e to /ast out their ru"ers. private respon!ents !i! not en<o$ an$ /onstitutiona" ri ht.8 It has #een sai! that 7the "o/us of positive "aw:*akin power "ies with the peop"e of the state8 an! fro* there is !erive! 7the ri ht of the peop"e to a#o"ish. <ewe"r$.&e#ruar$ (+)E. as the de #ure overn*ent in the Phi"ippines. He ho"! that the Bi"" of Ri hts un!er the (+21 Constitution was not operative !urin the interre nu*. /a"i#er .

the fra*ers of #oth /onstitutions ha! to in/"u!e spe/ifi/ "an ua e re/o ni4in the va"i!it$ of the se5uestration or!ers. %E*phasis supp"ie!' To ho"! that the Bi"" of Ri hts un!er the (+21 Constitution re*aine! operative !urin the interre nu* wou"! ren!er voi! a"" se5uestration or!ers issue! #$ the Phi"ippine Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent %7PC998' #efore the a!option of the &ree!o* Constitution. The Court ru"e! that the &ree!o* Constitution. the Provisiona" or 7&ree!o*8 Constitution re/o ni4es the power an! !ut$ of the Presi!ent to ena/t 7*easures to a/hieve the *an!ate of the peop"e to . Arti/"e L>III of the (+)2 Constitution treats of. No one /ou"! va"i!"$ 5uestion the se5uestration or!ers as vio"ative of the Bi"" of Ri hts #e/ause there was no Bi"" of Ri hts !urin the interre nu*. it $as achieved in violation of the provisions of the !()* Constitution as a 3atasang %ambansa resolution had earlier declared Mr. .u!i/iar$ an! the . .a!a* Presi!ent. Ben/e.i"itar$ si na"e! the point $here the legal system then in effect. this is rea""$ a /oro""ar$ of the first. ran!e $ *a"os re*e!ios. %residential Commission on 8ood 8overnment. (+)E. %r'e/over i"": otten properties a*asse! #$ the "ea!ers an! supporters of the previous re i*e an! prote/t the interest of the peop"e throu h or!ers of se5uestration or free4in of assets or a//ounts. it shou"! #e !ispe""e! #$ the fa/t that these parti/u"ar re*e!ies an! the authorit$ of the PC99 to issue the* have re/eive! /onstitutiona" appro#ation an! san/tion. -0uino1s rise to the presidency $as not due to constitutional processes2 in fact. had ceased to be obeyed by the 6ilipino. for spe/ia" prote/tionR The answer is /"ear.. the who"e point of the &e#ruar$ Revo"ution an! of the work of the CONCO. &or instan/e. On the other han!. As a"rea!$ *entione!.8 It is tra i/ when we #e in to #a/ks"i!e even #efore we et there. the overn*ent in power was /on/e!e!"$ a revo"utionar$ overn*ent #oun! #$ no /onstitution. :hat they are doing $ill not stand the test of ordinary due process. #ut "et us not sa$ ran!es *a"os. ran!es re*e!ios. Bowever. hence they are as/ing for protection.8 The fra*ers of #oth the &ree!o* Constitution an! the (+)2 Constitution were fu""$ aware that the se5uestration or!ers wou"! /"ash with the Bi"" of Ri hts. Durin the interre nu*. reva*p of the . petitioner Base/o. >er$ *u/h at the heart of the /onstitutiona" nor*a"i4ation is the fu"" effe/tivit$ of the Bi"" of Ri hts. That wou"! #e h$po/riti/a"K that wou"! #e a repetition of .ar/h . a"*ost as an afterthou ht. for e9ceptions. Hhat the /o**ittee report is askin for is that we shou"! a""ow . of whi/h a"" of us have #een iven a /op$. he sa$s that in the en! what *atters are the resu"ts an! not the "e a" ni/eties. In 3ataan Shipyard 7 Engineering Co. I have /arefu""$ stu!ie! . 9ran!es *a"os. The se5uestration or!ers. wou"! vio"ate the !ue pro/ess an! sear/h an! sei4ure /"auses of the Bi"" of Ri hts. Now. The fo""owin !is/ourse #$ Co**issioner . an! "et *e e"a#orate an! ive three reasons: &irst. The /o**ittee report asks for e6traor!inar$ e6/eptions fro* the Bi"" of Ri hts for si6 *onths after the /onvenin of Con ress.ar/osian protestation of !ue pro/ess an! ru"e of "aw. On the one han!. e9pressly recognized the va"i!it$ of se5uestration or!ers. 1 !ate! . another wor! for ni/eties or e6/eptions. The New So/iet$ wor! for that is 7#a/ks"i!in . Se/tion . Thus it /an #e sai! that the or ani4ation of . thus su estin that the PC99 shou"! #e a""owe! to *ake so*e "e a" short/uts. BERNAS: .E. . Se/on!.-.t is $idely /no$n that Mrs. That is not an a""owa#"e e6trapo"ation. Marcos as the $inner in the !(45 presidential election. there is so*ethin s/hi4ophreni/ a#out the ar u*ents in !efense of the present a*en!*ent. an! ratifies the 7authorit$ to issue se5uestration or free4e or!ers un!er Pro/"a*ation No. the se5uestere! /o*panies assai"e! the se5uestration or!ers as /ontrar$ to the Bi"" of Ri hts of the &ree!o* Constitution. free4e an! takeover or!ers. ask for /onstitutiona" nor*a"i4ation an! at the sa*e ti*e ask for a te*porar$ ha"t to the fu"" fun/tionin of what is at the heart of /onstitutiona"is*. whi"e /on/e!in there was no Bi"" of Ri hts !urin the interre nu*. is to hasten /onstitutiona" nor*a"i4ation. Ba#its ten! to #e/o*e in raine!. Bernas !urin the !e"i#erations of the Constitutiona" Co**ission is instru/tive: &R. Thus. fine. . upon the a!option of the &ree!o* Constitution.ar/os Ca#inet offi/ia"s.inister Sa"on a spen!s a *a<or portion of his "e/ture !eve"opin that ar u*ent.inister Sa"on a3s "e/ture in the 9re orio Araneta @niversit$ &oun!ation. in one #reath.oa5uin 9. vs. he ar ues that ever$thin the Co**ission is !oin is tra!itiona""$ "e a".nc. A5uino3s 9overn*ent whi/h was *et #$ "itt"e resistan/e an! her /ontro" of the state evi!en/e! #$ the appoint*ent of the Ca#inet an! other ke$ offi/ers of the a!*inistration. 5uestione! the /ontinue! va"i!it$ of the se5uestration or!ers upon a!option of the &ree!o* Constitution in view of the !ue pro/ess /"ause in its Bi"" of Ri hts.rs. whi/h !ire/t the free4in an! even the take:over of private propert$ #$ *ere e6e/utive issuan/e without <u!i/ia" a/tion. we shou"! not ive the e6/eptions aske! for. an! Con ress *a$ even e6ten! this "on er. This is repeate! #$ Co**issioner Ro*u"o a"so. as the sa$in stan!s. He /annot.8 An! as a"so a"rea!$ a!verte! to. wh$ is it askin the CONCO. the !eparture of the . an! "ater the (+)2 Constitution. thus: If an$ !ou#t shou"! sti"" persist in the fa/e of the fore oin /onsi!erations as to the va"i!it$ an! propriet$ of se5uestration. if ever$thin the PC99 is !oin is "e a". 9oo! !ee!s repeate! ripen into virtueK #a! !ee!s repeate! #e/o*e vi/e.

fa*i"$. Thus. a . The revo"utionar$ overn*ent !i! not repu!iate the Covenant or the De/"aration !urin the interre nu*. the revo"utionar$ overn*ent /ou"! not es/ape responsi#i"it$ for the State3s oo! faith /o*p"ian/e with its treat$ o#"i ations un!er internationa" "aw.8 A"thou h the si natories to the De/"aration !i! not inten! it as a "e a""$ #in!in !o/u*ent. If the pri/e is ri ht. The hoar!ers wi"" re"ease the hi!!en hea"th if the ranso* pri/e is pai! an! the ranso* pri/e is the Bi"" of Ri hts. So. a#sent a /onstitutiona" provision e6/eptin se5uestration or!ers fro* su/h Bi"" of Ri hts. The Bi"" of Ri hts is not for sa"e to the hi hest #i!!er nor /an it #e use! to ranso* /aptive !o""ars. Hhether the revo"utionar$ overn*ent /ou"! have repu!iate! a"" its o#"i ations un!er the Covenant or the De/"aration is another *atter an! is not the issue here. even without the support of Se/tion ). a"*ost the sa*e ri hts foun! in the Bi"" of Ri hts of the (+21 Constitution.8 A"ternative"$. to whi/h the Phi"ippines is a"so a si nator$. the ar u*ent that what *atters are the resu"ts an! not the "e a" ni/eties is an ar u*ent that is ver$ !istur#in . the sear/h an! sei4ure /"ause wi"" #e so"!. Aou /an keep it in $our private safe. The ar u*ent *akes the PC99 an au/tioneer. the revo"utionar$ overn*ent ha! the !ut$ to insure that 7NnOo one sha"" #e su#<e/te! to ar#itrar$ or un"awfu" interferen/e with his priva/$. spe/ifi/a""$ the !ue pro/ess in the sear/h an! sei4ure /"auses. The pra/titioners of the vi/e #e in to think that the$ have a veste! ri ht to its pra/ti/e. &or these reasons. the ar u*ent "ooks on the present overn*ent as hosta e to the hoar!ers of hi!!en wea"th. If not sustaine!. the PC99 has two options. An! we shou"! !e"ete Se/tion ). to ru"e that the Bi"" of Ri hts of the (+21 Constitution re*aine! in for/e !urin the interre nu*.a!a* Presi!ent. 7Open $our Swiss #ank a//ount to us an! we wi"" awar! $ou the sear/h an! sei4ure /"ause. If Se/tion ) is !e"ete!. se5uestration or!ers wou"! not stan! the test of !ue pro/ess un!er the Bi"" of Ri hts. Arti/"e . %E*phasis supp"ie!' Despite the i*passione! p"ea #$ Co**issioner Bernas a ainst the a*en!*ent e6/eptin se5uestration or!ers fro* the Bi"" of Ri hts.E. the revo"utionar$ overn*ent was a"so o#"i ate! un!er internationa" "aw to o#serve the ri hts of in!ivi!ua"s un!er the De/"aration.E. This nation wi"" survive an! row stron . &ro* his prison /e"". Tho*as . . the PC99 /an o on an! shou"! #e a#"e to o on. after insta""in itse"f as the de #ure overn*ent. Hhen it /o*es fro* a staun/h Christian "ike Co**issioner Sa"on a. Neverthe"ess. it #e/o*es !ou#"$ !istur#in an! even !is/o*#o#u"atin .8 @n!er Arti/"e (2%(' of the Covenant. The revo"utionar$ overn*ent. however. even !urin the interre nu* the &i"ipino peop"e /ontinue! to en<o$. provi!es in its Arti/"e (2%.inister. on"$ if it wou"! #e/o*e /onvin/e! of the va"ues enshrine! in the Constitution of a pri/e that is #e$on! *onetar$ esti*ation. The PC99 e6trapo"ation of the "aw is !efen!e! #$ staun/h Christians. if /ontravene!. It was on"$ upon the a!option of the Provisiona" Constitution on . As the de #ure overn*ent.the new overn*ent to a/5uire the vi/e of !isre ar!in the Bi"" of Ri hts. the Constitutiona" Co**ission sti"" a!opte! the a*en!*ent as Se/tion . The fa/t is the revo"utionar$ overn*ent !i! not repu!iate the Covenant or the De/"aration in the sa*e wa$ it repu!iate! the (+21 Constitution. Thus.ar/h (+)E that the !ire/tives an! or!ers of the revo"utionar$ overn*ent #e/a*e su#<e/t to a hi her *uni/ipa" "aw that. an! the$ wi"" fi ht tooth an! nai" to keep the fran/hise. assu*e! responsi#i"it$ for the State3s oo! faith /o*p"ian/e with the Covenant to whi/h the Phi"ippines is a si nator$. p"a/in the Bi"" of Ri hts on the au/tion #"o/k. The fra*ers of the Constitution were fu""$ aware that a#sent Se/tion . an! that &i"ipinos as hu*an #ein s are proper su#<e/ts of the ru"es of internationa" "aw "ai! !own in the Covenant. #ein on"$ a !e/"aration. #e/o*e !iffi/u"t to she!. &irst. it /an pursue the Sa"on a an! the Ro*u"o ar u*ent S that what the PC99 has #een !oin has #een /o*p"ete"$ within the pa"e of the "aw. the honora#"e /ourse for the Constitutiona" Co**ission is to !e"ete a"" of Se/tion ) of the /o**ittee report an! a""ow the new Constitution to take effe/t in fu"" vi or. ?et *e /on/"u!e with what another Christian rep"ie! when aske! to to$ aroun! with the "aw. an! repeate! ver#ati* #$ another staun/h Christian "ike Co**issioner Tin son..' that 7NnOo one sha"" #e ar#itrari"$ !eprive! of his propert$. on/e the$ #e/o*e in raine!. >i/es.8 I ask the Co**ission to ive the !evi" #enefit of "aw for our nation3s sake. ren!ere! su/h !ire/tives an! .8 The De/"aration. TIQ"" ive the !evi" #enefit of "aw for *$ nation3s safet$ sake.. un!er the Covenant an! the De/"aration. Thir!. Thank $ou.%(' of the Covenant re5uires ea/h si nator$ State 7to respe/t an! to ensure to a"" in!ivi!ua"s within its territor$ an! su#<e/t to its <uris!i/tion the ri hts re/o ni4e! in the present Covenant. If sustaine!. Arti/"e L>III of the (+)2 Constitution.ore sai!. Suffi/e it to sa$ that the Court /onsi!ers the De/"aration as part of /usto*ar$ internationa" "aw. the Court has interprete! the De/"aration as part of the enera""$ a//epte! prin/ip"es of internationa" "aw an! #in!in on the State. there is so*ethin positive"$ revo"vin a#out either ar u*ent. wou"! /"ear"$ ren!er a"" se5uestration or!ers voi! !urin the interre nu*. the PC99 has on"$ one honora#"e option. That wou"! #e an unhea"th$ wa$ of /onso"i!atin the ains of a !e*o/rati/ revo"ution. it *ust #ow to the *a<est$ of the Bi"" of Ri hts. ho*e or /orrespon!en/e.

thus: Dire/t E6a*ination of Capt.S@ e"e*ents. an$ other properties or /ontra#an! whi/h /ou"! #e foun! in the resi!en/e of . =. A.iss E"i4a#eth Di*aanoR The /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent. issue! #$ a <u! e upon proper app"i/ation.iss E"i4a#eth Di*aanoR Aes. =. =.ORES A. Hhat e"se. were sei4e! fro* the house of . A. Do $ou know the reason wh$ $our tea* a"so sei4e! other properties not *entione! in sai! sear/h warrantR Durin the /onversation ri ht after the /on!u/t of sai! rai!. A. An! this part$ #e"ieve! there were weapons !eposite! in the house of . The warrant is thus va"i! with respe/t to the ite*s spe/ifi/a""$ !es/ri#e! in the warrant. The !ire/tives an! or!ers shou"! not have a"so vio"ate! the Covenant or the De/"aration. sir. An! the$ so swore #efore the . =. A. the sear/h warrant speaks on"$ of weapons to #e sei4e! fro* the house of E"i4a#eth Di*aano. A//or!in to the sear/h warrant.ORES A. =. !i! $ou /on!u/t survei""an/e in the house of . As a!*itte! #$ petitioner3s witnesses. sir. Cross:e6a*ination Att$. !ire/tives an! or!ers issue! #$ overn*ent offi/ers were va"i! so "on as these offi/ers !i! not e6/ee! the authorit$ rante! the* #$ the revo"utionar$ overn*ent. Bran/h (R A. *one$ in Phi"ippine /urren/$ an! @S !o""ars. for instan/e. an! I think three %1' vau"ts or stee" safes. "an! tit"es.iss E"i4a#eth Di*aanoR The Inte""i en/e Operatives /on!u/te! survei""an/e to ether with the . Before $ou app"ie! for a sear/h warrant. In this /ase. But the$ !i! not *ention to $ou. Now. so*e <ewe"ries. the /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent an! *one$. I was infor*e! that the reason wh$ the$ a"so #rou ht the other ite*s not in/"u!e! in the sear/h warrant was #e/ause the *one$ an! other <ewe"ries were /ontaine! in atta/hU /ases an! /artons with *arkin s 7Son$ Trinitron8. Aes. $our Bonor. the Consta#u"ar$ rai!in tea* sei4e! ite*s not in/"u!e! in the warrant. The Provisiona" Constitution serve! as a se"f:"i*itation #$ the revo"utionar$ overn*ent to avoi! a#uses of the a#so"ute powers entruste! to it #$ the peop"e. The Provisiona" Constitution a!opte! ver#ati* the Bi"" of Ri hts of the (+21 Constitution. =. asi!e fro* the weapons. Bowever.u! eR Aes. the revo"utionar$ overn*ent presu*ptive"$ san/tione! the warrant sin/e the revo"utionar$ overn*ent !i! not repu!iate it.iss E"i4a#eth Di*aanoR The$ <ust ave us sti"" un/onfir*e! report a#out so*e hi!!en ite*s. $ou are suppose! to sei4e on"$ for weapons. sir. 666 =. A. The warrant. the rai!in tea* /onfis/ate! ite*s not in/"u!e! in the warrant. Be"ievin that the atta/hU /ases an! the stee" safes were /ontainin firear*s. An! the sear/h warrant app"ie! for #$ $ou was for the sear/h an! sei4ure of five %-' #a#$ ar*a"ite rif"es . $our Bonor. Banaa =.:(E an! five %-' #o6es of a**unitionR Here $ou present when the sear/h warrant in /onne/tion with this /ase was app"ie! #efore the . A. . $our Bonor.or!ers voi!. $our Bonor. A. Aes.uni/ipa" Tria" . !o $ou know the reason wh$ $our tea* sei4e! this *one$ instea! of weaponsR I think the overa"" tea* "ea!er an! the other two offi/ers assistin hi* !e/i!e! to #rin a"on a"so the *one$ #e/ause at that ti*e it was a"rea!$ !ark an! the$ fe"t *ost se/ure! if the$ wi"" #rin that #e/ause the$ *i ht #e suspe/te! a"so of takin *one$ out of those ite*s. I !i! not in/"u!e that in the 666 A. spe/ifie! the ite*s to #e sear/he! an! sei4e!. Aou sai! $ou foun! *one$ instea! of weapons. Durin the interre nu* when no /onstitution or Bi"" of Ri hts e6iste!. Bowever. =. A. Ro!o"fo Se#astian A. the$ for/e! open these /ontainers on"$ to fin! out that the$ /ontaine! *one$.uni/ipa" Tria" Court of Batan as. the app"i/ant for the sear/h warrant.

it *i ht et "ost a"so. Be/ause the ar*a"ite rif"e $ou sei4e!. sir. A. 0012. Aou state! that a . Do $ou know what happene! to that /aseR I think it was !is*isse!. sir. The sei4ure of these ite*s was therefore voi!. <ewe"r$ an! "an! tit"es that the rai!in tea* /onfis/ate!. /on/ur. we !o not !e/"are that su/h person is the "awfu" owner of these ite*s. an! A4/una. Carpio:. #ut in the /ourse of the sear/h the /ontents turne! out to #e *one$. C"ear"$. I think the$ were /ontaine! in one of the vau"ts that were opene!.. I !o not rea""$ know their reason for #rin in the sa*e.. .ED.ar/h (++.G. sir. A. sir. in Civi" Case No.ISSED. $our Bonor. A. an! referrin this /ase to the Co**issioner of the Bureau of Interna" Revenue for a !eter*ination of an$ ta6 "ia#i"it$ of respon!ent E"i4a#eth Di*aano. #ut I #e"ieve the$ were a"so taken /onsi!erin that the *one$ was !is/overe! to #e /ontaine! in atta/hU Davi!e. an! the$ are not. The rai!in tea* ha! no "e a" #asis to sei4e these ite*s without showin that these ite*s /ou"! #e the su#<e/t of warrant"ess sear/h an! sei4ure. Bowever. sir. =. !: :R. as we"" as the . sir. . Sr. A. It is o#vious fro* the testi*on$ of Captain Se#astian that the warrant !i! not in/"u!e the *onies.<*R*1:R*. is that not /orre/tR I think that was the reason. =. =. sir. A. Bow a#out the *one$ sei4e! #$ $our rai!in tea*. =. <ewe"ries. That ho"!s true a"so with respe/t to the other arti/"es that were sei4e! #$ $our rai!in tea*. A.iss E"i4a#eth Di*aanoR Aes. So whenV =.app"i/ation for sear/h warrant /onsi!erin that we have not esta#"ishe! /on/rete evi!en/e a#out that..e*oran!u* Re/eipt in the na*e of &e"ino .:(E an! how *an$ a**unitionR &ort$. These atta/hU /ases were suspe/te! to #e /ontainin pisto"s or other hi h powere! firear*s. #ut I <ust "earne! that these were taken #e/ause the$ *i ht et "ost if the$ wi"" <ust "eave this #ehin!. There were other arti/"es sei4e! whi/h were not in/"u!e! in the sear/h warrant. "ike Transfer Certifi/ates of Tit"e of "an!sR Aes. I !o not rea""$ know where it was taken #ut the$ #rou ht a"on a"so these arti/"es. Austria:.*R*. /o**uni/ations e5uip*ent.e"e rito. "ike for instan/e.r. in the resu"t.usti/e >itu in his /on/urrin opinion. I /on/ur with .. In the fis/a"3s offi/eR Aes..r. 666 =. . An! this #e/a*e the su#<e/t of $our /o*p"aint with the issuin Court. the$ *ust #e returne! to the person fro* who* the rai!in sei4e! the*. So the tea* "ea!er a"so !e/i!e! to take this /onsi!erin that the$ #e"ieve! that if the$ wi"" <ust "eave the *one$ #ehin!. are A&&IR.G/a"i#er pisto" ha! a .artine4. the petition for /ertiorari is DIS. .. A..ora"es. The 5uestione! Reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an !ate! () Nove*#er (++( an! .. A./a"i#er pisto" was sei4e! a"on with one ar*a"ite rif"e . C. $ou ha! reason to #e"ieve that on"$ weapons were in the house of . He thus ho"! that these ite*s shou"! #e returne! i**e!iate"$ to Di*aano. 666 =. The sear/h warrant !i! not parti/u"ar"$ !es/ri#e these ite*s an! the rai!in tea* /onfis/ate! the* on its own authorit$. Hh$ !i! $ou sei4e the <ewe"riesR I think it was the !e/ision of the overa"" tea* "ea!er an! his assistant to #rin a"on a"so the <ewe"ries an! other ite*s.. /ases. with the fis/a"3s offi/e who /har e! E"i4a#eth Di*aano for I""e a" Possession of &irear*s an! A**unitionR Aes. A. re*an!in the re/or!s of this /ase to the O*#u!s*an for su/h appropriate a/tion as the evi!en/e *a$ warrant. Be""osi""o. the rai!in tea* e6/ee!e! its authorit$ when it sei4e! these ite*s. =. Ca""e<o. =. Corona. So that when $ou app"ie! for sear/h warrant. *ere"$ that the sear/h an! sei4ure warrant /ou"! not #e use! as #asis to sei4e an! withho"! these ite*s fro* the possessor. an! un"ess these ite*s are /ontra#an! per se. . the$ were not a"so in/"u!e! in the sear/h warrantR Aes sir..

=uisu*#in an! San!ova":9utierre4. on offi/ia" "eave. I /on/ur in the separate opinion of . Re$nato Puno...Puno an! >itu ..... .. . Anares:Santia o. . in the resu"t. . . . Tin a. separate opinion reserve!..... see separate opinion Pan ani#an... in the resu"t.

!ate! .. Soriano. whi/h is atta/he! hereto an! *a!e an inte ra" part hereof as Anne6 TA. as a*en!e! #$ Repu#"i/ A/t )1-1.00-. 'ep'e ente# by -tty. 1760=1 1eb'u"'y 11. 6 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :6 G.arine Corps.EE:A of the Revise! Pena" Co!e.-. Ci+" %"+"D HBC?!-NG %-G: ?N: 7H%?8. in CA:9..i2i ion of the 5:?RA :1 -PP*-C!. <-RRG C. *J*5?ABE* !*5R*A-RG *. No. -N. 'ep'e ente# by Eence' 5'i o to)oD "n# A<* P?/CB5 BNA*R*!A C-.: *R%BA-.: P?N:. un"awfu""$ an! fe"onious"$ se6ua""$ a#use an! have se6ua" inter/ourse with or /arna" know"e! e of one Su4ette S. J. The fa/ts are not !ispute!. SP No.R. with a#use of superior stren th an! takin a!vanta e of the into6i/ation of the vi/ti*. in hi c"p"city " *9ecuti2e !ec'et"'yD R:N-C. the @nite! States. insi!e the Su#i/ Ba$ &reeport Jone. BNA*RB:R -N. vs. Soriano. vs.*NA! 7C1!8. vs. the a#ove:na*e! a//use!3s %si/'.R-%-.. in he' c"p"city " concu''ent . petitioner herein. Cha! Brian Carpentier. as spe/ia" /ivi" a/tions an!Cor for review of the De/ision of the Court of Appea"s in ?an/e Corpora" Danie" . >i/tor St.. Durin the tria".?-R.. Be was /har e! with the /ri*e of rape /o**itte! a ainst a &i"ipina. Po4on. whi/h was transferre! fro* the Re iona" Tria" Court %RTC' of Ja*#a"es to the RTC of . No. et/. !"tu' :c")poD G-/RB*C.%-5-P-G-C. 17=888 1eb'u"'y 11.. the @nite! States 9overn*ent faithfu""$ /o*p"ie! with its un!ertakin to #rin !efen!ant S*ith to the tria" /ourt ever$ ti*e his presen/e was re5uire!. in hi c"p"city " !ec'et"'y of 1o'ei$n -ff"i' D R-?C G:N@-C*@. of the /ri*e of Rape un!er Arti/"e . 'ep'e ente# by Rep. Ni/o"as. Petitioners. JR. /onspirin .-NB*C !%BA<. +2. "n# /*NJ-%BN P:@:N. in hi c"p"city " P'e i#enti"l Ce$"l 5oun elD "n# C35PC.:$ear o"! un*arrie! wo*an insi!e a Stare6 >an with P"ate No.R. S*ith v. "n# "ll pe' on "ctin$ in thei' c"p"city. .-NB*C !%BA<.illy %"'bell"D C*-G?* :1 1BCBPBN: !A?. Ss t. A-F-. PR*!B. PR*!B. (++). . J?!AB5* !*5R*A-RG R-?C G:N@-C*@. Respon!ents. Respon!ents. a .'. an! !riven #$ a//use! Ti*oteo ?. !-C:NG-. /onfe!eratin to ether an! *utua""$ he"pin one another. Ben<a*in T. e6/ept Ti*oteo ?. with Offi/e a!!ress at )+00 P. 5-P?C:NG. *%BCB: 5. in hi c"p"city " !ec'et"'y of Ju ticeD *. !*5R*A-RG R:N-C. 6 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :6 G. . .?-R.r.BG/*RA: *. . at its re5uest.G. 5"'ol -'"ulloD G-/RB*C-. C:5-C G:E*RN%*NA !*5R*A-RG R:N-C.: P?N:.akati Cit$. was rante! /usto!$ of !efen!ant S*ith pen!in the pro/ee!in s. Petitioner. Bon.:%*NI! P-RAG. NG PBCBPBN-! 7H%P8.r. HI&:(E. entere! into on &e#ruar$ (0.T /o**itte! as fo""ows: TThat on or a#out the &irst %(st' !a$ of Nove*#er . Soriano. -C/*RA: R:%?C:.*NA GC:RB. 176222 1eb'u"'y 11. 'ep'e ente# by .akati for se/urit$ reasons. Ieith Si"kwoo! an! Ti*oteo ?. J:!* .R. 'ep'e ente# by . 200> J:EBA: R. 1C:RBN <BC/-G. DECISION .R. Respon!ent ?an/e Corpora" %?CCP?' Danie" S*ith is a *e*#er of the @nite! States Ar*e! &or/es.. threat an! inti*i!ation. <.K These are petitions for /ertiorari. et a".002.(. CONTRARA TO ?AH.efen e !ec'et"'y.anuar$ . .. R"chel P" to'e . . 'ep'e ente# by *l)e' C"bo$D HBC?!-NG %-G/?/?HB. Ni/o"as. !?@*AA* NB5:C-! y !:%/BC:N.T( Pursuant to the >isitin &or/es A ree*ent %>&A' #etween the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines an! the @nite! States. Do*ini/ Dup"antis. 200> -@5?N-. upon a /o*p"aint un!er oath fi"e! #$ Su4ette S. 1:R*BGN -11-BR! !*5R*A-RG -C/*RA: R:%?C:..r. Petitioners. R:(?*.. so*eti*e on Nove*#er (. with "ew! !esi n an! #$ *eans of for/e.* C. 'ep'e ente# by *)e'enci"n" #e Je u D /-G-N %?N-.: *R%BA-. . !i! then an! there wi""fu""$. Danie" S*ith. owne! #$ Starwa$s Trave" an! Tours. O"on apo Cit$ an! within the <uris!i/tion of this Bonora#"e Court. 200> /-G:NG -CG-N!-NG %-H-/-G-N 7/-G-N8. Ni/o"as. in hi c"p"city " !ec'et"'y of the Bnte'io' "n# Coc"l Go2e'n)entD !*RGB: -P:!A:C.-RR:G:.: P?N:. #ein then *e*#ers of the @nite! States . Respon!ents. .00-. to her !a*a e an! pre<u!i/e. 5*NA*R. !*5R*A-RG R-?C G:N@-C*@. 9ua!a"upe..*NAB-C C*G-C 5:?N!*C !*RGB: -P:!A:C. No. 'ep'e ente# by Rep. as fo""ows: The un!ersi ne! a//use! ?Cp". !*5R*A-RG -C/*RA: R:%?C:. a ainst the wi"" an! /onsent of the sai! Su4ette S. Ahe !peci"l 16th .

S.ITB is here#$ te*porari"$ /o**itte! to the .002. On De/e*#er . a//use! ?CCP?. DANIE? . fro* the .' Iristie A. Ienne$ Representative of the @nite! States of A*eri/a DATE: (.On De/e*#er G.A9' Bui"!in . as fo""ows: HBERE&ORE. %S !. of the >isitin &or/es A ree*ent entere! into #$ the Phi"ippines an! the @nite! States.EE:A. #e a ree! upon #$ appropriate Phi"ippine an! @nite! States authorities. S. a//use! ?CCP?.. however.akati. s5uare feet. S.anuar$ . Petitioners /onten! that the Phi"ippines shou"! have /usto!$ of !efen!ant ?CCP? S*ith #e/ause. !efen!ant S*ith was taken out of the . A//use! ?CCP?. the reversa" of the previous ru"in is sou ht on the roun! that the issue is of pri*or!ia" i*portan/e.1 Ben/e.. . thus: HBERE&ORE. Be wi"" #e uar!e! roun! the /"o/k #$ @. we reso"ve! to DIS.00 as /o*pensator$ !a*a es p"us P-0. @nite! States . an! stare !e/isis vis:W:vis a"" the parties. ?CCP?. a"" the fore oin /onsi!ere!. The *atter was #rou ht #efore the Court of Appea"s whi/h !e/i!e! on . referre! to as the Ro*u"o:Ienne$ A ree*ent of De/e*#er (+. S..S. IEITB SI?IHOOD AND ?CCP?. (0. .ITB is further senten/e! to in!e*nif$ /o*p"ainant S@JETTE S. DO. pre*ises /onsi!ere!. DANIE? . #e returne! to @. E*#ass$ Co*poun! in a roo* of appro6i*ate"$ (0 6 (. )1-1. an! #rou ht to a fa/i"it$ for !etention un!er the /ontro" of the @nite! States overn*ent. first of a"". thereafter.. the RTC of . purporte!"$ a/tin un!er or!ers of the Depart*ent of the Interior an! ?o/a" 9overn*ent. as we"" as a spe/ifi/ *an!ate of the Constitution. S*ith. in a//or!an/e with the >isitin &or/es A ree*ent si ne! #etween our two nations.INIC D@P?ANTIS.00E whi/h states: The 9overn*ent of the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines an! the 9overn*ent of the @nite! States of A*eri/a a ree that. A ainst the #arriers of res <u!i/ata vis:W:vis Ba$an. @nite! States .ISS the petition for havin #e/o*e *oot. Rowe %. an! this Court reso"ve! in favor of the /onstitutiona"it$ of the >&A. the >&A is voi! an! un/onstitutiona". Ja*ora... this Court here#$ fin!s hi* 9@I?TA BEAOND REASONAB?E DO@BT of the /ri*e of RAPE !efine! un!er Arti/"e . one of petitioners in the present /ases. for fai"ure of the prose/ution to a!!u/e suffi/ient evi!en/e a ainst a//use! SCS9T. *i"itar$ /usto!$ at the @. S. G #rou ht #$ Ba$an. . Pursuant to Arti/"e >.akati <ai" #$ a /ontin ent of Phi"ippine "aw enfor/e*ent a ents. invo"vin the soverei nt$ of the Repu#"i/. The prose/ution havin presente! suffi/ient evi!en/e a ainst a//use! ?CCP?.00E. SO ORDERED.. .00E an! the Ro*u"o:Ienne$ A ree*ent of De/e*#er . first para raph thereof. @. ?an/e Corpora" Danie" .arine Corps at the @SS Esse6.arine Corps.A. DANIE? .arine Corps. . CBAD BRIAN CARPENTER. in a//or!an/e with Arti/"e . Pen!in a ree*ent on su/h fa/i"ities. are here#$ AC=@ITTED to the /ri*e /har e!. The petitions were hear! on ora" ar u*ents on Septe*#er (+.ITB. after whi/h the parties su#*itte! their *e*oran!a. ren!ere! its De/ision.akati <ai" unti" further or!ers. S*ith.. . provi!e! for un!er new a ree*ents #etween the Phi"ippines an! the @nite! States.ai". E*#ass$ in . DANIE? .akati Cit$ .00E.akati Cit$ .. para raph ( %a' of the Revise! Pena" Co!e.' A"#erto 9.00E whi/h states: The Depart*ent of &orei n Affairs of the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines an! the E*#ass$ of the @nite! States of A*eri/a a ree that. a"" of the @S . . NICO?AS in the a*ount of P-0. the present a/tions. The Phi"ippine po"i/e an! <ai" authorities. a"so of the @S . fin!in !efen!ant S*ith ui"t$.000.00 as *ora" !a*a es.EE:B. .:(+:0E %S !. fo""owin the en! of the tria". in a//or!an/e with the >isitin &or/es A ree*ent si ne! #etween the two nations. he wi"" #e !etaine! at the first f"oor. an!. para raph No. here#$ senten/es hi* to suffer the pena"t$ of re/"usion perpetua to ether with the a//essor$ pena"ties provi!e! for un!er Arti/"e G( of the sa*e Co!e. the .ai". As a resu"t.ITB sha"" serve his senten/e in the fa/i"ities that sha"".00).S. un!er the !ire/t supervision of the Phi"ippine Depart*ent of Interior an! ?o/a" 9overn*ent %DI?9' wi"" have a//ess to the p"a/e of !etention to ensure the @nite! States is in /o*p"ian/e with the ter*s of the >&A.ani"a.@S. as a*en!e! #$ R.000. Ro*u"o Representative of the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines DATE: De/e*#er (+. upon transfer of ?an/e Corpora" Danie" . This was in Ba$an v.akati /ourt or!ere! S*ith !etaine! at the . *i"itar$ personne".arine Corps assi ne! at the @SS Esse6.+. This issue ha! #een raise! #efore.S..

whereas those that /arr$ out or further i*p"e*ent these po"i/$*akin a ree*ents are *ere"$ su#*itte! to Con ress.whi/h states: Se/.@T@A? DE&ENSE TREATA BETHEEN TBE REP@B?IC O& TBE PBI?IPPINES AND TBE @NITED STATES O& A. This is noteworth$.i"itar$ Bases A ree*ent of (+G2 were not Phi"ippine territor$.The provision of the Constitution is Art. troops or fa/i"ities in Phi"ippine territor$ sha"" #e e5ua""$ #in!in on the Phi"ippines an! the forei n soverei n State invo"ve!. Re/a""in with *utua" pri!e the histori/ re"ationship whi/h #rou ht their two peop"es to ether in a /o**on #on! of s$*path$ an! *utua" i!ea"s to fi ht si!e:#$:si!e a ainst i*peria"ist a ression !urin the "ast war. for two reasons. The reason for this provision "ies in histor$ an! the Phi"ippine e6perien/e in re ar! to the @nite! States *i"itar$ #ases in the /ountr$. the provision in 5uestion was a!opte! in the (+)2 Constitution. This ear"ier a ree*ent was si ne! an! !u"$ ratifie! with the /on/urren/e of #oth the Phi"ippine Senate an! the @nite! States Senate. the @nite! States a ree! to /e!e to the Phi"ippines a"" the territor$ it a/5uire! fro* Spain un!er the Treat$ of Paris. Si ne! at Hashin ton. . e6/ept /ertain nava" ports an!Cor *i"itar$ #ases an! fa/i"ities.T This Court fin!s that it is.ERICA. for the re/o nition of in!epen!en/e. as the$ were e6/"u!e! fro* the /ession an! retaine! #$ the @S. the RP:@S . Ja*ora. a !isparit$ in treat*ent.the >&A was !u"$ /on/urre! in #$ the Phi"ippine Senate an! has #een re/o ni4e! as a treat$ #$ the @nite! States as atteste! an! /ertifie! #$ the !u"$ authori4e! representative of the @nite! States overn*ent. or fa/i"ities sha"" not #e a""owe! in the Phi"ippines e6/ept un!er a treat$ !u"$ /on/urre! in #$ the Senate an!.-. the Phi"ippines ha! no <uris!i/tion over these #ases e6/ept to the e6tent a""owe! #$ the @nite! States. an! !esirin to stren then the fa#ri/ of pea/e in the Pa/ifi/ area. the @nite! States a ree! to turn over these #ases to the Phi"ippinesK an! with the e6piration of the RP:@S . whi/h the @nite! States retaine! for itse"f. L>III. &irst. ratifie! #$ a *a<orit$ of the votes /ast #$ the peop"e in a nationa" referen!u* he"! for that purpose. &or this is a *atter of interna" @nite! States "aw. forei n *i"itar$ #ases.. the 5uestion is whether or not the presen/e of @S Ar*e! &or/es in Phi"ippine territor$ pursuant to the >&A is a""owe! Tun!er a treat$ !u"$ /on/urre! in #$ the Senate 666 an! re/o ni4e! as a treat$ #$ the other /ontra/tin State. un!er the provisions of the so:/a""e! CaseXJa#"o/ki A/t. as he"! in Ba$an v. The provision is thus !esi ne! to ensure that an$ a ree*ent a""owin the presen/e of forei n *i"itar$ #ases. It wi"" #e re/a""e! that un!er the Phi"ippine Bi"" of (+0. the territor$ /overe! #$ these #ases were fina""$ /e!e! to the Phi"ippines. #e/ause what this *eans is that C"ark an! Su#i/ an! the other p"a/es in the Phi"ippines /overe! #$ the RP:@S . App"$in the provision to the situation invo"ve! in these /ases.i"itar$ Bases. &urther*ore. when the Con ress so re5uires. . within si6t$ !a$s fro* ratifi/ation.utua" Defense Treat$ states:2 . (+-(. an! re/o ni4e! as a treat$ #$ the other /ontra/tin State.. eventua""$.i"itar$ Bases A ree*ent in (++(. (+-(.utua" Defense Treat$ of Au ust 10. Se/. . troops. p"us a few is"an!s "ater a!!e! to its rea"*. The Parties of this Treat$ Reaffir*in their faith in the purposes an! prin/ip"es of the Charter of the @nite! Nations an! their !esire to "ive in pea/e with a"" peop"es an! a"" overn*ents. #e/ause the Phi"ippines re ar!e! it as a treat$ an! ha! it /on/urre! in #$ our Senate. whi/h "ai! the #asis for the Phi"ippine Co**onwea"th an!. Au ust 10. Su#se5uent"$. Noti/e /an #e taken of the internationa""$ known pra/ti/e #$ the @nite! States of su#*ittin to its Senate for a!vi/e an! /onsent a ree*ents that are po"i/$*akin in nature. A//or!in "$.. To prevent a re/urren/e of this e6perien/e. The fa/t that the >&A was not su#*itte! for a!vi/e an! /onsent of the @nite! States Senate !oes not !etra/t fro* its status as a #in!in internationa" a ree*ent or treat$ re/o ni4e! #$ the sai! State. The i!ea is to prevent a re/urren/e of the situation in whi/h the ter*s an! /on!itions overnin the presen/e of forei n ar*e! for/es in our territor$ were #in!in upon us #ut not upon the forei n State.E The se/on! reason has to !o with the re"ation #etween the >&A an! the RP:@S .i"itar$ Bases A ree*ent was never a!vise! for ratifi/ation #$ the @nite! States Senate. The RP:@S . After the e6piration in (++( of the A ree*ent #etween the Phi"ippines an! the @nite! States of A*eri/a /on/ernin .

Arti/"e >III. an ar*e! atta/k on either of the Parties is !ee*e! to in/"u!e an ar*e! atta/k on the *etropo"itan territor$ of either of the Parties. to sett"e an$ internationa" !isputes in whi/h the$ *a$ #e invo"ve! #$ pea/efu" *eans in su/h a *anner that internationa" pea/e an! se/urit$ an! <usti/e are not en!an ere! an! to refrain in their internationa" re"ation fro* the threat or use of for/e in an$ *anner in/onsistent with the purposes of the @nite! Nations. its ar*e! for/es. Arti/"e >I. This Treat$ !oes not affe/t an! sha"" not #e interprete! as affe/tin in an$ wa$ the ri hts an! o#"i ations of the Parties un!er the Charter of the @nite! Nations or the responsi#i"it$ of the @nite! Nations for the *aintenan/e of internationa" pea/e an! se/urit$.ohn &oster Du""es %S !.Desirin to !e/"are pu#"i/"$ an! for*a""$ their sense of unit$ an! their /o**on !eter*ination to !efen! the*se"ves a ainst e6terna" ar*e! atta/k. In or!er *ore effe/tive"$ to a/hieve the o#<e/tive of this Treat$. Su/h *easures sha"" #e ter*inate! when the Se/urit$ Coun/i" has taken the *easures ne/essar$ to restore an! *aintain internationa" pea/e an! se/urit$. the Parties separate"$ an! <oint"$ #$ se"f:he"p an! *utua" ai! wi"" *aintain an! !eve"op their in!ivi!ua" an! /o""e/tive /apa/it$ to resist ar*e! atta/k. or on the is"an! territories un!er its <uris!i/tion in the Pa/ifi/ O/ean. Arti/"e I>.inisters or their !eputies. E"i4a"!e %S !.ani"a. This Treat$ sha"" re*ain in for/e in!efinite"$.' Dean A/heson %S !. Ea/h Part$ re/o ni4es that an ar*e! atta/k in the Pa/ifi/ area on either of the parties wou"! #e !an erous to its own pea/e an! safet$ an! !e/"ares that it wou"! a/t to *eet the /o**on !an ers in a//or!an/e with its /onstitutiona" pro/esses.. This Treat$ sha"" #e ratifie! #$ the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines an! the @nite! Nations of A*eri/a in a//or!an/e with their respe/tive /onstitutiona" pro/esses an! wi"" /o*e into for/e when instru*ents of ratifi/ation thereof have #een e6/han e! #$ the* at .' To* Conna""$ %S !. The parties un!ertake.' .' Dios!a!o . (+-(.utua" Defense Treat$. Arti/"e III.. &ran/is/o %S !. wi"" /onsu"t to ether fro* ti*e to ti*e re ar!in the i*p"e*entation of this Treat$ an! whenever in the opinion of either of the* the territoria" inte rit$. A reein that nothin in this present instru*ent sha"" #e /onsi!ere! or interprete! as in an$ wa$ or sense a"terin or !i*inishin an$ e6istin a ree*ents or un!erstan!in s #etween the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines an! the @nite! States of A*eri/a. whi/h is the instru*ent a ree! upon . po"iti/a" in!epen!en/e or se/urit$ of either of the Parties is threatene! #$ e6terna" ar*e! atta/k in the Pa/ifi/. The Parties. throu h their &orei n . Arti/"e >II. &or the purpose of Arti/"e I>. The >&A. Desirin further to stren then their present efforts for /o""e/tive !efense for the preservation of pea/e an! se/urit$ pen!in the !eve"op*ent of a *ore /o*prehensive s$ste* of re iona" se/urit$ in the Pa/ifi/ area. &or the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines: %S !.a/apa a" &or the @nite! States of A*eri/a: %S !. therefore.' A"e6an!er Hi"e$) C"ear"$. so that no potentia" a ressor /ou"! #e un!er the i""usion that either of the* stan!s a"one in the Pa/ifi/ area. Either Part$ *a$ ter*inate it one $ear after noti/e has #een iven to the other part$. An$ su/h ar*e! atta/k an! a"" *easures taken as a resu"t thereof sha"" #e i**e!iate"$ reporte! to the Se/urit$ Coun/i" of the @nite! Nations. In withness whereof the un!ersi ne! P"enipotentiaries have si ne! this Treat$.oa5uin . Arti/"e >. Done in !up"i/ate at Hashin ton this thirtieth !a$ of Au ust. pu#"i/ vesse"s or air/raft in the Pa/ifi/.' >i/ente . <oint RP:@S *i"itar$ e6er/ises for the purpose of !eve"opin the /apa#i"it$ to resist an ar*e! atta/k fa"" s5uare"$ un!er the provisions of the RP:@S . as set forth in the Charter of the @nite! Nations. Arti/"e II. Ro*u"o %S !. Bave a ree! as fo""ows: Arti/"e I.' Car"os P.' .

upon for*a" notifi/ation #$ the Phi"ippine authorities an! without !e"a$.utua" Defense Treat$ itse"f has #een ratifie! an! /on/urre! in #$ #oth the Phi"ippine Senate an! the @S Senate. A"so. that provi!in for the e6/"usive power of this Court to a!opt ru"es of pro/e!ure for a"" /ourts in the Phi"ippines %Art.(( The ru"e in internationa" "aw is that a forei n ar*e! for/es a""owe! to enter one3s territor$ is i**une fro* "o/a" <uris!i/tion. The e5ua" prote/tion /"ause is not vio"ate!.. >III. -N-O'. #ut *ere"$ to the @S Con ress un!er the CaseXJa#"o/ki A/t within E0 !a$s of its ratifi/ation. #e/ause there is a su#stantia" #asis for a !ifferent treat*ent of a *e*#er of a forei n *i"itar$ ar*e! for/es a""owe! to enter our territor$ an! a"" other a//use!. Se/.to provi!e for the <oint RP:@S *i"itar$ e6er/ises. The$ ar ue that to a""ow the transfer of /usto!$ of an a//use! to a forei n power is to provi!e for a !ifferent ru"e of pro/e!ure for that a//use!. But the prin/ip"e re*ains. Se/. the @nite! States sha"" #e re"ieve! of an$ o#"i ations un!er this para raph.(0 The provision of Art.. is si*p"$ an i*p"e*entin a ree*ent to the *ain RP:@S .i"itar$ Defense Treat$. (. i.of the Constitution. Sin/e the RP: @S . The Status of &or/es A ree*ents invo"vin forei n *i"itar$ units aroun! the wor"! var$ in ter*s an! /on!itions. the fo""owin ru"es app"$: Arti/"e > Cri*ina" . The /usto!$ of an$ @nite! States personne" over who* the Phi"ippines is to e6er/ise <uris!i/tion sha"" i**e!iate"$ resi!e with @nite! States *i"itar$ authorities. the parties are re5uire! as a *atter of internationa" "aw to a#i!e #$ its ter*s an! provisions. na*e"$. fro* the /o**ission of the offense unti" /o*p"etion of a"" <u!i/ia" pro/ee!in s. if the$ so re5uest. Se/..utua" Defense Treat$. @nite! States *i"itar$ authorities sha"". it was not ne/essar$ to su#*it the >&A to the @S Senate for a!vi/e an! /onsent. It is for this reason that the @S has /ertifie! that it re/o ni4es the >&A as a #in!in internationa" a ree*ent. e6/ept to the e6tent a ree! upon. as an i*p"e*entin a ree*ent of the RP:@S . . this Court fin!s no vio"ation of the Constitution. .of our Constitution. after ti*e"$ notifi/ation #$ Phi"ippine authorities to arran e for the presen/e of the a//use!. The one $ear perio! wi"" not in/"u!e the ti*e ne/essar$ to appea". i. In the event Phi"ippine <u!i/ia" pro/ee!in s are not /o*p"ete! within one $ear. a//or!in to the situation of the parties invo"ve!. In e6traor!inar$ /ases. The Prea*#"e of the >&A states: The 9overn*ent of the @nite! States of A*eri/a an! the 9overn*ent of the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines. the Phi"ippine 9overn*ent sha"" present its position to the @nite! States 9overn*ent re ar!in /usto!$. the Notin that fro* ti*e to ti*e e"e*ents of the @nite! States ar*e! for/es *a$ visit the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippinesK Consi!erin that /ooperation #etween the @nite! States an! the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines pro*otes their /o**on se/urit$ interestsK Re/o ni4in the !esira#i"it$ of !efinin the treat*ent of @nite! States personne" visitin the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippinesK Bave a ree! as fo""ows:+ A//or!in "$. L>III. A ain. Se/. an! this su#stantia""$ /o*p"ies with the re5uire*ents of Art. The >&A #ein a va"i! an! #in!in a ree*ent.utua" Defense Treat$. fai" to !o so. L>III. an! ref"e/t their #ar ainin power. there is no vio"ation of the Constitutiona" provision resu"tin fro* su/h presen/e. .e. is /o*p"ie! with #$ virtue of the fa/t that the presen/e of the @S Ar*e! &or/es throu h the >&A is a presen/e Ta""owe! un!erT the RP:@S . *ake su/h personne" avai"a#"e to those authorities in ti*e for an$ investi ative or <u!i/ia" pro/ee!in s re"atin to the offense with whi/h the person has #een /har e!. whi/h a"so vio"ates the e5ua" prote/tion /"ause of the Constitution %Art. whi/h the @nite! States 9overn*ent sha"" take into fu"" a//ount. a treat$.uris!i/tion 666 E. Reaffir*in their faith in the purposes an! prin/ip"es of the Charter of the @nite! Nations an! their !esire to stren then internationa" an! re iona" se/urit$ in the Pa/ifi/ areaK Reaffir*in (+-(K their o#"i ations un!er the .e.utua" Defense Treat$ of Au ust 10.'. III. the one $ear perio! wi"" not in/"u!e an$ ti*e !urin whi/h s/he!u"e! tria" pro/e!ures are !e"a$e! #e/ause @nite! States authorities. The >&A provi!es that in /ases of offenses /o**itte! #$ the *e*#ers of the @S Ar*e! &or/es in the Phi"ippines.. Petitioners /onten! that these un!ertakin s vio"ate another provision of the Constitution.

'. the Court fin!s that there is a !ifferent treat*ent when it /o*es to !etention as a ainst /usto!$. the "aws %in/"u!in ru"es of pro/e!ure' of one State !o not e6ten! or app"$ X e6/ept to the e6tent a ree! upon X to su#<e/ts of another State !ue to the re/o nition of e6traterritoria" i**unit$ iven to su/h #o!ies as visitin forei n ar*e! for/es. the Court a!!resses the re/ent !e/ision of the @nite! States Supre*e Court in .T After !e"i#eration.anifestation on the fo""owin points: (. The *o*ent the a//use! has to #e !etaine!. . It is /"ear that the parties to the >&A re/o ni4e! the !ifferen/e #etween /usto!$ !urin the tria" an! !etention after /onvi/tion.e!e""in itse"f.-. .aka#a$an NBAAANO. #e/ause the parties inten! its provisions to #e enfor/ea#"e.R. the >&A has #een i*p"e*ente! an! e6e/ute!.'K an! 9. @S YYY No. either #e/ause it is se"f:e6e/utor$ or #e/ause there e6ists "e is"ation to i*p"e*ent it. the provisions of >&A. II. %Ba on A"$ansan . are re5uire! to su#*it within three %1' !a$s a Co**entC.ar/h . v. The /onfine*ent or !etention #$ Phi"ippine authorities of @nite! States personne" sha"" #e /arrie! out in fa/i"ities a ree! on #$ appropriate Phi"ippines an! @nite! States authorities. Danie" S*ith. 0E:+)G. . is there proof of the @S Senate a!vi/e an! /onsent reso"utionR Pera"ta. No.e!e""in v. on these points. An! this spe/ifi/ arran e*ent /"ear"$ states not on"$ that the !etention sha"" #e /arrie! out in fa/i"ities a ree! on #$ authorities of #oth parties..R.00+. A"#erto Ro*u"o.00)'. >.00E. in re"ation to "on :re/o ni4e! su#<e/ts of su/h i**unit$ "ike Bea!s of State. the ru"e that overns is the fo""owin provision of the >&A: Arti/"e > Cri*ina" . No. e. et a". to the effe/t that treat$ stipu"ations that are not se"f:e6e/utor$ /an on"$ #e enfor/e! pursuant to "e is"ation to /arr$ the* into effe/tK an! that. thus: T9. No. 1. #ut rather one in whi/h.. As a resu"t. Ne6t.ovito R. (0 of the >&A. whi/h he"! that treaties entere! into #$ the @nite! States are not auto*ati/a""$ part of their !o*esti/ "aw un"ess these treaties are se"f:e6e/utin or there is an i*p"e*entin "e is"ation to *ake the* enfor/ea#"e. As a *atter of fa/t. %Art. !ate! . #e/ause the$ provi!e! for a spe/ifi/ arran e*ent to /over !etention. .-. Hhat is the i*p"i/ation on the RP:@S >isitin &or/es A ree*ent of the re/ent @S Supre*e Court !e/ision in .e!e""in v. (2E. in/"u!in the So"i/itor 9enera".. et a"..ar/h . The parties. (+-( was /on/urre! in #$ the @S Senate an!. however. et a". (2E0-( %. . the >&A is a se"f:e6e/utin A ree*ent. as that ter* is !efine! in .. Hhether the >&A is enfor/ea#"e in the @S as !o*esti/ "aw.a/apa a":Arro$o. as fo""ows: &irst. On the /ontrar$.T Respon!ents shou"! therefore /o*p"$ with the >&A an! ne otiate with representatives of the @nite! States towar!s an a ree*ent on !etention fa/i"ities un!er Phi"ippine authorities as *an!ate! #$ Art. whi/h are a ree*ents on the !etention of the a//use! in the @nite! States E*#ass$. .R. v. Se/. (2-))) %Su4ette Ni/o"as $ So*#i"on v. if so. . whi"e treaties *a$ /o*prise internationa" /o**it*ents. #ut a"so that the !etention sha"" #e T#$ Phi"ippine authorities. pre/ise"$ #e/ause the A ree*ent is inten!e! to /arr$ out o#"i ations an! un!ertakin s un!er the RP:@S . Se/. Presi!ent 9"oria . ..T Therefore.utua" Defense Treat$.. App"$in . as is nor*a""$ en/ountere! aroun! the wor"!. Te6as. the situation invo"ve! is not one in whi/h the power of this Court to a!opt ru"es of pro/e!ure is /urtai"e! or vio"ate!. Te6as % --. no part. (0. the$ are not !o*esti/ "aw un"ess Con ress has ena/te! i*p"e*entin statutes or the treat$ itse"f /onve$s an intention that it #e Tse"f:e6e/utor$T an! is ratifie! on these ter*sR . after /onvi/tion. the Court issue! a Reso"ution. et a".re/eivin State /an e6er/ise <uris!i/tion over the for/es of the sen!in State on"$ to the e6tent a ree! upon #$ the parties. Sa"on a. the Court ho"!s.utua" Defense Treat$ of Au ust 10. are not in a//or! with the >&A itse"f #e/ause su/h !etention is not T#$ Phi"ippine authorities. Nothin in the Constitution prohi#its su/h a ree*ents re/o ni4in i**unit$ fro* <uris!i/tion or so*e aspe/ts of <uris!i/tion %su/h as /usto!$'.ose Ernesto . !ip"o*ats an! *e*#ers of the ar*e! for/es /ontin ents of a forei n State a""owe! to enter another State3s territor$.*avvp(i* On &e#ruar$ 1. .(. et a". Hhether the RP:@S . the Constitution states that the Phi"ippines a!opts the enera""$ a//epte! prin/ip"es of internationa" "aw as part of the "aw of the "an!.. the Ro*u"o:Ienne$ A ree*ents of De/e*#er (+ an! .'.uris!i/tion 666 Se/. with the @S faithfu""$ /o*p"$in with its o#"i ation to pro!u/e ?CCP? S*ith #efore the /ourt !urin the tria". @nite! States personne" servin senten/es in the Phi"ippines sha"" have the ri ht to visits an! *ateria" assistan/e.00).'K 9.

'. As Har! N. an! the Court of Appea"s3 De/ision in CA:9. is @PBE?D as /onstitutiona". the RP:@S .Se/on!"$. No /osts. pen!in whi/h the status 5uo sha"" #e *aintaine! unti" further or!ers #$ this Court. (++). na*e"$. the petition for /onte*pt an! the appea" of ?CCP? Danie" S*ith fro* the <u! *ent of /onvi/tion. Se/.(1 an e6e/utive a ree*ent is a Ttreat$T within the *eanin of that wor! in internationa" "aw an! /onstitutes enfor/ea#"e !o*esti/ "aw vis:W:vis the @nite! States. Se/on! Session. 1. in a!optin Arti/"e L>III.002 is . so*e /ountries re5uire "e is"ation whereas others !o not. The >&A itse"f is another for* of i*p"e*entation of its provisions. DIRECT APP?ICATION O& INTERNATIONA? CRI.. The >isitin &or/es A ree*ent %>&A' #etween the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines an! the @nite! States. (0 of the >&A. na*e"$. su#<e/t *atter of the .INA? ?AH IN NATIONA? CO@RTS. .anuar$ .n! Con ress. as he"! #$ the @S Supre*e Court in Hein#er er v. A//or!in "$. #ut the Ro*u"o:Ienne$ A ree*ents of De/e*#er (+ an! . SP No.%#'. treaties X These are a!vise! an! /onsente! to #$ the @S Senate in a//or!an/e with Art. the >&A !iffers fro* the >ienna Convention on Consu"ar Re"ations an! the Avena !e/ision of the Internationa" Court of . (+-. !ate! . . Art. SO ORDERED. it #e/o*es for #oth parties a #in!in internationa" o#"i ation an! the enfor/e*ent of that o#"i ation is "eft to the nor*a" re/ourse an! pro/esses un!er internationa" "aw.utua" Defense Treat$.. . >. to re5uire the other /ontra/tin State to /onvert their s$ste* to a/hieve a"i n*ent an! parit$ with ours. ((. The Convention an! the IC. after whi/h the$ are re/o ni4e! #$ the Con ress an! *a$ #e i*p"e*ente!. Hith that. Se/. inas*u/h as it is the ver$ purpose an! intent of the @S Con ress that e6e/utive a ree*ents re istere! un!er this A/t within E0 !a$s fro* their ratifi/ation #e i**e!iate"$ i*p"e*ente!. !e/ision are not se"f:e6e/utin an! are not re istra#"e un!er the Case:Ja#"o/ki A/t.. As re ar!s the i*p"e*entation of the RP:@S .*avvp(i* In su*.. there are three t$pes of treaties in the A*eri/an s$ste*: (. The parties to these present /ases !o not 5uestion the fa/t that the >&A has #een re istere! un!er the Case:Ja#"o/ki A/t. &er!inan!usse states in his Treatise. .-+-. of the @S Constitution. II. .ar/h . the >&A is /overe! #$ i*p"e*entin "e is"ation.utua" Defense Treat$ was a!vise! an! /onsente! to #$ the @S Senate on . pp. E6e/utiveXCon ressiona" A ree*ents: These are <oint a ree*ents of the Presi!ent an! Con ress an! nee! not #e su#*itte! to the Senate.R. II.-.0.00E are DEC?ARED not in a//or!an/e with the >&A. It was not the intention of the fra*ers of the (+)2 Constitution.(. It was si*p"$ re5uire! that the treat$ #e re/o ni4e! as a treat$ #$ the other /ontra/tin State. . &ina""$. Rossi.usti/e %IC. +2. +) X Part . >o". &urther*ore. The fra*ers of the Constitution were aware that the app"i/ation of internationa" "aw in !o*esti/ /ourts varies fro* /ountr$ to /ountr$. X These are a ree*ents entere! into #$ the Presi!ent. as ref"e/te! in the @S Con ressiona" Re/or!. Se/. the petitions are PART?A 9RANTED. the @S Supre*e Court in Hein#er er enfor/e! the provisions of the e6e/utive a ree*ent rantin preferentia" e*p"o$*ent to &i"ipinos in the @S Bases here. @SC Se/.e!e""in !e/ision. . Se/. The$ are to #e su#*itte! to Con ress within si6t$ %E0' !a$s of ratifi/ation un!er the provisions of the Case:Ja#"o/ki A/t. *i"itar$ ai! or assistan/e has #een iven un!er it an! this /an on"$ #e !one throu h i*p"e*entin "e is"ation. entere! into on &e#ruar$ (0. an! respon!ent Se/retar$ of &orei n Affairs is here#$ or!ere! to forthwith ne otiate with the @nite! States representatives for the appropriate a ree*ent on !etention fa/i"ities un!er Phi"ippine authorities as provi!e! in Art.ODI&IED.-+G:. therefore. an! thus "a/k "e is"ative i*p"e*entin authorit$. Thus. The Court of Appea"s is here#$ !ire/te! to reso"ve without !e"a$ the re"ate! *atters pen!in therein.. the Case: Ja#"o/ki A/t.. So"e E6e/utive A ree*ents. . HBERE&ORE. ).

G.R. No. 12>406

%"'ch 6, 2006

R*P?/CB5 :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*! 'ep'e ente# by the PR*!B,*NAB-C 5:%%B!!B:N :N G::, G:E*RN%*NA 7P5GG8, Petitioner, vs. !-N,BG-N/-G-N 7!*5:N, ,BEB!B:N8 "n# R:/*RA: !. /*N*,B5A:, Respon!ents. DECISION G-R5B-, J.; Before the Court is this petition for /ertiorari un!er Ru"e E- of the Ru"es of Court to nu""if$ an! set asi!e the .ar/h ,), (++- ( an! .ar/h (1, (++2, Reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an, Se/on! Division, in Civi" Case No. 001G, insofar as sai! reso"utions or!ere! the Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent %PC99' to pa$ private respon!ent Ro#erto S. Bene!i/to or his /orporations the va"ue of ,,2 shares of sto/k of the Ne ros O//i!enta" 9o"f an! Countr$ C"u#, In/. %NO9CCI' at P(-0,000.00 per share, re istere! in the na*e of sai! private respon!ent or his /orporations. The fa/ts: Civi" Case No. 001G entit"e! Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines, p"aintiff, v. Ro#erto S. Bene!i/to, et a"., !efen!ants, is a /o*p"aint for re/onve$an/e, reversion, a//ountin , re/onstitution an! !a*a es. The /ase is one of severa" suits invo"vin i"": otten or une6p"aine! wea"th that petitioner Repu#"i/, throu h the PC99, fi"e! with the San!i an#a$an a ainst private respon!ent Ro#erto S. Bene!i/to an! others pursuant to E6e/utive Or!er %EO' No. (G,1 series of (+)E. Pursuant to its *an!ate un!er EO No. (,G series of (+)E, the PC99 issue! writs p"a/in un!er se5uestration a"" #usiness enterprises, entities an! other properties, rea" an! persona", owne! or re istere! in the na*e of private respon!ent Bene!i/to, or of /orporations in whi/h he appeare! to have /ontro""in or *a<orit$ interest. A*on the properties thus se5uestere! an! taken over #$ PC99 fis/a" a ents were the ,,2 shares in NO9CCI owne! #$ private respon!ent Bene!i/to an! re istere! in his na*e or un!er the na*es of /orporations he owne! or /ontro""e!. &o""owin the se5uestration pro/ess, PC99 representatives sat as *e*#ers of the Boar! of Dire/tors of NO9CCI, whi/h passe!, so*eti*e in O/to#er (+)E, a reso"ution effe/tin a /orporate po"i/$ /han e. The /han e /onsiste! of assessin a *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue of P(-0.00 for ea/h NO9CCI share. Prior to this reso"ution, an investor pur/hasin *ore than one NO9CCI share was e6e*pt fro* pa$in *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue for the se/on! an! su#se5uent shares that heCshe owne!. Su#se5uent"$, on .ar/h ,+, (+)2, the NO9CCI Boar! passe! another reso"ution, this ti*e in/reasin the *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue fro* P(-0.00 to P,-0.00 for ea/h share. As se5uestrator of the ,,2 shares of sto/k in 5uestion, PC99 !i! not pa$ the /orrespon!in *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue thereon tota"in P,,+-+,G2(.00. On a//ount thereof, the ,,2 se5uestere! shares were !e/"are! !e"in5uent to #e !ispose! of in an au/tion sa"e. Apprise! of the a#ove !eve"op*ent an! evi!ent"$ to prevent the pro<e/te! au/tion sa"e of the sa*e shares, PC99 fi"e! a /o*p"aint for in<un/tion with the Re iona" Tria" Court %RTC' of Ba/o"o! Cit$, thereat !o/kete! as Civi" Case No. -1G). The /o*p"aint, however, was !is*isse!, pavin the wa$ for the au/tion sa"e for the !e"in5uent ,,2 shares of sto/k. On Au ust -, (+)+, an au/tion sa"e was /on!u/te!. On Nove*#er 1, (++0, petitioner Repu#"i/ an! private respon!ent Bene!i/to entere! into a Co*pro*ise A ree*ent in Civi" Case No. 001G. The a ree*ent /ontaine! a enera" re"ease /"ause- whereun!er petitioner Repu#"i/ a ree! an! #oun! itse"f to "ift the se5uestration on the ,,2 NO9CCI shares, a*on other Bene!i/to3s properties, petitioner Repu#"i/ a/know"e! in that it was within private respon!ent Bene!i/to3s /apa/it$ to a/5uire the sa*e shares out of his in/o*e fro* #usiness an! the e6er/ise of his profession.E I*p"ie! in this un!ertakin is the re/o nition #$ petitioner Repu#"i/ that the su#<e/t shares of sto/k /ou"! not have #een i"": otten. In a !e/ision !ate! O/to#er ,, (++,, the San!i an#a$an approve! the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent an! a//or!in "$ ren!ere! <u! *ent in a//or!an/e with its ter*s. In the pro/ess of i*p"e*entin the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent, either of the parties wou"!, fro* ti*e to ti*e, *ove for a ru"in #$ the San!i an#a$an on the proper *anner of i*p"e*entin or interpretin a spe/ifi/ provision therein. On &e#ruar$ ,,, (++G, Bene!i/to fi"e! in Civi" Case No. 001G a T.otion for Re"ease fro* Se5uestration an! Return of Se5uestere! SharesCDivi!en!sT pra$in , inter a"ia, that his NO9CCI shares of sto/k #e spe/ifi/a""$ re"ease! fro* se5uestration an! returne!, !e"ivere! or pai! to hi* as part of the parties3 Co*pro*ise A ree*ent in that /ase. In a Reso"ution2 pro*u" ate! on

De/e*#er E, (++G, the San!i an#a$an rante! Bene!i/to3s afore*entione! *otion #ut p"a/e! the su#<e/t shares un!er the /usto!$ of its C"erk of Court, thus: HBERE&ORE, in the "i ht of the fore oin , the sai! T.otion for Re"ease &ro* Se5uestration an! Return of Se5uestere! SharesCDivi!en!sT is here#$ 9RANTED an! it is !ire/te! that sai! sharesC!ivi!en!s #e !e"ivere!Cp"a/e! un!er the /usto!$ of the C"erk of Court, San!i an#a$an, .ani"a su#<e/t to this Court3s !isposition. On .ar/h ,), (++-, the San!i an#a$an /a*e out with the herein first assai"e! Reso"ution,) whi/h /"arifie! its afore*entione! De/e*#er E, (++G Reso"ution an! !ire/te! the i**e!iate i*p"e*entation thereof #$ re5uirin PC99, a*on other thin s: %#' To !e"iver to the C"erk of Court the ,,2 se5uestere! shares of NNO9CCIO re istere! in the na*e of no*inees of ROBERTO S. BENEDICTO free fro* a"" "iens an! en/u*#ran/es, or in !efau"t thereof, to pa$ their va"ue at P(-0,000.00 per share whi/h /an #e !e!u/te! fro* Nthe Repu#"i/3sO /ash share in the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent. NHor!s in #ra/ket a!!e!O %E*phasis Supp"ie!'. Owin to PC993s fai"ure to /o*p"$ with the a#ove !ire/tive, Bene!i/to fi"e! in Civi" Case No. 001G a .otion for Co*p"ian/e !ate! ;u"$ ,-, (++-, fo""owe! #$ an E6:Parte .otion for Ear"$ Reso"ution !ate! &e#ruar$ (,, (++E. A/tin thereon, the San!i an#a$an pro*u" ate! $et another Reso"ution+ on &e#ruar$ ,1, (++E, !ispositive"$ rea!in : HBERE&ORE, fin!in *erit in the instant *otion for ear"$ reso"ution an! /onsi!erin that, in!ee!, the PC99 has not shown an$ <ustifia#"e roun! as to wh$ it has not /o*p"ie! with its o#"i ation as set forth in the Or!er of De/e*#er E, (++G up to this !ate an! whi/h Or!er was issue! pursuant to the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent an! has a"rea!$ #e/o*e fina" an! e6e/utor$, a//or!in "$, the Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent is here#$ iven a fina" e6tension of fifteen %(-' !a$s fro* re/eipt hereof within whi/h to /o*p"$ with the Or!er of De/e*#er E, (++G as state! hereina#ove. On Apri" (, (++E, PC99 fi"e! a .anifestation with .otion for Re/onsi!eration,(0 pra$in for the settin asi!e of the Reso"ution of &e#ruar$ ,1, (++E. On Apri" ((, (++E, private respon!ent Bene!i/to fi"e! a .otion to Enfor/e ;u! *ent ?ev$. Reso"vin these two *otions, the San!i an#a$an, in its se/on! assai"e! Reso"ution(( !ate! .ar/h (1, (++2, !enie! that portion of the PC993s .anifestation with .otion for Re/onsi!eration /on/ernin the su#<e/t ,,2 NO9CCI shares an! rante! Bene!i/to3s .otion to Enfor/e ;u! *ent ?ev$.

Ben/e, the Repu#"i/3s present re/ourse on the so"e issue of whether or not the pu#"i/ respon!ent San!i an#a$an, Se/on! Division, rave"$ a#use! its !is/retion in ho"!in that the PC99 is at fau"t for not pa$in the *e*#ership !ues on the ,,2 se5uestere! NO9CCI shares of sto/k, a fai"in whi/h eventua""$ "e! to the fore/"osure sa"e thereof. The petition "a/ks *erit. To #e in with, PC99 itse"f !oes not !ispute its #ein /onsi!ere! as a re/eiver insofar as the se5uestere! ,,2 NO9CCI shares of sto/k are /on/erne!. (, PC99 a"so a/know"e! es that as su/h re/eiver, one of its fun/tions is to pa$ outstan!in !e#ts pertainin to the se5uestere! entit$ or propert$,(1 in this /ase the ,,2 NO9CCI shares in 5uestion. It /onten!s, however, that *e*#ership !ues owin to a o"f /"u# /annot #e /onsi!ere! as an outstan!in !e#t for whi/h PC99, as re/eiver, *ust pa$. It a"so /"ai*s to have e6er/ise! !ue !i"i en/e to prevent the "oss throu h !e"in5uen/$ sa"e of the su#<e/t NO9CCI shares, spe/ifi/a""$ invitin attention to the in<un/tive suit, i.e., Civi" Case No. -1G), it fi"e! #efore the RTC of Ba/o"o! Cit$ to en<oin the fore/"osure sa"e of the shares. The fi"in of the in<un/tion /o*p"aint a!verte! to, without *ore, /annot p"ausi#"$ ti"t the #a"an/e in favor of PC99. To the *in! of the Court, su/h fi"in is a /ase of a/tin too "itt"e an! too "ate. It /annot #e over:e*phasi4e! that it #ehoove! the PC993s fis/a" a ents to preserve, "ike a responsi#"e father of the fa*i"$, the va"ue of the shares of sto/k un!er their a!*inistration. But far fro* a/tin as su/h father, what the fis/a" a ents !i! un!er the pre*ises was to a""ow the e"e*ent of !e"in5uen/$ to set in #efore a/tin #$ e*#arkin on a te!ious pro/ess of oin to /ourt after the au/tion sa"e ha! #een announ/e! an! s/he!u"e!. The PC993s posture that to the owner of the se5uestere! shares rests the #ur!en of pa$in the *e*#ership !ues is untena#"e. &or one, it "ost si ht of the rea"it$ that su/h !ues are #asi/a""$ o#"i ations atta/he! to the shares, whi/h, in the fina" ana"$sis, sha"" #e *a!e "ia#"e, thru !e"in5uen/$ sa"e in /ase of !efau"t in pa$*ent of the !ues. &or another, the PC99 as se5uestrator:re/eiver of su/h shares is, as stresse! ear"ier, !ut$ #oun! to preserve the va"ue of su/h shares. Nee!"ess to state, a!optin ti*e"$ *easures to o#viate the "oss of those shares for*s part of su/h !ut$ an! !ue !i"i en/e. The San!i an#a$an, to #e sure, /annot p"ausi#"$ #e fau"te! for fin!in the PC99 "ia#"e for the "oss of the ,,2 NO9CCI shares. There /an #e no 5ui##"in , as in!ee! the raft /ourt so !e/"are! in its assai"e! an! re"ate! reso"utions respe/tin the NO9CCI shares of sto/k, that PC993s fis/a" a ents, whi"e sittin in the NO9CCI Boar! of Dire/tors a ree! to the a*en!*ent of the ru"e pertainin to *e*#ership !ues. Ben/e, it is not a*iss to state, as !i! the

San!i an#a$an, that the PC99:!esi nate! fis/a" a ents, no "ess, ha! a !ire/t han! in the "oss of the se5uestere! shares throu h !e"in5uen/$ an! their eventua" sa"e throu h pu#"i/ au/tion. Hhi"e perhaps anti:/"i*a/ti/ to so *ention it at this sta e, the unfortunate "oss of the shares ou ht not to have /o*e to pass ha! those fis/a" a ents pru!ent"$ not a ree! to the passa e of the NO9CCI #oar! reso"utions /har in *e*#ership !ues on shares without p"a$in representatives. 9iven the /ir/u*stan/es "ea!in to the au/tion sa"e of the su#<e/t NO9CCI shares, PC993s "a*ent a#out pu#"i/ respon!ent San!i an#a$an havin erre! or, worse sti"", havin rave"$ a#use! its !is/retion in its !eter*ination as to who is at fau"t for the "oss of the shares in 5uestion /an har!"$ #e iven /o en/$. &or sure, even if the San!i an#a$an were wron in its fin!in s, whi/h !oes not see* to #e in this /ase, it is a we"":sett"e! ru"e of <urispru!en/e that /ertiorari wi"" issue on"$ to /orre/t errors of <uris!i/tion, not errors of <u! *ent. Coro""ari"$, errors of pro/e!ure or *istakes in the /ourt3s fin!in s an! /on/"usions are #e$on! the /orre/tive han! of /ertiorari.(G The e6traor!inar$ writ of /ertiorari *a$ #e avai"e! on"$ upon a showin , in the *ini*u*, that the respon!ent tri#una" or offi/er e6er/isin <u!i/ia" or 5uasi:<u!i/ia" fun/tions has a/te! without or in e6/ess of its or his <uris!i/tion, or with rave a#use of !is/retion.(The ter* T rave a#use of !is/retionT /onnotes /apri/ious an! whi*si/a" e6er/ise of <u! *ent as is e5uiva"ent to e6/ess, or a "a/k of <uris!i/tion. (E The a#use *ust #e so patent an! ross as to a*ount to an evasion of a positive !ut$ or a virtua" refusa" to perfor* a !ut$ en<oine! #$ "aw, or to a/t at a"" in /onte*p"ation of "aw as where the power is e6er/ise! in an ar#itrar$ an! !espoti/ *anner #$ reason of passion or hosti"it$. (2 Sa!"$, this is /o*p"ete"$ a#sent in the present /ase. &or, at #otto*, the assai"e! reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an !i! no *ore than to !ire/t PC99 to /o*p"$ with its part of the #ar ain un!er the /o*pro*ise a ree*ent it free"$ entere! into with private respon!ent Bene!i/to. Si*p"$ put, the assai"e! reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an have fir* #asis in fa/t an! in "aw. ?est it #e over"ooke!, the issue of "ia#i"it$ for the shares in 5uestion ha!, as #oth pu#"i/ an! private respon!ents asserte!, "on #e/o*e fina" an! e6e/utor$. Petitioner3s narration of fa/ts in its present petition is even *is"ea!in as it /onvenient"$ fai"s to *ake referen/e to two %,' reso"utions issue! #$ the San!i an#a$an. He refer to that /ourt3s reso"utions of De/e*#er E, (++G() an! &e#ruar$ ,1, (++E(+ as we"" as severa" intervenin p"ea!in s whi/h serve! as #asis for the !e/isions rea/he! therein. As it were, the present petition 5uestions on"$ an! fo/uses on the .ar/h ,), (++-,0 an! .ar/h (1, (++2,( reso"utions, whi/h *ere"$ reiterate! an! /"arifie! the raft /ourt3s un!er"$in reso"ution of De/e*#er E, (++G. An! to p"a/e *atters in the proper perspe/tive,

PC993s fai"ure to /o*p"$ with the De/e*#er E, (++G reso"ution pro*pte! the issuan/e of the /"arifi/ator$ an!Cor reiterator$ reso"utions afore*entione!. In a "ast:!it/h atte*pt to es/ape "ia#i"it$, petitioner Repu#"i/, throu h the PC99, invokes state i**unit$ fro* suit.,, As ar ue!, the or!er for it to pa$ the va"ue of the !e"in5uent shares wou"! fi6 *onetar$ "ia#i"it$ on a overn*ent a en/$, thus ne/essitatin the appropriation of pu#"i/ fun!s to satisf$ the <u! *ent /"ai*.,1 But, as private respon!ent Bene!i/to /orre/t"$ /ountere!, the PC99 fai"s to take sto/k of one of the e6/eptions to the state i**unit$ prin/ip"e, i.e., when the overn*ent itse"f is the suitor, as in Civi" Case No. 001G. Hhere, as here, the State itse"f is no "ess the p"aintiff in the *ain /ase, i**unit$ fro* suit /annot #e effe/tive"$ invoke!.,G &or, as <urispru!en/e tea/hes, when the State, throu h its !u"$ authori4e! offi/ers, takes the initiative in a suit a ainst a private part$, it there#$ !es/en!s to the "eve" of a private in!ivi!ua" an! thus opens itse"f to whatever /ounter/"ai*s or !efenses the "atter *a$ have a ainst it.,- Petitioner Repu#"i/3s a/t of fi"in its /o*p"aint in Civi" Case No. 001G /onstitutes a waiver of its i**unit$ fro* suit. Bein itse"f the p"aintiff in that /ase, petitioner Repu#"i/ /annot set up its i**unit$ a ainst private respon!ent Bene!i/to3s pra$ers in the sa*e /ase. In fa/t, #$ enterin into a Co*pro*ise A ree*ent with private respon!ent Bene!i/to, petitioner Repu#"i/ there#$ strippe! itse"f of its i**unit$ fro* suit an! p"a/e! itse"f in the sa*e "eve" of its a!versar$. Hhen the State enters into /ontra/t, throu h its offi/ers or a ents, in furtheran/e of a "e iti*ate ai* an! purpose an! pursuant to /onstitutiona" "e is"ative authorit$, where#$ *utua" or re/ipro/a" #enefits a//rue an! ri hts an! o#"i ations arise therefro*, the State *a$ #e sue! even without its e6press /onsent, pre/ise"$ #e/ause #$ enterin into a /ontra/t the soverei n !es/en!s to the "eve" of the /iti4en. Its /onsent to #e sue! is i*p"ie! fro* the ver$ a/t of enterin into su/h /ontra/t,,E #rea/h of whi/h on its part ives the /orrespon!in ri ht to the other part$ to the a ree*ent. &ina""$, it is apropos to stress that the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent in Civi" Case No. 001G envisa e! the i**e!iate re/over$ of a""e e! i"": otten wea"th without further "iti ation #$ the overn*ent, an! #u$in pea/e on the part of the a in Bene!i/to.,2 Sa!"$, that state! o#<e/tive has /o*e to nau ht as not on"$ ha! the "iti ation /ontinue! to ensue, #ut, worse, private respon!ent Bene!i/to passe! awa$ on .a$ (-, ,000,,) with the tria" of Civi" Case No. 001G sti"" in swin , so *u/h so that the "ate Bene!i/to ha! to #e su#stitute! #$ the a!*inistratri6 of his estate.,+ HBERE&ORE, the instant petition is here#$ DIS.ISSED. SO ORDERED.

(++. !-N. was !is*isse!. 001G a T.E I*p"ie! in this un!ertakin is the re/o nition #$ petitioner Repu#"i/ that the su#<e/t shares of sto/k /ou"! not have #een i"": otten. A*on the properties thus se5uestere! an! taken over #$ PC99 fis/a" a ents were the . a//ountin .of the Ru"es of Court to nu""if$ an! set asi!e the .2 shares of sto/k. 12>406 %"'ch 6. PC99 representatives sat as *e*#ers of the Boar! of Dire/tors of NO9CCI. in Civi" Case No. owne! or re istere! in the na*e of private respon!ent Bene!i/to. p"aintiff. the San!i an#a$an approve! the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent an! a//or!in "$ ren!ere! <u! *ent in a//or!an/e with its ter*s.1 series of (+)E. On Nove*#er 1.2 shares of sto/k of the Ne ros O//i!enta" 9o"f an! Countr$ C"u#. a*on other Bene!i/to3s properties. 2006 R*P?/CB5 :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*! 'ep'e ente# by the PR*!B. vs.R. -1G). !e"ivere! or pai! to hi* as part of the parties3 Co*pro*ise A ree*ent in that /ase. As se5uestrator of the .00 to P. Pursuant to its *an!ate un!er EO No. On &e#ruar$ .ar/h . re/onstitution an! !a*a es. !efen!ants. PC99 !i! not pa$ the /orrespon!in *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue thereon tota"in P. Bene!i/to. Petitioner. fro* ti*e to ti*e. On a//ount thereof. on . (++2. &o""owin the se5uestration pro/ess.+. (G.2 shares of sto/k in 5uestion. re istere! in the na*e of sai! private respon!ent or his /orporations.BEB!B:N8 "n# R:/*RA: !. (. reversion. the NO9CCI Boar! passe! another reso"ution. Before the Court is this petition for /ertiorari un!er Ru"e E. The /o*p"aint. 001G. . DECISION G-R5B-. insofar as sai! reso"utions or!ere! the Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent %PC99' to pa$ private respon!ent Ro#erto S. this ti*e in/reasin the *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue fro* P(-0. so*eti*e in O/to#er (+)E. Bene!i/to or his /orporations the va"ue of . fi"e! with the San!i an#a$an a ainst private respon!ent Ro#erto S. throu h the PC99. Reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an. 001G entit"e! Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines. (+)2.otion for Re"ease fro* Se5uestration an! Return of Se5uestere! SharesCDivi!en!sT pra$in .00 for ea/h NO9CCI share.2 NO9CCI shares. (+)+.B5A:. No. rea" an! persona". the PC99 issue! writs p"a/in un!er se5uestration a"" #usiness enterprises.+-+... (++0. Ro#erto S.00 for ea/h share.). a reso"ution effe/tin a /orporate po"i/$ /han e. an au/tion sa"e was /on!u/te!. inter a"ia. pavin the wa$ for the au/tion sa"e for the !e"in5uent .whereun!er petitioner Repu#"i/ a ree! an! #oun! itse"f to "ift the se5uestration on the .. Su#se5uent"$. /*N*. v. Se/on! Division.. an investor pur/hasin *ore than one NO9CCI share was e6e*pt fro* pa$in *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue for the se/on! an! su#se5uent shares that heCshe owne!. J.*NAB-C 5:%%B!!B:N :N G::. thereat !o/kete! as Civi" Case No.G series of (+)E. (++G.00. petitioner Repu#"i/ a/know"e! in that it was within private respon!ent Bene!i/to3s /apa/it$ to a/5uire the sa*e shares out of his in/o*e fro* #usiness an! the e6er/ise of his profession. Bene!i/to fi"e! in Civi" Case No. In/.. whi/h passe!. is a /o*p"aint for re/onve$an/e. (++. et a".G2(..-0.ar/h .. *ove for a ru"in #$ the San!i an#a$an on the proper *anner of i*p"e*entin or interpretin a spe/ifi/ provision therein.2 shares in NO9CCI owne! #$ private respon!ent Bene!i/to an! re istere! in his na*e or un!er the na*es of /orporations he owne! or /ontro""e!. The /han e /onsiste! of assessin a *onth"$ *e*#ership !ue of P(-0. %NO9CCI' at P(-0. entities an! other properties.00 per share. On Au ust -. either of the parties wou"!. G:E*RN%*NA 7P5GG8. In a Reso"ution2 pro*u" ate! on .. The /ase is one of severa" suits invo"vin i"": otten or une6p"aine! wea"th that petitioner Repu#"i/. the .G. Apprise! of the a#ove !eve"op*ent an! evi!ent"$ to prevent the pro<e/te! au/tion sa"e of the sa*e shares. Prior to this reso"ution. In a !e/ision !ate! O/to#er .2 se5uestere! shares were !e/"are! !e"in5uent to #e !ispose! of in an au/tion sa"e. Bene!i/to an! others pursuant to E6e/utive Or!er %EO' No. In the pro/ess of i*p"e*entin the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent. or of /orporations in whi/h he appeare! to have /ontro""in or *a<orit$ interest. that his NO9CCI shares of sto/k #e spe/ifi/a""$ re"ease! fro* se5uestration an! returne!.000.( an! .... The fa/ts: Civi" Case No. The a ree*ent /ontaine! a enera" re"ease /"ause. petitioner Repu#"i/ an! private respon!ent Bene!i/to entere! into a Co*pro*ise A ree*ent in Civi" Case No... Respon!ents.BG-N/-G-N 7!*5:N. 001G. however. PC99 fi"e! a /o*p"aint for in<un/tion with the Re iona" Tria" Court %RTC' of Ba/o"o! Cit$.ar/h (1.

whi"e sittin in the NO9CCI Boar! of Dire/tors a ree! to the a*en!*ent of the ru"e pertainin to *e*#ership !ues. -1G). /annot p"ausi#"$ ti"t the #a"an/e in favor of PC99. There /an #e no 5ui##"in . fo""owe! #$ an E6:Parte .. a!optin ti*e"$ *easures to o#viate the "oss of those shares for*s part of su/h !ut$ an! !ue !i"i en/e. the San!i an#a$an pro*u" ate! $et another Reso"ution+ on &e#ruar$ . BENEDICTO free fro* a"" "iens an! en/u*#ran/es.e.(1 in this /ase the .anifestation with .1. as stresse! ear"ier. "ike a responsi#"e father of the fa*i"$.ani"a su#<e/t to this Court3s !isposition.otion for Co*p"ian/e !ate! .anifestation with . rave"$ a#use! its !is/retion in ho"!in that the PC99 is at fau"t for not pa$in the *e*#ership !ues on the . Civi" Case No.2 NO9CCI shares an! rante! Bene!i/to3s . PC99 fi"e! a . (++E.2 NO9CCI shares in 5uestion. (++-.u! *ent ?ev$. it "ost si ht of the rea"it$ that su/h !ues are #asi/a""$ o#"i ations atta/he! to the shares. the PC99 has not shown an$ <ustifia#"e roun! as to wh$ it has not /o*p"ie! with its o#"i ation as set forth in the Or!er of De/e*#er E. that *e*#ership !ues owin to a o"f /"u# /annot #e /onsi!ere! as an outstan!in !e#t for whi/h PC99.2 se5uestere! shares of NNO9CCIO re istere! in the na*e of no*inees of ROBERTO S. in its se/on! assai"e! Reso"ution(( !ate! . A/tin thereon. however.otion for Ear"$ Reso"ution !ate! &e#ruar$ (. It /onten!s. !enie! that portion of the PC993s .otion to Enfor/e . as !i! the .2 NO9CCI shares. a*on other thin s: %#' To !e"iver to the C"erk of Court the . i. it fi"e! #efore the RTC of Ba/o"o! Cit$ to en<oin the fore/"osure sa"e of the shares. Ben/e. The PC993s posture that to the owner of the se5uestere! shares rests the #ur!en of pa$in the *e*#ership !ues is untena#"e.).De/e*#er E. On Apri" ((. as in!ee! the raft /ourt so !e/"are! in its assai"e! an! re"ate! reso"utions respe/tin the NO9CCI shares of sto/k. the Repu#"i/3s present re/ourse on the so"e issue of whether or not the pu#"i/ respon!ent San!i an#a$an. To the *in! of the Court. San!i an#a$an. (++-. (++2. as re/eiver. to pa$ their va"ue at P(-0. (.1.-. in the fina" ana"$sis. It a"so /"ai*s to have e6er/ise! !ue !i"i en/e to prevent the "oss throu h !e"in5uen/$ sa"e of the su#<e/t NO9CCI shares.otion to Enfor/e . But far fro* a/tin as su/h father. private respon!ent Bene!i/to fi"e! a .. /annot p"ausi#"$ #e fau"te! for fin!in the PC99 "ia#"e for the "oss of the . in!ee!. the San!i an#a$an rante! Bene!i/to3s afore*entione! *otion #ut p"a/e! the su#<e/t shares un!er the /usto!$ of its C"erk of Court. PC99 a"so a/know"e! es that as su/h re/eiver.000. On Apri" (. without *ore. sha"" #e *a!e "ia#"e. Ben/e. To #e in with.otion for Re"ease &ro* Se5uestration an! Return of Se5uestere! SharesCDivi!en!sT is here#$ 9RANTED an! it is !ire/te! that sai! sharesC!ivi!en!s #e !e"ivere!Cp"a/e! un!er the /usto!$ of the C"erk of Court. 001G a . Se/on! Division. thru !e"in5uen/$ sa"e in /ase of !efau"t in pa$*ent of the !ues. It /annot #e over:e*phasi4e! that it #ehoove! the PC993s fis/a" a ents to preserve. . PC99 itse"f !oes not !ispute its #ein /onsi!ere! as a re/eiver insofar as the se5uestere! ..2 se5uestere! NO9CCI shares of sto/k. a//or!in "$. the PC99 as se5uestrator:re/eiver of su/h shares is.00 per share whi/h /an #e !e!u/te! fro* Nthe Repu#"i/3sO /ash share in the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent. or in !efau"t thereof. in the "i ht of the fore oin . (++G as state! hereina#ove.. the Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent is here#$ iven a fina" e6tension of fifteen %(-' !a$s fro* re/eipt hereof within whi/h to /o*p"$ with the Or!er of De/e*#er E. NHor!s in #ra/ket a!!e!O %E*phasis Supp"ie!'.) whi/h /"arifie! its afore*entione! De/e*#er E.. (++G up to this !ate an! whi/h Or!er was issue! pursuant to the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent an! has a"rea!$ #e/o*e fina" an! e6e/utor$. (++G.ar/h .u"$ .(0 pra$in for the settin asi!e of the Reso"ution of &e#ruar$ . Bene!i/to fi"e! in Civi" Case No. the San!i an#a$an /a*e out with the herein first assai"e! Reso"ution. the sai! T.u! *ent ?ev$. Nee!"ess to state. one of its fun/tions is to pa$ outstan!in !e#ts pertainin to the se5uestere! entit$ or propert$. whi/h. !ispositive"$ rea!in : HBERE&ORE.. &or one. the San!i an#a$an.2 NO9CCI shares of sto/k are /on/erne!. that PC993s fis/a" a ents. (++E. !ut$ #oun! to preserve the va"ue of su/h shares.otion for Re/onsi!eration /on/ernin the su#<e/t . The San!i an#a$an. *ust pa$.. (++G Reso"ution an! !ire/te! the i**e!iate i*p"e*entation thereof #$ re5uirin PC99. (++E. what the fis/a" a ents !i! un!er the pre*ises was to a""ow the e"e*ent of !e"in5uen/$ to set in #efore a/tin #$ e*#arkin on a te!ious pro/ess of oin to /ourt after the au/tion sa"e ha! #een announ/e! an! s/he!u"e!. su/h fi"in is a /ase of a/tin too "itt"e an! too "ate. it is not a*iss to state.ar/h (1. fin!in *erit in the instant *otion for ear"$ reso"ution an! /onsi!erin that. The petition "a/ks *erit. (++E. (++E. to #e sure. a fai"in whi/h eventua""$ "e! to the fore/"osure sa"e thereof. thus: HBERE&ORE.otion for Re/onsi!eration. spe/ifi/a""$ invitin attention to the in<un/tive suit.. Owin to PC993s fai"ure to /o*p"$ with the a#ove !ire/tive. The fi"in of the in<un/tion /o*p"aint a!verte! to. the va"ue of the shares of sto/k un!er their a!*inistration. &or another. On . Reso"vin these two *otions.

throu h its offi/ers or a ents. Hhi"e perhaps anti:/"i*a/ti/ to so *ention it at this sta e. i.. whi/h !oes not see* to #e in this /ase. as <urispru!en/e tea/hes.. the issue of "ia#i"it$ for the shares in 5uestion ha!. so *u/h so that the "ate Bene!i/to ha! to #e su#stitute! #$ the a!*inistratri6 of his estate.) with the tria" of Civi" Case No.1. &or. as private respon!ent Bene!i/to /orre/t"$ /ountere!. it is a we"":sett"e! ru"e of <urispru!en/e that /ertiorari wi"" issue on"$ to /orre/t errors of <uris!i/tion.. &or sure. 001G sti"" in swin . 001G. As ar ue!. or a "a/k of <uris!i/tion. when the State. Hhen the State enters into /ontra/t. even if the San!i an#a$an were wron in its fin!in s. that the respon!ent tri#una" or offi/er e6er/isin <u!i/ia" or 5uasi:<u!i/ia" fun/tions has a/te! without or in e6/ess of its or his <uris!i/tion. thus ne/essitatin the appropriation of pu#"i/ fun!s to satisf$ the <u! *ent /"ai*. throu h the PC99. in the *ini*u*. that the PC99:!esi nate! fis/a" a ents. #$ enterin into a Co*pro*ise A ree*ent with private respon!ent Bene!i/to.ISSED. in furtheran/e of a "e iti*ate ai* an! purpose an! pursuant to /onstitutiona" "e is"ative authorit$. An! to p"a/e *atters in the proper perspe/tive. 001G /onstitutes a waiver of its i**unit$ fro* suit. PC993s "a*ent a#out pu#"i/ respon!ent San!i an#a$an havin erre! or. ha! a !ire/t han! in the "oss of the se5uestere! shares throu h !e"in5uen/$ an! their eventua" sa"e throu h pu#"i/ au/tion. worse. havin rave"$ a#use! its !is/retion in its !eter*ination as to who is at fau"t for the "oss of the shares in 5uestion /an har!"$ #e iven /o en/$. the present petition 5uestions on"$ an! fo/uses on the . not errors of <u! *ent. as here.' reso"utions issue! #$ the San!i an#a$an. (2 Sa!"$. throu h its !u"$ authori4e! offi/ers. Hhere.+ HBERE&ORE.Petitioner Repu#"i/3s a/t of fi"in its /o*p"aint in Civi" Case No. private respon!ent Bene!i/to passe! awa$ on . at #otto*. invokes state i**unit$ fro* suit. In a "ast:!it/h atte*pt to es/ape "ia#i"it$.. this is /o*p"ete"$ a#sent in the present /ase.1 But. or with rave a#use of !is/retion.000. 9iven the /ir/u*stan/es "ea!in to the au/tion sa"e of the su#<e/t NO9CCI shares. petitioner Repu#"i/ there#$ strippe! itse"f of its i**unit$ fro* suit an! p"a/e! itse"f in the sa*e "eve" of its a!versar$. as in Civi" Case No.0 an! . the unfortunate "oss of the shares ou ht not to have /o*e to pass ha! those fis/a" a ents pru!ent"$ not a ree! to the passa e of the NO9CCI #oar! reso"utions /har in *e*#ership !ues on shares without p"a$in representatives. In fa/t.a$ (-. i**unit$ fro* suit /annot #e effe/tive"$ invoke!. Si*p"$ put. the assai"e! reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an !i! no *ore than to !ire/t PC99 to /o*p"$ with its part of the #ar ain un!er the /o*pro*ise a ree*ent it free"$ entere! into with private respon!ent Bene!i/to. takes the initiative in a suit a ainst a private part$. #ut.San!i an#a$an. He refer to that /ourt3s reso"utions of De/e*#er E. the instant petition is here#$ DIS..). errors of pro/e!ure or *istakes in the /ourt3s fin!in s an! /on/"usions are #e$on! the /orre/tive han! of /ertiorari. PC993s fai"ure to /o*p"$ with the De/e*#er E. ?est it #e over"ooke!.2 Sa!"$. when the overn*ent itse"f is the suitor. the PC99 fai"s to take sto/k of one of the e6/eptions to the state i**unit$ prin/ip"e. (++E(+ as we"" as severa" intervenin p"ea!in s whi/h serve! as #asis for the !e/isions rea/he! therein. the State *a$ #e sue! even without its e6press /onsent.(G The e6traor!inar$ writ of /ertiorari *a$ #e avai"e! on"$ upon a showin . petitioner Repu#"i/.ar/h (1.E #rea/h of whi/h on its part ives the /orrespon!in ri ht to the other part$ to the a ree*ent. the or!er for it to pa$ the va"ue of the !e"in5uent shares wou"! fi6 *onetar$ "ia#i"it$ on a overn*ent a en/$. whi/h *ere"$ reiterate! an! /"arifie! the raft /ourt3s un!er"$in reso"ution of De/e*#er E. SO ORDERED. it there#$ !es/en!s to the "eve" of a private in!ivi!ua" an! thus opens itse"f to whatever /ounter/"ai*s or !efenses the "atter *a$ have a ainst it. petitioner Repu#"i/ /annot set up its i**unit$ a ainst private respon!ent Bene!i/to3s pra$ers in the sa*e /ase. where#$ *utua" or re/ipro/a" #enefits a//rue an! ri hts an! o#"i ations arise therefro*. it is apropos to stress that the Co*pro*ise A ree*ent in Civi" Case No. pre/ise"$ #e/ause #$ enterin into a /ontra/t the soverei n !es/en!s to the "eve" of the /iti4en. that state! o#<e/tive has /o*e to nau ht as not on"$ ha! the "iti ation /ontinue! to ensue. or to a/t at a"" in /onte*p"ation of "aw as where the power is e6er/ise! in an ar#itrar$ an! !espoti/ *anner #$ reason of passion or hosti"it$... &ina""$. (++G() an! &e#ruar$ .(The ter* T rave a#use of !is/retionT /onnotes /apri/ious an! whi*si/a" e6er/ise of <u! *ent as is e5uiva"ent to e6/ess. (E The a#use *ust #e so patent an! ross as to a*ount to an evasion of a positive !ut$ or a virtua" refusa" to perfor* a !ut$ en<oine! #$ "aw.( reso"utions.. "on #e/o*e fina" an! e6e/utor$. (++-. (++G. (++2. ... 001G envisa e! the i**e!iate re/over$ of a""e e! i"": otten wea"th without further "iti ation #$ the overn*ent. Its /onsent to #e sue! is i*p"ie! fro* the ver$ a/t of enterin into su/h /ontra/t. .ar/h . an! #u$in pea/e on the part of the a in Bene!i/to. (++G reso"ution pro*pte! the issuan/e of the /"arifi/ator$ an!Cor reiterator$ reso"utions afore*entione!. Bein itse"f the p"aintiff in that /ase. worse sti"".. no "ess. as #oth pu#"i/ an! private respon!ents asserte!. the assai"e! reso"utions of the San!i an#a$an have fir* #asis in fa/t an! in "aw. Coro""ari"$. the State itse"f is no "ess the p"aintiff in the *ain /ase. As it were. Petitioner3s narration of fa/ts in its present petition is even *is"ea!in as it /onvenient"$ fai"s to *ake referen/e to two %.G &or.e.

Re pon#ent .i ue".002 6::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::6 . . Pro*u" ate!: At the /ore of the "iti ation is a G. "aw an! <urispru!en/e.ani"a in the na*e of the herein private respon!ent Tar/i"a ?apera" . The "ot is situate! at No. San . .+.en!o4a %.*5B!B:N The fa/ts: G-R5B-. in hi c"p"city " P'e i#in$ Ju#$e of the Re$ion"l A'i"l 5ou't of %"nil".: /BCCB:N P*!: <u! *ent a ainst the State.en!o4a.C(airperson. in fine. as an e6/eption to the po"i/$ on hierar/h$ of /ourts. JJ. now stan!s the Presi!entia" 9uest Bouse whi/h was ho*e to two %. <B. --. thru the Offi/e of the So"i/itor 9enera" %OS9'. . Bran/h 12..E0:s5uare *eter "ot on/e /overe! #$ Transfer Certifi/ate of Tit"e %TCT' No. the Repu#"i/ ave as <ustifi/ation therefor the fa/t that the /ase invo"ves an over A. No. 2e' u SANDO>A?:9@TIERREJ. . C. presents spe/ia" an! /o*pe""in reasons of pu#"i/ interests wh$ !ire/t re/ourse to the Court shou"! #e a""owe!. J. without /ha""en e fro* an$ of the respon!ents. EB5*NA* -. hereinafter referre! to as the -'le$ui p'ope'ty. O/to#er G.R*P?/CB5 :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*!.-CG:. 5-R%*C: E.' for*er Presi!ents of the Repu#"i/ an! now appears to #e use! as offi/e #ui"!in of the Offi/e of the Presi!ent. Re$ion"l A'i"l 5ou't of %"nil". (GG0 Ar"e ui St.G. an! 9ARCIA. in its Civil Case .ani"a. 1616=7 >ia this verifie! petition for certiorari an! prohi#ition un!er Ru"e E. G. "n# A-R5BCC-P*R-C %*N.:@-. /o*es to this Court to nu""if$ an! set asi!e the !e/ision !ate! Au ust . in hi c"p"city " !he'iff BE.+ for short'.J. CORONA. sha"" #e the "ia#i"it$ of the nationa" overn*ent or.R. *arrie! to Perfe/to . In !ire/t"$ invokin the Court3s ori ina" <uris!i/tion to issue the e6traor!inar$ writs of certiorari an! prohi#ition. This /onsi!eration. Petitione'. . AJC@NA. /'"nch 37. near the .2. Present: P@NO. the ta6pa$ers. <:N. B$ an$ stan!ar!. 5-5<*R:.o.a"a/aFan Pa"a/e /o*p"e6.001 an! other re"ate! issuan/es of the Re iona" Tria" Court %RTC' of . on the fa/e of the assai"e! !e/ision. the /ase in!ee! invo"ves a /o"ossa" su* of *one$ whi/h.of the Ru"es of Court. (()-.2 of the Re istr$ of Dee!s of . <u6tapose! with the /onstitutiona" an! "e a" 5uestions surroun!in the /ontrovers$.. the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines %7 Republic.en!o4a'. -/012. a""e e!"$ ren!ere! in #"atant vio"ation of the Constitution. On this "ot.K .ani"a.

u"$ .2. (()-.o.ani"a for re/onve$an/e an! the /orrespon!in !e/"aration of nu""it$ of a !ee! of sa"e an! tit"e a ainst the Repu#"i/. S .ani"a issue! TCT No. (()+(( in the na*e of the Repu#"i/. (()+((.R. **=261 and (ad left and@or vacated t(e sub#ect property.une (+++.a$ (E. in another or!er !ate! . (()+(( in the na*e of the Repu#"i/.ar/h (2. . the Repu#"i/ set up. . TCT No. of t(e t(en resident Ferdinand &. In the . Per verifi/ation. the /ase was re: raff"e! to Bran/h 12 thereof. . ++:+G02-. in C3. /ontinue! 7until t(e first 8ee9 of July *-12 8(en a group of armed men representing t(emselves to be members of t(e residential Security !roup : S!.en!o4a essentia""$ a""e e! #ein the owner of the !ispute! -'le$ui p'ope'ty whi/h the Repu#"i/ for/i#"$ !ispossesse! her of an! over whi/h the Re ister of Dee!s of . a!*itte! the thir! a*en!e! /o*p"aint. Hhat is *ateria" is that in an Or!er of . An! asi!e fro* the /an/e""ation of TCT No.en!o4a fi"e! a suit with the RTC of . Bran/h 1-.of the /ourt. ..u"$ (-. however.000.en!o4a sou ht the !e/"aration of nu""it$ of a suppose! !ee! of sa"e !ate! . Answerin . On appea".u"$ (-.en!o4a3s /o*p"aint.whi/h provi!e! the instru*entation towar! the issuan/e of TCT No.2 ha! a"rea!$ #een /an/e""e! #$ virtue of a !ee! of sa"e in favor of the Repu#"i/ a""e e!"$ e6e/ute! #$ her an! her !e/ease! hus#an! on . . the RTC. In the sa*e thir! a*en!e! /o*p"aint. the Court of Appea"s %CA'. . Inter alia. (+2. .en!o4a fi"e! a Motion for )eave of Court to file a '(ird 3mended Complaint with a /op$ of the inten!e! thir! a*en!e! /o*p"aint thereto atta/he!. !is*isse! . . the State3s i**unit$ fro* suit. .en!o4a a"so aske! for the reinstate*ent of her TCT No. In her /o*p"aint. . in open /ourt an! in the presen/e of the Repu#"i/3s /ounse". (+2-K an! &ro* Bran/h 1. sin/e ti*e i**e*oria".001 settin to hear the *otion.en!o4a' an! her hus#an! have not e6e/ute! an$ !ee! of /onve$an/e /overin the !ispute! propert$ in favor of the Repu#"i/. (+2. &i!e" >ivar. Or!erin the V Repu#"i/ to pa$ p"aintiff N. . The intervenin "e a" tuss"es are not essentia" to this narration.2. -/012 an! eventua""$ raff"e! to Bran/h 1. in !.en!o4a averre! that.a$ (E.!. as "ater a*en!e!. reverse! the tria" /ourt3s assai"e! or!ers an! re*an!e! the /ase to the /ourt a 5uo for further pro/ee!in s. The /ourt wou"! a"so !en$. to turn over to t(em (er < Copy of 'C' . . a*on other affir*ative !efenses.001. Su/h possession.of the tria" /ourt whose then presi!in <u! e inhi#ite! hi*se"f fro* hearin the re*an!e! Civi" Case No. --.000. On a petition for certiorari.001 an! set a !ate for pre:tria". On . (()-.). she a!!e!.o. (()-. Marcos. this Court. she pra$e! for the fo""owin : G. presi!e! #$ the respon!ent <u! e. . out of fear for t(eir lives.a$ (. or!ere! the Repu#"i/ to fi"e its answer thereto within five %-' !a$s fro* . the RTC of .an! a/know"e! e! #efore &i!e" >ivar whi/h !ee! was annotate! at the #a/k of TCT No.+ .R.a$ -.en!o4a3s o*ni#us *otion for re/onsi!eration. . That the afore*entione! !ee! of sa"e is fi/titious as she %.01-CT: (()+(( !ate! . she an! her pre!e/essors:in:interest ha! #een in pea/efu" an! a!verse possession of the propert$ as we"" as of the owner3s !up"i/ate /op$ of TCT No. **=262 < and compelled (er and t(e members of (er (ouse(old to vacate t(e same <> t(us.en!o4aO a reasona#"e /o*pensation or renta" for the use or o//upan/$ of the su#<e/t propert$ in the . (anded (er ?8ner"s $uplicate Certificate Copy of 'C' .2 un!er PE: .. (ad forcibly entered :(er.o.en!o4a further a""e e! the fo""owin : (. *2267*. :s(e.o.o.ani"a. the Re ister of Dee!s of .So*eti*e in . residence and ordered :(er.ani"a an! one Att$. (()-. !o/kete! as Civil Case . 401/-. In her a!verte! thir! a*en!e! /o*p"aint for re/over$ an! re/onve$an/e of the -'le$ui p'ope'ty. sustaine! the CA3s reversa" a/tion. "et a"one appearin #efore &i!e" >ivar.

RTC .en!o4a an! a ainst the Repu#"i/. the OS9 *ove! for a 10:!a$ e6tension at ea/h instan/e. Or!erin the p"aintiff.00' PESOS a *onth with a five %-Z' per /ent $ear"$ in/rease. as p"aintiff a 5uo. To the tria" /ourt.u"$ 2.ani"a for the $ear (+2-.001 or unti" June 20. Or!erin the V Repu#"i/ to pa$ p"aintiff3s /ounse" a su* e5uiva"ent to THENTA &I>E %. the Repu#"i/. a//or!in "$. !espite !i"i ent efforts of re/or!s personne". (. 2003. De/"arin the !ee! of sa"e !ate! . .u"$ (+2. p"us interest at the "e a" rate.su* of &I>E B@NDRED TBO@SAND %P-00. (()+(( of the !efen!ant Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines has no #asis.(. In it.parte.unti" it fina""$ va/ates the sa*eK Eventua""$. Or!erin the !efen!ant Re ister of Dee!s for the Cit$ of .01-CT:(()+((. unti" the who"e a*ount is pai! in fu"" for the a/5uisition of the su#<e/t propert$K -.(.trialD. The fi"in of the "ast two *otions for e6tension prove! to #e an i!"e esture. . <ust an! e5uita#"e un!er the pre*ises. sin/e the tria" /ourt ha! *eanwhi"e issue! an or!er !ate! . to e6e/ute the ne/essar$ !ee! of /onve$an/e in favor of the !efen!ant Repu#"i/ VK an!. as evi!en/e! #$ separate /ertifi/ations. #e innin .2 as PE:.-Z' PER CENT of the /urrent va"ue of the su#<e/t propert$ an!Cor whatever a*ount is re/overe! un!er the pre*isesK &urther. the Repu#"i/ ha! verita#"$ /onfis/ate! . Or!erin the !efen!ant Repu#"i/ V to pa$ <ust /o*pensation in the su* of ONE B@NDRED &ORTA TBREE . nu"" an! voi! fro* the #e innin K . annotate! at the #a/k of NTCTO No. A//or!in to her. p"aintiff pra$s for su/h other re"ief. .008 PESOS. upon pa$*ent of the <ust /o*pensation for the a/5uisition of her propert$. therefore. E6hi#it 7*8 states that a /op$ of the suppose! /onve$in !ee! /annot. #ut no answer was fi"e!. however.une . sai! !ee! is fi/titious or ine6istent. L1M'.0.en!o4a3s TCTO No. p"us interest thereon at the "e a" rate. the Repu#"i/ *anifeste! its ina#i"it$ to si*p"$ a!opt its previous answer an!. the first %*9h.001. (()-. issue! #$ the Re ister of Dee!s for . a"#eit their testi*onies revo"ve! aroun! the appraisa" an! renta" va"ues of the -'le$ui p'ope'ty. fi"e! a Motion for &Atension BCit( Motion for Cancellation of sc(eduled pre. /onsiste! of her testi*on$ !en$in havin e6e/ute! the a""e e! !ee! of sa"e !ate! . an!. . . <u! *ent is here#$ ren!ere!: On .001. . (()-. De/"arin that NTCTO No. 2003 an! a ain on -u$u t 1>. Date! Au ust .en!o4a3s propert$.u"$ (-. the tria" /ourt ren!ere! a <u! *ent #$ !efau"t for . the tria" /ourt3s !e/ision !ispositive"$ rea!s as fo""ows: HBERE&ORE. (+2-. Three other witnesses testifie!. 2003 within whi/h to su#*it an Answer.u"$ (-.whi/h pave! the wa$ for the issuan/e of TCT No.000. #$ the Offi/e of C"erk of Court.2. aske! that it #e iven a perio! of thirt$ %10' !a$s fro* . -.ani"a. (+2.ani"a an! the se/on! %*9h. represente! #$ the OS9. whi"e E6hi#it L1M states that &i!e" >ivar was not a /o**issione! notar$ pu#"i/ for an! in the Cit$ of . L*M8. (()+((. #e "o/ate!.2K G.a$ .001 !e/"arin the petitioner Repu#"i/ as in !efau"t an! a""owin the private respon!ent to present her evi!en/e eA..001 /a*e an! went. !ire/tin the !efen!ant Re ister of Dee!s.a$ . there#$ *akin it nu"" an! voi! fro* the #e innin K The evi!en/e for the private respon!ent. an! !eprive! her not on"$ of the use thereof #ut a"so !enie! her of the in/o*e she /ou"! have ha! otherwise rea"i4e! !urin a"" the $ears she was i""e a""$ !ispossesse! of the sa*e.000. upon presentation of the sai! !ee! of .600.ani"a to reinstate p"aintiff N.I??ION SIL B@NDRED TBO@SAND %P143. On July 18. as non:e6istent an!Cor fi/titious. 1. on the other han!.

008 PESOS. /o**en/in fro* this !ate unti" the who"e a*ount is pai! in fu""K 1. (()-./ontinuous"$ up to .002 to su#*it the /o*pro*ise a ree*ent for approva".002. the /ase was set for ora" ar u*ents.u"$ (+2. Or!erin the !efen!ant Repu#"i/ V to pa$ the p"aintiff attorne$3s fee. p"us an a!!itiona" interest at the "e a" rate. #oth parties *anifeste! their wi""in ness to sett"e the /ase a*i/a#"$. Petitioner "ists five %-' over"appin roun!s for a""owin its petition.001 : : Certificate of Finality !e/"arin .0. /o**en/in . Denie! a"so was its su#se5uent p"ea for re/onsi!eration. De/e*#er . representin the reasona#"e renta" for the use of the su#<e/t propert$. this petition for /ertiorari.I??ION SIL B@NDRED THENTA SE>EN TBO@SAND SIL B@NDRED EI9BTA EI9BT 7P1.480. E.002 !ea!"ine. In this re/ourse.001.u"$ 10. the respon!ent <u! e /o**itte! serious <uris!i/tiona" error when he pro/ee!e! to hear the /ase an! eventua""$ awar!e! the private respon!ent a sta erin a*ount without so *u/h as ivin the petitioner the opportunit$ to present its !efense.002. to /an/e" p"aintiff3s TCT No. the sa*e havin #een fi"e! #e$on! the re "e*entar$ perio!. SO ORDERED. a new tria" per or!er of the tria" /ourt of O/to#er 2.).001 : : Hrit of E6e/ution. . are the or!ers an! pro/esses enu*erate! i**e!iate"$ a#ove issue! after the ren!ition of the !efau"t <u! *ent. Or!erin the !efen!ant Repu#"i/ V to pa$ the p"aintiff the su* of ONE BI??ION &O@R B@NDRED EI9BTA . a"so on the roun! that the$ were issue! in rave a#use of !is/retion a*ountin to "a/k or in e6/ess of <uris!i/tion.anuar$ .. %Hor!s in #ra/ket an! e*phasis a!!e!. . the Repu#"i/ *ove! for. an! the opportunit$ /ost at the rate of three %1Z' per /ent per annu*. . . *anifeste! that it is su#*ittin the /ase for reso"ution on the *erits owin to the ina#i"it$ of the parties to a ree on an a//epta#"e /o*pro*ise..627. Su#se5uent"$. These twin !enia" or!ers were fo""owe! #$ severa" or!ers an! pro/esses issue! #$ the tria" /ourt on separate !ates as hereun!er in!i/ate!: (. . the OS9.001. the Au ust . It starts off #$ i*pu nin the or!er of !efau"t an! the <u! *ent #$ !efau"t. Nove*#er . . .001 !e/ision fina" an! e6e/utor$.688. Hith pronoun/e*ent as to the /osts of suit. On . &o""owin severa" approve! e6tensions of the &e#ruar$ . a new Transfer Certifi/ate of Tit"e in favor of the !efen!ant Repu#"i/K .). Ben/e.2.' B$ Reso"ution of Nove*#er . De/e*#er (+.001 : : Or!er rantin the private respon!ent3s *otion for e6e/ution. Sou ht to #e nu""ifie!. .00E. .2./onve$an/e..001 : : Or!er !en$in the Noti/e of Appea" fi"e! on Nove*#er . for whi/h reason the Court ave the* up to &e#ruar$ . in "ieu thereof.2 an! to issue. when this /ase was /a""e! for the purpose. . on Au ust E.001. 2. the petitioner ur es the Court to strike !own as a nu""it$ the tria" /ourt3s or!er !e/"arin it in !efau"t an! the <u! *ent #$ !efau"t that fo""owe!. in an a*ount e5uiva"ent to &I&TEEN %(-Z' PER CENT of the a*ount !ue to the p"aintiff. #ut was !enie!. De/e*#er (2. too.2. the interest thereon at the "e a" rate. . G... . . To the petitioner.

The petitioner *a$ have in!ee! #een !eprive! of su/h hearin . viz. But *ore i*portant"$. %(' the fai"ure to fi"e an answer is attri#uta#"e to the ne "i en/e of the for*er han!"in so"i/itorK %. an! proof of su/h fai"ure. !espoti/. the a/t of the respon!ent <u! e in ren!erin the !efau"t <u! *ent after an or!er of !efau"t was proper"$ issue! /annot #e stru/k !own as a /ase of rave a#use of !is/retion. /onnotes /apri/ious. /annot p"ausi#"$ #e "ai! at the !oorstep of the respon!ent <u! e on a//ount of his havin issue! the !efau"t or!er a ainst the petitioner. &or. what the respon!ent <u! e !i! hew with what Se/tion 1. SEC. Then. #ut this !oes not *ean that its ri ht to !ue pro/ess ha! #een vio"ate!. .2. The Court is not /onvin/e!. The wor! 7/apri/ious. without *ore. too.Petitioner3s posture is si*p"$ without *erit. /onse5uent to #ein !e/"are! in !efau"t. . The provision rea!s: @n!er the pre*ises.001 of a /ertifi/ate of fina"it$ of its Au ust . Even as the Court parti/u"ar"$ notes what the tria" /ourt ha! sai! on the *atter of ne "i en/e: that a"" of the petitioner3s p"ea!in s #e"ow #ear at "east three si natures.8 in its <uri!i/a" sense.: If the !efen!in part$ fai"s to answer within the ti*e a""owe! therefor. Ru"e + of the Ru"es of Court pres/ri#es an! a""ows in the event the !efen!in part$ fai"s to seasona#"$ fi"e a responsive p"ea!in . the issuan/e #$ the tria" /ourt of the Or!er !ate! De/e*#er (2.. oppressive or whi*si/a" e6er/ise of <u! *ent as is e5uiva"ent to "a/k of <uris!i/tion. the *ere issuan/e #$ the tria" /ourt of the or!er of !efau"t fo""owe! #$ a <u! *ent #$ !efau"t /an easi"$ #e sustaine! as /orre/t an! !ou#t"ess within its <uris!i/tion. on !ue pro/e!ura" roun!. The a#use *ust #e of su/h !e ree as to a*ount to an evasion of a positive !ut$ or a virtua" refusa" to perfor* a !ut$ en<oine! #$ "aw. Ru"e 12 of the Ru"es of Court for su/h re/ourse.' the *eritorious nature of the petitioner3s !efenseK an! %1' the va"ue of the propert$ invo"ve!. the petitioner wou"! as/ri#e <uris!i/tiona" error on the respon!ent <u! e for !en$in its *otion for new tria" #ase! on an$ or a *i6 of the fo""owin fa/tors.2. a !isposition !ire/tin the Repu#"i/ to pa$ an enor*ous su* without the tria" /ourt hearin its si!e !oes not. however. the assistant so"i/itor an! the So"i/itor 9enera" hi*se"f.8 /onve$s the notion of wi""fu" an! unreasonin a/tion. in its pro/e!ura" aspe/t. vitiate. . Sure"$.001 !e/ision /an har!"$ #e !es/ri#e! as ar#itrar$. 9rave a#use of !is/retion. the /ite! reasons a!van/e! #$ the petitioner for a new tria" are not re/o ni4e! un!er Se/tion (. !e/"are the !efen!in part$ in !efau"t. $efault> declaration of. Hhi"e the i!ea" "ies in avoi!in or!ers of !efau"t. as where the power is e6er/ise! in a /apri/ious *anner. 1. uarantees in the *ini*u* the opportunit$ to #e hear!. the va"i!it$ of the !efau"t <u! *ent. An! oin to another point. The han!"in so"i/itors si*p"$ s5uan!ere! the Repu#"i/3s opportunit$ to #e hear!. the /ourt sha"". upon *otion of the /"ai*in part$ with noti/e to the !efen!in part$. there is no /o ent reason to !istur# the !enia" #$ the tria" /ourt of the *otion for new tria" an! the !enia" of the reiterative *otion for re/onsi!eration. an! hen/e a//ounta#i"it$ shou"! o up a"" the wa$ to the top of the tote* po"e of authorit$. the "aw itse"f i*poses su/h !eprivation of the ri ht to parti/ipate as a for* of pena"t$ a ainst one unwi""in without <ustifi/ation to <oin issue upon the a""e ations ten!ere! #$ the p"aintiff. Due pro/ess. The ter* 7grave abuse of discretion. un"ess the /ourt in its !is/retion re5uires the /"ai*ant to su#*it evi!en/e V. the /ourt sha"" pro/ee! to ren!er <u! *ent rantin the /"ai*ant su/h re"ief as his p"ea!in *a$ warrant. Hitha".001 !en$in the petitioner3s noti/e of appea" after the /ourt /ause! the issuan/e on Nove*#er . the po"i/$ of the "aw #ein to have ever$ "iti ate! /ase trie! on its fu"" *erits. that of the han!"in so"i/itor. &or. Thereupon.8 usua""$ use! in tan!e* with 7ar#itrar$. then pro/ee!in with the hearin an! eventua""$ ren!erin a !efau"t <u! *ent. Deprivation of pro/e!ura" !ue pro/ess is o#vious"$ the petitioner3s thresho"! the*e. the !efau"tin !efen!ant is !ee*e! to have waive! his ri ht to #e hear! or to take part in the tria". as the petitioner wou"! have this .

. whi/h was "e a""$ hers a"" a"on .Nove*#er . whi/h the RTC !enie!.001. in the var$in a*ounts an! "eve" fi6e! in the assai"e! !e/ision of the tria" /ourt an! set to #e e6e/ute! #$ the e5ua""$ assai"e! writ of e6e/ution. %Hor!s in #ra/ket a!!e!K E*phasis in the ori ina". a Satur!a$. supra: %a' The petitioner. The Court . rantin private respon!ent3s #asi/ p"ea for re/over$ of the -'le$ui p'ope'ty. re/kone! fro* that !ate. . Hhi"e not e6a/t"$ /onvenient #e/ause the Offi/e of the Presi!ent present"$ uses it for *i6 resi!en/e an! offi/e purposes. the$ on"$ have one %(' !a$ "eft within whi/h to fi"e the noti/e of appea". errors of <u! *ent not /orre/ta#"e #$ certiorari.' The evi!en/e a!!u/e! #e"ow in!ee! a!e5uate"$ supports a /on/"usion that the Offi/e of the Presi!ent. . however. as here. after a"". the tria" /ourt3s !isin/"ination not to appre/iate in favor of the Repu#"i/ the enera" prin/ip"es of pres/ription or "a/hes /onstitutes.001.001 was !enie! an! the *ovin part$ has on"$ the re*ainin perio! fro* noti/e of noti/e of !enia" within whi/h to fi"e a noti/e of appea". a /op$ of whi/h the OS9 re/eive! on the sa*e !ate. the$ ha! one %(' !a$ fro* re/eipt of a /op$ of the or!er !en$in V new tria" within whi/h to perfe/t NanO appea" V.. !oes not pres/ri#eK that a voi! transfer of propert$ /an #e re/overe! #$ accion reivindicatoria> an! that the "e a" fi/tion of in!efeasi#i"it$ of a Torrens tit"e /annot #e use! as a shie"! to perpetuate frau!. "et a"one pa$in su/h owner <ust /o*pensation. . is a re istere! owner of a pie/e of "an! who.001. #ut without oin throu h the "e a" pro/ess of e6propriation. a#out the tria" /ourt takin /o ni4an/e of the /ase notwithstan!in private respon!ent3s /"ai* or a/tion #ein #arre! #$ pres/ription an!Cor "a/hes /annot #e /onsi!ere! favora#"$.+. however. . !urin the a!*inistration of then Presi!ent .002 /a*e *u/h too "ate for #$ then the <u! *ent ha! a"rea!$ #e/o*e fina" an! e6e/utor$. part"$ /overe! #$ an! !is/usse! un!er the first roun! for a""owin its petition.001 *erits approva": It /annot #e over:e*phasi4e! at this sta e that the spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion of certiorari is "i*ite! to reso"vin on"$ errors of <uris!i/tionK it is not a re*e!$ to /orre/t errors of <u! *ent. restorin private respon!ent to her possession of the -'le$ui p'ope'ty is sti"" "e a""$ an! ph$si/a""$ feasi#"e. The Court /annot.ar/os. a . thru the OS9. (()+((' in the na*e of petitioner Repu#"i/. #ut not. the Court takes sto/k of the fo""owin ke$ events an! *ateria" !ates set forth in the assai"e! De/e*#er (2. &or what is #efore us.2 Nove*#er . the OS9 fi"e! its *otion for new tria". . /an not #e interrupte! #$ a pro forma *otion.+. the petitioner3s "a*ent. stop with <ust restorin the private respon!ent to her possession an! ownership of her propert$.on!a$. (()-. re/eive! on Au ust . The *otion for re/onsi!eration was !enie! per Or!er !ate! Nove*#er .001. wreste! possession of the propert$ in 5uestion an! so*ehow se/ure! a /ertifi/ate of tit"e over it without a /onve$in !ee! havin #een e6e/ute! to "e a""$ <ustif$ the /an/e""ation of the o"! tit"e %TCT No. Sin/e !efen!ants ha! re/eive! a /op$ of the or!er !en$in their *otion for new tria" on 0+ O/to#er .001. Ben/e the fi"in of the noti/e of appea" on . . within whi/h to perfe/t an appea"K %#' On Septe*#er (-. the OS9 sou ht re/onsi!eration of the or!er !en$in the *otion for new tria".-. "et a"one the fa/t that an a/tion for the !e/"aration of the ine6isten/e of a /ontra/t.001. . But instea! of !oin so. whi/h *otion was su#se5uent"$ !enie!. when !efen!ants NRepu#"i/ et al. A//or!in "$. 666 A//or!in "$. the OS9 re/eivin a /op$ of the or!er of !enia" on O/to#er +. The restoration ou ht to #e /o*p"e*ente! #$ so*e for* of *onetar$ /o*pensation for havin #een un<ust"$ !eprive! of the #enefi/ia" use thereof. at #est.001K an! %/' On O/to#er . In the /ase at #ar.001 a /op$ of the RTC !e/ision in this /ase.Court #e"ieve.G. it is /"ear that the *otion for new tria" fi"e! on the fifteenth %(-th' !a$ after the !e/ision was re/eive! on Au ust . 9iven the fore oin ti*e perspe/tive. an! the reinstate*ent of her /an/e""e! /ertifi/ate of tit"e are "e a""$ /orre/t as the$ are *ora""$ ri ht.2' in the na*e of the private respon!ent an! the issuan/e of a new one %TCT No. what the tria" /ourt wrote in its afore*entione! i*pu ne! or!er of De/e*#er (2. Ben/e.O fi"e! their *otion for new tria" on the "ast !a$ of the fifteen !a$ %(-' pres/ri#e! for takin an appea". &or. hen/e ha! up to Septe*#er (1. The runnin of the pres/riptive perio!. therefore. "ost possession thereof to the 9overn*ent whi/h appropriate! the sa*e for so*e pu#"i/ use. In this re ar!. the !efen!ants fi"e! a *otion for re/onsi!eration whi/h was "ater !e/"are! #$ the Court as p'o fo')" )otion in the Or!er !ate! . .001 or!er. !urin the ear"$ !a$s of the *artia" "aw re i*e.

is reasona#"e an! *a$ #e rante! pro (ac vice /onsi!erin the fo""owin har! rea"ities whi/h the Court takes sto/k of: (.624 /illion. private respon!ent3s tota" renta" /"ai* wou"!. Hhat the *artia" "aw re i*e took over was not e6a/t"$ an area with a new an! i*posin stru/ture.600. the tria" /ourt or!ere! the petitioner to pa$ private respon!ent the tota" a*ount of over P(. whi"e perhaps a "itt"e #it ar#itrar$.00 or PE. at the sa*e ti*e. 9iven the a#ove perspe/tive.00 a *onth.000.fin!s the *onetar$ awar! set forth therein to #e erroneous.. As *a$ #e note!. the -'le$ui p'ope'ty /annot possi#"$ #e assi ne!. This askin fi ure is /"ear"$ un/ons/iona#"e. &ro* .++0.000. #e within a//epta#"e "e a" #oun!s.000.00. a /ase where a re istere! owner a"so "ost possession of a pie/e of "ot to a *uni/ipa"it$ whi/h took it for a pu#"i/ purposes without institutin e6propriation pro/ee!in s or pa$in an$ /o*pensation for the "ot.e. or PE . a *onth #efore the tria" /ourt ren!ere! <u! *ent.440.000. for the takin of a propert$ with a !e/"are! assesse! va"ue of P. as reasona#"e /o*pensation or renta" use or o//upan/$ thereof.000. she aske! to #e restore! to the possession of her propert$ an! that the petitioner #e or!ere! to pa$ her. The pro/ess of #a"an/in the interests of #oth parties is not an eas$ one. In its assai"e! !e/ision. To #e sure. Hhi"e a !efau"te! !efen!ant *a$ #e sai! to #e at the *er/$ of the tria" /ourt.00. 3uditor !eneral. the Court. private respon!ent fi6e! the assesse! va"ue of her -'le$ui p'ope'ty at P. the su* of P-00. or a perio! of . The /ourt a/ts in e6/ess of <uris!i/tion if it awar!s an a*ount #e$on! the /"ai* *a!e in the /o*p"aint or #e$on! that prove! #$ the evi!en/e. or!ere! pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation #ut in the for* of interest when a return of the propert$ was no "on er feasi#"e. This fi ure is on top of the P143. An! in the pra$er portion of her thir! a*en!e! /o*p"aint for re/over$. . per the OS93s /o*putation. The -'le$ui p'ope'ty ha! *ini*a" renta" va"ue !urin the re"ative"$ "on *artia" "aw $ears.00. e6/"usive of interest..) $ears. representin the reasona#"e renta" for the propert$. if not !ownri ht ri!i/u"ous.u"$ .u"$ (+2-. #ut #$ what is fair. the respon!ent <u! e #ra4en"$ went aroun! the e6p"i/it /o**an! of Ru"e +. An! the error re"ates to #asi/ fun!a*enta"s of "aw as to /onstitute rave a#use of !is/retion.u"$ (+2.480.. <ust an! e5uita#"e that a"wa$s un!er"ie the ena/t*ent of a "aw.688.i""ion a $ear. the tria" /ourt wou"! have the Repu#"i/ pa$ the tota" a*ount of a#out P1. To the Court. the interest rate thereon at the "e a" rate an! the opportunit$ /ost. this *eans that the <u! *ent *ust not #e /hara/teri4e! #$ outra eous one:si!e!ness. The propert$ is re"ative"$ s*a"" in ter*s of a/tua" area an! ha! an assesse! va"ue of on"$ P. on"$ a*ount to P371.1)). the Ru"es of Court an! /ertain"$ the i*peratives of fair p"a$ see to it that an$ !e/ision a ainst hi* *ust #e in a//or!an/e with "aw. if there was an$K an! 1. even perhaps at the present rea" estate #usiness stan!ar!s. asay City.000.. This is not to *ention the awar! of attorne$3s fees in an a*ount e5uiva"ent to (-Z of the a*ount !ue the private respon!ent. /itin Eerrera v.426. a )onthly renta" va"ue of at "east P-00. Se/tion 1%!' of the Ru"es of Court whi/h !efines the e6tent of the re"ief that *a$ #e awar!e! in a <u! *ent #$ !efau"t.+00. on"$ so *u/h as has #een a""e e! "n# prove!. But sure"$. atten!ant /ir/u*stan/es /onsi!ere!. A"" to"!.. In 3lfonso v.00.001. an awar! of P20.G) Bi""ion or the *in!:#o "in a*ount of P1.627. iven the ver$ restri/tive entr$ an! e ress /on!itions prevai"in at the vi/init$ at that ti*e an! even after. with a five per/ent %-Z' $ear"$ in/rease p"us interest at the "e a" rate #e innin .00 a $ear.+00. the rant of *onetar$ awar! is not without para""e".00 whi/h represents the a/5uisition /ost of the !ispute! propert$. In !oin so. the a*ount private respon!ent parti/u"ar"$ sou ht an! atte*pte! to prove. to #e e6a/t.1)). In the a#stra/t. the o#vious 5uestion that /o*es to *in! is the "eve" of /o*pensation whi/h X for the use an! o//upan/$ of the -'le$ui p'ope'ty : wou"! #e fair to #oth the petitioner an! the private respon!ent an!. however.1)).when the PS9 a""e e!"$ took over the su#<e/t propert$ to .00K .00 " )onth for the use an! o//upan/$ of the -'le$ui p'ope'ty. i.

.2.en!o4a3s TCT No. in the sense that for the use an! o//upan/$ of the -'le$ui p'ope'ty. A//or!in "$. The assess*ent of /osts of suit a ainst the petitioner is. (()+(( of petitioner Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines an! or!ere! the Re ister of Dee!s of . The assai"e! tria" /ourt3s issuan/e of the writ of e6e/ution a ainst overn*ent fun!s to satisf$ its *one$ <u! *ent is a"so nu""ifie!.B1B*.The awar! of attorne$3s fees e5uiva"ent to (-Z of the a*ount !ue the private respon!ent.00' representin the purporte! renta" use of the propert$ in 5uestion.0. . This.001 for the issuan/e of a writ of e6e/ution an! the Hrit of E6e/ution !ate! De/e*#er . /ertifi/ate of tit"e is -11BR%*. however... The portion assessin the petitioner Repu#"i/ for /osts of suit is a"so !e/"are! null "n# 2oi#. or to issue her a new .480. It is #asi/ that overn*ent fun!s an! properties *a$ not #e sei4e! un!er writs of e6e/ution or arnish*ent to satisf$ su/h <u! *ents. An! the Court wou"! #e re*iss in the !is/har e of its !uties as !ispenser of <usti/e if it !oes not e6hort the Offi/e of the Presi!ent to /o*p"$ with what. is affir*e!.i""ion Si6 Bun!re! Twent$ Seven Thousan! Si6 Bun!re! Ei ht$ Ei ht Pesos %P1. is the ri ht thin to !o. Private respon!ent is in the twi"i ht of her "ife. . An$ !e"a$ in the i*p"e*entation of this !isposition wou"! #e a #itter /ut.<*R*1:R*.688. is its o#"i ation. wi"" have its !a$. a writ of certiorari is here#$ B!!?*. an! in a//or! with the e"e*entar$ sense of <usti/e. . It is %:. Shou"! it #e ne/essar$. then si*p"e <usti/e. petitioner Repu#"i/ is or!ere! to pa$ private respon!ent the reasona#"e a*ount of P. .ani"a sha"" e6e/ute the ne/essar$ /onve$in !ee! to effe/t the reinstate*ent of tit"e or the issuan/e of a new tit"e to her. A//or!in "$. /osts not #ein a""owe! a ainst the Repu#"i/. the$ /an not #e enfor/e! #$ pro/esses of "aw. it is a/tua""$ the :ffice of the P'e i#ent whi/h has #enefi/ia" possession of an! use over it sin/e the (+2.2.000. . the Re ister of Dee!s of . The respon!ent /ourt3s assai"e! !e/ision of Au ust .00 a *onth #e innin .ani"a to reinstate private respon!ent Tar/i"a ?. The i*peratives of fair !ea"in !e*an! no "ess.ani"a !ate! Au ust .001 insofar as it nu""ifie! TCT No.627. #ein now over +0 $ears of a e. as re!u/e! herein. alacio tea/hes that a <u! *ent a ainst the State enera""$ operates *ere"$ to "i5ui!ate an! esta#"ish the p"aintiff3s /"ai* in the a#sen/e of e6press provisionK otherwise. the presi!in <u! e of the respon!ent /ourt. the !e/ision of the Re iona" Tria" Court of .001 a ainst overn*ent fun!s are here#$ !e/"are! null "n# 2oi#. . . in "aw an! e5uit$. un"ess otherwise provi!e! #$ "aw.2. nu""ifie!. their a ents an! persons a/tin for an! in their #eha"ves are per*anent"$ en<oine! fro* enfor/in sai! writ of e6e/ution. the private respon!ent. Petitioner is further or!ere! to pa$ private respon!ent attorne$Qs fees e5uiva"ent to (-Z of the a*ount !ue her un!er the pre*ises. p"us an a!!itiona" interest of EZ per annu* on the tota" a*ount !ue upon the fina"it$ of this De/ision unti" the sa*e is fu""$ pai!. the interest thereon an! the opportunit$ /ost at the rate of 1Z per annu* p"us the interest at the "e a" rate a!!e! thereon is nullifie#. (. The Or!er of the respon!ent /ourt !ate! De/e*#er (+.takeover. (()-.en!o4a the su* of One Bi""ion &our Bun!re! Ei ht$ . to us..u"$ (+2. in the sense that: A"#eit tit"e to the -'le$ui p'ope'ty re*ains in the na*e of the petitioner Repu#"i/. A//or!in "$. it #ehooves that offi/e to *ake the appropriate #u! etar$ arran e*ents towar!s pa$in private respon!ent what is !ue her un!er the pre*ises.. Republic v. If the sa*e offi/e wi"" un!ertake to pa$ its o#"i ation with reasona#"e !ispat/h or in a *anner a//epta#"e to the private respon!ent.001 insofar as it or!ere! the petitioner Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines to pa$ private respon!ent Tar/i"a ?.unti" it va/ates the sa*e an! the possession thereof restore! to the private respon!ent. whi"e perhaps !e"a$e!.

. fairness an! e5uit$. is here#$ stron "$ en<oine! to take the ne/essar$ steps.*R*. an!. *ake the appropriate #u! etar$ arran e*ents to pa$ private respon!ent Tar/i"a ?. with reasona#"e !ispat/h.Bowever. . petitioner Repu#"i/. !: :R. /onsistent with the #asi/ tenets of <usti/e.en!o4a or her assi ns the a*ount a!<u! e! !ue her un!er this !isposition. thru the :ffice of the P'e i#ent. .

R.une . .e*#er.*5B!B:N Tin a. .ERCEDES POSADA:?ACAP. Present: BON. Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of . RO9ER 9ERNA?E. rantin . an! CBICO:NAJARIO. C(airman. 0. Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of . .. Co:Chair*an.ani"a. 6:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::6 %in su#stitution of AR?ENE ORTIJ'. BON. Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of .e*#er. in her /apa/it$ as PRESIDIN9 . Au<ui/o.ani"a. BON.). .00Pro*u" ate!: CA??E..A.e*#er.ani"a. ISABE?ITA SANTOS.ANI?A an! . 9. : versus : P@NO.. >ICENTE ..ani"a.I?ES ROCES'.TERESITA . BEN. Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of .R. . .. (EG. J. SR. BRANCB (-. Assistant Se/retar$. .AN@E? . Bran/h (-. O/to#er (. Respondents.@D9E O& TBE RE9IONA? TRIA? CO@RT O& . .: This is a Petition for Review on Certiorari institute! #$ Teresita .. . ATIENJA.O.ACAR@BBO %In su#stitution of Isa#e"ita Chin '.e*#er. . Cit$ S/hoo" Boar!. =@I[ONES. CITA SCBOO? BOARD O& . Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of .ani"a.00G.e*#er.ani"a.: (012G) #efore the Re iona" Tria" Court %RTC' of .@ICO..@D9E . Chair*an. Se/retar$.ARTINEJ.. an! S/hoo"s Division Superinten!ent. .. Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of . &RANCESCA 9ERNA?E %In su#stitution of PERCI>A? &?ORIENDO'. Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of . petitioner in the /ase for *an!a*us !o/kete! as Civi" Case No.IN >A?B@ENA %In su#stitution of .ANI?A.ani"a.ani"a. ?@ISA S. JARCA?.A. TIN9A. A@. etitioner. DR. A@STRIA:.OSE ?. ?IBERTA TO?EDO.ani"a. JJ. Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! of . J. Petitioner is 5uestionin the propriet$ of the ?rderN(O !ate! . No.

respon!ents3 etition for Relief from Judgment un!er Se/tion ,, Ru"e 1) of the (++2 Ru"es of Civi" Pro/e!ure. The operative fa/ts are not !ispute!. On ) De/e*#er (++-, the Cit$ Coun/i" of .ani"a ena/te! an ?rdinanceN,O authori4in the Cit$ .a$or to a/5uire #$ ne otiation or e6propriation /ertain par/e"s of "an! for uti"i4ation as a site for the &ran/is/o Benite4 E"e*entar$ S/hoo".N1O The propert$ /hosen is "o/ate! a"on So"is St. near ;uan ?una St. in the Se/on! Distri/t of .ani"a an! /ontains an appro6i*ate area of 1,+2+.(0 s5uare *eters. It is /overe! #$ Transfer Certifi/ates of Tit"e Nos. 2(-G(, 2(-G), ,GG,1, 2(-GG an! 2(-GE, a"" in the na*e of petitioner. The ?rdinance provi!es that an a*ount not to e6/ee! the fair *arket va"ue of the "an! then prevai"in in the area wi"" #e a""o/ate! out of the Spe/ia" E!u/ation &un! %SE&' of the Cit$ of .ani"a %Cit$' to !efra$ the /ost of the propert$3s a/5uisition.NGO &ai"in to a/5uire the "an! #$ ne otiation, the Cit$ fi"e! a /ase for e*inent !o*ain a ainst petitioner as owner of the propert$. &i"e! on ,, Au ust (++E, the /ase was raff"e! to Bran/h (-, RTC of .ani"a an! !o/kete! as Civi" Case No. +E:2+E++.N-O On 10 ;une ,000, the RTC ren!ere! a $ecisionNEO in the e6propriation /ase in favor of the Cit$. The !ispositive portion rea!s: HBERE&ORE, <u! *ent is here#$ ren!ere! as fo""ows: (.' The "ots in/"u!in the i*prove*ents therein of !efen!ant Teresita .. Au<ui/o, as !es/ri#e! in the /o*p"aint, are !e/"are! e6propriate! for pu#"i/ useK ,.' The fair *arket va"ue of the "ots of !efen!ant is fi6e! at P(),(EG.)0 per s5uare *eter. The fair *arket va"ue of the i*prove*ents of "ots su#<e/t of this a/tion is fi6e! at P +2),000.00K 1.' The p"aintiff *ust pa$ !efen!ant the su* of P2,,,2+,---.E) %1,+2+.(0 s5. *. 6 P(),(EG.)0' representin the va"ue of the su#<e/t "ots plus P+2),000.00 representin the va"ue of the i*prove*ents or the tota" a*ount of P21,,-2,---.00 as <ust /o*pensation for the who"e propert$ %in/"u!in the i*prove*ents' *inus the su* of P-,1E1,,)+.00 that p"aintiff !eposite! in Court per Or!er !ate! Apri" 10, (++2, hen/e the #a"an/e of PE2,)+G,,EE.00 with interest at the rate of EZ per annu* fro* ;u"$ (-, (++2 %!ate of possession of su#<e/t propert$ for the purpose of this pro/ee!in s' unti" the !a$ fu"" pa$*ent is *a!e to !efen!ant or !eposite! in Court.N2O

The <u! *ent #e/a*e fina" an! e6e/utor$, no appea" havin #een interpose! #$ either part$.N)O On E Apri" ,00(, petitioner fi"e! a Motion for &Aecution of JudgmentN+O whi/h the tria" /ourt rante!. Pursuant to a Crit of &AecutionN(0O !ate! ,) ;une ,00(, the #ran/h sheriff serve! a ,otice of !arnis(ment on the fun!s of the Cit$ !eposite! with the ?an! Bank of the Phi"ippines, A.CA Bran/h, .ani"a %?an! Bank' to satisf$ the <u! *ent a*ount of PE2,)+G,,,E.00, with interest at EZ per annu*.N((O Invokin <urispru!en/e ho"!in that pu#"i/ fun!s /annot #e *a!e su#<e/t to arnish*ent, the Cit$ fi"e! a *otion to 5uash the ,otice of !arnis(ment.N(,O A/tin on the *otion, the tria" /ourt issue! an ?rder !ate! , Au ust ,00(. In the ?rder, the "ower /ourt re/a""e! that !urin the hearin on the *otion, the /ounse" for the Cit$ *anifeste! that the a*ount of P1E,G01,(20.00 ha! #een appropriate! #$ the Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! %CSB' un!er CSB Reso"utions Nos. E(1 an! E,1, of whi/h P1(,01+,))(.00 was avai"a#"e for re"ease. The a*ount of P-,1E1,,E+.00, representin fifteen per/ent %(-Z' of the assesse! va"ue of the propert$, ha! #een !eposite! in /ourt at the start of the e6propriation pro/ee!in s an! su#se5uent"$ re/eive! #$ petitioner. In "ine with the *anifestation *a!e #$ the /ounse" for the Cit$, the tria" /ourt or!ere! the re"ease to petitioner of the a*ount of P1(,01+,))(.00 !eposite! with the ?an! Bank, in partia" pa$*ent of the <ust /o*pensation a!<u! e! in favor of petitioner.N(1O The tria" /ourt further state! in the ?rder: Consi!erin that this /ase is on a"" fours with the /ase of the .uni/ipa"it$ of .akati vs. Court of Appea"s %(+0 SCRA ,0E', wherein it was ru"e! that 76 6 6 Pu#"i/ fun!s are not su#<e/t to "ev$ an! e6e/ution,8 the Court therefore rants p"aintiff3s .otion to =uash the Noti/e of 9arnish*ent an! the Noti/e of 9arnish*ent to the ?an!#ank of the Phi"ippines issue! #$ the Bran/h Sheriff of this Court is here#$ or!ere! "ifte!. There #ein no opposition for the re"ease of the Thirt$ One .i""ion Thirt$ Nine Thousan! Ei ht Bun!re! Ei ht$ One Pesos %P1(,01+,))(.00' !eposite! with the ?an! Bank, A.CA Bran/h as Spe/ia" E!u/ation &un!, the .ana er of the ?an!#ank of the Phi"ippines, A.CA, .ani"a is here#$ !ire/te! to re"ease the sai! a*ount to !efen!ant Teresita .. Au<ui/o in partia" pa$*ent of the <ust /o*pensation a!<u! e! #$ this Court in its De/ision !ate! ;une 10, ,000.

@pon *anifestation of the /ounse" for the p"aintiff that it is the Cit$ S/hoo" Boar! whi/h has the authorit$ to pass a reso"ution a""o/atin fun!s for the fu"" satisfa/tion of the <ust /o*pensation fi6e!, the sai! #o!$ is here#$ iven thirt$ %10' !a$s fro* re/eipt of this Or!er to pass the ne/essar$ reso"ution for the pa$*ents of the re*ainin #a"an/e !ue to !efen!ant Teresita .. Au<ui/o.N(GO A /op$ of the ?rder !ate! , Au ust ,00( was serve! on the CSB on 1 Au ust ,00(.N(-O On 10 Au ust ,00(, petitioner su#*itte! a *anifestation #efore the tria" /ourt re5uestin that she #e infor*e! #$ #oth the Cit$ an! the CSB if a reso"ution ha! a"rea!$ #een passe! #$ the "atter in /o*p"ian/e with the ?rder. N(EO Ear"ier, petitioner sent a "etter to the Superinten!ent of Cit$ S/hoo"s of .ani"a to verif$ the CSB3s /o*p"ian/e with the ?rder.N(2O Not havin #een favore! with a rep"$ to her 5ueries even after the "apse of the thirt$ %10':!a$ /o*p"ian/e perio!, petitioner sent a "etter to the CSB !ate! (0 Septe*#er ,00(, !e*an!in /o*p"ian/e with the ?rder.N()O As there was no a/tion fro* the CSB, on ( &e#ruar$ ,00,, petitioner fi"e! a petition for /onte*pt of /ourt a ainst respon!ents Bon. ;ose ?. Atien4a, ;r., Dr. .a. ?uisa S. =uiFo\es, Ro er 9erna"e, Ar"ene Orti4, .i"es Ro/es, Per/iva" &"orien!o, ?i#ert$ To"e!o, Isa#e"ita Santos an! Isa#e"ita Chin in their /apa/ities as offi/ers an! *e*#ers of the CSB.N(+O The /ase was !o/kete! as Civi" Case No. 0,:(0,)12 of the .ani"a RTC.N,0O Counterin the petition for /onte*pt, respon!ents fi"e! a Motion to $ismiss,N,(O wherein the$ a""e e! inter alia that the$ never !isre ar!e! the ?rder as the *atter ha! in fa/t #een /a"en!are! an! !e"i#erate! upon !urin the *eetin s of the CSB.N,,O In their su#se5uent ?mnibus Reply,N,1O respon!ents ar ue! that petitioner3s fai"ure to avai" of the proper re/ourse to enfor/e the fina" an! e6e/utor$ <u! *entN,GO shou"! not #e a roun! to ho"! the* in /onte*pt of /ourt. Citin the /ase of Municipality of Ma9ati v. Court of 3ppeals,N,-O respon!ents asserte! that petitioner shou"! have fi"e! a petition for *an!a*us to for/e the CSB to pass the ne/essar$ reso"ution for i**e!iate pa$*ent of the #a"an/e of the <ust /o*pensation awar!e! in her favor.N,EO A//or!in to respon!ents, petitioner took the ?rder as a writ of *an!a*us when in fa/t it was a *ere or!er in furtheran/e of the Crit of &Aecution.N,2O This interpretation, respon!ents insiste!, shou"! never #e a""owe! sin/e petitioner *ere"$ wante! to es/ape the pa$*ent of !o/ket fees in the fi"in of the petition for *an!a*us.N,)O

In an ?rderN,+O !ate! (2 .a$ ,00,, the tria" /ourt !enie! the petition for /onte*pt of /ourt. On E ;une ,00,, petitioner fi"e! a etition for MandamusN10O a ainst the *e*#ers of the CSB, the sa*e respon!ents in the petition for /onte*pt of /ourt, seekin to /o*pe" the* to pass a reso"ution appropriatin the a*ount ne/essar$ to pa$ the #a"an/e of the <ust /o*pensation awar!e! to petitioner in the e6propriation /ase, Civi" Case No. +E:2+E++. The petition was !o/kete! as Sp". Civi" A/tion No. 0,:(012G) an! raff"e! to Bran/h -( of the RTC of .ani"a. N1(O @pon petitioner3s *otion,N1,O Bran/h -( of the .ani"a RTC #efore whi/h the *an!a*us /ase was pen!in , in an ?rderN11O !ate! ,1 Au ust ,00,, !ire/te! its /onso"i!ation with the e6propriation /ase #efore Bran/h (-.N1GO In a $ecisionN1-O !ate! + O/to#er ,00,, the "ower /ourt %Bran/h (-' rante! the petition for *an!a*us. Spe/ifi/a""$, it or!ere! respon!ents to i**e!iate"$ pass a reso"ution appropriatin the ne/essar$ a*ount an! the /orrespon!in !is#urse*ent thereof for the fu"" an! /o*p"ete pa$*ent of the #a"an/e of the /ourt:a!<u! e! /o*pensation sti"" !ue petitioner, ratio/inatin as fo""ows:N1EO This /ase is on a"" fours with the /ase of .uni/ipa"it$ of Ma9ati v. Court of 3ppeals %(+0 SCRA ,0E'. .... The State3s power of e*inent !o*ain shou"! #e e6er/ise! within the #oun!s of fair p"a$ an! <usti/e. In the /ase at #ar, /onsi!erin that va"ua#"e propert$ has #een taken, the /o*pensation to #e pai! fi6e! an! the *uni/ipa"it$ is in fu"" possession an! uti"i4in the propert$ for the pu#"i/ purpose, for three %1' $ears, the Court fin!s that the *uni/ipa"it$ has ha! *ore than reasona#"e ti*e to pa$ fu"" /o*pensation. The ar u*ents of the herein respon!ents that passin the or!inan/e or the a/t of appropriatin spe/ia" e!u/ationa" fun! is a !is/retionar$ a/t that /ou"! not #e /o*pe""e! #$ *an!a*us shou"! #e thrown over#oar!. It *ust #e stresse! that what we have here is a fina" an! e6e/utor$ <u! *ent, esta#"ishin a "e a" ri ht for the petitioner to !e*an! fu"fi""*ent whi/h on the other han! #e/a*e an i*perative !ut$ on the part of the respon!ent to perfor* the a/t re5uire!. HBERE&ORE, pre*ises /onsi!ere!, the petition is 9RANTED, an! the respon!ents are here#$ or!ere! to i**e!iate"$ pass a

reso"ution appropriatin the ne/essar$ a*ountK an! the /orrespon!in !is#urse*ent thereof, for the fu"" an! /o*p"ete pa$*ent of the re*ainin #a"an/e of the /ourt:a!<u! e! /o*pensation !ue an! owin to petitioner Teresita .. Au<ui/o.

Before reso"vin the su#stantive issues raise! #$ the parties, the Court wi"" first a!!ress the pro/e!ura" infir*ities as/ri#e! #$ respon!ents to the petition at #ar.

SO ORDERED.N12O

Respon!ents fi"e! a *otion for re/onsi!eration, whi/h the tria" /ourt !enie! in an ?rderN1)O !ate! (1 De/e*#er ,00,.

Respon!ents assai" the /orre/tness an! propriet$ of the *o!e of appea" resorte! to #$ petitioner.NG2O A//or!in to the*, the or!er rantin the petition for re"ief fro* <u! *ent is an inter"o/utor$ or!er whi/h /annot #e *a!e the su#<e/t of an appea".NG)O Respon!ents "ikewise ar ue that petitioner fai"e! to respe/t the ru"e on hierar/h$ of /ourts. This Court, the$ aver, ha! /onsistent"$ he"! that its ori ina" <uris!i/tion to issue a writ of /ertiorari is not e6/"usive #ut is /on/urrent with that of the RTC an! the Court of Appea"s in /ertain /ases.NG+O

Hith respon!ents not interposin an appea", the $ecision #e/a*e fina" an! e6e/utor$ on , ;anuar$ ,001N1+O an! eventua""$, the /orrespon!in &ntry of Judgment was issue! on (- ;anuar$ ,001.NG0O The /ourt rante! petitioner3s Motion for &AecutionNG(O in an ?rderNG,O !ate! (, .ar/h ,001.

Bowever, on (G .ar/h ,001, respon!ents fi"e! a etition for Relief from Judgment,NG1O wherein the$ a"so pra$e! for a te*porar$ restrainin or!er %TRO' an! a writ of pre"i*inar$ in<un/tion. Respon!ents invoke! e6/usa#"e ne "i en/e as a roun! for their fai"ure to seasona#"$ fi"e an appea".NGGO Hhi"e it !enie! the app"i/ation for TRO in view of its prior or!er rantin petitioner3s Motion for &Aecution, the /ourt rante! the etition for Relief from Judgment in an ?rderNG-O !ate! ,- ;une ,00G. This ha! the effe/t of ivin !ue /ourse to respon!ents3 appea" !espite the fa/t that the !e/ision of the tria" /ourt ha! a"rea!$ attaine! fina"it$.

Respon!ents have /orre/t"$ pointe! out that an inter"o/utor$ or!er /annot #e *a!e su#<e/t to an appea". Bowever, when viewe! in /onte6t, the re/ita"s of the petition /"ear"$ !is/"ose an! the Court is /onvin/e! that the "ower /ourt /o**itte! rave a#use of !is/retion a*ountin to "a/k or e6/ess of <uris!i/tion when it rante! respon!ents3 petition for re"ief fro* <u! *ent. Hhi"e this /ase shou"! have #een e"evate! to this Court not #$ wa$ of a petition for review un!er Ru"e G- #ut throu h a spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion for /ertiorari un!er Ru"e E-, in the e6er/ise of our soun! !is/retion an! in or!er to write finis to this /ase whi/h has nee!"ess"$ !ra e! on for so "on , we sha"" treat the petition as a spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion for /ertiorari. After a"", it was fi"e! within the re "e*entar$ perio! for the fi"in of a Ru"e E- petition. As we he"! in Salinas v. ,)RC,N-0O in the interest of <usti/e, this Court has often <u!i/ious"$ treate! petitions erroneous"$ /aptione! as petitions for review on /ertiorari as spe/ia" /ivi" a/tions for /ertiorari. This is in "ine with the prin/ip"e that the stri/t app"i/ation of pro/e!ura" te/hni/a"ities shou"! not hin!er the spee!$ !isposition of the /ase on the *erits.N-(O

&in!in the ?rder una//epta#"e, petitioner e"evate! it to this Court #$ wa$ of a petition for /ertiorari un!er Ru"e G-. In her petition, petitioner asks that the or!er of the "ower /ourt ivin !ue /ourse to respon!ents3 appea" #e reverse! an! set asi!e on a pure 5uestion of "aw.NGEO

A//or!in "$, fa/ia" a""e ations of reversi#"e error in the petition wi"" #e treate!, as the$ shou"! #e, as /onte6tua" aver*ents of rave a#use of !is/retion on the part of the /ourt a 5uo. Appropriate"$, petitioner i*p"ea!e! the RTC Presi!in ;u! e as part$:respon!ent in the instant petition.

Jar/a". not *ere"$ spe/u"ative.N-1O In this /ase. Thus.O The ru"e *a$ #e re"a6e! when e6/eptiona" an! /o*pe""in /ir/u*stan/es warrant the e6er/ise of this Court3s pri*ar$ <uris!i/tion. There. No.N-EO The "ast pro/e!ura" hur!"e thrown petitioner3s wa$ #$ respon!ents refers to the suppose! fai"ure of the petition to /o*p"$ with the re5uire*ents of Se/tion G. the !o/trine is not an iron:/"a! !i/tu*. in the Court3s esti*ation. Per/iva" &"orien!o. *oreover. The phrase 7or su/h ti*e as *a$ #e rante! #$ the Court8 in Se/. a""e e!"$ fai"e! to state that petitioner has rea! the petitionNE(O an! that the /opies atta/he! thereto are #ase! on authenti/ re/or!s. There is a"so no showin that the new *e*#ers of the CSB have !eviate! fro* the stan! of their pre!e/essors:in:interestK hen/e.NEGO Perusa" of the verifi/ation in 5uestion shows that there was suffi/ient /o*p"ian/e with the re5uire*ents of the Ru"es an! the a""e e! !efe/ts are not so *ateria" as to <ustif$ the !is*issa" of the petition. respon!ents /ontinue. Ru"e G..oreover. The verifi/ation.O The !efe/ts of the verifi/ation a""e e!"$ ren!er the petition without "e a" effe/t an! /onstitute roun!s for its !is*issa". On the other han!.00. In an$ event.NE1O This re5uire*ent is si*p"$ a /on!ition affe/tin the for* of p"ea!in s an! non:/o*p"ian/e therewith !oes not ne/essari"$ ren!er it fata""$ !efe/tive.N-GO respon!ents ar ue that sin/e there are five %-' new *e*#ers in the CSB an$ !e/ision in the /ase re5uirin the CSB to a/t as a #o!$ wou"! prove to #e "e a""$ i*possi#"e. there is a su#stantia" nee! for /ontinuin or *aintainin petitioner3s a/tion a ainst the*. a!optin in toto the /o**ent of his /o:respon!ents. *erit the re"a6ation of the te/hni/a" ru"es of pro/e!ure to ensure that su#stantia" <usti/e wi"" #e serve!. Ben/e. the Court never a/5uire! <uris!i/tion over their persons. petitioner !i! *ake an atte*pt to i*p"ea! the new *e*#ers of the CSB #$ *akin the CSB itse"f a respon!ent #efore this Court.Anent the a""e e! #rea/h of the ru"e on hierar/h$ of /ourts.N-2O On"$ . . this Court is of the view that a su#stitution of the ori ina" respon!ents #$ the *e*#ers of the CSB who rep"a/e! the* is warrante!.NE0O Respon!ents /"ai* that there was fai"ure to in/"u!e a verifie! state*ent in!i/atin the *ateria" !ates re"ative to the re/eipt of the <u! *ents an! the fi"in of the p"ea!in s..NE. The ar u*ents were effe/tive"$ neutere! in our Resolution !ate! ) Au ust . . Ben<a*in >a"#uena an! &ran/es/a 9erna"e as part$ respon!entsSthe "ast three in su#stitution of Ar"ene Orti4.N--O In the sa*e Resolution. te/hni/a" ru"es on su#stitution of a part$ shou"! not #e so narrow"$ /onstrue! as to prevent this Court fro* takin /o ni4an/e of a /ase an! !e/i!in it on the *erits. we !e/"are!: Consi!erin the ar u*ents posite! #$ #oth parties.N-.anue" . the Court or!ere! the i*p"ea!in of the new CSB *e*#ers Ro er 9erna"e.. the proper su#stitutions of so*e part$ respon!ents have a"rea!$ taken p"a/e in this /ase. the new *e*#ers /annot #e !ire/te! to /o*p"$ with the Court3s <u! *ent eitherK the$ have never #een i*p"ea!e! in the /aseK thus. the awar!e! <ust /o*pensation has not #een fu""$ pai!. (2. The purpose of re5uirin a verifi/ation is to se/ure an assuran/e that the a""e ations of the petition have #een *a!e in oo! faithK or are true an! /orre/t.00-.anue" Jar/a" fi"e! a CommentN-)O !ate! 10 Au ust . Ru"e 2 an! Se/tion G. the <u! *ent sou ht to #e satisfie! has "on attaine! fina"it$ an! the e6propriate! propert$ has #een uti"i4e! as a s/hoo" site for five %-' $ears nowK $et.throu h a new /ounse". Ru"e 1 of the (++2 Ru"es of Civi" Pro/e!ure !enotes that the Court #efore who* the *otion for su#stitution is fi"e! *a$ rant a perio! "on er than thirt$ %10' !a$s for the purpose. the other four new"$ i*p"ea!e! part$ respon!ents are !ee*e! to have retaine! the Offi/e of the Cit$ ?e a" Offi/er %OC?O' as their /ounse" an! to have a!opte! the Comment a"rea!$ fi"e! #$ the OC?O in #eha"f of their /o:respon!ents. . Con/ernin petitioner3s a""e e! fai"ure to i*p"ea! the CSB or its new *e*#ers #efore the tria" /ourt.of the (++2 Ru"es of Civi" Pro/e!ureN-+O as a*en!e! #$ Supre*e Court Cir/u"ar A. . These /ir/u*stan/es.a/aru##o in su#stitution of Isa#e"ita Chin .i"es Ro/esSan! the new CSB Assistant Se/retar$ >i/ente .:(0:SC. The for*er *e*#ers of the CSB /ou"! no "on er #e /o*pe""e! to a/t a//or!in to the or!ers of the Court sin/e the$ no "on er have the /apa/it$ to !o so. 00:.

Be on"$ re*e*#ere! it when the or!er for entr$ of <u! *ent in the /ase was re/eive! on . It is an a/t of ra/e whi/h is a""owe! on"$ in e6/eptiona" /ases. ?:(+G-2. Ru"e 1) of the (++2 Ru"es of Civi" Pro/e!ure provi!e that a petition for re"ief *a$ #e rante! upon a showin that %(' throu h frau!. . however.uni/ipa" Court.anuar$ . That the a!*onitions issue! out #$ this Court were *ost"$ !ire/te! a ainst "aw$ers in "aw fir*s !oes not e6e*pt respon!ents herein fro* the sa*e treat*ent.:(012G) to the han!"in "aw$ers. a part$ has #een prevente! fro* takin an appea". the on"$ !ifferen/e #ein that the for*er serves a pu#"i/ entit$ whi"e the "atter /aters to private /"ients. Hhen the or!er was !e"ivere! to the OC?O on (2 De/e*#er . Ti*e an! a ain.O C"ear"$. Ti*e an! a ain. .egros Stevedoring Co. . the set:up at the OC?O is akin to that of a "aw fir*.+ .00. . v. @p for !eter*ination is the tena#i"it$ of the RTC3s favora#"e a/tion on respon!ents3 petition for re"ief fro* <u! *ent. a//or!in to respon!ents the$ were una#"e to seasona#"$ fi"e a noti/e of appea" !ue to 7e6/usa#"e ne "i en/e. 0.K .' the part$ has a oo! an! su#stantia" /ause of a/tion or !efense. a""e e!"$ fai"e! to forwar! the ?rder !en$in respon!ents3 *otion for re/onsi!eration in Civi" Case No.N2(O As he"! in one /ase: Reiterate! in nu*erous /ases is the ru"e that the /"erks3 fau"ts are attri#uta#"e to the han!"in "aw$ers. is the *ost ha/kne$e! an! ha#itua" su#terfu e e*p"o$e! #$ "iti ants who fai" to o#serve the pro/e!ura" re5uire*ents pres/ri#e! #$ the Ru"es of Court.NE+O Si"va for ot a"" a#out the or!er. Inc. . the respon!ent <u! e revea"e! a si*p"e:*in!e! wi""in ness to swa""ow a stor$ patent"$ /on/o/te! to !e"a$ as *u/h as possi#"e the satisfa/tion of a <u! *ent a ainst respon!ent . a//i!ent. as reason for his fai"ure to perfe/t in !ue ti*e his appea" fro* the <u! *ent of the . an! 1. The e6/use offere! #$ respon!ent .N20O In the fa/e of a"" these fa/ts an! /ir/u*stan/es. B$ that ti*e. *istake or e6/usa#"e ne "i en/e. The un/riti/a" a//eptan/e of this kin! of /o**on:p"a/e e6/uses. the su#stantia" issues.. the or!er !ate! (2 De/e*#er .er/a!o v. in the fa/e of the Supre*e Court3s repeate! ru"in s that the$ are neither /re!i#"e nor /onstitutive of e6/usa#"e ne "i en/e %9aer"an v.+ . the situation !oes not present a /ase of e6/usa#"e ne "i en/e whi/h wou"! warrant re"ief un!er Ru"e 1). this Court has ru"e! that the ina#i"it$ to perfe/t an appea" in !ue ti*e #$ reason of fai"ure of a /ounse"3s /"erk to notif$ the han!"in "aw$er is not a par!ona#"e oversi ht. ha! a"rea!$ #een *isp"a/e!. .. that /ounse"3s /"erk for ot to han! hi* the /ourt noti/e. .NE-O In this /ase. (2 De/e*#er (+EE' is /ertain"$ su/h whi*si/a" e6er/ise of <u! *ent as to #e a rave a#use of !is/retion.Now.. ?:G01+.NE2O Si"va was the one who re/eive! it #e/ause the e*p"o$ee !esi nate! to !o so was out on offi/ia" #usiness.. The fo""owin pronoun/e*ent in .NE)O Sin/e the e*p"o$ees were #us$ preparin for the offi/e Christ*as part$ that !a$.anuar$ (+-. .001. .N2.u! e Do*in o. Se/tions . This en en!ers a "ook at the roun!s an! !efenses re"ie! upon #$ respon!ents in support of their petition.00. &or a"" intents an! purposes. The a#ove re5uisites notwithstan!in . an e*p"o$ee of the OC?O. . e6/uses offere! #ase! on the for*er3s ne "i en/e are not !ee*e! e6/usa#"e.8NEEO One Rona"! Si"va %Si"va'. nor is it unavoi!a#"e.. . Berna".This in!is/ri*inatin /re!u"it$ !oes not /onfor* to what is to #e e6pe/te! of a <u!i/ia" *in!. . .N21O Thus. an! %. it #ears stressin that re"ief fro* <u! *ent is pre*ise! on e5uit$. . the Court has a!*onishe! "aw fir*s to . Court of 3ppealsN2GO is apropos: The ne "i en/e /o**itte! in the /ase at #ar /annot #e /onsi!ere! e6/usa#"e.

N2)O ren!er the Cit$ an!. a"" e6/ept one of the in!ivi!ua" respon!ents in the /ase at #ar..'N22O Respon!ents3 !efense /onsiste! of their /"ai* that the CSB has a persona"it$ separate an! !istin/t fro* the Cit$ su/h that it shou"! not #e *a!e to pa$ for the Cit$3s o#"i ations. 613 "n# 623 fo' thi pu'po e.N2EO Bowever.a!opt a s$ste* of !istri#utin p"ea!in s an! noti/es. . This. ?pon )"nife t"tion of the coun el fo' the pl"intiff th"t it i the 5ity !chool /o"'# 0hich h" the "utho'ity to p" " 'e olution "lloc"tin$ fun# fo' the full "ti f"ction of the &u t co)pen "tion fi9e# . Hithout !ou#t.403. After a"". sti"" the petition shou"! not have #een rante!.N2-O ")ount of Ahi'ty !i9 %illion 1ou' <un#'e# Ah'ee Ahou "n# :ne <un#'e# !e2enty Pe o 7P36.otice of !arnis(ment over the fun!s of the Cit$. /oup"e! with the ru"e that an a/t perfor*e! #$ /ounse" within the s/ope of a 7 enera" or i*p"ie! authorit$8 is re ar!e! as an a/t of the /"ient. . -tty.. for the !efen!ant. -6uino )"nife te# th"t the . the sai! #o!$ is here#$ iven thirt$ %10' !a$s fro* re/eipt of this Or!er to pass the ne/essar$ reso"ution for the pa$*ents of the re*ainin #a"an/e !ue to !efen!ant Teresita . Horth$ of note are the fo""owin *anifestations re"ie! upon #$ the "ower /ourt in issuin the or!er on the *otion to 5uash the . where#$ "aw$ers workin therein re/eive pro*pt"$ noti/es an! p"ea!in s inten!e! for the*. respon!ents in estoppel.. to wit: The a#ove /ir/u*stan/es.N2+O Petitioner an! the /ourts a/te! in a//or!an/e with the Cit$3s own *anifestations #$ runnin after the CSB. %E*phasis supp"ie!. At this point. Even assu*in that the ne "i en/e invoke! #$ respon!ents /ou"! #e /onsi!ere! e6/usa#"e. so that the$ wi"" a"wa$s #e infor*e! of the status of their /ases. the OC?O. The Court has a"so often repeate! that the ne "i en/e of /"erks whi/h a!verse"$ affe/t the /ases han!"e! #$ "aw$ers is #in!in upon the "atter.otion to =uash Noti/e of 9arnish*ent was hear! #$ this /ourt this *ornin an! Att$.008 h"# been "pp'op'i"te# by the 5ity !chool /o"'# 75!/8 un#e' 5!/ Re olution No . The *anifestation was *a!e #$ the sa*e /ounse" now /"ai*in that it is a/tua""$ the Cit$ whi/h shou"! #e *a!e "ia#"e for the pa$*ent of its own o#"i ations. the other #ein the e6isten/e of a oo! an! su#stantia" /ause of a/tion or !efense. &e!eri/o A"!a$.ani"a' an! Att$. the ar u*ent is un!er/ut #$ the parti/u"ar /ir/u*stan/es of this /ase. respon!ents an! the OC?O /an no "on er turn aroun! an! toss the o#"i ation #a/k to the Cit$. B$ estoppel is *eant that an a!*ission or representation is ren!ere! /on/"usive upon the person *akin it an! /annot #e !enie! or !isprove! as a ainst the person re"$in thereon. It is worth$ of note that the re/or!s of this /ase /"ear"$ show that the sa*e /ounse".oseph A5uino appeare! for the p"aintiff %Cit$ of . it was the "e a" /ounse" of #oth the Cit$ an! respon!ents who *a!e a #i pro!u/tion out of showin that the "ia#i"it$ in/urre! #$ the Cit$ wi"" #e #orne #$ the CSB.170. it was rave a#use of !is/retion for the "ower /ourt to have iven !ue /ourse to respon!ents3 appea" throu h the rant of their petition for re"ief fro* <u! *ent #ase! on the f"i*s$ roun! the$ proferre!. throu h it.. The . represente! the Cit$ in the e6propriation /ase an! now. Au<ui/o. after it trotte! out the CSB as the entit$ with authorit$ to pass a reso"ution that wou"! satisf$ the o#"i ation it ha! vi orous"$ pursue!. It *ust #e #orne in *in! that two re5uisites *ust #e satisfie! #efore a petition un!er Ru"e 1) *a$ #e rante!.

N)GO . as in this /ase. !ection 101.. su/h wou"! not #e the situation if the s/hoo" #oar! has a persona"it$ separate an! !istin/t fro* the ?9@.. the /"ai*ant *a$ avai" of the re*e!$ of *an!a*us in or!er to /o*pe" the ena/t*ent an! approva" of the ne/essar$ appropriation or!inan/e. the !u"$ e"e/te! presi!ent of the /it$ fe!eration of parents:tea/hers asso/iations. to effe/t pa$*ent of a fina" *one$ <u! *ent ren!ere! a ainst it. The . or *uni/ipa" s/hoo" #oar!. Court of 3ppeals. The /o*position of "o/a" s/hoo" #oar!s %. To 5uote: TIT?E I>. prevai"in in the area appraise! in a//or!an/e with the re5uire*ents of e6istin "aws. . Hhere a *uni/ipa"it$ fai"s or refuses.: ?OCA? SCBOO? BOARDS !ection >8. supra. It states: the "o/a" s/hoo" #oar! /on/erne!. . an! the /orrespon!in !is#urse*ent of *uni/ipa" fun!s therefore NSee >iu!a De Tan To/o v. the "aw !oes not *ake the CSB an entit$ in!epen!ent fro* the Cit$ of . In!ee!. Ba"!ivia v. %#' sha"" #e as fo""ows: . of the propert$ to #e a/5uire! or so *u/h thereof as *a$ #e ne/essar$ for the purpose sha"" #e a""o/ate! out of the Spe/ia" E!u/ation &un! of the Cit$ to !efra$ the /ost of a/5uisition of the a#ove:*entione! par/e"s of "an!.. Composition and Compensation.N). (0) Phi" . the !u"$ e"e/te! representative of the non: a/a!e*i/ personne" of pu#"i/ s/hoo"s in the /it$.Contrar$ to respon!ents3 /"ai*. This is evi!ent fro* the provisions of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e of (++(.. as *e*#ersK . /it$ or *uni/ipa" s/hoo" #oar! sha"" perfor* their !uties as su/h without /o*pensation or re*uneration. without <ustifia#"e reason.. the representative of the Fpederasyon ng mga sangguniang 9abataan+ in the sangguniang panlungsod.N)(O The 5uestion of whether the ena/t*ent of an or!inan/e to satisf$ the appropriation of a fina" *one$ <u! *ent ren!ere! a ainst an ?9@ *a$ #e /o*pe""e! #$ *an!a*us has a"rea!$ #een sett"e! in Municipality of Ma9ati v. Compensation and Remuneration. (02 Phi" (0++ %(+E0'K Auvien /o v.N)0O The fa/t that the hi hest rankin offi/ia" of a "o/a" overn*ent unit %?9@' is !esi nate! as /o:/hair*an of the s/hoo" #oar! ne ates the /"ai* in this /ase that the CSB has a persona"it$ separate an! !istin/t fro* the Cit$. the ver$ or!inan/e authori4in the e6propriation of petitioner3s propert$ /ate ori/a""$ states that the pa$*ent of the e6propriate! propert$ wi"" #e !efra$e! fro* the SE&.N)1O C"ear"$.e*#ers thereof who are not overn*ent offi/ia"s or e*p"o$ees sha"" #e entit"e! to trave"in e6penses an! a""owan/es /har ea#"e a ainst the fun!s of An a*ount not to e6/ee! the /urrent fair *arket va"ue.uni/ipa" Coun/i" of I"oi"o. Respon!ents a"so ar ue that the *e*#ers of the CSB /annot #e !ire/te! to !e/i!e a !is/retionar$ fun/tion in the spe/ifi/ *anner the /ourt !esires. %a' There sha"" #e esta#"ishe! in ever$ provin/e.ani"a.. Creation. su#<e/t to e6istin a//ountin an! au!itin ru"es an! re u"ations.O Neverthe"ess. the "aw provi!in for the /reation of s/hoo" #oar!s. The /o:/hair*en an! *e*#ers of the provin/ia". /it$. this is not to sa$ that private respon!ent an! PSB are "eft with no "e a" re/ourse. ?ota. ru"es an! re u"ations. 9on4a"es. The other fa/t that overn*ent offi/ia"s in the s/hoo" #oar! !o not re/eive an$ /o*pensation or re*uneration whi"e N9O representatives *ere"$ re/eive a""owan/es un!ers/ores the a#sur!it$ of respon!ents3 ar u*ent a"" the *ore. /it$ or *uni/ipa"it$ a provin/ia". *an!a*us is a re*e!$ avai"a#"e to a propert$ owner when a *one$ <u! *ent is ren!ere! in its favor an! a ainst a *uni/ipa"it$ or /it$.' The /it$ s/hoo" #oar! sha"" #e /o*pose! of the /it$ *a$or an! the /it$ superinten!ent of s/hoo"s as /o:/hair*enK the /hair*an of the e!u/ation /o**ittee of the sangguniang panlungsod. the /it$ treasurer. respe/tive"$.G2 %(+E0'O.oreover.

The sour/e of the a*ount ne/essar$ to a/5uire petitioner3s propert$ havin in fa/t #een spe/ifie! #$ the Cit$ Coun/i" of . Au ust (-. the passa e of the reso"ution for the a""o/ation an! !is#urse*ent thereof is in!ee! a *inisteria" !ut$ of the CSB. In /ases "ike these.N)EO The !e/ision ren!erin <ust /o*pensation in petitioner3s favor was pro*u" ate! wa$ #a/k in the $ear .N)2O &ive $ears have passe!.2. it is the !ut$ of the overn*ent. respon!ents ha! ar ue! in the petition for /onte*pt fi"e! a ainst the* #$ petitioner that the "atter3s fai"ure to invoke the proper re*e!$ of *an!a*us shou"! not #e a roun! to pena"i4e the* with /onte*pt. . As we have a"rea!$ ru"e!: .r. Re/ent"$.000. the reversion of the e6propriate! propert$ to the petitioner wou"! prove not to #e a re*ote prospe/t shou"! respon!ents an! the Cit$ the$ represent insist on tru! in on their intransi ent /ourse..00. rantin respon!ents3 etition for Relief from Judgment is RE>ERSED an! set asi!e an! its $ecision !ate! + O/to#er . . the five:$ear perio! "i*itation wi"" en/oura e the overn*ent to pa$ <ust /o*pensation pun/tua""$. This is in /onsonan/e with the prin/ip"e that Mthe overn*ent /annot keep the propert$ an! !ishonor the <u! *ent. whi"e the prevai"in !o/trine is that the non:pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation !oes not entit"e the private "an!owner to re/over possession of the e6propriate! "ots. No.+('. Atien4a. )EE+. %<'ust /o*pensation *eans not on"$ the /orre/t !eter*ination of the a*ount to #e pai! to the owner of the "an! #ut a"so the pa$*ent of the "an! within a reasona#"e ti*e fro* its takin . in /ases where the overn*ent fai"e! to pa$ <ust /o*pensation 0ithin fi2e 7=8 ye"' f'o) the fin"lity of &u#$)ent in the e9p'op'i"tion p'ocee#in$ .R.. or!erin respon!ents to i**e!iate"$ pass a reso"ution for the pa$*ent of the #a"an/e of the /ourt:a!<u! e! /o*pensation !ue petitioner.une . No. . (EG SCRA 1+1. One fina" note. however. 9. ?et a /op$ of this $ecision #e furnishe! the Court of Appea"s for its infor*ation an! ui!an/e in re"ation to CA:9. the petition is 9RANTED. It /annot #e over:e*phasi4e! that within the /onte6t of the State3s inherent power of e*inent !o*ain. to fa/i"itate the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation.. /ourts wi"" not hesitate to step in to ensure that <usti/e an! fair p"a$ are serve!. The Bonora#"e Court of Appea"s. *a!e possi#"e #$ its rant of their petition for re"ief. See a"so Provin/ia" 9overn*ent of Sorso on v.N+0O The /ourt3s $ecision in this /ase wou"! have o#vious /onse5uen/es on sai! appea"K hen/e. Hithout pro*pt pa$*ent.8 SO ORDERED. Au<ui/o v.ani"a. of the "ower /ourt. petitioner /annot now #e sent #$ respon!ents on another wi"! oose /hase to o#tain u"ti*ate re/over$ of what she is "e a""$ entit"e! to. G00. . Bon.. >!a. Be is /o*pe""e! to ive up his propert$ for the /o**on wea". (+)2. $et the awar! sti"" has not #een fu""$ satisfie!. et a". .00.N)-O Bavin re"ie! on these representations of respon!ents an! havin fi"e! the a/tion the$ a!verte! to. . whenever it takes propert$ fro* private persons a ainst their wi"".00G.N))O this Court *a!e the fo""owin pronoun/e*ent: .ose ?. entit"e! 7Teresita . &urther*ore. After a"". Au ust . This is in keepin with <usti/e an! e5uit$. This Court wi"" not /on!one petitioner3s #"atant refusa" to sett"e its "e a" o#"i ation arisin fro* e6propriation pro/ee!in s it ha! in fa/t initiate!. Respon!ents3 appea" fro* the $ecision !ate! + O/to#er . . (-1 SCRA . .The "e a"it$ of the a#ove:5uote! provision is presu*e!.3 To #e sure.R. is #efore the Court of Appea"s where it is !o/kete! as CA:9.. But to ive it up an! wait in vain for the <ust /o*pensation !e/ree! #$ the /ourts is too *u/h to #ear. EG012. )EE+. (+)). 9. HBERE&ORE. Hhi"e this Court re/o ni4es the power of ?9@ to e6propriate private propert$ for pu#"i/ use. In their haste to have the /onte*pt petition !is*isse!.R. in Republic v. )im. . is reinstate!.R. No. referra" of this $ecision to the Court of Appea"s is in or!er. respon!ents /onsistent"$ /onten!e! that what petitioner shou"! have fi"e! was a /ase for *an!a*us to /o*pe" passa e of the /orrespon!in reso"ution of the CSB if she wante! i**e!iate pa$*ent. /o*pensation /annot #e /onsi!ere! M<ust3 for the propert$ owner is *a!e to suffer the /onse5uen/e of #ein i**e!iate"$ !eprive! of his "an! whi"e #ein *a!e to wait for a !e/a!e or *ore #efore a/tua""$ re/eivin the a*ount ne/essar$ to /ope with his "oss %Cons/u""ue"a v. The notion of e6propriation is har! enou h to take for a private owner. it wi"" not stan! i!"$ #$ whi"e the e6propriatin authorit$ *aneuvers to eva!e the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation of propert$ a"rea!$ in its possession. No.N)+O %Citations o*itte!' 9iven the a#ove ru"in . 222E-. the owners /on/erne! sha"" have the ri ht to re/over possession of their propert$. The ?rder of the tria" /ourt !ate! . De >i""aro$a. .

AN A9ENCA &OR TECBNICA? COOPERATION.. Respon!ents.: >E?ASCO.E?>IN DE?A PAJ. CBRISTOPBER RA.8 It appears that SBINE ha! a"rea!$ #een in e6isten/e even prior to the effe/tivit$ of the Arran e*ent.AAO an! ED9ARDO RA. thou h the re/or! !oes not in!i/ate when e6a/t"$ SBINE was /onstitute!. RANDA TA. Apri" (E. (-. Nationa" ?a#or Re"ations Co**ission. ?a#or Ar#iter of the Ar#itration Bran/h. Nonethe"ess. .R. an! re/o niN4e!O the #enefits to #e !erive! #$ #oth States fro* /"oser te/hni/a" /o: operation. the Phi"ippine overn*ent. throu h then &orei n Affairs Se/retar$ Do*in o Sia4on. . CARO?INA DIONCO. 9. Pro*u" ate!: BON. an! the 9er*an overn*ent. Tin a. CO@RT O& APPEA?S.ORA?ES. J.. %9TJ' BANS PETER PA@?ENJ an! ANNE NICO?AA. BON. /apita" of what was then Hest 9er*an$.OS. also 9no8n as 9ER.00+ On 2 Septe*#er (+2(. whi/h was !esi ne! to 7ena#"e Phi"ippine fa*i"iesXespe/ia""$ poor onesXto *aintain their hea"th an! se/ure hea"th /are of sustaina#"e 5ua"it$. an! BERNADETTE CAR.DE@TSCBE 9ESE??SCBA&T &]R TECBNISCBE J@SA. So/ia" Bea"th Insuran/eSNetworkin an! E*power*ent %SBINE'. JJ.8 Hhi"e the A ree*ent provi!e! for a "i*ite! ter* of effe/tivit$ of five %-' $ears.E??A .ENARBEIT.8 an! a""owe! for the /on/"usion of 7arran e*ents /on/ernin in!ivi!ua" pro<e/ts of te/hni/a" /o:operation.*5B!B:N =@IS@. the Arran e*ent state! the various o#"i ations of the . This Arran e*ent affir*e! the /o**on /o**it*ent of #oth overn*ents to pro*ote <oint"$ a pro<e/t /a""e!. a ree! to an Arran e*ent in furtheran/e of the (+2( A ree*ent.8 On (0 De/e*#er (+++. No.A9TAAS.8 an! that even upon the A ree*ent3s e6pir$. TIN9A.I??O. CARPIO . J.BIN9. ARIE? CADIENTE SANTOS. The A ree*ent affir*e! the /ountries3 7/o**on interest in pro*otin the te/hni/a" an! e/ono*i/ !eve"op*ent of their States. it nonethe"ess was state! that 7NtOhe A ree*ent sha"" #e ta/it"$ e6ten!e! for su//essive perio!s of one $ear un"ess either of the two Contra/tin Parties !enoun/es it in writin three *onths prior to its e6pir$. C(airperson. its provisions wou"! 7/ontinue to app"$ to an$ pro<e/ts a ree! upon 6 6 6 unti" their /o*p"etion. Petitioners.1() 6::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::6 Present: . an! : versus : BRION. the overn*ents of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$ an! the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines ratifie! an A ree*ent /on/ernin Te/hni/a" Co:operation %A ree*ent' in Bonn.

2 e6pertC*onths. : five "o/a" e6perts in hea"th e/ono*$. who sha"" work on the pro<e/t as part of their #asi/ an! further trainin an! assu*e spe/ifi/ pro<e/t tasks un!er the separate"$ finan/e! <unior staff pro*otion pro ra**e of the Deuts/he 9ese""s/haft f^r Te/hnis/he Jusa**enar#eit %9TJ'K %/' *eet : the /ost of a//o**o!ation for the se/on!e! e6perts an! their fa*i"ies in so far as this /ost is not *et #$ the se/on!e! e6perts the*se"ves. : ten /o*puters with a//essories. The re"evant provisions of the Arran e*ent are repro!u/e! as fo""ows: 1.000 %three hun!re! an! ten thousan! Deuts/he .ark'K : pro<e/t assistantsC uest stu!ents as re5uire!. : It sha"" "o/a" an! au6i"iar$ personne" for a tota" of up to (. /o**unit$ hea"th s$ste*s. infor*ation s$ste*s. two /ross:/ountr$ vehi/"es.&i"ipino an! 9er*an overn*ents. %#' provi!e in situ : the /ost of offi/ia" trave" #$ the e6perts referre! to in su#:para raph %a' a#ove within an! outsi!e the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines. : short:ter* e6perts to !ea" with !iverse spe/ia" tasks for a tota" of up to . up to a tota" va"ue of D.G0 e6pertC*onths. in parti/u"ar %a' se/on! : : one e6pert in hea"th e/ono*$. insuran/e an! hea"th s$ste*s for up to G) e6pertC*onths. trainin an! /o**unit$ *o#i"i4ation for a tota" of up to . 1(0. The 9overn*ent of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$ sha"" *ake the fo""owin /ontri#utions to the pro<e/t. infor*ation te/hno"o $. . hea"th insuran/e.0 *onthsK %/' supp"$ inputs. : one e6pert in s$ste* !eve"op*ent for up to (0 e6pertC*onths : offi/e furnishin s an! e5uip*ent : short:ter* e6perts to !ea" with spe/ia" tasks for a tota" of up to () e6pertC*onths.

i*port an! e6port !uties an! other pu#"i/ /har es an! fees. %#' assu*e an in/reasin proportion of the runnin an! operatin /osts of the pro<e/tK %/' affor! the se/on!e! e6perts an$ assistan/e the$ *a$ re5uire in /arr$in out the tasks assi ne! to the* an! p"a/e at their !isposa" a"" ne/essar$ re/or!s an! !o/u*entsK %!' uarantee that : a proportion of the operatin an! a!*inistrative /ostsK 666 : the pro<e/t is provi!e! with an ite*i4e! #u! et of its own in or!er to ensure s*ooth /ontinuation of the pro<e/t. at the re5uest of the i*p"e*entin a en/ies a"so app"$ to inputs pro/ure! in the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines. in parti/u"ar one responsi#"e e6pert for ea/h pi"ot provin/e an! for ea/h asso/iation representin the various tar et roups. as we"" as hea"th personne" in the pi"ot provin/es an! in the other pro<e/t partners. or that an$ /osts thereof are *et. . *ake avai"a#"e the "an! an! #ui"!in s re5uire! for the pro<e/tK : the /ost of transport an! insuran/e to the pro<e/t site of inputs to #e supp"ie! pursuant to su#:para raph %/' a#ove. The afore*entione! e6e*ptions sha"". : ensure that the pro<e/t fie"! offi/es have suffi/ient e6pen!a#"es. an! that the$ are /"eare! #$ /usto*s without !e"a$. The 9overn*ent of the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines sha"" *ake the fo""owin /ontri#utions to the pro<e/t: : the ne/essar$ "e a" an! a!*inistrative fra*ework is /reate! for the pro<e/t. G. : the tasks of the se/on!e! e6perts are taken over as soon as possi#"e #$ Phi"ippine e6perts. : the inputs supp"ie! for the pro<e/t on #eha"f of the 9overn*ent of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$ are e6e*pte! fro* the /ost of "i/enses. e6/"u!in the /har es an! stora e fees referre! to in para raph G%!' #e"ow. har#our !ues. in parti/u"ar one pro<e/t /oor!inator in the Phi"ippine Bea"th Insuran/e Corporation %Phi"hea"th'. : re"ease suita#"$ 5ua"ifie! e6perts fro* their !uties for atten!an/e at the envisa e! #asi/ an! further trainin a/tivitiesK it sha"" on"$ no*inate su/h /an!i!ates as have iven an un!ertakin to work on the pro<e/t for at "east five $ears after /o*p"etin their trainin an! sha"" ensure that these Phi"ippine e6perts re/eive appropriate re*uneration. It sha"" : the pro<e/t is /oor!inate! in /"ose /ooperation with other nationa" an! internationa" a en/ies re"evant to i*p"e*entation. at "east three further e6perts an! a suffi/ient nu*#er of a!*inistrative an! au6i"iar$ personne". as we"" as stora e fees. %a' X provi!e the ne/essar$ Phi"ippine e6perts for the pro<e/t.: : the /ost of se*inars an! /ourses.

a taas was hire! as an 7infor*ation s$ste*s *ana er an! pro<e/t offi/er of SBINEK8 Caro"ina Dion/o as a 7Pro<e/t Assistant of SBINEK8 Christopher Ra*os as 7a pro<e/t assistant an! "iason personne" of NBI re"ate! SBINE a/tivities #$ 9TJK8 . Anne Ni/o"a$ %Ni/o"a$'. He /ou"! no "on er fin! an$ reason to sta$ with the pro<e/t un"ess A?? of these issues #e a!!resse! i**e!iate"$ an! appropriate"$. with the i*p"e*entation of its /ontri#utions. as the 7e*p"o$er. she state!: . &or their part.8 The "etter en!e! with these o*inous wor!s: The issues that we Nthe private respon!entsO have state! here are ver$ /ru/ia" to us in workin for the pro<e/t.000. Private respon!ents further a""e e! that as a resu"t of Ni/o"a$3s 7new thrust.8 The e*p"o$*ent /ontra/ts of a"" si6 private respon!ents a"" spe/ifie! Dr. Es/h#orn. an! the /ourse Ni/o"a$ was takin in the i*p"e*entation of SBINE !ifferent fro* her pre!e/essors. #ut have not #een iven appropriate response. the 9er*an overn*ent 7/har eN!O the Deust/he 9ese""s/haft f^r Te/hnis/he Jusa**enar#eitNO %9TJNO' 9*#B. Disa ree*ents eventua""$ arose #etween Ni/o"a$ an! private respon!ents in *atters su/h as propose! sa"ar$ In response. a!!resse! to Ni/o"a$.e"vin De"a Pa4 an! Ran!$ Ta*a$o as pro ra**ersK an! E! ar!o Ra*i"o as 7!river. resour/es have #een use! inappropriate"$K8 that the new *ana e*ent st$"e was 7not /on ruent with the ori ina" oa"s of the pro<e/tK8 that Ni/o"a$ herse"f suffere! fro* 7/u"tura" insensitivit$8 that /onse5uent"$ fai"e! to sustain hea"th$ re"ations with SBINE3s partners an! staff. In Septe*#er of (+++. a Be" ian nationa". Berna!ette Car*e"a . She infor*e! private respon!ents that the 7pro<e/t3s orientations an! evo"ution8 were !e/i!e! in /onsensus with partner institutions. assu*e! the post of SBINE Pro<e/t .( . i!entifie! as an a!viser of 9TJ.000. an! thus no "on er su#<e/t to *o!ifi/ations. To""kotter.ore pertinent"$. si ne! #$ the private respon!ents. In the arrai n*ent. Phi"hea"th an! the DOB. a"" si*i"ar"$ wor!e! e6/ept for their respe/tive a!!ressees.une .ana er. . as e*p"o$erO is a se/on!e! 9TJ e6pert who is hirin the E*p"o$ee on #eha"f of 9TJ an! for a Phi"ippine:9er*an #i"atera" pro<e/t na*e! MSo/ia" Bea"th Insuran/eS Networkin an! E*power*ent %SBINE'3 whi/h wi"" en! at a iven ti*e. as Ni/o"a$ ha! refuse! to support "o/a" partners an! new initiatives on the pre*ise that /o**unit$ an! "o/a" overn*ent unit s/he*es were not sustaina#"eSa phi"osoph$ that suppose!"$ #etra$e! Ni/o"a$3s "a/k of un!erstan!in of the purpose of the pro<e/t.8 At the sa*e ti*e. #oth overn*ents "ikewise na*e! their respe/tive i*p"e*entin or ani4ations for SBINE. an! the !ire/tor of the .ani"a offi/e of 9TJ. Ni/o"a$ wrote ea/h of the private respon!ents a "etter !ate! .8 a!<ust*ents. an! /opies furnishe! offi/ia"s of the DOB. Phi"heath. *essen er an! *u"tipurpose servi/e *an. It was /"ai*e! that SBINE un!er Ni/o"a$ ha! veere! awa$ fro* its ori ina" purpose to fa/i"itate the !eve"op*ent of so/ia" hea"th insuran/e #$ shorin up the nationa" hea"th insuran/e pro ra* an! stren thenin "o/a" initiatives. The Phi"ippines !esi nate! the Depart*ent of Bea"th %DOB' an! the Phi"ippine Bea"th Insuran/e Corporation %Phi"hea"th' with the i*p"e*entation of SBINE. appoint*ents an! a!van/e*ent as are /o**ensurate with their trainin . a"" the /ontra/ts /o**on"$ provi!e! that 7NiOt is *utua""$ a ree! an! un!erstoo! that NDr.: e6a*inations passe! #$ Phi"ippine nationa"s pursuant to this Arran e*ent are re/o ni4e! in a//or!an/e with their respe/tive stan!ar!s an! that the persons /on/erne! are affor!e! su/h opportunities with re ar! to /areers.une . Private respon!ents were en a e! as /ontra/t e*p"o$ees hire! #$ 9TJ to work for SBINE on various !ates #etween De/e*#er of (++) to Septe*#er of (+++. Rainer To""kotter. The "etter raise! severa" issues whi/h private respon!ents /"ai* ha! #een #rou ht up severa" ti*es in the past. The !ispute /u"*inate! in a "etter !ate! ) .

a*on others.00(.000 as a resi nation "etter. a*on others. Na*e! as respon!ents therein where 9TJ. an! Ni/o"a$.8 9TJ was fau"te! for fai"in to o#serve the noti/e re5uire*ents in the "a#or "aw. No a/tion was taken #$ the ?a#or Ar#iter on this new *otion. throu h /ounse".otion to Dis*iss.une . its Assistant Pro<e/t . infor*in the* of the pre:ter*ination of their /ontra/ts of e*p"o$*ent on the roun!s of 7serious an! ross insu#or!ination. Taken a#a/k. it is now i*perative that I a* to a//ept $our resi nation. as its a/ts were un!ertaken in the !is/har e of the overn*enta" fun/tions an! soverei n a/ts of the 9overn*ent of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. resu"tin to "oss of /onfi!en/e an! trust.8 Nonethe"ess. The De/ision initia""$ offere! that it 7nee! not !is/uss the <uris!i/tiona" aspe/t /onsi!erin that the sa*e ha! a"rea!$ #een "en thi"$ !is/usse! in the Or!er !eNnO$in respon!ents3 .ahn.otion to Dis*iss.ani"a offi/e Bans Peter Pau"en4. Ea/h of the private respon!ents re/eive! a "etter fro* Ni/o"a$ !ate! (( .8 On 2 &e#ruar$ . #ut one that *ere"$ inten!e! to raise attention to what the$ per/eive! as vita" issues. /"arif$in that their ear"ier "etter was not inten!e! as a resi nation "etter. there #ein 7a tota" "a/k of !ue pro/ess #oth su#stantive an! pro/e!ura" NsicO.u"$ . Ne otiations ensue! #etween private respon!ents an! Ni/o"a$. On .2 Nove*#er . fi"e! a .otion to Dis*iss #e rante! on the <uris!i/tiona" roun!. On . an! that it was 9TJ an! not the 9er*an overn*ent whi/h ha! i*p"e*ente! the SBINE Pro<e/t an! entere! into the /ontra/ts of e*p"o$*ent. in this wise: On .000. 9TJ fi"e! with the ?a#or Ar#iter a 7Reiteratin .O/to#er ..00(. an! !evote! so*e fo/us in !e#unkin this theor$.Aou have fir*"$ an! une5uivo/a""$ state! in the "ast para raph of $our ) th .( Au ust . This was oppose! #$ private respon!ents with the ar u*ents that 9TJ ha! fai"e! to se/ure a /ertifi/ation that it was i**une fro* suit fro* the Depart*ent of &orei n Affairs.otion to Dis*iss. the private respon!ents fi"e! a /o*p"aint for i""e a" !is*issa" with the N?RC.000 "etter that $ou an! the five other staff 7/ou"! no "on er fin! an$ reason to sta$ with the pro<e/t un"ess A?? of these issues #e a!!resse! i**e!iate"$ an! appropriate"$. an! reprisin the ar u*ents for !is*issa" it ha! ear"ier raise!.8 a ain pra$in that the .une . The Or!er /ite!. the Dire/tor of its . /orporation whi/h entere! into an e*p"o$*ent /ontra/tK an! that 9TJ ha! fai"e! to se/ure fro* the D&A a /ertifi/ation as to its !ip"o*ati/ status.8 @n!er the fore oin pre*ises an! /ir/u*stan/es. whi/h I e6pe/t to re/eive as soon as possi#"e.00-.000.otion to Dis*iss.000. private respon!ents rep"ie! with a /o**on "etter. the ?a#or Ar#iter issue! an Or!er !en$in the . that 9TJ was a private @n!er pain of #ein repetitious.ana er Christian . it pro/ee!e! to !is/uss the <uris!i/tiona" aspe/t. The De/ision "ikewise pro/ee!e! fro* the pre*ise that 9TJ ha! treate! the "etter !ate! ) . The De/ision /on/"u!e! that respon!ents were !is*isse! without "awfu" /ause. the ?a#or Ar#iter ren!ere! a De/ision rantin the /o*p"aint for i""e a" !is*issa". #ut for nau ht. Instea!. on the roun! that the ?a#or Ar#iter ha! no <uris!i/tion over the /ase. the un!ersi ne! ?a#or Ar#iter has <uris!i/tion to entertain the /o*p"aint on the fo""owin roun!s: . 9TJ. on (.O/to#er .

00-. 9TJ oes as far as to 7re5uest8 that the Court re:e6a*ine 3ir Services.O NtOhe appropriate re*e!$ of the petitioners N#ein O an appea" to the N?RC 6 6 6. Thus. The Court therein note! that on a//ount of the fai"ure to /orre/t"$ appea" the !e/ision of the ?a#or Ar#iter to the N?RC. . 9TJ3s ar u*ents /enter on whether the Court of Appea"s /ou"! have entertaine! its petition for /ertiorari !espite its not havin un!ertaken an appea" #efore the N?RCK an! whether the /o*p"aint for i""e a" !is*issa" shou"! have #een !is*isse! for "a/k of <uris!i/tion on a//ount of 9TJ3s insisten/e that it en<o$s i**unit$ fro* suit. /itin in parti/u"ar its assi ne! fun/tions in i*p"e*entin the SBINE pro ra*Sa <oint un!ertakin of the Phi"ippine an! 9er*an overn*ents whi/h was neither proprietar$ nor /o**er/ia" in nature. Court of 3ppeals. !e/isions ru"in on /o*p"aints for i""e a" !is*issa". the Court of Appea"s re"ie! on our ru"in in 3ir Service Cooperative v.&irst"$.00(. assai"in the !e/ision an! reso"utions of the Court of Appea"s an! of the ?a#or Ar#iter. In /ontrast. the present petition for review un!er Ru"e G-. 9TJ !i! not fi"e a *otion for re/onsi!eration to the ?a#or Ar#iter3s De/ision or e"evate sai! !e/ision for appea" to the N?RC. with the pra$er that the petition #e rante! on the roun! that 9TJ was i**une fro* suit. ?ast"$. the OS9 took the si!e of 9TJ. it provi!es that 7/ontra/t partners a ree that his /ontra/t sha"" #e su#<e/t to the ?AHS of the <uris!i/tion of the "o/a"it$ in whi/h the servi/e is perfor*e!. it is i*perative to #e i**une fro* suit. the Court of Appea"s pro*u" ate! a Reso"ution !is*issin 9TJ3s petition. No spe/ia" ar u*ents are !ire/te! with respe/t to petitioners Bans Peter Pau"en4 an! Anne Ni/o"a$. su/h <u! *ent /onse5uent"$ #e/a*e fina" an! e6e/utor$. Instea!. respe/tive"$ the then Nonethe"ess. respon!ents /annot es/ape "ia#i"it$ fro* the she"ter of soverei n i**unit$.NsicO Nota#"$. the Court of Appea"s is /orre/t in pronoun/in the enera" ru"e that the proper re/ourse fro* the !e/ision of the ?a#or Ar#iter is to first appea" the sa*e to the N?RC. That /ase *a$ #e !ifferentiate! fro* the present /ase.ana er of 9TJ in the Phi"ippinesK so we have to presu*e that the ar u*ents raise! in #eha"f of 9TJ3s a""e e! i**unit$ fro* suit e6ten! to the* as we"". that the Court of Appea"s has <uris!i/tion to review. 9TJ opte! to assai" the !e/ision #$ wa$ of a spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion for /ertiorari fi"e! with the Court of Appea"s. The Court of Appea"s ha! pre*ise! the !is*issa" of 9TJ3s petition on its pro/e!ura" *isstep in #$passin an appea" to N?RC an! /ha""en in the ?a#or Ar#iter3s De/ision !ire/t"$ with the appe""ate /ourt #$ wa$ of a Ru"e Epetition.8 A *otion for re/onsi!eration to this Reso"ution prove! fruit"ess for 9TJ. sin/e the Re iona" Tria" Court !oes not have ori ina" or appe""ate <uris!i/tion to review a !e/ision ren!ere! #$ a ?a#or Ar#iter. spe/ifi/a""$ Se/tion (0 thereof. as affir*e! #$ <urispru!en/e. there is no !ou#t. On (0 De/e*#er . In !is*issin the petition. In its Co**ent !ate! 2 Nove*#er . The Court re5uire! the Offi/e of the So"i/itor 9enera" %OS9' to fi"e a Co**ent on the petition. the$ /an no "on er invoke the soverei nt$ of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. The /entra" issue in that /ase was whether a !e/ision of a ?a#or Ar#iter ren!ere! without <uris!i/tion over the su#<e/t *atter *a$ #e annu""e! in a petition #efore a Re iona" Tria" Court. respon!ent havin entere! into /ontra/t. respon!ents shou"! have se/ure! fro* the Depart*ent of &orei n Affairs a /ertifi/ation of respon!ents3 !ip"o*ati/ status an! entit"e*ent to !ip"o*ati/ privi"e es in/"u!in i**unit$ fro* suits. Se/on!"$.8 Dire/tor an! the then Pro<e/t . fin!in that 7<u!i/ia" re/ourse at this sta e of the /ase is un/a""e! forN. a su estion that is nee!"ess"$ i*provi!ent un!er the /ir/u*stan/es. 3ir Services is in fa/t /"ear"$ !etri*enta" to petitioner3s position in one re ar!. 3ir Services affir*s !o/trines roun!e! in soun! pro/e!ura" ru"es that have a""owe! for the /onsi!ere! an! or!er"$ !isposition of "a#or /ases. #$ wa$ of its ori ina" /ertiorari <uris!i/tion. Bavin fai"e! in this re ar!. un!er the e*p"o$*ent /ontra/t entere! into #etween /o*p"ainants an! respon!ents.

Rosario.ines an! the 9overn*ent Printin Offi/e. Ahi " ce't"in)ent 0ill #epen# in the fi' t in t"nce on 0hethe' the $o2e'n)ent "$ency i)ple"#e# i inco'po'"te# o' uninco'po'"te#. the unin/orporate! a en/$ is so /a""e! #e/ause it has no separate <uri!i/a" persona"it$ #ut is *er e! in the enera" *a/hiner$ of the overn*ent. The ar u*ents raise! #$ 9TJ an! the OS9 are roote! in severa" in!isputa#"e fa/ts. whi/h states that 7the State *a$ not #e sue! without its /onsent.ani"a. The "o i/a" 5uestion is whether the forei n state is en a e! in the a/tivit$ in the re u"ar /ourse of #usiness. the @niversit$ of the Phi"ippines. Arti/"e L>I of the Constitution. the parti/u"ar a/t or transa/tion *ust then #e teste! #$ its nature. an! the Cit$ of . there wou"! #e no !ou#t that it is a suit #rou ht a ainst a State. is not a fata" infir*it$ if the ru"in assai"e! is a patent nu""it$. .The OS9 points out. B$ /ontrast. In!ee!. espe/ia""$ when it is not un!ertaken for ain or profit. it *ust #e as/ertaine! whether or not the State. as the prin/ipa" that *a$ u"ti*ate"$ #e he"! "ia#"e. The a/tivities perfor*e! #$ 9TJ pertainin to the SBINE pro<e/t are overn*enta" in nature. This approa/h su este! #$ the OS9 a""ows the Court to in5uire !ire/t"$ into what is the *ain issueXwhether 9TJ en<o$s i**unit$ fro* suit. "ike the Depart*ent of . The prin/ip"e of state i**unit$ fro* suit. #$ /on/eption. the Court has nonethe"ess a""owe! a writ of /ertiorari when the or!ers of the "ower /ourt were issue! either in e6/ess of or without <uris!i/tion.. Court of 3ppeals. If the forei n state is not en a e! re u"ar"$ in a #usiness or tra!e.8 Hho or what /onsists of 7the State8R &or one. Assu*in that /hara/teri4ation is /orre/t. "ike the So/ia" Se/urit$ S$ste*. the Bureau of . The fo""owin "u/i! !is/ussion fro* . an! the on"$ ne/essar$ in5uir$ is whether sai! State ha! /onsente! to #e sue!. whether a "o/a" state or a forei n state. re"ate! as the$ are to the pro*otion of hea"th insuran/e in the Phi"ippines. is ref"e/te! in Se/tion +.usti/e. a#"e to en<o$ the &e!era" Repu#"i/3s i**unit$ fro* suitR -n inco'po'"te# "$ency h" " ch"'te' of it o0n th"t in2e t it 0ith " ep"'"te &u'i#ic"l pe' on"lity. Counse" for 9TJ /hara/teri4es 9TJ as 7the i*p"e*entin a en/$ of the 9overn*ent of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. su/h as a *otion for re/onsi!eration. the *ere enterin into a /ontra/t #$ a forei n state with a private part$ /annot #e the u"ti*ate test. the !o/trine is avai"a#"e to forei n States insofar as the$ are sou ht to #e sue! in the /ourts of the "o/a" State. It is ne/essar$ for us to un!erstan! what pre/ise"$ are the para*eters of the "e a" persona"it$ of 9TJ. has iven its /onsent to #e sue!. The !istin/tion "ies in whether the a en/$ is in/orporate! or unin/orporate!. that even when appea" is avai"a#"e. If the a/t is in pursuit of a soverei n a/tivit$. then it is an a/t #ure imperii. na*e"$: Is 9TJ. or an in/i!ent thereof. with the i*p"e*entation of the /ontri#utions of the 9er*an overn*ent.8 a !epi/tion si*i"ar"$ a!opte! #$ the OS9. /itin Eeirs of Mayor . The SBINE pro<e/t was i*p"e*ente! pursuant to the #i"atera" a ree*ents #etween the Phi"ippine an! 9er*an overn*ents. The fa/t that 9TJ entere! into e*p"o$*ent /ontra/ts with the private respon!ents !i! not !is5ua"if$ it fro* invokin i**unit$ fro* suit. 9TJ was taske!. it !oes not auto*ati/a""$ invest 9TJ with the a#i"it$ to invoke State i**unit$ fro* suit. Su/h an a/t /an on"$ #e the start of the in5uir$.emencio !alvez v. Bowever. Aet there is an e5ua""$ fun!a*enta" pre*ise whi/h 9TJ an! the OS9 fai" to a!!ress. Jr. un!er the (++( a ree*ent. whi/h set forth what re*ains va"i! !o/trine: Certain"$. the Court has ru"e! #efore that the fai"ure to e*p"o$ avai"a#"e inter*e!iate re/ourses. ne/essar$ as it is to avoi! 7un!u"$ ve6in the pea/e of nations. Be$on! !ispute is the tena#i"it$ of the /o**ent points raise! #$ 9TJ an! the OS9 that 9TJ was not perfor*in proprietar$ fun/tions notwithstan!in its entr$ into the parti/u"ar e*p"o$*ent /ontra/ts.usti/e Isa ani Cru4 is pertinent: Hhere suit is fi"e! not a ainst the overn*ent itse"f or its offi/ia"s #ut a ainst one of its entities. as he"! in /ases su/h as Eoly See v.8 If the instant suit ha! #een #rou ht !ire/t"$ a ainst the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. the present suit was #rou ht a ainst 9TJ.

the Depart*ent of Bea"th an! the Phi"ippine Bea"th Insuran/e Corporation %PBIC'. a private /iti4en *a$ #rin a suit a ainst it for varie! o#<e/tives. As a overn*ent. fun/tions thus #e/o*es unne/essar$ to #e"a#or. PBIC wou"! not en<o$ i**unit$ fro* suit even in the perfor*an/e of its fun/tions /onne/te! with SBINE. "n# thi i t'ue 'e$"'#le of the function it i pe'fo')in$.usti/e .A. is that of Ra$o v. the /harter provision that the NPC /an Qsue an! #e sue! in an$ /ourtQ is without 5ua"ifi/ation on the /ause of a/tion an! a//or!in "$ it /an in/"u!e a tort /"ai* su/h as the one institute! #$ the petitioners. 1N!O'. overn*enta" in nature as the$ *a$ #e. ((0 SCRA G-2 %(+)('. as the i*p"e*entin a en/ies in #eha"f of the Phi"ippines. A re/ent /ase s5uare"$ in point anent the prin/ip"e. speakin throu h . Se/tion (E% ' of whi/h rants the /orporation the power 7to sue an! #e sue! in /ourt.usti/e >i/ente A#a! Santos. the So/ia" Se/urit$ S$ste* !i! not en<o$ i**unit$ fro* suit: TIt is not ne/essar$ to write an e6ten!e! !issertation on whether or not the NPC perfor*s a overn*enta" fun/tion with respe/t to the *ana e*ent an! operation of the An at Da*. %R. it ha! !esi nate! two entities. in this /ase. That statutor$ "aw has iven to the private /iti4en a re*e!$ for the enfor/e*ent an! prote/tion of his ri hts. Court of &irst Instan/e of Bu"a/an. %unicip"l co'po'"tion . fo' e9")ple. li4e p'o2ince "n# citie . Ahe i)ple 'ule i th"t it i u"ble if it ch"'te' "y o.8 App"$in the previous"$ /ite! <urispru!en/e.8 On the other han!. Court of 3ppeals. The PBIC was esta#"ishe! un!er Repu#"i/ A/t No. to o#tain /o*pensation in !a*a es arisin fro* /ontra/t. No. the 9overn*ent *ust #e !ee*e! to have waive! i**unit$ in respe/t of the SSS. The /an take the for* of the ori ina" /harter of the in/orporate! a en/$. owne! an! /ontro""e! /orporation. an! the Nationa" Power Corporation.Bf the "$ency i inco'po'"te#. put *one$ in it an! has a""owe! it to sue an! #e sue! in an$ /ourt un!er its /harter. Se/. . however.oreover. It is suffi/ient to sa$ that the overn*ent has or ani4e! a private /orporation. a"thou h it !oes not there#$ /on/e!e its "ia#i"it$.T He /o*e now to the a*en!a#i"it$ of the SSS to <u!i/ia" a/tion an! "e a" responsi#i"it$ for its a/ts. su/h as. wherein this Court. Neither 9TJ nor the OS9 o #e$on! the /"ai* that petitioner is 7the i*p"e*entin a en/$ of the 9overn*ent of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. It has /orporate powers separate an! !istin/t fro* the 9overn*ent. there shou"! #e no 5uestion on this s/ore /onsi!erin that the SSS is a <uri!i/a" entit$ with a persona"it$ of its own. #$ virtue of the e6p"i/it provision of the afore/ite! ena#"in "aw. they "'e ub&ect to uit e2en in the pe'fo')"nce of uch function bec"u e thei' ch"'te' p'o2i#e th"t they c"n ue "n# be ue#. the for*er Centra" Bank. even assu*in that the SSS. &or #$ that waiver.e"en/io: Berrera e6p"aine! that #$ virtue of an e6press provision in its /harter a""owin it to sue an! #e sue!. These wor!s Tsue an! #e sue!T e*#ra/e a"" /ivi" pro/ess in/i!ent to a "e a" a/tion. the Court throu h . it has a persona"it$ of its own. 2)2-. These in/"u!e the Nationa" Irri ation A!*inistration.r. So that.urispru!en/e is rep"ete with e6a*p"es of in/orporate! a en/ies whi/h were ru"e! not entit"e! to invoke i**unit$ fro* to provisions in their /harters *anifestin their /onsent to #e sue!. as it /"ai*s. E1+-. ru"e!: State spe/ia" "aw overn*ent overn*ent suit. owin i**unit$ fro* suit *a$ #e waive! #$ enera" or spe/ia" "aw. To our *in!s. private respon!ents . invo"vin the Nationa" Power Corporation. SSSQ own or ani/ a/t spe/ifi/a""$ provi!es that it /an sue an! #e sue! in Court. . !istin/t an! separate fro* that of the 9overn*ent. . en<o$s i**unit$ fro* suit as an entit$ perfor*in overn*enta" fun/tions. su#<e/t to its ri ht to interpose an$ "awfu" !efense. Hhether the SSS perfor*s overn*enta" or proprietar$ It is usefu" to note that on the part of the Phi"ippine overn*ent. "'e "$encie of the !t"te 0hen they "'e en$"$e# in $o2e'n)ent"l function "n# the'efo'e houl# en&oy the o2e'ei$n i))unity f'o) uit. an! even for tort. Ne2e'thele . Is 9TJ an in/orporate! a en/$ of the 9er*an overn*entR There is so*e *$ster$ surroun!in that 5uestion. In SSS v. The SSS there#$ has #een re5uire! to su#*it to the <uris!i/tion of the Courts. the te t of it u"bility i foun# in it ch"'te'.

in the sa*e wa$ that Phi"ippine /orporations /an #e or ani4e! un!er the Corporation Co!e even if fu""$ owne! #$ the Phi"ippine overn*ent. But neither has 9TJ supp"ie! an$ evi!en/e !efinin its "e a" nature #e$on! that of the #are !es/riptive 7i*p"e*entin a en/$. The 9er*an &e!era" . ina!vertent"$.otion to Dis*iss. 6 6 6 9oin #$ the prin/ip"e of 7sustaina#"e !eve"op*ent.as a /o*pan$ un!er private "aw.inistr$ for E/ono*i/ Cooperation an! Deve"op*ent %B. a"so *akes referen/e to 9TJ an! !es/ri#es it in this *anner: As an internationa" /ooperation enterprise for sustaina#"e !eve"op*ent with wor"!wi!e operations. private respon!ents were una#"e to a!!u/e an$ evi!en/e to su#stantiate their /"ai* that 9TJ was a 7private /orporation. 9TJ is a fe!era" enterprise #ase! in Es/h#orn near &rankfurt a* . an! is therefore !ee*e! a!*itte!. Inherent"$. it has a "e a" persona"it$ in!epen!ent of that of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. 9TJ itse"f provi!es a *ore he"pfu" /"ue. e/ono*i/.8 an! not that of a private /orporation. It provi!es via#"e.ain. 9TJ works on a pu#"i/:#enefit #asis. in its own offi/ia" we#site. Horkin un!er !iffi/u"t /on!itions.J' is its *a<or /"ient.8 the 9er*an Te/hni/a" Cooperation %Deuts/he 9ese""s/haft f^r Te/hnis/he Jusa**enar#eit 9*#B. In the 7Corporate Profi"e8 se/tion of the En "ish "an ua e version of its site. thou h he was si"ent on that point in his De/ision. an! the 9TJ /an #e sai! to a/t in #eha"f of the 9er*an state. . it appears that 9TJ was a/tua""$ or ani4e! not throu h a "e is"ative pu#"i/ /harter. the fe!era""$ owne! Deuts/he 9ese""s/haft f^r Te/hnis/he Jusa**enar#eit %9TJ' 9*#B supports the 9er*an 9overn*ent in a/hievin its !eve"op*ent:po"i/$ o#<e/tives. In truth.8 The a#ove:5uote! state*ent !oes not !ispute the /hara/teri4ation of 9TJ as an 7i*p"e*entin a en/$ of the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. 9TJ /ontroverts that fin!in . Neverthe"ess. whether it has <uri!i/a" persona"it$ in!epen!ent of the 9er*an overn*ent or none at a"".8 9TJ /"ear"$ has a ver$ *eanin fu" re"ationship with the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. as we"" as on #eha"f of private enterprises.asserte! #efore the ?a#or Ar#iter that 9TJ was 7a private /orporation en a e! in the i*p"e*entation of !eve"op*ent pro<e/ts. 9TJ' takes on non:profit pro<e/ts in internationa" 7te/hni/a" /ooperation. A"" surp"uses enerate! are /hanne"e! NsicO #a/k into its own internationa" /ooperation pro<e/ts for sustaina#"e !eve"op*ent.8 In its Rep"$.8 Ahe GA@ i " p'i2"te co)p"ny o0ne# by the 1e#e'"l Republic of Ge')"ny.8 a 7fe!era" enterprise. sa$in that it is a *atter of pu#"i/ know"e! e that the status of petitioner 9TJ is that of the 7i*p"e*entin a en/$. The &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. At the sa*e ti*e. 9TJ !es/ri#es itse"f as fo""ows: This se"f:!es/ription of 9TJ in its own offi/ia" we#site ives further /ause for pause in a!optin petitioners3 ar u*ent that 9TJ is entit"e! to i**unit$ fro* suit #e/ause it is 7an i*p"e*entin a en/$. whi/h apparent"$ owns it. But that is as far as 7i*p"e*entin a en/$8 /ou"! take us. Aet the /at/h is that su/h ter* has no pre/ise !efinition that is responsive to our /on/erns. throu h its own offi/ia" Internet we#site. The /o*pan$ a"so operates on #eha"f of other 9er*an *inistries. 9TJ3s own we#site e"i/its that petitioner is 7fe!era""$ owne!. It was foun!e! in (+2. forwar!: "ookin so"utions for po"iti/a".8 $et it #o"sters the notion that as a /o*pan$ or ani4e! un!er private "aw.8 There is no !ou#t that the (++( A ree*ent !esi nate! 9TJ as the 7i*p"e*entin a en/$8 in #eha"f of the 9er*an overn*ent. e/o"o i/a" an! so/ia" !eve"op*ent in a "o#a"ise! wor"!. #ut un!er private "aw. The ter* #$ itse"f !oes not supp"$ whether 9TJ is in/orporate! or unin/orporate!. an a ent a/ts in #eha"f of a prin/ipa". the @nite! Nations an! the Hor"! Bank. private respon!ents ar ue in their Co**ent that the fin!in that 9TJ was a private /orporation 7was never /ontroverte!. the overn*ents of other /ountries an! internationa" /"ients.8 an! 7foun!e! in (+2.8 an! the ?a#or Ar#iter a/te! rash"$ in a//eptin su/h /"ai* without e6p"anation.8 The ?a#or Ar#iter a//epte! that /"ai* in his Or!er !en$in the . Its /orporate o#<e/tive is to i*prove peop"e3s "ivin /on!itions on a sustaina#"e #asis. whether it is owne! #$ the 9er*an state or #$ private interests. su/h as the European Co**ission.as a /o*pan$ un!er private "aw. 9TJ pro*otes /o*p"e6 refor*s an! /han e pro/esses.

ourna" (0)) N(+G(O'. a si*i"ar pro/e!ure is fo""owe!. forei n "aws on a parti/u"ar su#<e/t are presu*e! to #e the sa*e as those of the Phi"ippines. At the ver$ "east. the Se/retar$ of &orei n Affairs sent the tria" /ourt a te"e ra* to that effe/t. (+0 SCRA (10 %(++0'.T where the forei n state or the internationa" or ani4ation sue! in an A*eri/an /ourt re5uests the Se/retar$ of State to *ake a !eter*ination as to whether it is entit"e! to i**unit$. #$ virtue of the Corporation Co!e. on"$ the &orei n Offi/e issues a /ertifi/ation to that effe/t instea! of su#*ittin a Tsu estionT %OQConne"". Calle#a.8 Aet takin the !es/ription on fa/e va"ue. the apparent e5uiva"ent un!er Phi"ippine "aw is that of a /orporation or ani4e! un!er the Corporation Co!e #ut owne! #$ the Phi"ippine overn*ent. asks the Attorne$ 9enera" to su#*it to the /ourt a Tsu estionT that the !efen!ant is entit"e! to i**unit$. The prin/ip"es enun/iate! in that /ase were !erive! fro* pu#"i/ internationa" "aw. an entit$ su/h as 9TJ or parti/u"ar"$ 9TJ itse"f has not #een veste! or has #een spe/ifi/a""$ !eprive! the power an! /apa/it$ to sue an!Cor #e sue!. in #oth of his ru"in s. This a#sen/e of #asis in fa/t "ea!s to another i*portant point. 35uino. the @. 'izon. an! fo""owin the *ost inte""i ent assu*ption we /an ather. In Corld Eealt( ?rganization v. infor*in the "atter that the respon!ent:e*p"o$er /ou"! not #e sue! #e/ause it en<o$e! !ip"o*ati/ i**unit$. But how the Phi"ippine &orei n Offi/e /onve$s its en!orse*ent to the /ourts varies. %(+2. -0 Aa"e ?aw . he. the Se/retar$ of &orei n Affairs <ust sent a "etter !ire/t"$ to the Se/retar$ of ?a#or an! E*p"o$*ent. It is entire"$ possi#"e that un!er 9er*an "aw. this Court has no #asis in fa/t to /on/"u!e or presu*e that 9TJ en<o$s i**unit$ fro* suit. in turn. the pra/ti/e is for the forei n overn*ent or the internationa" or ani4ation to first se/ure an e6e/utive en!orse*ent of its /"ai* of soverei n or !ip"o*ati/ i**unit$. $el Rosario provi!e! a te*p"ate on how a forei n entit$ !esirin to invoke State i**unit$ fro* suit /ou"! !u"$ prove su/h i**unit$ #efore our "o/a" /ourts. He state! then: In the Phi"ippines.u! e. Our ru"in in Eoly See v. in #eha"f of the Co**an!er of the @nite! States Nava" Base at O"on apo Cit$. In %aer v.G. has e6press"$ /onsente! to #e sue!. when a state or internationa" a en/$ wishes to p"ea! soverei n or !ip"o*ati/ i**unit$ in a forei n /ourt. The So"i/itor 9enera" e*#o!ie! the Tsu estionT in a . If the Se/retar$ of State fin!s that the !efen!ant is i**une fro* suit. E*#ass$ aske! the Se/retar$ of &orei n Affairs to re5uest the So"i/itor 9enera" to *ake.A ain. it has not /onsente! to #e sue! !espite it #ein owne! #$ the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. it re5uests the &orei n Offi/e of the state where it is sue! to /onve$ to the /ourt that sai! !efen!ant is entit"e! to i**unit$.'. or a overn*ent:owne! or /ontro""e! /orporation without ori ina" /harter. "ike the ?a#or Ar#iter an! the Court of Appea"s. Ja*#a"es. we are un/ertain of the /orrespon!in "e a" i*p"i/ations un!er 9er*an "aw surroun!in 7a private /o*pan$ owne! #$ the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. Aet in the pro/ee!in s #e"ow an! #efore this Court.8 In Pu#"i/ Internationa" ?aw. 9TJ is akin to a overn*enta" owne! or /ontro""e! /orporation without ori ina" /harter whi/h. In the @nite! States.anifestation an! . In En "an!. 9TJ has fai"e! to esta#"ish that un!er 9er*an "aw. G) SCRA . In International Cat(olic Migration Commission v.S. It is to #e re/a""e! that the ?a#or Ar#iter. a Tsu estionT to respon!ent . I Internationa" ?aw (10 N(+E-OK Note: I**unit$ fro* Suit of &orei n Soverei n Instru*enta"ities an! O#"i ations. a""u!e! to #$ the ?a#or Ar#iter in his ru"in s. He a!here to the ru"e that in the a#sen/e of evi!en/e to the /ontrar$. note! that it was i*perative for petitioners to se/ure fro* the Depart*ent of &orei n .e*oran!u* as amicus curiae. An! it #ears noti/e that Se/tion 1E of the Corporate Co!e states that 7NeOver$ /orporation in/orporate! un!er this Co!e has the power an! /apa/it$ 6 6 6 to sue an! #e sue! in its /orporate na*e. the pro/e!ure fo""owe! is the pro/ess of Tsu estion. -2 SCRA ( %(+2G'.

an! su/h fa/t is *anifest A fina" note. it wou"! have provi!e! fa/tua" #asis for its /"ai* of i**unit$ that wou"!. ha! appeare! as the So"i/itor in #eha"f of the OS9 in %aer. #ut fai"e! to se/ure su/h /ertifi/ation. It *a$ #e possi#"e that 9TJ trie!.anifestation an! . Nowhere in the Co**ent of the OS9 is it *anifeste! that the D&A has en!orse! 9TJ3s /"ai*. As a resu"t. the @nite! States E*#ass$ aske! the Se/retar$ of &orei n Affairs to re5uest the So"i/itor 9enera" to *ake a 7su estion8 to the tria" /ourt. Consent to #e . we !o not see an$ evi!en/e that the D&A. at the ver$ "east. has in!ee! en!orse! 9TJ3s /"ai* of i**unit$. an! that in the sai! /ase. enou h of the en!orse*ent #$ the &orei n Offi/e. even at this <un/ture. ha! 9TJ o#taine! su/h /ertifi/ation fro* the D&A.e*oran!u*. esta#"ish a !isputa#"e evi!entiar$ presu*ption that the forei n part$ is in!ee! i**une whi/h the opposin part$ wi"" have to over/o*e with its own fa/tua" evi!en/e. it was the Se/retar$ of &orei n Affairs whi/h !ire/te! the OS9 to intervene in #eha"f of the @nite! States overn*ent in the %aer /ase.8 Hou"! the fa/t that the So"i/itor 9enera" has en!orse! 9TJ3s /"ai* of State3s i**unit$ fro* suit #efore this Court suffi/ient"$ su#stitute for the D&A /ertifi/ationR Note that the ru"e in pu#"i/ internationa" "aw 5uote! in Eoly See referre! to en!orse*ent #$ the &orei n Offi/e of the State where the suit is fi"e!. Bowever. !ue to the sa*e /on/erns that we have !is/usse! herein. Nonethe"ess. as narrate! in Eoly See. su/h as whether or not private respon!ents were i""e a""$ !is*isse!. He !o not see wh$ 9TJ /ou"! not have se/ure! su/h /ertifi/ation or en!orse*ent fro* the D&A for purposes of this /ase. He !o not fin! a si*i"ar /ir/u*stan/e that #ears here. respe/tin as we !o the fina"it$ of the ?a#or Ar#iter3s De/ision. It then fo""ows that the Court of Appea"s a/te! /orre/t"$ in !is*issin the petition on that roun!. a//o*p"ishe! #$ wa$ of a . there was no #asis for petitioners in fore oin the appea" to the N?RC #$ fi"in !ire/t"$ with the Court of Appea"s the petition for /ertiorari. the &e!era" Repu#"i/ of 9er*an$. are no "on er sus/epti#"e to review. The Court is thus ho"!s an! so ru"es that 9TJ /onsistent"$ has #een una#"e to esta#"ish with satisfa/tion that it en<o$s the i**unit$ fro* suit enera""$ en<o$e! #$ its parent /ountr$. Certain"$.usti/e Ca*i"io =uiason. the "aws an! /ir/u*stan/es pertainin to the /reation an! "e a" persona"it$ of an instru*enta"it$ or a en/$ invokin i**unit$ re*ain re"evant.8 The re5uire*ent *i ht not ne/essari"$ #e i*perative. 'izon. the offi/e of the e6e/utive #ran/h in /har e of our !ip"o*ati/ re"ations.8 Sin/e the ?a#or Ar#iter a/te! proper"$ in !e/i!in the /o*p"aint. that the petitioner therein en<o$e! i**unit$ as the Co**an!er of the Su#i/ Ba$ Nava" Base. The Co**ent fi"e! #$ the OS9 !oes not inspire the sa*e !e ree of /onfi!en/e as a /ertifi/ation fro* the D&A wou"! have e"i/ite!. The nature of the a/ts perfor*e! #$ the entit$ invokin i**unit$ re*ains the *ost i*portant #aro*eter for testin whether the privi"e e of State i**unit$ fro* suit shou"! app"$. it wou"! have #een hi h"$ pru!entia" for 9TJ to o#tain the sa*e after the ?a#or Ar#iter ha! !enie! the *otion to !is*iss. Our fin!in has a!!itiona" ra*ifi/ations on the fai"ure of 9TJ to proper"$ appea" the ?a#or Ar#iter3s !e/ision to the N?RC.Affairs 7a /ertifi/ation of respon!ents3 !ip"o*ati/ status an! entit"e*ent to !ip"o*ati/ privi"e es in/"u!in i**unit$ fro* suits. notwithstan!in 9TJ3s /"ai* of i**unit$. one whi/h fo/uses on the parti/u"ar fun/tions e6er/ise! #$ the part$ an! !eter*ines whether these are proprietar$ or soverei n in nature. we /annot see how the !e/ision /ou"! have trans"ate! into a 7patent nu""it$. At the sa*e ti*e. . sin/e petitioners fai"e! to perfe/t an appea" fro* the ?a#or Ar#iter3s De/ision. the !ire/t re/ourse to the Court of Appea"s whi"e #$passin the N?RC /ou"! have #een san/tione! ha! the ?a#or Ar#iter3s !e/ision #een a 7patent nu""it$. Su/h /ir/u*stan/e is a/tua""$ not narrate! in the te6t of %aer itse"f an! was "ike"$ supp"ie! in Eoly See #e/ause its author. Sti"". #oth the ?a#or Ar#iter an! the Court of Appea"s a/te! within proper #oun!s when the$ refuse! to a/know"e! e that 9TJ is so i**une #$ !is*issin the /o*p"aint a ainst it. The ar u*ents raise! #$ the OS9 are virtua""$ the sa*e as the ar u*ents raise! #$ 9TJ without an$ in!i/ation of an$ spe/ia" an! !istin/t perspe/tive *aintaine! #$ the Phi"ippine overn*ent on the issue. As pointe! out #$ the OS9. Conse5uent"$. This !e/ision shou"! not #e seen as !eviation fro* the *ore /o**on *etho!o"o $ e*p"o$e! in as/ertainin whether a part$ en<o$s State i**unit$ fro* suit. or that the OS9 ha! so"i/ite! the D&A3s views on the issue. As a further /onse5uen/e. our Constitution stipu"ates that a State i**unit$ fro* suit is /on!itiona" on its withho"!in of /onsentK hen/e. Eoly See *a!e referen/e to %aer v. su/h forei n offi/e in the Phi"ippines #ein the Depart*ent of &orei n Affairs. A"" other 5uestions re"ate! to this /ase. the sa*e has "on #e/o*e fina" an! e6e/utor$.

the petition is . . !: :R.<*R*1:R*. . as e6hi#ite! in this !e/ision.*NB*.*R*.. is often /onferre! #$ the ver$ sa*e statute or enera" "aw /reatin the instru*enta"it$ or a en/$.sue!.. No pronoun/e*ent as to /osts.

1R-N5B!5: B.-. JR. an! !ispat/h wi"" enera""$ /hara/teri4e the pro/ee!in s of one *an. No. 5:?R-G* 'ep'e ente# by 1*R. Rep.-C8 'ep'e ente# by -AAG. 5-G*A-N:. "n# G*N*R:!: !. *J*5?ABE* !*5R*A-RG *. -C1R*. !*NG-. vs.S.?-R. <:N.. /-R 1:R A<* P<BCBPPBN*!. "n# 5:?N!*C! 1:R A<* .?-R. Respon!ents. 16>667 -p'il 20.R. 2006 J:!* -N!*C%: B. "n# "nyone "ctin$ in hi te"# "n# in beh"lf of the P'e i#ent of the Philippine . R:%?C: R. A transparent overn*ent is one of the ha""*arks of a tru"$ repu#"i/an state. *. RB5<-R. 'ep'e ente# by 1R-NHCBN %. in hi c"p"city " !en"te P'e i#ent.. P-N1BC: %. 2006 !*N-A* :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*!.R.-C. e$o of P'e i#ent Glo'i" %"c"p"$"l. vs. %.. -(?BCBN: (.RBC:N. %-N?*C P. in hi c"p"city " %"&o'ity Ce"#e'. a !istin uishe! !e"e ate to the @. -E*CBN: J. Respon!ent. 6:::::::::::::::::::::::::6 G. J?-N %. JR. vs.: *R%BA-.P. R-CP< G. however. to the fa/t that the power to withho"! infor*ation "en!s itse"f to a#use. these 5ua"ities wi"" #e !i*inishe!. BN5.: R. 16>6=> -p'il 20. Petitioner. *. *R%BA-. it has #een re/o ni4e! that the hea! of overn*ent *a$ keep /ertain infor*ation /onfi!entia" in pursuit of the pu#"i/ interest. R*5A:. No. G-R5B-. G:R. *R%BA-. in hi c"p"city " !ec'et"'y of . in hi c"p"city " %ino'ity Ce"#e'. 6:::::::::::::::::::::::::6 G.?-R. J?-N P:N5* *NRBC*.: !. in hi c"p"city " *9ecuti2e !ec'et"'y "n# "lte'.B:! /-C/BN. *R%BA-. Respon!ents.:R. the ne/essit$ to uar! it 4ea"ous"$. Rep.-G5?A-. No.-. "n# the BNA*GR-A*. Petitioners. Even in the ear"$ histor$ of repu#"i/an thou ht. *J*5?ABE* !*5R*A-RG *.?-R.-. J. <:N.e$o of P'e i#ent Glo'i" %"c"p"$"l. 6:::::::::::::::::::::::::6 G. *R%BA-. !*RGB: :!%*N.: R. 16>777N -p'il 20.: R. J. JR. G-BA*.efen e. in hi c"p"city " *9ecuti2e !ec'et"'y "n# "lte'. Petitioner. No. R:G*CB: E. in a *u/h *ore e*inent !e ree than the pro/ee!in s of an$ reater nu*#erK an! in proportion as the nu*#er is in/rease!. 171246 -p'il 20.R.BBB.BN-N. /-?AB!A-.R. vs. 1BC*%:N 5. 1R-N5B! N. 16>660 -p'il 20. 2006 . RB!:!. 5<-E*@. /*RN-R. in hi c"p"city " -1P 5hief of !t"ff.:C1: G. -/*CBA. in hi c"p"city " *9ecuti2e !ec'et"'y. 5RB!PBN /*CAR-N. . 5-. 6:::::::::::::::::::::::::6 G. 1*CB5B-N: %. R*%*. Respon!ent. C?B!. *.-''oyo. 7-CG8. Petitioners.EB. RBE*R-. C-/-N. 16>834 -p'il 20.: R. A*:.. Petitioner.'ep'e ente# by .?-R.-''oyo. !-A?R :5-%P:. 2006 -CA*RN-ABE* C-.OC:BO *J*R5BA: *!AR-. J. Rep. 5R?@. 2006 P. No. /*RN-/*. 1C-EB*R. J:!* -%:R -%:R-N. Respon!ent. -CB5B. GR:?P!. C*G-!PB. PB%*NA*C. CB@%-@-. J:EG 5. 6:::::::::::::::::::::::::6 G. C-5!:N.*1*N!* :1 CB/*RAB*! 75:. DECISION 5-RPB: %:R-C*!. O5:%P-N*R-O PB!.: C*!-5-.:R: 5-!BN:. vs. Rep.?-R. Respon!ent.B@. in hi c"p"city " *9ecuti2e !ec'et"'y. R-1-*C %-RB-N:. /B-@:N. E6p"ainin the reason for vestin e6e/utive power in on"$ one *a istrate. JBNGG:G *J*R5BA: *!AR-. P-NGBCBN-N. No.R. in hi c"p"city " !en"te P'e i#ent P'o Ae)po'e.R. *. Constitutiona" Convention sai!: TDe/ision.: R. R*GN-C.R.RBG-C. Rep. %-. *R%BA-. C.T( Bistor$ has #een witness. Rep.CB%. "n# %-R R:J-!.G.BBB. -. Petitioners. however. .:. !*N-A:R! R:. se/re/$. vs. /. 2006 /-G-N %?N.:N. hen/e. J:*C EBR-. a/tivit$.

Er*ita a "etterG !ate! Septe*#er .une E. this Court sha"" pro/ee! with the re/o nition that the issuan/e un!er review has /o*e fro* a /o:e5ua" #ran/h of overn*ent. Sen a who. Estra!a !e"ivere! on .as resour/e speakers in a pu#"i/ hearin on the rai"wa$ pro<e/t of the North ?u4on Rai"wa$s Corporation with the China Nationa" .entit"e! TBun$e has Provi!e! S*okin 9un or has Opene! a Can of Hor*s that Show . .). Dan aK Chief of the Inte""i en/e Servi/e of the A&P Bri . . Corps of Ca!ets of the P.O.00.a "etterE fro* the Presi!ent of the North ?u4on Rai"wa$s Corporation . . inter a"ia. the Ar*e! &or/es of the Phi"ippines %A&P'.). TEnsurin O#servan/e of the Prin/ip"e of Separation of Powers.a/hiner$ an! E5uip*ent 9roup %hereinafter North Rai" Pro<e/t'. Ber*o enes C.00. . 9enera" 9eneroso S.r..00-TK %. #ein the hi hest e6pression of the soverei n wi"" of the &i"ipino peop"e. Pi*ente" .00.00.i"itar$ A/a!e*$ %P. re5ueste! for its postpone*ent T!ue to a pressin operationa" situation that !e*an!s Nhis ut*ost persona" attentionT whi"e Tso*e of the invite! A&P offi/ers are /urrent"$ atten!in to other ur ent operationa" *atters. A"so invite! to the a#ove:sai! hearin s/he!u"e! on Septe*#er . an! &or Other Purposes.. Ba"utan. In the e6er/ise of its "e is"ative power. the Senate of the Phi"ippines.a$ .2. The pu#"i/ hearin was sparke! #$ a privi"e e spee/h of Senator .uan Pon/e Enri"e ur in the Senate to investi ate the a""e e! overpri/in an! other un"awfu" provisions of the /ontra/t /overin the North Rai" Pro<e/t.entit"e! TC"ear an! Present Dan erTK %G' Senate Reso"ution No. .to the fo""owin offi/ia"s of the A&P: the Co**an!in 9enera" of the Phi"ippine Ar*$. . in Ai! of ?e is"ation.a$u aK Deput$ Chief of Staff for Inte""i en/e of the A&P Rear A!*ira" Tirso R. !e"ivere! on . however.00-.00. . GEG. Cortes. . throu h its various Senate Co**ittees. .).The present /onso"i!ate! petitions for /ertiorari an! prohi#ition proffer that the Presi!ent has a#use! su/h power #$ issuin E6e/utive Or!er No. .2.was the A&P Chief of Staff.T 2 . #$ "etter1 !ate! Septe*#er . an! the Phi"ippine Nationa" Po"i/e %PNP'. #ureaus. A!heren/e to the Ru"e on E6e/utive Privi"e e an! Respe/t for the Ri hts of Pu#"i/ Offi/ia"s Appearin in ?e is"ative In5uiries in Ai! of ?e is"ation @n!er the Constitution. on the Hire:Tappin of the Presi!ent of the Phi"ippines.+. EsperonK Inspe/tor 9enera" of the A&P >i/e A!*ira" . In reso"vin the /ontrovers$. /on!u/ts in5uiries or investi ations in ai! of "e is"ation whi/h /a"" for.A' Bri . the Co**ittee of the Senate as a who"e issue! invitations to various offi/ia"s of the E6e/utive Depart*ent for the* to appear on Septe*#er .. &or the Constitution.00-. re5uestin that the hearin on the NorthRai" pro<e/t #e postpone! or /an/e""e! unti" a /op$ of the report of the @P ?aw Center on the /ontra/t a ree*ents re"ative to the pro<e/t ha! #een se/ure!. *ust prevai" over an$ issuan/e of the overn*ent that /ontravenes its *an!ates. an! offi/es in/"u!in those e*p"o$e! in 9overn*ent Owne! an! Contro""e! Corporations. GEG' "ast Septe*#er .O. Co". On Septe*#er . 9u!aniK an! Assistant Co**an!ant.a!ri a" X Reso"ution Dire/tin the Co**ittee on Nationa" Defense an! Se/urit$ to Con!u/t an In5uir$. !ate! Septe*#er . .ateo .' Privi"e e Spee/h of Senator . 9en.1.).entit"e! TThe Phi"ippines as the Hire:Tappin Capita" of the Hor"!TK %1' Privi"e e Spee/h of Senator Ro!o"fo Bia4on !e"ivere! on Au ust (. A"e6an!er &.T On Septe*#er .00Trespe/tfu""$ re5uestNin O for the postpone*ent of the hearin Nre ar!in the NorthRai" pro<e/tO to whi/h various offi/ia"s of the E6e/utive Depart*ent have #een invite!T in or!er to Taffor! sai! offi/ia"s a*p"e ti*e an! opportunit$ to stu!$ an! prepare for the various issues so that the$ *a$ #etter en"i hten the Senate Co**ittee on its investi ation..on the fo""owin : %(' Privi"e e Spee/h of Senator A5ui"ino =.r.E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita that the Senators Tare una#"e to a//e!e to Nhis re5uestOT as it Twas sent #e"ate!"$T an! TNaO"" preparations an! arran e*ents as we"" as noti/es to a"" resour/e persons were /o*p"ete! Nthe previousO week. . whi/h thus entit"es it to a stron presu*ption of /onstitutiona"it$.u"$ . The$ thus pra$ for its !e/"aration as nu"" an! voi! for #ein un/onstitutiona". . ?t.T Senate Presi!ent Dri"on. Dri"on re/eive! fro* E6e/utive Se/retar$ E!uar!o R.00-.). . for the* to atten! as resour/e persons in a pu#"i/ hearin s/he!u"e! on Septe*#er .) .fi"e! #$ Senator Bia4on X Reso"ution Dire/tin the Co**ittee on Nationa" Defense an! Se/urit$ to Con!u/t an In5uir$. on the Ro"e of the .00.assive E"e/tora" &rau! in the Presi!entia" E"e/tion of .in o$ E. in Ai! of ?e is"ation. The Senate Co**ittee on Nationa" Defense an! Se/urit$ "ikewise issue! invitations. On Septe*#er . On/e the /ha""en e! or!er is foun! to #e in!ee! vio"ative of the Constitution. .T Senate Presi!ent Dri"on "ikewise re/eive! on Septe*#er .00-. GEG %E.ose ?.A. . it is !ut$: #oun! to !e/"are it so.E.. the Presi!ent issue! E.( to . Senate Presi!ent &rank"in . wrote.00-.00. an! in the Nationa" Interest.ar"u =. the atten!an/e of offi/ia"s an! e*p"o$ees of the e6e/utive !epart*ent. &ran/is/o >.).aria Ana Consue"o .i"itar$ in the So:/a""e! T9"oria ate S/an!a"TK an! %-' Senate Reso"ution No.fi"e! #$ Senator . 9en. 9en.00. .+. =ueve!oK Assistant Superinten!ent of the Phi"ippine . .

-0.R.R.atters affe/tin nationa" se/urit$ an! pu#"i/ or!er %Chave4 v.-0.i"itar$. 9en.'. Chairperson of the Co**ittee on Nationa" Defense an! Se/urit$. + .. Se/tion . in/"u!in : Conversations an! /orrespon!en/e #etween the Presi!ent an! the pu#"i/ offi/ia" /overe! #$ this e6e/utive or!er %A"*onte vs. Appearan/e of Other Pu#"i/ Offi/ia"s Before Con ress.). (102(E. 9. Pu#"i/ Estates Authorit$. X The fo""owin are /overe! #$ this e6e/utive or!er: Senior offi/ia"s of e6e/utive !epart*ents who in the <u! *ent of the !epart*ent hea!s are /overe! #$ the e6e/utive privi"e eK 9enera"s an! f"a offi/ers of the Ar*e! &or/es of the Phi"ippines an! su/h other offi/ers who in the <u! *ent of the Chief of Staff are /overe! #$ the e6e/utive privi"e eK Phi"ippine Nationa" Po"i/e %PNP' offi/ers with rank of /hief superinten!ent or hi her an! su/h other offi/ers who in the <u! *ent of the Chief of the PNP are /overe! #$ the e6e/utive privi"e eK Senior nationa" se/urit$ offi/ia"s who in the <u! *ent of the Nationa" Se/urit$ A!viser are /overe! #$ the e6e/utive privi"e eK an! Su/h other offi/ers as *a$ #e !eter*ine! #$ the Presi!ent. No. infor*in hi* Tthat per instru/tion of NPresi!ent Arro$oO.R. %#' hereof sha"" se/ure prior /onsent of the Presi!ent prior to appearin #efore either Bouse of Con ress to ensure the o#servan/e of the prin/ip"e of separation of powers. +-1E2. >as5ue4 9. Sen a sent a "etter+ to Senator Bia4on. No.a$ (++-K Chave4 v.R. . >as5ue4.00-. Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent.a$ (++-K Chave4 v. 9. 9. 9. no offi/er of the NA&PO is authori4e! to appear #efore an$ Senate or Con ressiona" hearin s without seekin a written approva" fro* the Presi!entT an! Tthat no approva" has #een rante! #$ the . S/ope an! Covera e of E6e/utive Privi"e e.whi/h. an! another "etter) infor*in hi* Tthat offi/ia"s of the E6e/utive Depart*ent invite! to appear at the *eetin Nre ar!in the NorthRai" pro<e/tO wi"" not #e a#"e to atten! the sa*e without the /onsent of the Presi!ent.R. Repu#"i/ A/t No. + De/e*#er (++)'K Dis/ussion in /"ose:!oor Ca#inet *eetin s %Chave4 v. : The ru"e of /onfi!entia"it$ #ase! on e6e/utive privi"e e is fun!a*enta" to the operation of overn*ent an! roote! in the separation of powers un!er the Constitution %A"*onte vs. a"" hea!s of !epart*ents of the E6e/utive Bran/h of the overn*ent sha"" se/ure the /onsent of the Presi!ent prior to appearin #efore either Bouse of Con ress. E6e/utive privi"e e /overs a"" /onfi!entia" or /"assifie! infor*ation #etween the Presi!ent an! the pu#"i/ offi/ers /overe! #$ this e6e/utive or!er. Pu#"i/ Estates Authorit$. %#' Hho are /overe!. X In a//or!an/e with Arti/"e >I. the appearan/e sha"" on"$ #e /on!u/te! in e6e/utive session.R. .u"$ . pursuant to Se/tion E thereof. E2(1 or the Co!e of Con!u/t an! Ethi/a" Stan!ar!s for Pu#"i/ Offi/ia"s an! E*p"o$ees provi!es that Pu#"i/ Offi/ia"s an! E*p"o$ees sha"" not use or !ivu" e /onfi!entia" or /"assifie! infor*ation offi/ia""$ known to the* #$ reason of their offi/e an! not *a!e avai"a#"e to the pu#"i/ to pre<u!i/e the pu#"i/ interest. No. a!heren/e to the ru"e on e6e/utive privi"e e an! respe/t for the ri hts of pu#"i/ offi/ia"s appearin in in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation.a$ (++-'. SECTION 1. No.u"$ . The sa"ient provisions of the Or!er are as fo""ows: SECTION (.1 . !ip"o*ati/ an! other nationa" se/urit$ *atters whi/h in the interest of nationa" se/urit$ shou"! not #e !ivu" e! %A"*onte vs. +-1E2. GEG. . No. X %a' Nature an! S/ope. X A"" pu#"i/ offi/ia"s enu*erate! in Se/tion . No.00. + De/e*#er (++)'.. Appearan/e #$ Bea!s of Depart*ents Before Con ress. >as5ue4.R. Senate Presi!ent Dri"on re/eive! fro* E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita a /op$ of E. 9. pursuant to NE. %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' A"so on Septe*#er . Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent. +-1E2. 9. took effe/t i**e!iate"$. of the Constitution an! to i*p"e*ent the Constitutiona" provisions on the separation of powers #etween /o:e5ua" #ran/hes of the overn*ent. . &urther. (11. thru the Se/retar$ of Nationa" Defense.00. + . Nature. Presi!entia" Co**ission on 9oo! 9overn*ent.1 . Hhen the se/urit$ of the State or the pu#"i/ interest so re5uires an! the Presi!ent so states in writin . No. 9. (11. SECTION.R. GEGOT an! that Tsai! offi/ia"s have not se/ure! the re5uire! /onsent fro* the Presi!ent. Infor*ation #etween inter: overn*ent a en/ies prior to the /on/"usion of treaties an! e6e/utive a ree*ents %Chave4 v. (102(E. + De/e*#er (++)'K . . No.'K . (102(E.1 .T On even !ate whi/h was a"so the s/he!u"e! !ate of the hearin on the a""e e! wiretappin .O.O.

O. .) Septe*#er . 9en.O. %A?9'. GEG #e !e/"are! nu"" an! voi! for #ein un/onstitutiona".(0 NorthRai" Presi!ent Cortes sent persona" re rets "ikewise /itin E. in response to the invitations sent to the fo""owin overn*ent offi/ia"s: ?i ht Rai"wa$ Transit Authorit$ A!*inistrator .O.(. Chave4. In 9.una a""e es that E.O.ariano. with on"$ Co". three petitions. On O/to#er ((. an or ani4ation of overn*ent e*p"o$ees. No. Pere4. . Bases Conversion Deve"op*ent Authorit$ Chairperson 9en. . GEG #e/ause it ha*pers its "e is"ative a en!a to #e i*p"e*ente! throu h its *e*#ers in Con ress. (E+E-+.00-. Sen a. E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita.O. Depart*ent of .R.O.uanita A*aton . an! (E+EE2.oe" >ira!or an! Teo!oro Casino.00-. et a". !o/kete! as 9.e*#ers Satur O/a*po. (E+EE0. DOTC Se/retar$ ?ean!ro . Thus.O. 9u!ani a*on a"" the A&P offi/ia"s invite! atten!in . fi"e! a si*i"ar petition for /ertiorari an! prohi#ition. GEG infrin es on their ri hts an! i*pe!es the* fro* fu"fi""in their respe/tive o#"i ations. a""e in that it is affe/te! #$ the /ha""en e! E. a ri ht whi/h was !enie! to the pu#"i/ #$ E. As to the NorthRai" pro<e/t hearin s/he!u"e! on Septe*#er . Coura e. GEG #e !e/"are! nu"" an! voi! for #ein un/onstitutiona"K that respon!ent E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita. 9en. Depart*ent of Transportation an! Co**uni/ation %DOTC' @n!erse/retar$ 9ui"in . pra$. fi"e! its petition for /ertiorari an! prohi#ition.00-. it has "e a" stan!in to institute the petition to enfor/e its /onstitutiona" ri ht to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern.R.Presi!ent to an$ A&P offi/er to appear #efore the pu#"i/ hearin of the Senate Co**ittee on Nationa" Defense an! Se/urit$ s/he!u"e! NonO . that sai! or!er #e !e/"are! nu"" an! voi! for #ein un/onstitutiona" an! that respon!ent E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita #e or!ere! to /ease fro* i*p"e*entin it.00-. In 9.ose Serase II. GEG infrin es on its ri ht as a po"iti/a" part$ entit"e! to parti/ipate in overnan/eK Satur O/a*po. (1 pra$s. Nos. In 9. Rafae" . 9u!ani an! Co".O.O. /"ai*in that his /onstitutiona" ri hts as a /iti4en.en!o4a. On O/to#er (G.etro Rai" Transit Authorit$ A!*inistrator Ro#erto ?asti*oso. petitioners part$:"ist Ba$an . petitioner &ran/is/o I. as it has a"rea!$ sustaine! the sa*e with its /ontinue! enfor/e*ent sin/e it !ire/t"$ interferes with an! i*pe!es the va"i! e6er/ise of the Senate3s powers an! fun/tions an! /on/ea"s infor*ation of reat pu#"i/ interest an! /on/ern. petitioners /"ai* that E. ta6pa$er an! "aw pra/titioner. #e prohi#ite! fro* i*posin . an! threatene! #$. GEG.O. GEG. Bri . a"" /"ai*in to have stan!in to fi"e the suit #e/ause of the trans/en!enta" i*portan/e of the issues the$ pose!. In/. for /ertiorari an! prohi#ition. were fi"e! #efore this Court /ha""en in the /onstitutiona"it$ of E.a4a. Petitioner Senate of the Phi"ippines.00-. Bouse of Representatives .e"5uia!es Ro#"es. . Ba$an . &or !ef$in Presi!ent Arro$o3s or!er #arrin *i"itar$ personne" fro* testif$in #efore "e is"ative in5uiries without her approva". an! their ri hts to infor*ation an! to transparent overnan/e are threatene! #$ the i*position of E.O.R. Nar/iso A#a$a an! Se/retar$ Ro*u"o ?.R. .onetar$ Boar! . No. in his /apa/it$ as E6e/utive Se/retar$ an! a"ter:e o of Presi!ent Arro$o. GEG. A!!itiona""$.una. No. in their petition that E. a""e in that it has a vita" interest in the reso"ution of the issue of the va"i!it$ of E. (E+EE0. Phi"ippine Nationa" Rai"wa$s 9enera" . /itin E. Neri.(( On O/to#er 1.e*#er .ana er . (E+222 an! pra$s that E. sent "etter of re rets.O. a re istere! po"iti/a" part$ with *e*#ers !u"$ e"e/te! into the Phi"ippine Senate an! Bouse of Representatives. .er/e!itas 9utierre4. GEG. PDP:?a#an. Ba"utan an! Bri .R.O. No.R. !o/kete! as 9. Crispin Be"tran. a roup of "aw$ers !e!i/ate! to the pro*otion of <usti/e.O. Ba"utan were re"ieve! fro* their *i"itar$ posts an! were *a!e to fa/e /ourt *artia" pro/ee!in s. the investi ation s/he!u"e! #$ the Co**ittee on Nationa" Defense an! Se/urit$ pushe! throu h.' Chief State Counse" Ri/ar!o >. then Presi!entia" ?e a" Counse" . ?i4a . (E+)1G. (E+E-+.O. GEG. !o/kete! as 9. are affe/te! #$ the enfor/e*ent of E. pra$s in his petition that E. parti/u"ar"$ in the /on!u/t of in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation an! trans/en!enta" . an! Counse"s for the Defense of ?i#erties %CODA?'. their su#*ission to the re5uire*ents of E. petitioner A"ternative ?aw 9roups. GEG shou"! the$ #e su**one! #$ Con ressK an! CODA? a""e es that its *e*#ers have a sworn !ut$ to upho"! the ru"e of "aw. GEG #e !e/"are! un/onstitutiona". No. !e*o/ra/$ an! pea/e.usti/e %DO. a""e in that as a /oa"ition of (2 "e a" resour/e non: overn*enta" or ani4ations en a e! in !eve"op*enta" "aw$erin an! work with the poor an! *ar ina"i4e! se/tors in !ifferent parts of the /ountr$. (E+EE2.+. GEG infrin es on their ri hts an! !uties as *e*#ers of Con ress to /on!u/t investi ation in ai! of "e is"ation an! /on!u/t oversi ht fun/tions in the i*p"e*entation of "awsK Coura e a""e es that the tenure of its *e*#ers in pu#"i/ offi/e is pre!i/ate! on. an! as an or ani4ation of /iti4ens of the Phi"ippines an! a part of the enera" pu#"i/.T Despite the /o**uni/ations re/eive! fro* E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita an! 9en. GEG for it stan!s to suffer i**inent an! *ateria" in<ur$. a""e e that E. an! threatenin to i*pose san/tions on offi/ia"s who appear #efore Con ress !ue to /on ressiona" su**ons. GEG. .a*on!in .

#$ "etter(. . >I. however.00. enfor/in . III.ontes. . Senator Bia4on reiterate! his invitation to 9en.R.GE. LI.(+ DO.(... after their *otion for e6tension to fi"e *e*oran!u*. whi"e those in 9. No. Art.. Se/. Se/. GEG is. that TNpOursuant to E6e/utive Or!er No. . the hearin on &e#ruar$ (0.2 was rante!. No. Petitioners in 9. Se/. 2.O.' assu*in that it is not.an! . .. on its fa/e. (11 Art. In the #u! et hearin s set #$ the Senate on &e#ruar$ ) an! (1. On &e#ruar$ (1. III.O. Se/. 9en. LI. Nove*#er . Sen a for hi* an! other *i"itar$ offi/ers to atten! the hearin on the a""e e! wiretappin s/he!u"e! on &e#ruar$ (0.G fi"e! their *e*oran!a on .) !ate! . (2(.ose . . Bun$e. . II. LIII. III. >I. Se/. . .ar/h 2. GEG prior to its pu#"i/ation in the Offi/ia" 9a4ette or in a newspaper of enera" /ir/u"ationK an! %. an! o#servin E.GE !i! not fi"e an$ *e*oran!u*.arius P. The pro/e!ura" issue of whether there is an a/tua" /ase or /ontrovers$ that /a""s for <u!i/ia" review was not taken upK instea!.00E. Se/.R. the parties were !ire/te! to su#*it their respe/tive *e*oran!a. G1- . In the ora" ar u*ents on the petitions /on!u/te! on &e#ruar$ . as ta6pa$ers. GEG vio"ates the fo""owin /onstitutiona" provisions: Art. 9i/ana. however. (. ..(.E fi"e! theirs the ne6t !a$ or on . GEG.+ Petitioners su#*it that E. Petitioners in 9.00E. >I. un/onstitutiona"K an! %.. (.00-. the fo""owin su#stantive issues were venti"ate!: %(' whether respon!ents /o**itte! rave a#use of !is/retion in i*p"e*entin E. (E+EE2.#ut *ost of the* fai"e! to atten!. Art. .una et a". Press Se/retar$ an! Presi!entia" Spokesperson I na/io R. Se/. GEG. Se/. GEG vio"ates the fo""owin provisions of the Constitution: Art.00E.0 an! Depart*ent of Interior an! ?o/a" 9overn*ent @n!erse/retar$ .00E. . No. &erti"i4er an! Pesti/i!e Authorit$ E6e/utive Dire/tor Nor"ito R. su#se5uent"$ fi"e! a *anifestation.ar/h ).00E that it wou"! no "on er fi"e its *e*oran!u* in the interest of havin the issues reso"ve! soonest.R. in 9. Corpus.1( Art. Art.' whether E. . Se/. >I.ar/h (G. pro*ptin this Court to issue a Reso"ution repri*an!in the*.ose Anse"*o I.(E In another investi ation /on!u/te! <oint"$ #$ the Senate Co**ittee on A ri/u"ture an! &oo! an! the B"ue Ri##on Co**ittee on the a""e e! *is*ana e*ent an! use of the ferti"i4er fun! un!er the 9inintuan .E. >I. the parties were instru/te! to !is/uss it in their respe/tive *e*oran!a.R.ana e*ent() havin invoke! E. (2(.O. Se/.. Sen a rep"ie!. GEG. Art. . fi"e! their petition for /ertiorari an! prohi#ition.(2 an! those fro* the Depart*ent of Bu! et an! . No.R. na*e"$: %a' the so /a""e! &erti"i4er s/a*K %#' the NorthRai" investi ation %/' the Hiretappin a/tivit$ of the ISA&PK an! %!' the investi ation on the >ena#"e /ontra/t. A"" the petitions pra$ for the issuan/e of a Te*porar$ Restrainin Or!er en<oinin respon!ents fro* i*p"e*entin . an! Art. (E. thNeO Bea!5uarters re5ueste! for a /"earan/e fro* the Presi!ent to a""ow Nthe*O to appear #efore the pu#"i/ hearin T an! that Tthe$ wi"" atten! on/e NtheirO re5uest is approve! #$ the Presi!ent.asa anan Ani pro ra* of the Depart*ent of A ri/u"ture %DA'. DA @n!erse/retar$ Be"in!a 9on4a"es.O. pa$in parti/u"ar attention to the fo""owin propositions: %(' that E. (E+EE0. #$ "etter(G !ate! &e#ruar$ E. After the /on/"usion of the ora" ar u*ents. III. Art. Se/.( /o**uni/ate! their ina#i"it$ to atten! !ue to "a/k of appropriate /"earan/e fro* the Presi!ent pursuant to E.O. No. a"" invokin their /onstitutiona" ri ht to #e infor*e! on *atters of pu#"i/ interest. .00E. (1. Se/. . Ca!i4 an! the in/u*#ent *e*#ers of the Boar! of 9overnors of the Inte rate! Bar of the Phi"ippines. severa" Ca#inet offi/ia"s were invite! to the hearin s s/he!u"e! on O/to#er .00E.T As none of those invite! appeare!. Se/retar$ Rau" .G an! De/e*#er (.O. GEG.R. an! the Inte rate! Bar of the Phi"ippines as the offi/ia" or ani4ation of a"" Phi"ippine "aw$ers. . Se/. Petitioners Ba$an . Se/.). it is un/onstitutiona" as app"ie! in four instan/es.R. DA Assistant Se/retar$ &e"i6 .. GEG #e !e/"are! nu"" an! voi!.O. (E+E-+.1 an! 9. .00E.an! 9. Se/retar$ Bun$e was a""owe! to atten! #$ E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita. Art. an! pra$ that E. Durin the &e#ruar$ (1. Art. (E+222. No. !o/kete! as 9.eanwhi"e. 9on4a"e4. G.O. No.00.(10 Art.!ate! &e#ruar$ ). 21G Art.#u! et hearin . I>.. .00E was /an/e""e!. . (E+)1G.issues nee! to #e reso"ve! to avert a /onstitutiona" /risis #etween the e6e/utive an! "e is"ative #ran/hes of the overn*ent.

ar/h (1. LIII. a""e e!"$ stif"es the a#i"it$ of the *e*#ers of Con ress to a//ess infor*ation that is /ru/ia" to "aw: *akin . Stan!in Respon!ents.. pra$ in their /onso"i!ate! *e*oran!u*1) on . an! privi"e e of the Bouse of Representatives whi/h ha! #een effe/tive"$ i*paire! #$ E. GEG.O. (E+E-+.GE >eri"$.O. GEG. respon!ents /onten! that su/h interest fa""s short of that re5uire! to /onfer stan!in on the* as parties Tin<ure!:in:fa/t. to wit: %(' there *ust #e an a/tua" /ase or /ontrovers$ /a""in for the e6er/ise of <u!i/ia" powerK %.O. E.GG That the Senate of the Phi"ippines has a fun!a*enta" ri ht essentia" not on"$ for inte""i ent pu#"i/ !e/ision:*akin in a !e*o/rati/ s$ste*. one *ust have a persona" an! su#stantia" interest in the /ase. a!vertin to the non: appearan/e of severa" offi/ia"s of the e6e/utive !epart*ent in the investi ations /a""e! #$ the !ifferent /o**ittees of the Senate. have not shown an$ spe/ifi/ prero ative. su/h that he has sustaine! or wi"" sustain !ire/t in<ur$ !ue to the enfor/e*ent of E.O. he *ust have a persona" an! su#stantia" interest in the /ase su/h that he has sustaine!. GEG. on the other han!.G( Hith re ar! to the petition fi"e! #$ the Senate. GEG.O. an! >a"*onte v. there #ein no *ention of an$ investi ation /a""e! #$ the Bouse of Representatives or an$ of its /o**ittees whi/h was a#orte! !ue to the i*p"e*entation of E. powers an! privi"e es veste! #$ the Constitution in their offi/e an! are a""owe! to sue to 5uestion the va"i!it$ of an$ offi/ia" a/tion whi/h the$ /"ai* infrin es their prero atives as "e is"ators. Essentia" re5uisites for <u!i/ia" review Before pro/ee!in to reso"ve the issue of the /onstitutiona"it$ of E. The Court s$nthesi4es the issues to #e reso"ve! as fo""ows: (. however. The$ *aintain that Representatives O/a*po et a".G2 . an! that of the other petitioner roups an! in!ivi!ua"s who profess to have stan!in as a!vo/ates an! !efen!ers of the Constitution. GEG.00E for the !is*issa" of the petitions for "a/k of *erit. Phi"ippine Charit$ Sweepstakes Offi/e.O. the Senate. On pinG.O. respon!ents /onten! that Chave4 *a$ not /"ai* an interest as a ta6pa$er for the i*p"e*entation of E. In!ee!. (E 1E Art. were #rou ht to vin!i/ate the /onstitutiona" !ut$ of the Senate or its !ifferent /o**ittees to /on!u/t in5uir$ in ai! of "e is"ation or in the e6er/ise of its oversi ht fun/tions. ?ike a"*ost a"" powers /onferre! #$ the Constitution. Hhether E. "e is"ators have stan!in to *aintain invio"ate the prero ative. !ire/t in<ur$ as a resu"t of its enfor/e*entK %1' the 5uestion of /onstitutiona"it$ *ust #e raise! at the ear"iest opportunit$K an! %G' the issue of /onstitutiona"it$ *ust #e the ver$ "is *ota of the /ase. Invokin this Court3s ru"in in Nationa" E/ono*i/ Prote/tionis* Asso/iation v. Hhether respon!ents have /o**itte! rave a#use of !is/retion when the$ i*p"e*ente! E.O.O. GEG vio"ates the ri ht of the peop"e to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ernK an! 1.una3s a""e e! interest as a part$:"ist representin the *ar ina"i4e! an! un!errepresente!.' the person /ha""en in the a/t *ust have stan!in to /ha""en e the va"i!it$ of the su#<e/t a/t or issuan/eK otherwise state!.R. power. .is not !ispute!. as/ertain*ent of whether the re5uisites for a va"i! e6er/ise of the Court3s power of <u!i/ia" review are present is in or!er.Art.O. !is/ussion of the rest of the re5uisites sha"" #e o*itte!. GEG prior to its pu#"i/ation in a newspaper of enera" /ir/u"ation. or wi"" sustain.)12 Respon!ents E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita et a".O. Hhether E.. Se/. #ut *ore espe/ia""$ for soun! "e is"ationG.1+ E6/ept with respe/t to the re5uisites of stan!in an! e6isten/e of an a/tua" /ase or /ontrovers$ where the !isa ree*ent #etween the parties "ies. GEG. Nos. the Senate an! its in!ivi!ua" *e*#ers are not the proper parties to assai" the /onstitutiona"it$ of E. (E+EE0 an! (E+EE2 *ake it /"ear that the$. in/"u!in its in!ivi!ua" *e*#ers. GEG.TG0 Respe/tin petitioner Chave4. As for Ba$an . has a su#stantia" an! !ire/t interest over the out/o*e of the /ontrovers$ an! is the proper part$ to assai" the /onstitutiona"it$ of E. the power of <u!i/ia" review is su#<e/t to "i*itations. respon!ents ar ue that in the a#sen/e of a persona" or !ire/t in<ur$ #$ reason of the issuan/e of E. GEG /ontravenes the power of in5uir$ veste! in Con ressK . throu h the So"i/itor 9enera". .O. Se/. assert that the a""e ations in 9. GEG !oes not invo"ve the e6er/ise of ta6in or spen!in power.G1 respon!ents assert that to #e /onsi!ere! a proper part$. GEG. II.

%. presi!entia" !e/rees. "ikewise *eets the stan!in re5uire*ent as it o#taine! three seats in the Bouse of Representatives in the .O. GEG !oes not re5uire either a !e"i#erate withho"!in of . GEG. there #ein no showin that Presi!ent Arro$o has a/tua""$ withhe"! her /onsent or prohi#ite! the appearan/e of the invite! offi/ia"s. it *ust esta#"ish %(' the /hara/ter of the fun!s %that it is pu#"i/' or other assets invo"ve! in the /ase. GEG infrin es on their /onstitutiona" ri hts an! !uties as *e*#ers of Con ress to /on!u/t investi ation in ai! of "e is"ation an! /on!u/t oversi ht fun/tions in the i*p"e*entation of "aws.O. *ust #e !ire/t an! persona". however. the a#sen/e of an$ /"ai* that an investi ation /a""e! #$ the Bouse of Representatives or an$ of its /o**ittees was a#orte! !ue to the i*p"e*entation of E.-. Teo!oro Casino %Ba$an . whether a/tua" or threatene!.G+ In fi"in their respe/tive petitions. 3ctual Case or Controversy Petitioners assert that an a/tua" /ase e6ists. The Court fin!s respon!ents3 assertion that the Presi!ent has not withhe"! her /onsent or prohi#ite! the appearan/e of the offi/ia"s /on/erne! i**ateria" in !eter*inin the e6isten/e of an a/tua" /ase or /ontrovers$ insofar as E.oe" >ira!or %Ba$an .-0 invoke their /onstitutiona" ri ht to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern. or!ers. have the stan!in to fi"e their petitions.). Nos.In fine. it #ein suffi/ient that a /"ai* is *a!e that E.ariano %Anakpawis'. Con/rete in<ur$. entit"e! to parti/ipate in the "e is"ative pro/ess /onsonant with the !e/"are! po"i/$ un!er"$in the part$ "ist s$ste* of affor!in /iti4ens #e"on in to *ar ina"i4e! an! un!errepresente! se/tors. . GEG notwithstan!in .-2 Spe/ifi/a""$ with re ar! to the A&P offi/ers who !i! not atten! the hearin on Septe*#er . &or it to #e a//or!e! stan!in on the roun! of trans/en!enta" i*portan/e.O.' the presen/e of a /"ear /ase of !isre ar! of a /onstitutiona" or statutor$ prohi#ition #$ the pu#"i/ respon!ent a en/$ or instru*enta"it$ of the overn*ent. parti/u"ar"$ those on the NorthRai" pro<e/t an! the wiretappin /ontrovers$. Its a""e ation that E. the$ /itin the a#sen/e of the e6e/utive offi/ia"s invite! #$ the Senate to its hearin s after the issuan/e of E. (E+222 an! (E+E-+ have !ire/t an! spe/ifi/ interests in the reso"ution of the /ontrovers$. respon!ents /"ai* that the instru/tion not to atten! without the Presi!ent3s /onsent was #ase! on its ro"e as Co**an!er:in:Chief of the Ar*e! &or/es. the A?9 whi/h /"ai*s to #e an or ani4ation of /iti4ens. Chave4. Bouse of Representatives.una'. is essentia" to the effe/tive e6er/ise of other /onstitutiona" ri hts-( an! to the *aintenan/e of the #a"an/e of power a*on the three #ran/hes of the overn*ent throu h the prin/ip"e of /he/ks an! #a"an/es.In the sa*e vein.O. Ba$an .-.O. .O. &or E. GEG. an! the in/u*#ent *e*#ers of the IBP Boar! of 9overnors an! the IBP in #eha"f of its "aw$er *e*#ers. *ere"$ /o**uni/ate! to the Senate that the$ have not $et se/ure! the /onsent of the Presi!ent. an! that su/h apprehension is not suffi/ient for /ha""en in the va"i!it$ of E. In &ran/iso v. passin on the stan!in of their /o:petitioners Coura e an! Co!a" is ren!ere! unne/essar$. Crispin Be"tran %Anakpawis'. Rafae" . or ani4ations an! parties who "a/k we"":!efine! po"iti/a" /onstituen/ies to /ontri#ute to the for*u"ation an! ena/t*ent of "e is"ation that wi"" #enefit the nation. an! at #est is on"$ a T enera"i4e! interestT whi/h it shares with the rest of the po"iti/a" parties. GEG. not on E.00-. is that in!ispensa#"e e"e*ent of a !ispute whi/h serves in part to /ast it in a for* tra!itiona""$ /apa#"e of <u!i/ia" reso"ution. petitioner PDP:?a#an is #ereft of stan!in to fi"e its petition.una. the$ /"ai*.R.O.00G e"e/tions an! is. PDP:?a#an3s a""e e! interest as a po"iti/a" part$ !oes not suffi/e to /"othe it with "e a" stan!in .-1 this Court he"! that when the pro/ee!in invo"ves the assertion of a pu#"i/ ri ht.una'. an! other re u"ations. It is we"":sett"e! that when suin as a /iti4en. assertin that the ri ht to infor*ation. As for petitioner PDP:?a#an.O.-E These offi/ia"s. GEG.O. GEG ha*pers its "e is"ative a en!a is va ue an! un/ertain.-G The first an! "ast !eter*inants not #ein present as no pu#"i/ fun!s or assets are invo"ve! an! petitioners in 9. it asseverates that it is /"othe! with "e a" stan!in in view of the trans/en!enta" issues raise! in its petition whi/h this Court nee!s to reso"ve in or!er to avert a /onstitutiona" /risis. The nationa" po"iti/a" part$. therefore.una'. an! ?i4a . GEG is /on/erne!. GEG. not that the Presi!ent prohi#ite! their atten!an/e. part$:"ist representatives Satur O/a*po %Ba$an .O. the interest of the petitioner in assai"in the /onstitutiona"it$ of "aws. the *ere fa/t that he is a /iti4en satisfies the re5uire*ent of persona" interest.G) As Ba$an . Respon!ents thus /on/"u!e that the petitions *ere"$ rest on an unfoun!e! apprehension that the Presi!ent wi"" a#use its power of preventin the appearan/e of offi/ia"s #efore Con ress. an! %1' the "a/k of an$ part$ with a *ore !ire/t an! spe/ifi/ interest in raisin the 5uestions #ein raise!.a4a %9a#rie"a' are a""owe! to sue to 5uestion the /onstitutiona"it$ of E.una an! Representatives O/a*po et a". Respon!ents /ounter that there is no /ase or /ontrovers$. /urtai"e! an! vio"ate! #$ E.

-+ . was /a""e! to testif$ thereon #$ the Senate. E6perien/e has shown that *ere re5uests for su/h infor*ation are often unavai"in . As !is/usse! in Arnau"t.T Sin/e Con ress has authorit$ to in5uire into the operations of the e6e/utive #ran/h.-) a /ase !e/i!e! in (+-0 un!er that Constitution.Constitution !i! not /ontain a si*i"ar provision. the transa/tion. the Court he"!.?. an! a"so that infor*ation whi/h is vo"unteere! is not a"wa$s a//urate or /o*p"eteK so so*e *eans of /o*pu"sion is essentia" to o#tain what is nee!e!. to the e6tent that it #ars the appearan/e of e6e/utive offi/ia"s #efore Con ress. On a//ount of his refusa" to answer the 5uestions of the senators on an i*portant point. The power of in5uir$ The Con ress power of in5uir$ is e6press"$ re/o ni4e! in Se/tion . is a proper su#<e/t for investi ation. In!ee!. the Court therein ru"e!.(. the Court foun! that the Senate investi ation of the overn*ent transa/tion invo"ve! in Arnau"t was a proper e6er/ise of the power of in5uir$. Ta"so invo"ve! overn*ent a en/ies /reate! #$ Con ress an! offi/ers whose positions it is within the power of Con ress to re u"ate or even a#o"ish. !etaine! for /onte*pt. A "e is"ative #o!$ /annot "e is"ate wise"$ or effe/tive"$ in the a#sen/e of infor*ation respe/tin the /on!itions whi/h the "e is"ation is inten!e! to affe/t or /han eK an! where the "e is"ative #o!$ !oes not itse"f possess the re5uisite infor*ation X whi/h is not infre5uent"$ true X re/ourse *ust #e ha! to others who !o possess it. A"thou h there is no provision in the Constitution e6press"$ investin either Bouse of Con ress with power to *ake investi ations an! e6a/t testi*on$ to the en! that it *a$ e6er/ise its "e is"ative fun/tions a!vise!"$ an! effe/tive"$. the Court a"rea!$ re/o ni4e! that the power of in5uir$ is inherent in the power to "e is"ate. this Court he"!: the Senate3s As the i*p"e*entation of the /ha""en e! or!er has a"rea!$ resu"te! in the a#sen/e of offi/ia"s invite! to the hearin s of petitioner Senate of the Phi"ippines. %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' That this power of in5uir$ is #roa! enou h to /over offi/ia"s of the e6e/utive #ran/h *a$ #e !e!u/e! fro* the sa*e /ase. the power of in5uir$ X with pro/ess to enfor/e it X is an essentia" an! appropriate au6i"iar$ to the "e is"ative fun/tion.E0 The *atters whi/h *a$ #e a proper su#<e/t of "e is"ation an! those whi/h *a$ #e a proper su#<e/t of investi ation are one. su/h power is so far in/i!enta" to the "e is"ative fun/tion as to #e i*p"ie!. . To reso"ve the 5uestion of whether su/h withho"!in of infor*ation vio"ates the Constitution. Thus. is /o:e6tensive with the power to "e is"ate. otherwise known as the power of in5uir$. Na4areno.O. GEG. it vests the power of in5uir$ in the uni/a*era" "e is"ature esta#"ishe! therein X the Batasan Pa*#ansa X an! its /o**ittees. . is in or!er. it wou"! #e sheer a#an!on*ent of !ut$ if this Court wou"! now refrain fro* passin on the /onstitutiona"it$ of E. Arnau"t invo"ve! a Senate investi ation of the reporte!"$ ano*a"ous pur/hase of the Buenavista an! Ta*#o#on Estates #$ the Rura" Pro ress A!*inistration. Arnau"t.T is roun!e! on the ne/essit$ of infor*ation in the "e is"ative pro/ess. it wou"! #e in/on ruous to ho"! that the power of in5uir$ !oes not e6ten! to e6e/utive offi/ia"s who are the *ost fa*i"iar with an! infor*e! on e6e/utive operations. In other wor!s. !eprives Con ress of the infor*ation in the possession of these offi/ia"s. @pho"!in power to punish Arnau"t for /onte*pt.( of Arti/"e >I of the Constitution whi/h rea!s: SECTION ./onsent or an e6press prohi#ition issuin offi/ia"s fro* appearin #efore Con ress. Con ress has the ri ht to that infor*ation an! the power to /o*pe" the !is/"osure thereof. %@n!ers/orin supp"ie!' This provision is wor!e! e6a/t"$ as Se/tion ) of Arti/"e >III of the (+21 Constitution e6/ept that. fro* the Presi!ent in or!er to #ar #$ reso"ution of the Senate. in Arnau"t v. /onsi!eration of the enera" power of Con ress to o#tain infor*ation. The ri hts of persons appearin in or affe/te! #$ su/h in5uiries sha"" #e respe/te!. The power of in5uir$. If the infor*ation possesse! #$ e6e/utive offi/ia"s on the operation of their offi/es is ne/essar$ for wise "e is"ation on that su#<e/t. The Senate or the Bouse of Representatives or an$ of its respe/tive /o**ittees *a$ /on!u/t in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation in a//or!an/e with its !u"$ pu#"ishe! ru"es of pro/e!ure. Constitutionality of &. The (+1. he was. Besi!es #ein re"ate! to the e6pen!iture of pu#"i/ fun!s of whi/h Con ress is the uar!ian. who was /onsi!ere! a "ea!in witness in the /ontrovers$. It fo""ows that the operation of overn*ent. #$ parit$ of reasonin . GEG. in the "atter. . the power of in5uir$. #ein a "e iti*ate su#<e/t for "e is"ation. Twith pro/ess to enfor/e it. it wou"! *ake no sense to wait for an$ further event #efore /onsi!erin the present /ase ripe for a!<u!i/ation.O. Nonethe"ess. /4/ E.

E2 Tri#e. its prea*#u"ar /"auses.As evi!en/e! #$ the A*eri/an e6perien/e !urin the so:/a""e! T. or to an$ person for that *atter. Tri#e e6p"ains. Arti/"e >I "ikewise esta#"ishes /ru/ia" safe uar!s that pros/ri#e the "e is"ative power of in5uir$. re*e!ia#"e #efore the /ourts. /o**ents that whi"e it is /usto*ar$ to e*p"o$ the phrase Te6e/utive privi"e e. as note! in Ben 4on v. Even where the in5uir$ is in ai! of "e is"ation. &Aecutive privilege The phrase Te6e/utive privi"e eT is not new in this <uris!i/tion. an! the Con ress. Ro4e"" !efines it as Tthe ri ht of the Presi!ent an! hi h:"eve" e6e/utive #ran/h offi/ers to withho"! infor*ation fro* Con ress. the possi#"e nee!e! statute whi/h pro*pte! the nee! for the in5uir$. none appearin to o#tain at present. It *a$ thus #e su#<e/te! to <u!i/ia" review pursuant to the Court3s /ertiorari powers un!er Se/tion (. EE It has en/o*passe! /"ai*s of var$in kin!s. nonethe"ess. In su/h instan/es. Senate B"ue Ri##on Co**ittee. in theor$. Another variet$ is the infor*er3s privi"e e. e6e/utive offi/ia"s have /"ai*e! a variet$ of privi"e es to resist !is/"osure of infor*ation the /onfi!entia"it$ of whi/h the$ fe"t was /ru/ia" to fu"fi""*ent of the uni5ue ro"e an! responsi#i"ities of the e6e/utive #ran/h of our overn*ent. resu"tin in pa"pa#"e vio"ations of the ri hts uarantee! to *e*#ers of the e6e/utive !epart*ent un!er the Bi"" of Ri hts. These a#uses are. it is #est un!erstoo! in "i ht of how it has #een !efine! an! use! in the "e a" "iterature of the @nite! States. or the privi"e e of the 9overn*ent not to !is/"ose the i!entit$ of persons who furnish infor*ation of vio"ations of "aw to offi/ers /har e! with the enfor/e*ent of that "aw. a !is/ussion of e6e/utive privi"e e is /ru/ia" for !eter*inin the /onstitutiona"it$ of E. Se/tion . an! in its ver$ tit"e. not a /"ear or unitar$ /on/ept. even if the$ #e"on to the e6e/utive #ran/h. Se/tion . an! *a$ #e asserte!. of /ourse. Presi!ents. with !ifferin !e rees of su//ess. GEG. the /ourts. an i*position that o#"i ates Con ress to a!here to the uarantees in the Bi"" of Ri hts. in the /onte6t of either <u!i/ia" or "e is"ative investi ations. 9iven su/h state*ent in its invitations. in fa/t. E) Tri#e3s /o**ent is supporte! #$ the ru"in in In re Sea"e! Case. a eneri/ privi"e e for interna" !e"i#erations has #een sai! to atta/h to intra overn*enta" !o/u*ents ref"e/tin a!visor$ opinions.E( the in5uir$ itse"f *i ht not proper"$ #e in ai! of "e is"ation. atte*pts #$ the E6e/utive Bran/h to foresta"" these a#uses *a$ #e a//or!e! <u!i/ia" san/tion. wherein a /"ear pattern of a#use of the "e is"ative power of in5uir$ *i ht #e esta#"ishe!.( a"so *an!ates that the ri hts of persons appearin in or affe/te! #$ su/h in5uiries #e respe/te!.T it *a$ #e *ore a//urate to speak of e6e/utive privi"e es Tsin/e presi!entia" refusa"s to furnish infor*ation *a$ #e a/tuate! #$ an$ of at "east three !istin/t kin!s of /onsi!erations.T One variet$ of the privi"e e. ne/essari"$ i*p"$in the /onstitutiona" infir*it$ of an in5uir$ /on!u/te! without !u"$ pu#"ishe! ru"es of pro/e!ure. Su/h in5uir$ /ou"! not usurp <u!i/ia" fun/tions./Carth$ era. 6 6 6TE+ %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' . no "ess sus/epti#"e to a#use than e6e/utive or <u!i/ia" power. #e innin with Hashin ton.T however. there *a$ #e e6/eptiona" /ir/u*stan/es. one possi#"e wa$ for Con ress to avoi! su/h a resu"t as o//urre! in Ben 4on is to in!i/ate in its invitations to the pu#"i/ offi/ia"s /on/erne!. the ri ht of Con ress to /on!u/t in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation is. The /ourts have a"so rante! the e6e/utive a ri ht to withho"! the i!entit$ of overn*ent infor*ers in so*e /ir/u*stan/es an! a 5ua"ifie! ri ht to withho"! infor*ation re"ate! to pen!in investi ations. &ina""$. Parentheti/a""$. thus: Sin/e the #e innin s of our nation. it #ein *entione! in its provisions.(. upon the proper suit fi"e! #$ the persons affe/te!.TEG Si*i"ar"$.T Sin/e this ter* fi ures pro*inent"$ in the /ha""en e! or!er. Nonethe"ess. !epen!in on the parti/u"ars of ea/h /ase.S. the /ourts. an! thus #e$on! the /onstitutiona" power of Con ress. whi/h e6e*ptions fa"" un!er the ru#ri/ of Te6e/utive privi"e e. there wou"! #e "ess roo* for spe/u"ation on the part of the person invite! on whether the in5uir$ is in ai! of "e is"ation. Courts ru"e! ear"$ that the e6e/utive ha! a ri ht to withho"! !o/u*ents that *i ht revea" *i"itar$ or state se/rets. S/hwart4 !efines e6e/utive privi"e e as Tthe power of the 9overn*ent to withho"! infor*ation fro* the pu#"i/. re/o**en!ations an! !e"i#erations /o*prisin part of a pro/ess #$ whi/h overn*enta" !e/isions an! po"i/ies are for*u"ate!. Arti/"e >III of the Constitution. &or one. a"on with the usua" in!i/ation of the su#<e/t of in5uir$ an! the 5uestions re"ative to an! in furtheran/e thereof. is the state se/rets privi"e e invoke! #$ @. there are sti"" re/o ni4e! e6e*ptions to the power of in5uir$. on the roun! that the infor*ation is of su/h nature that its !is/"osure wou"! su#vert /ru/ia" *i"itar$ or !ip"o*ati/ o#<e/tives.TEE6e/utive privi"e e is. It has #een use! even prior to the pro*u" ation of the (+)E Constitution.E1 Bein of A*eri/an ori in. The provision re5uires that the in5uir$ #e !one in a//or!an/e with the Senate or Bouse3s !u"$ pu#"ishe! ru"es of pro/e!ure.E. an! u"ti*ate"$ the pu#"i/.O.

an! !is/ussions in /"ose!:!oor Ca#inet *eetin s. the Court of Appea"s wei he! the pu#"i/ interest prote/te! #$ the /"ai* of privi"e e a ainst the interest that wou"! #e serve! #$ !is/"osure to the Co**ittee. Nota#"$. whi/h invo"ve /"ai*s of e6e/utive privi"e e a ainst Con ress are rare.S. ne/essari"$ *ean that it wou"! #e /onsi!ere! privi"e e! in a"" instan/es.S. o#<e/tive. The Court. ru"in that the privi"e e *ust #e #a"an/e! a ainst the pu#"i/ interest in the fair a!*inistration of /ri*ina" <usti/e. 2. the Court was /arefu" to /"arif$ that it was not there a!!ressin the issue of /"ai*s of privi"e e in a /ivi" "iti ation or a ainst /on ressiona" !e*an!s for infor*ation. for e6a*p"e.20 %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' That a t$pe of infor*ation is re/o ni4e! as privi"e e! !oes not. #e innin with Presi!ent Hashin ton3s refusa" to turn over treat$ ne otiation re/or!s to the Bouse of Representatives. the 5uestion that *ust #e aske! is not on"$ whether the re5ueste! infor*ation fa""s within one of the tra!itiona" privi"e es. In Chave4 v. Supre*e Court in Ni6on. Pu#"i/ Estates Authorit$.22 A"*onte use! the ter* in referen/e to the sa*e privi"e e su#<e/t of Ni6on. Court he"! that whi"e there is no e6p"i/it referen/e to a privi"e e of /onfi!entia"it$ in the @. &or in !eter*inin the va"i!it$ of a /"ai* of privi"e e. It !i! not invo"ve.2+ the Court he"! that this <uris!i/tion re/o ni4es the /o**on "aw ho"!in that there is a T overn*enta" privi"e e a ainst pu#"i/ !is/"osure with respe/t to state se/rets re ar!in *i"itar$. those !o/u*ents ref"e/tin the frank e6pression ne/essar$ in intra: overn*enta" a!visor$ an! !e"i#erative /o**uni/ations. the Court re/o ni4e! that there are /ertain t$pes of infor*ation whi/h the overn*ent *a$ withho"! fro* the pu#"i/. The @. The privi"e e is fun!a*enta" to the operation of overn*ent an! ine6tri/a#"$ roote! in the separation of powers un!er the Constitution 6 6 6 T %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' A"*onte invo"ve! a su#poena !u/es te/u* issue! #$ the O*#u!s*an a ainst the therein petitioners. thus a/know"e! in . The /"ai* of privi"e e was #ase! on the Presi!ent3s enera" interest in the /onfi!entia"it$ of his /onversations an! /orrespon!en/e. in a /ase !e/i!e! ear"ier in the sa*e $ear as Ni6on. the ri ht of the peop"e to infor*ation. has a"" the va"ues to whi/h we a//or! !eferen/e for the priva/$ of a"" /iti4ens an!.2. as e6press"$ state! in the !e/ision. Ni6on. the !o/trine of e6e/utive privi"e e was re/o ni4e! #$ this Court in A"*onte v. that e6e/utive privi"e e *a$ #e /"ai*e! a ainst /iti4ens3 !e*an!s for infor*ation.S.2( The "ea!in /ase on e6e/utive privi"e e in the @nite! States is @. "ike the /"ai* of /onfi!entia"it$ of <u!i/ia" !e"i#erations. This privi"e e. v. 2E In this <uris!i/tion.S. !e/i!e! in (+2G. a!!e! to those va"ues. in su#stan/e if not in na*e. PC99. Si*i"ar"$. however.T)0 The sa*e /ase he"! that /"ose!:!oor Ca#inet *eetin s are a"so a re/o ni4e! "i*itation on the ri ht to infor*ation. #ut a"so whether that privi"e e shou"! #e honore! in a iven pro/e!ura" settin . #ase! on the /onstitutiona" !o/trine of separation of powers. the @. in Chave4 v. !ip"o*ati/ an! other nationa" se/urit$ *atters. Court of Appea"s for the Distri/t of Co"u*#ia Cir/uit.T). It a"so he"! that infor*ation on *i"itar$ an! !ip"o*ati/ se/rets an! . e6e*pts the e6e/utive fro* !is/"osure re5uire*ents app"i/a#"e to the or!inar$ /iti4en or or ani4ation where su/h e6e*ption is ne/essar$ to the !is/har e of hi h"$ i*portant e6e/utive responsi#i"ities invo"ve! in *aintainin overn*enta" operations. an! even #"unt or harsh opinions in Presi!entia" !e/ision:*akin .21 Despite fre5uent assertion of the privi"e e to !en$ infor*ation to Con ress. Ru"in that the #a"an/e favore! the Presi!ent. Supre*e Court has never a!<u!i/ate! the issue. re<e/te! the Presi!ent3s /"ai* of privi"e e. /orrespon!en/es. Constitution. >as5ue4. that is. the @.S.2G Bowever.2) Nonethe"ess. nonethe"ess. it is /onstitutiona""$ #ase! to the e6tent that it re"ates to the effe/tive !is/har e of a Presi!ent3s powers. Cases in the @.S. the Court !e/"ine! to enfor/e the su#poena. These are the /onsi!erations <ustif$in a presu*ptive privi"e e for Presi!entia" /o**uni/ations. #$ whi/h the Court *eant Presi!entia" /onversations. It 5uote! the fo""owin portion of the Ni6on !e/ision whi/h e6p"ains the #asis for the privi"e e: TThe e6pe/tation of a Presi!ent to the /onfi!entia"it$ of his /onversations an! /orrespon!en/es.The entr$ in B"a/k3s ?aw Di/tionar$ on Te6e/utive privi"e eT is si*i"ar"$ instru/tive re ar!in the s/ope of the !o/trine. re/o ni4e! the Presi!ent3s privi"e e over his /onversations a ainst a /on ressiona" su#poena.S.Anti/ipatin the #a"an/in approa/h a!opte! #$ the @. an! e6ten!s not on"$ to *i"itar$ an! !ip"o*ati/ se/rets #ut a"so to !o/u*ents inte ra" to an appropriate e6er/ise of the e6e/utive3 !o*esti/ !e/isiona" an! po"i/$ *akin fun/tions.)( the Court ru"e! that the ri ht to infor*ation !oes not e6ten! to *atters re/o ni4e! as Tprivi"e e! infor*ation un!er the separation of powers. A Presi!ent an! those who assist hi* *ust #e free to e6p"ore a"ternatives in the pro/ess of shapin po"i/ies an! *akin !e/isions an! to !o so in a wa$ *an$ wou"! #e unwi""in to e6press e6/ept private"$. is the ne/essit$ for prote/tion of the pu#"i/ interest in /an!i!. In issue in that /ase was the va"i!it$ of Presi!ent Ni6on3s /"ai* of e6e/utive privi"e e a ainst a su#poena issue! #$ a !istri/t /ourt re5uirin the pro!u/tion of /ertain tapes an! !o/u*ents re"atin to the Hater ate investi ations.

R.T As the fo""owin e6/erpt of the !e"i#erations of the Constitutiona" Co**ission shows. there is no referen/e to e6e/utive privi"e e at a"". Hritten 5uestions sha"" #e su#*itte! to the Presi!ent of the Senate or the Speaker of the Bouse of Representatives at "east three !a$s #efore their s/he!u"e! appearan/e. is the testi*onies of Ca#inet *inisters. #ut if the$ !o not /o*e an! it is a /on ressiona" investi ation. however. #oth in the @nite! States an! in this <uris!i/tion. un"ike Se/tion 1. as the ru"es of ea/h Bouse sha"" provi!e.R. &urther. Hhi"e atten!an/e was *eant to #e !is/retionar$ in the 5uestion hour.a!a* Presi!ent. in *arke! /ontrast to Se/tion 1 vis:W:vis Se/tion . is re/o ni4e! on"$ in re"ation to /ertain t$pes of infor*ation of a sensitive /hara/ter.( whi/h provi!es for the power of either Bouse of Con ress to T/on!u/t in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation.( wou"! refer spe/ifi/a""$ to in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation. #ut *a$ /over *atters re"ate! thereto.BON9. un!er whi/h an$#o!$ for that *atter. he #ein one of the proponents of the . appear #efore an! #e hear! #$ su/h Bouse on an$ *atter pertainin to their !epart*ents.0 Nnow Se/tion ..0 refers on"$ to what was ori ina""$ the =uestion Bour. .(. it was /o*pu"sor$ in in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation. 6 6 6 Hhen we a*en!e! Se/tion .a!a* Presi!ent. *a!e the !eter*ination that the$ are.. Does the ent"e*an /onfir* this. or upon the re5uest of either Bouse. an! infor*ation on investi ations of /ri*es #$ "aw enfor/e*ent a en/ies #efore the prose/ution of the a//use! were e6e*pte! fro* the ri ht to infor*ation. #e/ause in our e6perien/e in the Re u"ar Batasan Pa*#ansa X as the 9ent"e*an hi*se"f has e6perien/e! in the interi* Batasan Pa*#ansa X one of the *ost /o*petent inputs that we /an put in our /o**ittee !e"i#erations. throu h the /ha""en e! or!er. It !oes not. Se/tion ( spe/ifi/a""$ app"ies to !epart*ent hea!s. whereas. the /overa e of !epart*ent hea!s un!er Se/tion ( is not *a!e to !epen! on the !epart*ent hea!s3 possession of an$ infor*ation whi/h *i ht #e /overe! #$ e6e/utive privi"e e. Rather. I noti/e! that *e*#ers of the Ca#inet /annot #e /o*pe""e! an$*ore to appear #efore the Bouse of Representatives or #efore the Senate. GEG. of Arti/"e >I. or the pu#"i/. the appearan/e sha"" #e /on!u/te! in e6e/utive session. re5uire a prior !eter*ination #$ an$ offi/ia" whether the$ are /overe! #$ E. *a$ #e su**one! an! if he refuses.O. There are si nifi/ant !ifferen/es #etween the two provisions. with the /onsent of the Presi!ent. that is a""owe! an! their presen/e /an #e ha! un!er Se/tion . Hhen the se/urit$ of the State or the pu#"i/ interest so re5uires an! the Presi!ent so states in writin . The hea!s of !epart*ents *a$ upon their own initiative. In fa/t. un"ike a"so Se/tion 1. Hhi"e e6e/utive privi"e e is a /onstitutiona" /on/ept..AA. He /onfir* that. Noti/ea#"$ a#sent is an$ re/o nition that e6e/utive offi/ia"s are e6e*pt fro* the !ut$ to !is/"ose infor*ation #$ the *ere fa/t of #ein e6e/utive offi/ia"s. E6e/utive privi"e e. . the fra*ers were aware that these two provisions invo"ve! !istin/t fun/tions of Con ress. Se/tion . Deter*inin the va"i!it$ of Se/tion ( thus re5uires an e6a*ination of the *eanin of Se/tion . . >a"i!it$ of Se/tion ( Se/tion ( is si*i"ar to Se/tion 1 in that #oth re5uire the offi/ia"s /overe! #$ the* to se/ure the /onsent of the Presi!ent prior to appearin #efore Con ress. DA>IDE. whi/h /onstrain this Court to !is/uss the va"i!it$ of these provisions separate"$.a!a* Presi!entR . I have a parti/u"ar pro#"e* in this re ar!.. either in ai! of "e is"ation or in /on ressiona" investi ations. A//or!in to Co**issioner Suare4. #e/ause Se/tion .O !oes not *ean that the$ nee! not /o*e when the$ are invite! or su#poenae! #$ the /o**ittee of either Bouse when it /o*es to in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation or /on ressiona" investi ation. he /an #e he"! in /onte*pt of the Bouse. &ro* the a#ove !is/ussion on the *eanin an! s/ope of e6e/utive privi"e e. SECTION . The referen/e to Co**issioner Suare4 #ears notin . I want to #e /"arifie! on a state*ent *a!e #$ Co**issioner Suare4 when he sai! that the fa/t that the Ca#inet *inisters *a$ refuse to /o*e to the Bouse of Representatives or the Senate Nwhen re5ueste! un!er Se/tion . . In!ee!. . Se/tion . whi/h provi!es for the 5uestion hour *ust #e interprete! vis:W:vis Se/tion . the /ourts. He usua""$ invite the*.. the re5uire! prior /onsent un!er Se/tion ( is roun!e! on Arti/"e >I. Se/tion . the e6traor!inar$ /hara/ter of the e6e*ptions in!i/ates that the presu*ption in/"ines heavi"$ a ainst e6e/utive se/re/$ an! in favor of !is/"osure.. on the =uestion BourO $ester!a$. The Presi!ent herse"f has. a /"ai* thereof *a$ #e va"i! or not !epen!in on the roun! invoke! to <ustif$ it an! the /onte6t in whi/h it is *a!e. of the Constitution on what has #een referre! to as the 5uestion hour... Interpe""ations sha"" not #e "i*ite! to written 5uestions. a /"ear prin/ip"e e*er es. whether asserte! a ainst Con ress.those affe/tin nationa" se/urit$. we usua""$ issue su#poenas.)1 %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' A !istin/tion was thus *a!e #etween in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation an! the 5uestion hour.

ver$ essentia" not on"$ in the app"i/ation of /he/k an! #a"an/e #ut a"so.r. . The =uestion Bour is /"ose"$ re"ate! with the "e is"ative power./orrespon!in to what is known in Britain as the 5uestion perio!. After /onferrin with the /o**ittee. . A/tua""$. it is in ai! of "e is"ation. pre/ise"$ in re/o nition of this !istin/tion. DA>IDE. Nspeakin in his /apa/it$ as Chair*an of the Co**ittee on St$"eO He now o.net . whi/h is ?e is"ative In5uir$. Co**issioner Davi!e3s on"$ /on/ern was that the two provisions on these !istin/t powers #e p"a/e! /"ose"$ to ether. Presi!in Offi/er. Co**issioner . in effe/t. the T5uestion hourT has a !efinite *eanin .r. to ive his rea/tion.BON9.R. So /"ear"$ was this !istin/tion /onve$e! to the *e*#ers of the Co**ission that the Co**ittee on St$"e. on the other han!. . . Co**issioners Davi!e an! .inister an! the Ca#inet re*ain in offi/e on"$ as "on as the$ en<o$ the /onfi!en/e of the Nationa" Asse*#"$.R. Co**issioner Davi!e.aa*#on 3s /o**ittee X the Co**ittee on St$"e X share! the view that the two provisions ref"e/te! !istin/t fun/tions of Con ress.inister an! the other *inisters a//ounta#"e for their a/ts an! the operation of the overn*ent.a*en!*ent to *ake the appearan/e of !epart*ent hea!s !is/retionar$ in the 5uestion hour.r. Neither Co**issioner /onsi!ere! the* as i!enti/a" fun/tions of Con ress. The *o*ent this /onfi!en/e is "ost the Pri*e . was speakin in his /apa/it$ as Chair*an of the Co**ittee on the ?e is"ative Depart*ent. Both Co**issioners un!erstoo! that the power to /on!u/t in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation is !ifferent fro* the power to /on!u/t in5uiries !urin the 5uestion hour. we are a//eptin that an! so this Se/tion 1( wou"! now #e/o*e Se/tion . Presi!in . to rep"$. DA>IDE. where the *inisters are a"so *e*#ers of the "e is"ature an! are !ire/t"$ a//ounta#"e to it. I ask Co**issioner . it is a/tua""$ a power of Con ress in ter*s of its own "aw*akin K whereas. in ai! of "e is"ation. Thank $ou.R. The sa*e perfe/t"$ /onfor*e! to the par"ia*entar$ s$ste* esta#"ishe! #$ that Constitution. . an! it is pre/ise"$ as a /o*p"e*ent to or a supp"e*ent of the ?e is"ative In5uir$. the . G avvp(iG. the$ #ein /o*p"e*entar$ to ea/h other.aa*#on pro/ee!e! fro* the sa*e assu*ption that these provisions pertaine! to two !ifferent fun/tions of the "e is"ature. .)G %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' Consistent with their state*ents ear"ier in the !e"i#erations.. Hhat !oes the /o**ittee sa$R . It is a perio! of /onfrontation initiate! #$ Par"ia*ent to ho"! the Pri*e . TBE PRESIDIN9 O&&ICER %. Co**issioner Davi!e is re/o ni4e!. we /onsi!ere! that previous"$ when we se5uen/e! this #ut we reasone! that in Se/tion . Presi!in Offi/er. Aes. far fro* the provision on in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation. . I have on"$ one rea/tion to the =uestion Bour. TBE PRESIDIN9 O&&ICER. a =uestion Bour is not a/tua""$ a power in ter*s of its own "aw*akin power #e/ause in ?e is"ative In5uir$. the Pri*e . 9@IN9ONA.. The fore oin opinion was not the two Co**issioners3 a"one.inister an! the Ca#inet *a$ #e /han e!.R. to the Arti/"e on ?e is"ative an! *a$ I re5uest the /hairperson of the ?e is"ative Depart*ent.BON9. Co**issioner Davi!eR . )) To that e6tent.0 in the ori ina" !raft !own to Se/tion 1(.(. I propose that instea! of puttin it as Se/tion 1(.R. The$ sha"" #e responsi#"e to the Nationa" Asse*#"$ for the pro ra* of overn*ent an! sha"" !eter*ine the ui!e"ines of nationa" po"i/$.aa*#on Offi/er. we fin! *erit in the su estion of Co**issioner Davi!e. Co**issioner Davi!e. This ave rise to the fo""owin e6/han e !urin the !e"i#erations: .).R. it shou"! fo""ow ?e is"ative In5uiries. In the /onte6t of a par"ia*entar$ s$ste* of overn*ent. @n"ike in the presi!entia" s$ste* where the tenure of offi/e of a"" e"e/te! offi/ia"s /annot #e ter*inate! #efore their ter* e6pire!.AA. .AA. Bis views *a$ thus #e presu*e! as representin that of his Co**ittee.inister an! the Ca#inet to the Nationa" Asse*#"$. In other wor!s. An! so we put =uestion Bour as Se/tion 1(. The appearan/e of the *e*#ers of Ca#inet wou"! #e ver$.)2 The fra*ers of the (+)2 Constitution re*ove! the *an!ator$ nature of su/h appearan/e !urin the 5uestion hour in the present Constitution so as to /onfor* *ore fu""$ to a s$ste* of separation of powers. &ro* the a#ove: 5uote! e6/han e. "ater *ove! the provision on 5uestion hour fro* its ori ina" position as Se/tion . DA>IDE. Hou"! it #e. I hope Co**issioner Davi!e wi"" /onsi!er this. 9@IN9ONA.a*ir'.R. An essentia" feature of the par"ia*entar$ s$ste* of overn*ent is the i**e!iate a//ounta#i"it$ of the Pri*e .r. There was a spe/ifi/ provision for a 5uestion hour in the (+21 Constitution)E whi/h *a!e the appearan/e of *inisters *an!ator$.

. *ean that the "e is"ature is ren!ere! power"ess to e"i/it infor*ation fro* the* in a"" /ir/u*stan/es. the on"$ wa$ for !epart*ent hea!s to e6e*pt the*se"ves therefro* is #$ a va"i! /"ai* of privi"e e. Nonethe"ess.O. states that Con ress *a$ on"$ re5uest their appearan/e. therefore. #e$on! the rea/h of Con ress e6/ept throu h the power of i*pea/h*ent. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution. as it is present"$ un!erstoo! in this <uris!i/tion.(. The rea!in is !i/tate! #$ the #asi/ ru"e of /onstru/tion that . in view of its spe/ifi/ referen/e to Se/tion .)+ %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' Se/tions . B$ the sa*e token. *ust #e /onstrue! as "i*ite! in its app"i/ation to appearan/es of !epart*ent hea!s in the 5uestion hour /onte*p"ate! in the provision of sai! Se/tion .. the Court now pro/ee!s to pass on the /onstitutiona"it$ of Se/tion ( of E. Se/tion . when the in5uir$ in whi/h Con ress re5uires their appearan/e is Tin ai! of "e is"ationT un!er Se/tion . sin/e it !epen!s for its effe/tiveness so"e"$ upon infor*ation par/e"e! out e6 ratia #$ the e6e/utive.5uestion hour. Sen. hen/e..usti/e. whi"e /"ose"$ re"ate! an! /o*p"e*entar$ to ea/h other. of Arti/"e >I of the Constitution an! the a#sen/e of an$ referen/e to in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation. Hhen Con ress *ere"$ seeks to #e infor*e! on how !epart*ent hea!s are i*p"e*entin the statutes whi/h it has issue!.. an! the !ue respe/t a//or!e! to a /o:e5ua" #ran/h of overn*ent whi/h is san/tione! #$ a "on :stan!in /usto*. This is /onsistent with the intent !is/erne! fro* the !e"i#erations of the Constitutiona" Co**ission. if it is inte""i ent"$ to perfor* its "e is"ative tasks. whi"e the other pertains to the power to /on!u/t a 5uestion hour. @n"ess the Con ress possesses the ri ht to o#tain e6e/utive infor*ation. /o*para#"e to those whi/h e6ist un!er a par"ia*entar$ s$ste*. @"ti*ate"$. It is this ver$ separation that *akes the /on ressiona" ri ht to o#tain infor*ation fro* the e6e/utive so essentia". as Chief E6e/utive. GEG. the o#<e/tive of whi/h is to o#tain infor*ation in pursuit of Con ress3 oversi ht fun/tion. ea/h *e*#er thereof is e6e*pt on the #asis not on"$ of separation of powers #ut a"so on the fis/a" autono*$ an! the /onstitutiona" in!epen!en/e of the <u!i/iar$. This point is not in !ispute. it /annot frustrate the power of Con ress to "e is"ate #$ refusin to /o*p"$ with its !e*an!s for infor*ation. The$ are not e6e*pt #$ the *ere fa/t that the$ are !epart*ent hea!s. the power of Con ress to /o*pe" the appearan/e of e6e/utive offi/ia"s un!er Se/tion . The a#sen/e of /"ose rapport #etween the "e is"ative an! e6e/utive #ran/hes in this /ountr$. That !epart*ent hea!s *a$ not #e re5uire! to appear in a 5uestion hour !oes not.( an! .oker Arro$o. as even /ounse" for the Senate. It is #ase! on her #ein the hi hest offi/ia" of the e6e/utive #ran/h. In fa/t. it is that the Con ress has the ri ht to o#tain infor*ation fro* an$ sour/e X even fro* offi/ia"s of !epart*ents an! a en/ies in the e6e/utive #ran/h. the ai* of whi/h is to e"i/it infor*ation that *a$ #e use! for "e is"ation. In the @nite! States there is. if the fun/tions of the Con ress as the e"e/te! representatives of the peop"e are a!e5uate"$ to #e /arrie! out. fin! their #asis in the prin/ip"e of separation of powers. Hhi"e the e6e/utive #ran/h is a /o:e5ua" #ran/h of the "e is"ature. the oversi ht fun/tion of Con ress *a$ #e fa/i"itate! #$ /o*pu"sor$ pro/ess on"$ to the e6tent that it is perfor*e! in pursuit of "e is"ation.. in "i ht of the a#sen/e of a *an!ator$ 5uestion perio!.. in keepin with the separation of powers. su/h !epart*ent hea!s *ust ive a report of their perfor*an/e as a *atter of !ut$. <u!i/ia" power is veste! in a /o""e ia" #o!$K hen/e. shou"! not #e /onsi!ere! as pertainin to the sa*e power of Con ress. the appearan/e is *an!ator$ for the sa*e reasons state! in Arnau"t. *e*#ers of the Supre*e Court are a"so e6e*pt fro* this power of in5uir$.( an! the "a/k of it un!er Se/tion . an! the none6isten/e in the Con ress of an institution su/h as the British 5uestion perio! have perfor/e *a!e re"ian/e #$ the Con ress upon its ri ht to o#tain infor*ation fro* the e6e/utive essentia". !eparts fro* the 5uestion perio! of the par"ia*entar$ s$ste*. . its power of oversi ht of a!*inistration in a s$ste* su/h as ours #e/o*es a power !evoi! of *ost of its pra/ti/a" /ontent. its ri ht to su/h infor*ation is not as i*perative as that of the Presi!ent to who*.+0 In fine. a /"ear separation #etween the "e is"ative an! e6e/utive #ran/hes. As S/hwart4 o#serves: In!ee!. un"ike the situation whi/h prevai"s in a par"ia*entar$ s$ste* su/h as that in Britain. In su/h instan/es. Bavin esta#"ishe! the proper interpretation of Se/tion .. One spe/ifi/a""$ re"ates to the power to /on!u/t in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation. On"$ one e6e/utive offi/ia" *a$ #e e6e*pte! fro* this power S the Presi!ent on who* e6e/utive power is veste!. @n"ike the Presi!en/$. however.. Hhen Con ress e6er/ises its power of in5uir$. if the separation of powers has an$thin to te"" us on the su#<e/t un!er !is/ussion. of Arti/"e >I.. the nee! to enfor/e Con ress3 ri ht to e6e/utive infor*ation in the perfor*an/e of its "e is"ative fun/tion #e/o*es *ore i*perative. a!*itte! it !urin the ora" ar u*ent upon interpe""ation of the Chief . Se/tion (.

however. A!heren/e To The Ru"e On E6e/utive Privi"e e An! Respe/t &or The Ri hts Of Pu#"i/ Offi/ia"s Appearin In ?e is"ative In5uiries In Ai! Of ?e is"ation @n!er The Constitution. as !is/usse! a#ove. !epart*ent hea!s.T su/h offi/ia" is su#<e/te! to the re5uire*ent that he first se/ure the /onsent of the Presi!ent prior to appearin #efore Con ress. @pon a !eter*ination #$ the !esi nate! hea! of offi/e or #$ the Presi!ent that an offi/ia" is T/overe! #$ the e6e/utive privi"e e. Se/tion ( /annot. there is an i*p"ie! /"ai* of privi"e e.).T a*ounts to an i*p"ie! /"ai* that the infor*ation is #ein withhe"! #$ the e6e/utive #ran/h.%#' to se/ure the /onsent of the Presi!ent prior to appearin #efore either house of Con ress. The Court sha"" thus pro/ee! on the assu*ption that this is the intention of the /ha""en e! or!er. has !eter*ine! that the re5ueste! infor*ation is privi"e e!.issuan/es *ust #e interprete!. however. GEG whi/h !ea"s with the nature. authori4e! #$ the Presi!ent un!er E.O. This !eter*ination then #e/o*es the #asis for the offi/ia"3s not showin up in the "e is"ative investi ation. an! that the Presi!ent has not reverse! su/h !eter*ination. that su/h offi/ia" is in possession of infor*ation that is /overe! #$ e6e/utive privi"e e. privi"e e! as !efine! in Se/tion . En passant. un"ess a va"i! /"ai* of privi"e e is su#se5uent"$ *a!e.O.%#' of E. either #$ the Presi!ent herse"f or #$ the E6e/utive Se/retar$. In view thereof. E6e/utive privi"e e. a"" offi/ers of the A&P an! the PNP. . Sai! offi/ia"s have not se/ure! the re5uire! /onsent fro* the Presi!ent.00. on the #asis of e6e/utive privi"e e.O. S/ope an! Covera e of E6e/utive Privi"e eT S. "i*ite! as it is on"$ to appearan/es in the 5uestion hour. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution. pursuant to E6e/utive Or!er No.O. in the <u! *ent of the hea!s of offi/es !esi nate! in the sa*e se/tion %i. >eri"$. An! &or Other PurposesT. This re5uire*ent effe/tive"$ #ars the appearan/e of the offi/ia" /on/erne! un"ess the sa*e is per*itte! #$ the Presi!ent.e. Su/h !e/"aration. #e app"ie! to appearan/es of !epart*ent hea!s in in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation.. an! the Nationa" Se/urit$ A!viser'. 9iven the tit"e of Se/tion . whenever an offi/ia" invokes E. GEG. of Se/ . #$ authorit$ of the Presi!ent. The re5uire*ent then to se/ure presi!entia" /onsent un!er Se/tion (. as *u/h as possi#"e. even without *entionin the ter* Te6e/utive privi"e e. is va"i! on its fa/e. Su/h is a *isuse of the !o/trine. su/h invo/ation *ust #e /onstrue! as a !e/"aration to Con ress that the Presi!ent. s/ope an! /overa e of e6e/utive privi"e e. .O. The "etter !ate! Septe*#er .00. Con ress is not #oun! in su/h instan/es to respe/t the refusa" of the !epart*ent hea! to appear in su/h in5uir$.. Thus. is proper"$ invoke! in re"ation to spe/ifi/ /ate ories of infor*ation an! not to /ate ories of persons. it is evi!ent that un!er the ru"e of e<us!e* eneris. in a wa$ that wi"" ren!er it /onstitutiona". Chief of the PNP.. GEG. >a"i!it$ of Se/tions . Chief of Staff of the A&P. In "i ht. the appearan/e of !epart*ent hea!s in the 5uestion hour is !is/retionar$ on their part. p"ease #e infor*e! that offi/ia"s of the E6e/utive Depart*ent invite! to appear at the *eetin wi"" not #e a#"e to atten! the sa*e without the /onsent of the Presi!ent. GEG. The enu*eration is #roa!. are T/overe! #$ the e6e/utive privi"e e. S TNature. the referen/e to persons #ein T/overe! #$ the e6e/utive privi"e eT *a$ #e rea! as an a##reviate! wa$ of sa$in that the person is in possession of infor*ation whi/h is.+ Septe*#er . the !eter*ination #$ the Presi!ent un!er this provision is inten!e! to #e #ase! on a si*i"ar fin!in of /overa e un!er e6e/utive privi"e e. It /overs a"" senior offi/ia"s of e6e/utive !epart*ents.*. It rea!s: In /onne/tion with the in5uir$ to #e /on!u/te! #$ the Co**ittee of the Hho"e re ar!in the Northrai" Pro<e/t of the North ?u4on Rai"wa$s Corporation on . The proviso a""owin the Presi!ent to ive its /onsent *eans nothin *ore than that the Presi!ent *a$ reverse a prohi#ition whi/h a"rea!$ e6ists #$ virtue of E.at (0:00 a. GEG re5uires a"" the pu#"i/ offi/ia"s enu*erate! in Se/tion .T The enu*eration a"so in/"u!es su/h other offi/ers as *a$ #e !eter*ine! #$ the Presi!ent. the Court notes that Se/tion . GEG to <ustif$ his fai"ure to #e present. un!er"$in this re5uire*ent of prior /onsent is the !eter*ination #$ a hea! of offi/e. or #$ the Presi!ent herse"f.O. in the <u! *ent of the hea! of offi/e /on/erne!. &or un!er Se/tion .O. however. %@n!ers/orin supp"ie!' The "etter !oes not e6p"i/it"$ invoke e6e/utive privi"e e or that the *atter on whi/h these offi/ia"s are #ein re5ueste! to #e resour/e persons fa""s un!er the . GEG %s.00-'. or a hea! of offi/e authori4e! #$ the Presi!ent.%a'.of respon!ent E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita to Senate Presi!ent Dri"on i""ustrates the i*p"ie! nature of the /"ai* of privi"e e authori4e! #$ E. an! 1 Se/tion 1 of E. entit"e! TEnsurin O#servan/e Of The Prin/ip"e Of Separation Of Powers. an! a"" senior nationa" se/urit$ offi/ia"s who. GEG virtua""$ states that e6e/utive privi"e e a/tua""$ /overs persons.%a' of E.

therefore. free fro* the "are of pu#"i/it$ an! pressure #$ intereste! parties. Con ress is "eft to spe/u"ate as to whi/h a*on the* is #ein referre! to #$ the e6e/utive. The enu*eration is not even inten!e! to #e /o*prehensive. It is not to #e "i ht"$ invoke!. an! $et !o so without for/in a !is/"osure of the ver$ thin the privi"e e is !esi ne! to prote/t. /"ose!:!oor Ca#inet *eetin s. is essentia" to prote/t the in!epen!en/e of !e/ision:*akin of those taske! to e6er/ise Presi!entia". Inevita#"$. That the *essa e is /ou/he! in ter*s that. et/. As @. ?e is"ative an! . .O. E6e/utive Se/retar$ Er*ita3s "etter "ea!s to the /on/"usion that the e6e/utive #ran/h. that the invite! offi/ia" possesses infor*ation that is /overe! #$ e6e/utive privi"e e. The infor*ation !oes not /over Presi!entia" /onversations. there is no wa$ of !eter*inin whether it fa""s un!er one of the tra!itiona" privi"e es. As e6p"aine! ear"ier. !e"i#erate"$ or not. Hhi"e there is no Phi"ippine /ase that !ire/t"$ a!!resses the issue of whether e6e/utive privi"e e *a$ #e invoke! a ainst Con ress. an! that the Presi!ent has not overturne! that !eter*ination. v. are re/o ni4e! as /onfi!entia". Thus. A /"ai* of privi"e e. has *a!e a !eter*ination that the infor*ation re5uire! #$ the Senate is privi"e e!. #$ the !esi nate! hea! of offi/e or the Presi!ent. GEG. in an i*p"ie! /"ai* of privi"e e. Su/h !e/"aration "eaves Con ress in the !ark on how the re5ueste! infor*ation /ou"! #e /"assifie! as privi"e e!. "ike interna":!e"i#erations of the Supre*e Court an! other /o""e iate /ourts. are "eft unstate!. GEG. an! as !e*onstrate! #$ the "etter of respon!ent E6e/utive Se/retar$ 5uote! a#ove. /annot #e !is*isse! outri ht as inva"i! #$ the *ere fa/t that it san/tions /"ai*s of e6e/utive privi"e e. after a/tua" persona" /onsi!eration #$ that offi/er. The "etter assu*es that the invite! offi/ia"s are /overe! #$ E. it on"$ *eans that the Presi!ent has not reverse! the stan!in prohi#ition a ainst their appearan/e #efore Con ress. either throu h the Presi!ent or the hea!s of offi/es authori4e! un!er E. an! that. Re$no"!s tea/hes: The privi"e e #e"on s to the overn*ent an! *ust #e asserte! #$ itK it /an neither #e /"ai*e! nor waive! #$ a private part$. it is athere! fro* Chave4 v.u!i/ia" power. Hhi"e the va"i!it$ of /"ai*s of privi"e e *ust #e assesse! on a /ase to /ase #asis. there is. on first i*pression. There *ust #e a for*a" /"ai* of privi"e e. therefore. a"thou h it is not state! in the "etter that su/h !eter*ination has #een *a!e. Si nifi/ant pre*ises in this "etter. e6a*inin the roun! invoke! therefor an! the parti/u"ar /ir/u*stan/es surroun!in it. #e /"ear"$ asserte!. *ust. This Court *ust "ook further an! assess the /"ai* of privi"e e authori4e! #$ the Or!er to !eter*ine whether it is va"i!. Respe/tin the state*ent that the invite! offi/ia"s have not se/ure! the /onsent of the Presi!ent.S. #ut a *ere state*ent of what is in/"u!e! in the phrase T/onfi!entia" or /"assifie! infor*ation #etween the Presi!ent an! the pu#"i/ offi/ers /overe! #$ this e6e/utive or!er.T Certain"$.'. whether the infor*ation !e*an!e! invo"ves *i"itar$ or !ip"o*ati/ se/rets. Thus. This is not the situation in the instant /ase. The /ourt itse"f *ust !eter*ine whether the /ir/u*stan/es are appropriate for the /"ai* of privi"e e. a !efe/t that ren!ers it inva"i! per se. /orrespon!en/es. an i*p"ie! /"ai* of privi"e e has #een *a!e #$ the e6e/utive. iven the /ir/u*stan/es in whi/h it is *a!e. #ein a /"ai* of e6e*ption fro* an o#"i ation to !is/"ose infor*ation.%a' enu*erates the t$pes of infor*ation that are /overe! #$ the privi"e e un!er the /ha""en e! or!er. has !eter*ine! that it is so.. or whether. It !oes not suffi/e to *ere"$ !e/"are that the Presi!ent.O. at the ti*e of writin .re/o ni4e! roun!s of the privi"e e to <ustif$ their a#sen/e. Hhi"e Se/tion .+. GEG. or e6e/utive sessions of either house of Con ress. Nor !oes it e6press"$ state that in view of the "a/k of /onsent fro* the Presi!ent un!er E. to #e /overe! #$ the or!er *eans that a !eter*ination has #een *a!e. This kin! of infor*ation /annot #e prie! open #$ a /o:e5ua" #ran/h of overn*ent. the /ase ho"!s: There is no /"ai* #$ PEA that the infor*ation !e*an!e! #$ petitioner is privi"e e! infor*ation roote! in the separation of powers. the$ /annot atten! the hearin . the i*p"ie! /"ai* authori4e! #$ Se/tion 1 of E. It threatens to *ake Con ress !ou#"$ #"in! to the 5uestion of wh$ the e6e/utive #ran/h is not provi!in it with the infor*ation that it has re5ueste!. PEA that /ertain infor*ation in the possession of the e6e/utive *a$ va"i!"$ #e /"ai*e! as privi"e e! even a ainst Con ress. GEG is not a//o*panie! #$ an$ spe/ifi/ a""e ation of the #asis thereof %e. or !is/ussions !urin /"ose!:!oor Ca#inet *eetin s whi/h. it shou"! #e . A frank e6/han e of e6p"orator$ i!eas an! assess*ents. +( %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' Se/tion 1 of E. Con ress has the ri ht to know wh$ the e6e/utive /onsi!ers the re5ueste! infor*ation privi"e e!. the sa*e *ust #e !ee*e! i*p"ie!. %@n!ers/orin supp"ie!' A#sent then a state*ent of the spe/ifi/ #asis of a /"ai* of e6e/utive privi"e e.O. or an authori4e! hea! of offi/e. "o! e! #$ the hea! of the !epart*ent whi/h has /ontro" over the *atter.O.O. !o not see* "ike a /"ai* of privi"e e on"$ *akes it *ore perni/ious. there has #een no /ontrar$ pronoun/e*ent fro* the Presi!ent. however. GEG. In fine. however. B$ its ver$ nature.

To fin! these interro atories o#<e/tiona#"e. the Court /an not re/o ni4e the /"ai* in the instant /ase #e/ause it is "e a""$ insuffi/ient to a""ow the Court to *ake a <ust an! reasona#"e !eter*ination as to its app"i/a#i"it$. an assu*ption in whi/h this Court is unwi""in to in!u" e sua sponte. Arti/"e of Dru :+2 On the present state of the re/or!.(01 A usefu" ana"o $ in !eter*inin the re5uisite !e ree of parti/u"arit$ wou"! #e the privi"e e a ainst se"f:in/ri*ination. an!O /annot #e /on!one!. @. 2.+1 These. were re5uire! to prove the ha4ar! in the sense in whi/h a /"ai* is usua""$ re5uire! to #e esta#"ishe! in /ourt. upon interposin his /"ai*. a !e/ent respe/t for the Bouse of Representatives. in the settin in whi/h it is aske!. it is i*possi#"e for a /ourt to ana"$4e the /"ai* short of !is/"osure of the ver$ thin sou ht to #e prote/te!. overn*ent asserts. enera""$.T 6 6 6 %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' . The overn*ent has not shown X nor even a""e e! X that those who eva"uate! /"ai*ant3s pro!u/t were invo"ve! in interna" po"i/$*akin . v. #$ whose authorit$ the su#poenas issue!. thus: A for*a" an! proper /"ai* of e6e/utive privi"e e re5uires a spe/ifi/ !esi nation an! !es/ription of the !o/u*ents within its s/ope as we"" as pre/ise an! /ertain reasons for preservin their /onfi!entia"it$. *ore in point. or in this parti/u"ar instan/e. In statin its o#<e/tion to /"ai*ant3s interro atories. the Court has "itt"e *ore than its sua sponte spe/u"ation with whi/h to wei h the app"i/a#i"it$ of the /"ai*. 11+ @. Depart*ent of Ener $++ si*i"ar"$ e*phasi4es that Tan a en/$ *ust provi!e Mpre/ise an! /ertain3 reasons for preservin the /onfi!entia"it$ of re5ueste! infor*ation. this Court wou"! have to assu*e that the eva"uation an! /"assifi/ation of /"ai*ant3s pro!u/ts was a *atter of interna" po"i/$ for*u"ation.(0( %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' Due respe/t for a /o:e5ua" #ran/h of overn*ent.T B"a/k v.respe/te!. Su/h a state*ent wou"! have iven the Su#/o**ittee an opportunit$ to avoi! the #"o/kin of its in5uir$ #$ takin other appropriate steps to o#tain the re/or!s. Thus. there#$ preventin the Court fro* #a"an/in su/h har* a ainst p"aintiffs3 nee!s to !eter*ine whether to overri!e an$ /"ai*s of privi"e e.3 Bowever.(0G !e/"ares: The witness is not e6onerate! fro* answerin *ere"$ #e/ause he !e/"ares that in so !oin he wou"! in/ri*inate hi*se"f X his sa$:so !oes not of itse"f esta#"ish the ha4ar! of in/ri*ination.+E %@n!ers/orin supp"ie!' An! so is @. Sheraton Corp. is hi h"$ re"evant to these 5uestions.o#i" Oi" Corp. MTo !en$ the Co**ittee the opportunit$ to /onsi!er the o#<e/tion or re*e!$ is in itse"f a /onte*pt of its authorit$ an! an o#stru/tion of its pro/esses./Phau" v. Apropos is the fo""owin ru"in in . in su#stan/e. !espite the fa/t that a /"ai* was *a!e #$ the proper e6e/utive as Re$no"!s re5uires. Br$an. He think the Court3s !e/ision in @nite! States v. it nee! on"$ #e evi!ent fro* the i*p"i/ations of the 5uestion. Ct. The fa/ts upon whi/h the privi"e e is #ase! *ust #e esta#"ishe!. if the witness. &e!era" Tra!e Co**ission is en"i htenin : NTOhe "a/k of spe/ifi/it$ ren!ers an assess*ent of the potentia" har* resu"tin fro* !is/"osure i*possi#"e. an! to re5uire hi* to answer if Mit /"ear"$ appears to the /ourt that he is *istaken. Ni6on.T %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!K /itations o*itte!' @pon the other han!. he wou"! #e /o*pe""e! to surren!er the ver$ prote/tion whi/h the privi"e e is !esi ne! to uarantee. As the affi!avit now stan!s.+A. Privi"e e /annot #e set up #$ an unsupporte! /"ai*. a ainst a /o**ittee of the Senate in Senate Se"e/t Co**ittee on Presi!entia" Ca*pai n A/tivities v. Boff*an v. that Mif %petitioner' ha! "e iti*ate reasons for fai"in to pro!u/e the re/or!s of the asso/iation.S.1. this Court is not /a""e! upon to perfor* this #a"an/in operation. of A*eri/a(00 a*p"ifies. that a responsive answer to the 5uestion or an e6p"anation of wh$ it /annot #e answere! *i ht #e !an erous #e/ause in<urious !is/"osure /ou"! resu"t. It is for the /ourt to sa$ whether his si"en/e is <ustifie!.S.S. Therefore. Con ress *ust not re5uire the e6e/utive to state the reasons for the /"ai* with su/h parti/u"arit$ as to /o*pe" !is/"osure of the infor*ation whi/h the privi"e e is *eant to prote/t. v. were the sa*e /riteria in assessin the /"ai* of privi"e e asserte! a ainst the O*#u!s*an in A"*onte v.+) %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' . To re/o ni4e su/h a #roa! /"ai* in whi/h the Defen!ant has iven no pre/ise or /o*pe""in reasons to shie"! these !o/u*ents fro* outsi!e s/rutin$. 20 S. *oreover. that the !is/"osures sou ht #$ /"ai*ant wou"! inhi#it the free e6pression of opinion that non:!is/"osure is !esi ne! to prote/t. 1. wou"! *ake a far/e of the who"e pro/e!ure. Bis fai"ure to *ake an$ su/h state*ent was Ta patent evasion of the !ut$ of one su**one! to pro!u/e papers #efore a /on ressiona" /o**itteeN.S:(0. wou"! have re5uire! that %he' state %his' reasons for non/o*p"ian/e upon the return of the writ. Hithout this spe/ifi/it$. An i*proper"$ asserte! /"ai* of privi"e e is no /"ai* of privi"e e.G. !e*an!s no "ess than a /"ai* of privi"e e /"ear"$ statin the roun!s therefor.O. >as5ue4+G an!. To sustain the privi"e e. S*ith v. &or it is as true here as it was there. @. an! nothin *ore.

%#' in re"ation to Se/tion 1 virtua""$ provi!es that. an! not with the !e*an!s of /iti4ens for infor*ation pursuant to their ri ht to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern. #in!in on"$ on the hea!s of offi/e *entione! in Se/tion .O. That su/h authori4ation is part"$ *otivate! #$ the nee! to ensure respe/t for su/h offi/ia"s !oes not /han e the infir* nature of the authori4ation itse"f. Se/tion 1 an! Se/tion . E6e/utive privi"e e. GEG. the Presi!ent *a$ not authori4e her su#or!inates to e6er/ise su/h power. It severe"$ frustrates the power of in5uir$ of Con ress. In other wor!s. The Court notes that one of the e6presse! purposes for re5uirin offi/ia"s to se/ure the /onsent of the Presi!ent un!er Se/tion 1 of E. It *a$ thus #e /onstrue! as a *ere e6pression of opinion #$ the Presi!ent re ar!in the nature an! s/ope of e6e/utive privi"e e. Ri ht to Infor*ation E. for whi/h reason it *ust #e inva"i!ate!. is further inva"i! on this s/ore. Petitioners. /ites the /ase of the @nite! States where. GEG *ust #e inva"i!ate!. su/h !eter*ination is presu*e! to #ear the Presi!ent3s authorit$ an! has the effe/t of prohi#itin the offi/ia" fro* appearin #efore Con ress. in re"ation to Se/tion . the ne/essit$ *ust #e of su/h hi h !e ree as to outwei h the pu#"i/ interest in enfor/in that o#"i ation in a parti/u"ar /ase.T whi/h *eans that he persona""$ /onsu"te! with her. These provisions thus a""ow the Presi!ent to authori4e /"ai*s of privi"e e #$ *ere si"en/e. so it /"ai*s. The privi"e e #ein . Su/h presu*ptive authori4ation.O GEG is /on/erne! on"$ with the !e*an!s of Con ress for the appearan/e of e6e/utive offi/ia"s in the hearin s /on!u/te! #$ it. It is *ere"$ i*p"ie!.%#' of E. is /ontrar$ to the e6/eptiona" nature of the privi"e e.%#'. after the "apse of that reasona#"e ti*e. as a *atter of ne/essit$. an e6e*ption fro* the o#"i ation to !is/"ose infor*ation. however. in his own <u! *ent. Petitioner Senate of the Phi"ippines. If. it is /"ear that it is essentia""$ an authori4ation for i*p"ie! /"ai*s of e6e/utive privi"e e. GEG is to ensure Trespe/t for the ri hts of pu#"i/ offi/ia"s appearin in in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation. Petitioners are not a*iss in /"ai*in . that what is . in this /ase to Con ress. In "i ht of this hi h"$ e6/eptiona" nature of the privi"e e. in parti/u"ar. No infir*it$. GEG in re"ation to Se/tion .O. Con ress is no "on er #oun! to respe/t the fai"ure of the offi/ia" to appear #efore Con ress an! *a$ then opt to avai" of the ne/essar$ "e a" *eans to /o*pe" his appearan/e.O. #$ !efinition. Se/tion 1. therefore. #e kept /onfi!entia" in pursuit of the pu#"i/ interest.T In "i ht of the a#ove !is/ussion of Se/tion 1.(0E The !o/trine of e6e/utive privi"e e is thus pre*ise! on the fa/t that /ertain infor*ations *ust. on/e the hea! of offi/e !eter*ines that a /ertain infor*ation is privi"e e!. The privi"e e #ein an e6traor!inar$ power. *i ht #e /overe! #$ e6e/utive privi"e e. in whi/h /ase the E6e/utive Se/retar$ *ust state that the authorit$ is TB$ or!er of the Presi!ent.%#' is thus inva"i! per se.%#'.T That su/h ri hts *ust in!ee! #e respe/te! #$ Con ress is an e/ho fro* Arti/"e >I Se/tion . Se/tion . however. Instea! of provi!in pre/ise an! /ertain reasons for the /"ai*. as a"rea!$ !is/usse!. the Court fin!s it essentia" to "i*it to the Presi!ent the power to invoke the privi"e e. he *ust #e affor!e! reasona#"e ti*e to infor* the Presi!ent or the E6e/utive Se/retar$ of the possi#"e nee! for invokin the privi"e e. that when an offi/ia" is #ein su**one! #$ Con ress on a *atter whi/h. She *a$ of /ourse authori4e the E6e/utive Se/retar$ to invoke the privi"e e on her #eha"f.or in those instan/es where e6e*ption fro* !is/"osure is ne/essar$ to the !is/har e of hi h"$ i*portant e6e/utive responsi#i"ities. It fo""ows. It is woefu""$ insuffi/ient for Con ress to !eter*ine whether the withho"!in of infor*ation is <ustifie! un!er the /ir/u*stan/es of ea/h /ase. neither the Presi!ent nor the E6e/utive Se/retar$ invokes the privi"e e. however.( of the Constitution *an!atin that TNtOhe ri hts of persons appearin in or affe/te! #$ su/h in5uiries sha"" #e respe/te!. /an #e i*pute! to Se/tion . It !oes not purport to #e /on/"usive on the other #ran/hes of overn*ent. There is even "ess reason to upho"! su/h authori4ation in the instant /ase where the authori4ation is not e6p"i/it #ut #$ *ere si"en/e.The /"ai* of privi"e e un!er Se/tion 1 of E.%a' as it *ere"$ provi!es ui!e"ines. it *ere"$ invokes E. it *ust #e wie"!e! on"$ #$ the hi hest offi/ia" in the e6e/utive hierar/h$. however.O. It is not asserte!. In fine. su#<e/t on"$ to the e6press pronoun/e*ent of the Presi!ent that it is a""owin the appearan/e of su/h offi/ia". on what is /overe! #$ e6e/utive privi"e e.%#'. /oup"e! with an announ/e*ent that the Presi!ent has not iven her /onsent. assert as another roun! for inva"i!atin the /ha""en e! or!er the a""e e! un"awfu" !e"e ation of authorit$ to the hea!s of offi/es in Se/tion . on"$ the Presi!ent /an assert e6e/utive privi"e e to withho"! infor*ation fro* Con ress. is re/o ni4e! with respe/t to infor*ation the /onfi!entia" nature of whi/h is /ru/ia" to the fu"fi""*ent of the uni5ue ro"e an! responsi#i"ities of the e6e/utive #ran/h. This is ne/essar$ in or!er to provi!e the Presi!ent or the E6e/utive Se/retar$ with fair opportunit$ to /onsi!er whether the *atter in!ee! /a""s for a /"ai* of e6e/utive privi"e e. (0.

O. Otherwise. a""ow the e6e/utive #ran/h to eva!e /on ressiona" re5uests for infor*ation without nee! of /"ear"$ assertin a ri ht to !o so an!Cor profferin its reasons therefor. an$ e6e/utive issuan/e ten!in to un!u"$ "i*it !is/"osures of infor*ation in su/h investi ations ne/essari"$ !eprives the peop"e of infor*ation whi/h. The /iti4ens are there#$ !enie! a//ess to infor*ation whi/h the$ /an use in for*u"atin their own opinions on the *atter #efore Con ress S opinions whi/h the$ /an then /o**uni/ate to their representatives an! other overn*ent offi/ia"s throu h the various "e a" *eans a""owe! #$ their free!o* of e6pression. It sure"$ /annot #e sai! that su/h a "aw !oes not affe/t the pu#"i/ a"thou h it un5uestiona#"$ !oes not app"$ !ire/t"$ to a"" the peop"e. It is. therefore.invo"ve! in the present /ontrovers$ is not *ere"$ the "e is"ative power of in5uir$. e6/ept in a hi h"$ 5ua"ifie! sense. #ein presu*e! to #e in ai! of "e is"ation. #ut the ri ht of the peop"e to infor*ation. it #ears notin . a *atter of pu#"i/ interest whi/h *e*#ers of the #o!$ po"iti/ *a$ 5uestion #efore this Court. %@n!ers/orin supp"ie!'(0+ Resort to an$ *eans then #$ whi/h offi/ia"s of the e6e/utive #ran/h /ou"! refuse to !ivu" e infor*ation /annot #e presu*e! va"i!. E.O. Neither !oes the ri ht to infor*ation rant a /iti4en the power to e6a/t testi*on$ fro* overn*ent offi/ia"s. &or one. Con/"usion Con ress un!ou#te!"$ has a ri ht to infor*ation fro* the e6e/utive #ran/h whenever it is sou ht in ai! of "e is"ation. The infir* provisions of E. B$ the *ere e6pe!ient of invokin sai! provisions.O. Due pro/ess thus re5uires that the peop"e shou"! have #een apprise! of this issuan/e #efore it was i*p"e*ente!.(02 %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' The i*pair*ent of the ri ht of the peop"e to infor*ation as a /onse5uen/e of E.O. this open !ia"o ue /an #e effe/tive on"$ to the e6tent that the /iti4enr$ is infor*e! an! thus a#"e to for*u"ate its wi"" inte""i ent"$. it *ust so assert it an! state the reason therefor an! wh$ it *ust #e respe/te!. Thus ho"!s >a"*onte v. I*p"e*entation of E. we sha"" not have *ere"$ nu""ifie! the power of our "e is"ature to in5uire into the operations .(0) %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' A"thou h the a#ove state*ent was *a!e in referen/e to statutes. that in ever$ e6er/ise of its power of in5uir$. On"$ when the parti/ipants in the !is/ussion are aware of the issues an! have a//ess to infor*ation re"atin thereto /an su/h #ear fruit. These powers #e"on on"$ to Con ress an! not to an in!ivi!ua" /iti4en. #ase! on the !ivine ri ht of kin s an! no#"es. TaFa!a v. There are. /"ear !istin/tions #etween the ri ht of Con ress to infor*ation whi/h un!er"ies the power of in5uir$ an! the ri ht of the peop"e to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern. Be"*onte: It is in the interest of the State that the /hanne"s for free po"iti/a" !is/ussion #e *aintaine! to the en! that the overn*ent *a$ per/eive an! #e responsive to the peop"e3s wi"". As e6p"aine! a#ove. it !oes not fo""ow. therefore. The su#<e/t of su/h "aw is a *atter of pu#"i/ interest whi/h an$ *e*#er of the #o!$ po"iti/ *a$ 5uestion in the po"iti/a" foru*s or. even in /ourts of <usti/e. however. <ust as !ire/t as its vio"ation of the "e is"ature3s power of in5uir$. "o i/ !i/tates that the /ha""en e! or!er *ust #e /overe! #$ the pu#"i/ation re5uire*ent. If the e6e/utive #ran/h withho"!s su/h infor*ation on the roun! that it is privi"e e!. GEG app"ies on"$ to offi/ia"s of the e6e/utive #ran/h. &or NwOhat repu#"i/an theor$ !i! a//o*p"ishVwas to reverse the o"! presu*ption in favor of se/re/$. the !e*an! of a /iti4en for the pro!u/tion of !o/u*ents pursuant to his ri ht to infor*ation !oes not have the sa*e o#"i ator$ for/e as a su#poena !u/es te/u* issue! #$ Con ress. #ase! on the !o/trine of popu"ar soverei nt$. if he is a proper part$. is presu*e! to #e a *atter of pu#"i/ /on/ern. GEG prior to its pu#"i/ation Hhi"e E. Tuvera states: The ter* T"awsT shou"! refer to a"" "aws an! not on"$ to those of enera" app"i/ation. "ike a re"ative of Presi!ent . GEG is.ar/os who was !e/ree! instant natura"i4ation. for stri/t"$ speakin a"" "aws re"ate to the peop"e in enera" a"#eit there are so*e that !o not app"$ to the* !ire/t"$. however. Aet. it !oes not fo""ow that the sa*e is e6e*pt fro* the nee! for pu#"i/ation. the power of Con ress to /on!u/t in5uiries in ai! of "e is"ation is frustrate!. GEG has a !ire/t effe/t on the ri ht of the peop"e to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern. That is i*per*issi#"e. whi"e Con ress is /o*pose! of representatives e"e/te! #$ the peop"e. On the nee! for pu#"ishin even those statutes that !o not !ire/t"$ app"$ to peop"e in enera". An e6a*p"e is a "aw rantin /iti4enship to a parti/u"ar in!ivi!ua". in the sense e6p"aine! a#ove. the peop"e are e6er/isin their ri ht to infor*ation.O. Thus. GEG. To the e6tent that investi ations in ai! of "e is"ation are enera""$ /on!u/te! in pu#"i/. an! rep"a/e it with a presu*ption in favor of pu#"i/it$.

00-'. Se/tions .T are !e/"are! >OID. !: :R..R.*R*. the petitions are PART?A 9RANTED. GEG %series of . G. Se/tions ( an! . an! &or Other Purposes. however.of overn*ent. HBERE&ORE. #ut we sha"" have iven up so*ethin of *u/h reater va"ue X our ri ht as a peop"e to take part in overn*ent. 1677>8 -p'il 1>. TEnsurin O#servan/e of the Prin/ip"e of Separation of Powers. 2006 .%a' are. A!heren/e to the Ru"e on E6e/utive Privi"e e an! Respe/t for the Ri hts of Pu#"i/ Offi/ia"s Appearin in ?e is"ative In5uiries in Ai! of ?e is"ation @n!er the Constitution. >A?ID. No.%#' an! 1 of E6e/utive Or!er No.

C.*R-AB:N :1 C-/:R ?NB:N!. -%-.:R A.0. .HBC?!-NG %-G: ?N:. C:R*N@: R. Rep. prohi#ition.ENT TBE SA.*NRB(?*@ of H-R-P-A-N.-P?C-NG. -G-/BN.-R-?CC: "n# R*N-A: %.*-N P-5B1B5: <. !<-R:N R. oo! overnan/e is a *a<or thrust of this A!*inistrationK .: G-A BN5B:NG. . To ensure reater /onvenien/e for those transa/tin overn*ent an! those avai"in of overn*ent servi/esK #usiness with the /-G-N %?N.*! of the N-AB:N-C 5:?N5BC :1 5<?R5<*! BN A<* P<BCBPPBN*!. -doption of a unified multi<purpose identification =.a/apa a":Arro$o on (1 Apri" .ENT A@TBORITA TO I. *.: *R%BA-. "n# /R:. an! *an!a*us un!er Ru"e E.BN-N.?R*%. in hi c"p"city " . vs.B:. 1*R.i'ecto'. "n# A<* !*5R*A-RG.S. issue! #$ Presi!ent 9"oria . GC:RB. G-BA* of 5:?R-G*. A<*R*1:R*. 6:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::6 G. .. Respon!ents. JR. EO G.R.Gene'"l of the N-AB:N-C *5:N:%B5 "n# .*E*C:P%*NA -?A<:RBAG 7N*. 5-RR-N@-. of /-G-N.?-N. Presi!ent of the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines #$ virtue of the powers veste! in *e #$ "aw. 1*RN-N. Rep. 5-R:C P-G-. 1R-N5B! G. rea!s: /. whi"e *akin it in/onvenient for in!ivi!ua"s to #e ho"!in severa" i!entifi/ation /ar!sK . /*CAR-N.BBB.%?N. A-F-.BC1R*. Respon!ents. vs. *%BCB. an! prevent vio"ations of "aws invo"vin fa"se na*es an! i!entities. *!5?.-8 "n# the -#)ini t'"to' of the N-AB:N-C !A-AB!AB5! :11B5* 7N!:8. HBC?!-NG %-G: ?N: 7N-1C?.ENT A9ENCIES AND 9O>ERN. %-RABN A.%-5-P-G-C. R*G*!. C-N. :5-%P:.0 %EO G. !-CE-.:R.G*A "n# %-N-G*%*NA.net @ A"" overn*ent a en/ies. @B-C5BA-. JR.P. This /ase invo"ves two /onso"i!ate! petitions for /ertiorari. AND A@TBORIJIN9 &OR S@CB P@RPOSE TBE DIRECTOR:9ENERA?. 5?!A:.?INE AND BAR. A-P-NG of -G<-%.?-R. R:%?C: N*RB. J:!*CBA: E. *.*R:. 5-!BF:.<*R*-!. JR. J. G. enhan/e the inte rit$ an! re"ia#i"it$ of overn*ent:issue! i!entifi/ation /ar!s in private transa/tions. A-N. 2006 RE=@IRIN9 A?? 9O>ERN. N:. *.H%?8. B.<*R*-!. GB:E-NNB -. there is ur ent nee! to strea*"ine an! inte rate the pro/esses an! issuan/e of i!entifi/ation /ar!s in overn*ent to re!u/e /osts an! to provi!e reater /onvenien/e for those transa/tin #usiness with overn*entK .0' on the roun! that it is un/onstitutiona". G-/RB*C. 167>30 -p'il 1>. R*N-A: 5:N!A-NABN:. !o here#$ !ire/t the fo""owin : !ection 1.-RR:G:. seekin the nu""ifi/ation of E6e/utive Or!er No. EBR-. ?!A-R*@..<*R*-!.R.!avvphil. Petitioners. "n# J:*C G. To re!u/e /osts an! there#$ "essen the finan/ia" #ur!en on #oth the overn*ent an! the pu#"i/ #rou ht a#out #$ the use of *u"tip"e ID /ar!s an! the *aintenan/e of re!un!ant !ata#ase /ontainin the sa*e or re"ate! infor*ationK #. . are here#$ !ire/te! to a!opt a unifie! *u"ti:purpose ID s$ste* to ensure the attain*ent of the fo""owin o#<e/tives: a.<*R*-!. To fa/i"itate private #usinesses an! pro*ote the wi!er use of the unifie! ID /ar! as provi!e! un!er this e6e/utive or!erK .P?E.of the Ru"es of Court. A<* . A*:. %-@-. in hi c"p"city " *9ecuti2e !ec'et"'y.*P-RA%*NA :1 /?. N-AB:N-C *5:N:%B5 . -N-HP-. ... "n# R:(?* %.G*N*R-C. in/"u!in overn*ent:owne! an! /ontro""e! /orporations.G-R5B-. -NA:NB: C.E. Petitioners.*@ 71!58 of the -!!:5B-AB:N :1 %-J:R R*CBGB:?! !?P*RB:R! :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*! 7-%R!P8.: 5.: C. ABNB: of -5A. %-RB* <BC-:. a unifie! i!entifi/ation s$ste* wi"" fa/i"itate private #usinesses. %-RB-N: "n# 5RB!PBN /. DECISION 5-RPB:.ONIJE TBEIR IDENTI&ICATION %ID' SASTE..CBN-/-N of G-/RB*C-.>? system for government.IC AND DE>E?OP.?-R. NATIONA? ECONO. AND &OR OTBER P@RPOSES .:R: -.:%*NP! P-RAG Rep'e ent"ti2e CB@. of H%P.Rep'e ent"ti2e !-A?R 5. Rep. No. the e6istin *u"tip"e i!entifi/ation s$ste*s in overn*ent have /reate! unne/essar$ an! /ost"$ re!un!an/ies an! hi her /osts to overn*ent.: %-R/*CC. N-AB:N-C 1*.*E*C:P%*NA -?A<:RBAG.BR*5A:R.00-. .B! Rep'e ent"ti2e R-1-*C E.ENT:OHNED AND CONTRO??ED CORPORATIONS TO STREA.

!ection 6. the Dire/tor:9enera". To fa/i"itate a//ess to an! !e"iver$ of 5ua"it$ an! effe/tive servi/e. overn*ent !ection 2. in/"u!e the fo""owin : a. or /reate su#X /o**ittees or te/hni/a" workin roups.dentification Systems.E?EC'. to Aarmonize -ll 8overnment . Nationa" E/ono*i/ Deve"op*ent Authorit$. >ata re0uirement for the unified . to va"i!"$ esta#"ish the i!entit$ of the /ar! ho"!er: #. or an$ of the fin erprints as /o""e/te! an! store!. Safeguards. in/"u!in the print of the ri ht thu*#*ark. Coverage @ A"" overn*ent a en/ies an! overn*ent:owne! an! /ontro""e! /orporations issuin ID /ar!s to their *e*#ers or /onstituents sha"" #e /overe! #$ this e6e/utive or!er. to ether with at "east the first five ite*s "iste! a#ove. The !ata to #e re/or!e! an! store!. !ection 4. an! with other #ran/hes or instru*enta"ities of the overn*ent. !ection =. 6unctions and responsibilities of the >irector<8eneral. as a *ini*u*. to provi!e su/h assistan/e as *a$ #e ne/essar$ or re5uire! for the effe/tive perfor*an/e of its fun/tionsK an! !. Ca"" on an$ other overn*ent a en/$ or institution. @ The Dire/tor:9enera". sha"" #e "i*ite! to those spe/ifie! in Se/tion 1 of this e6e/utive or!erK . A!opt within si6t$ %E0' !a$s fro* the effe/tivit$ of this e6e/utive or!er a unifie! overn*ent ID s$ste* /ontainin on"$ su/h !ata an! features. ational Economic and >evelopment -uthority. -uthorizing the >irector<8eneral. is here#$ authori4e! to strea*"ine an! har*oni4e a"" overn*ent ID s$ste*s. the Co**ission on E"e/tions %CO. sha"" appear on the fa/e or #a/k of the ID /ar! for visua" verifi/ation purposes. Enter into a ree*ents with "o/a" overn*ents.!. for the purpose of ensurin overn*ent:wi!e a!option of an! support to this effort to strea*"ine the ID s$ste*s in overn*entK #. !ection 3. Nationa" E/ono*i/ an! Deve"op*ent Authorit$. X In a!!ition to his or ani/ fun/tions an! responsi#i"ities.> system @ The !ata to #e /o""e/te! an! re/or!e! #$ the parti/ipatin a en/ies sha"" #e "i*ite! to the fo""owin : Na*e Bo*e A!!ress Se6 Pi/ture Si nature Date of Birth P"a/e of Birth . whi/h sha"" #e use! on"$ for purposes of esta#"ishin the i!entit$ of a person. To enhan/e the inte rit$ an! re"ia#i"it$ of overn*ent:issue! ID /ar!sK an! e. sha"" have the fo""owin fun/tions an! responsi#i"ities: a.arita" Status Na*es of Parents Bei ht Hei ht Two in!e6 fin ers an! two thu*#*arks An$ pro*inent !istin uishin features "ike *o"es an! others Ta6 I!entifi/ation Nu*#er %TIN' Provi!e! that a /orrespon!in ID nu*#er issue! #$ the parti/ipatin a en/$ an! a /o**on referen/e nu*#er sha"" for* part of the store! ID !ata an!. ational Economic and >evelopment -uthority. Su/h safe uar!s sha"". X The Dire/tor:9enera". an! the pertinent a en/ies sha"" a!opt su/h safe uar! as *a$ #e ne/essar$ an! a!e5uate to ensure that the ri ht to priva/$ of an in!ivi!ua" takes pre/e!en/e over effi/ient pu#"i/ servi/e !e"iver$. as in!i/ate! in Se/tion 1 a#ove. Nationa" E/ono*i/ an! Deve"op*ent Authorit$. Pro*u" ate su/h ru"es or re u"ations as *a$ #e ne/essar$ in pursuan/e of the o#<e/tives of this e6e/utive or!er. throu h their respe/tive "ea ues of overnors or *a$ors.

0 is un/onstitutiona" #e/ause it /onstitutes usurpation of "e is"ative fun/tions #$ the e6e/utive #ran/h of the overn*ent.0 is voi! #ase! on the fo""owin roun!s: (. . or portions thereof.0 infrin es on the /iti4en3s ri ht to priva/$.0 is /ontrar$ to "aw. The petitions a"so present a <usti/ia#"e /ontrovers$ ripe for <u!i/ia" !eter*ination #e/ause a"" overn*ent entities /urrent"$ issuin i!entifi/ation /ar!s are *an!ate! to i*p"e*ent EO G. Repealing clause. the Presi!ent !ire/ts a"" overn*ent a en/ies an! overn*ent:owne! an! /ontro""e! /orporations to a!opt a unifor* !ata /o""e/tion an! for*at for their e6istin i!entifi/ation %ID' s$ste*s. the petitions raise two issues. EO G. a*en!e! or *o!ifie! a//or!in "$.0.R.2E)-. whi/h are in/onsistent with this e6e/utive or!er. this (1th !a$ of Apri". The Court3s Ru"in The petitions are without *erit. -. 'orres et al. Issues Essentia""$.0. DONE in the Cit$ of . The i!entifi/ation /ar! to #e issue! sha"" #e prote/te! #$ a!van/e! se/urit$ features an! /r$pto raphi/ te/hno"o $K an! f.0 vio"ates the /onstitutiona" provisions on the ri ht to priva/$ %i' It a""ows a//ess to persona" /onfi!entia" !ata without the owner3s /onsent. (E2+10 a""e e that EO G.R. . Data /o""e/te! an! store! for this purpose sha"" #e kept an! treate! as stri/t"$ /onfi!entia" an! a persona" or written authori4ation of the Owner sha"" #e re5uire! for a//ess an! !is/"osure of !ataK e. !ection 8. or un!er su/h /on!itions as the parti/ipatin a en/$ issuin the i!entifi/ation /ar! sha"" pres/ri#e. No. otherwise known as the So/ia" Se/urit$ A/t of (++2.1. !ection >. A written re5uest #$ the Owner of the i!entifi/ation /ar! sha"" #e re5uire! for an$ /orre/tion or revision of re"evant !ata. EO G. petitioners /"ai* that EO G. petitioners /"ai* that EO G. un!er EO G.0 is va ue an! without a!e5uate safe uar!s or pena"ties for an$ vio"ation of its provisions. Effectivity. EO G. In no /ase sha"" the /o""e/tion or /o*pi"ation of other !ata in vio"ation of a person3s ri ht to priva/$ sha"" #e a""owe! or to"erate! un!er this or!erK /. Strin ent s$ste*s of a//ess /ontro" to !ata in the i!entifi/ation s$ste* sha"" #e institute!K !. (. &urther*ore.' newspapers of enera" /ir/u"ation. Two Thousan! an! &ive. (E22+) a""e e that EO G. @ This e6e/utive or!er sha"" take effe/t fifteen %(-' !a$s after its pu#"i/ation in two %.0 is a usurpation of "e is"ative power #$ the Presi!ent.0. The E6e/utive has usurpe! the "e is"ative power of Con ress as she has no power to issue EO G.( Petitioners in 9. !ection 7. the i*p"e*entation of the EO wi"" use pu#"i/ fun!s not appropriate! #$ Con ress for that purpose.R. whi/h petitioners /"ai* is patent"$ un/onstitutiona".#. &irst.. Respon!ents 5uestion the "e a" stan!in of petitioners an! the ripeness of the petitions. It a"so vio"ates RA ). the Court /onsi!ers the issues raise! un!er the /ir/u*stan/es of para*ount pu#"i/ /on/ern or of trans/en!enta" si nifi/an/e to the peop"e.ana e*ent sha"" #e provi!e! to /arr$ out the o#<e/tives of this e6e/utive or!er. 9rantin without /on/e!in that the Presi!ent *a$ issue EO G.0. reasons that wi"" "e iti*i4e the ne/essit$ of EO G.0. Ben/e. Se/on!. %ii' EO G. On the A""e e! @surpation of ?e is"ative Power . %iii' There are no /o*pe""in G. @ A"" e6e/utive or!ers or issuan/es. Petitioners in 9. are here#$ revoke!.u"$ . in the $ear of Our ?or!. No. the E6e/utive Or!er was issue! without pu#"i/ hearin .ani"a. &urther*ore. 1. (++). @ Su/h fun!s as *a$ #e re/o**en!e! #$ the Depart*ent of Bu! et an! . 6unding..0 vio"ates the Constitutiona" provision on e5ua" prote/tion of "aws an! resu"ts in the !is/ri*inator$ treat*ent of an! pena"i4es those without ID. the$ a""e e that EO G. It /o*p"ete"$ !isre ar!s an! vio"ates the !e/ision of this Bonora#"e Court in ?ple v. the Court takes /o ni4an/e of the petitions.. Even assu*in that petitioners are #ereft of "e a" stan!in .0 infrin es on the /iti4en3s ri ht to priva/$. No. Thus.). 9.

a$or3s Offi/e. To fa/i"itate private #usinesses an! pro*ote the wi!er use of the unifie! ID /ar! as provi!e! un!er this e6e/utive or!erK !.G Phi"hea"th. An$ one who app"ies for or renews a !river3s "i/ense provi!es to the ?TO a"" these (G spe/ifi/ !ata. >arious "aws a""ow severa" overn*ent entities to /o""e/t an! re/or! !ata for their ID s$ste*s. na*e"$: %(' Na*eK %. 9overn*ent entities /annot /o""e/t or re/or! !ata. an! *akin their ID for*ats unifor*.' Ta6 I!entifi/ation Nu*#erK %(1' 9SIS Po"i/$ Nu*#erK %(G' Na*e an! A!!ress of Person to #e Notifie! in Case of E*er en/$K an! %(-' Si nature. . or on"$ ei ht spe/ifi/ !ata. To re!u/e /osts an! there#$ "essen the finan/ia" #ur!en on #oth the overn*ent an! the pu#"i/ #rou ht a#out #$ the use of *u"tip"e ID /ar!s an! the *aintenan/e of re!un!ant !ata#ase /ontainin the sa*e or re"ate! infor*ationK #. @n!er their e6istin ID s$ste*s. /ontain (. at present. /o*pati#i"it$ in s$ste*s as to har!ware an! software. insure /o*pati#i"it$.0 "i*its the !ata to #e /o""e/te! an! re/or!e! un!er the unifor* ID s$ste* to on"$ (G spe/ifi/ ite*s.+ the IDs that the Court issues to a"" its e*p"o$ees. a/hieve effi/ien/$ an! re"ia#i"it$. in/"u!in the .usti/es.T EO G. a"" overn*ent entities that issue IDs as part of their fun/tions un!er e6istin "aws are re5uire! to a!opt a unifor* !ata /o""e/tion an! for*at for their IDs. At present. for i!entifi/ation purposes.' Two in!e6 fin ers an! two thu*#*arksK %(1' An$ pro*inent !istin uishin features "ike *o"es or othersK an! %(G' Ta6 I!entifi/ation Nu*#er.Se/tion .2 PRC. the Court3s ID a/tua""$ /ontains (E !ata. the unifor* ID for*at un!er Se/tion 1 of EO G. In /ontrast. The nature of the !ata /ontaine! in the Supre*e Court ID is a"so far *ore finan/ia""$ sensitive. spe/ifi/a""$ the Ta6 I!entifi/ation Nu*#er. These #enefits are savin s in ter*s of pro/ure*ent of e5uip*ent an! supp"ies. overn*ent In short. .0 a""ows.0.) an! si*i"ar overn*ent entities. overn*ent entities "ike ?TO re5uire /onsi!era#"$ *ore !ata fro* app"i/ants for i!entifi/ation purposes. the Supre*e Court3s ID /ontains far *ore !ata than the propose! unifor* ID for overn*ent entities un!er EO G. the !ata /o""e/te! an! re/or!e! #$ overn*ent entities are !isparate.E ?TO. wi"" a!*itte!"$ a/hieve su#stantia" #enefits. ease of verifi/ation an! thus in/rease! re"ia#i"it$ of !ata. an! the IDs the$ issue are !issi*i"ar.. an! even #$ the private se/tor. other than the (G spe/ifi/ !ata. EO G. an! the user:frien!"iness of a sin "e ID for*at for a"" overn*ent entities. a en/$ nu*#er an! the /o**on referen/e nu*#er. Se/tion ( of EO G. the purposes of the unifor* ID !ata /o""e/tion an! ID for*at are to re!u/e /osts.0 !ire/ts these overn*ent entities to Ta!opt a unifie! *u"ti: purpose ID s$ste*. so*e overn*ent entities /o""e/t an! re/or! *ore !ata than what EO G.0 enu*erates the purposes of the unifor* !ata /o""e/tion an! for*at. TCovera e. p"us the fin erprint. In the /ase of the Supre*e Court. E6a*p"es of these overn*ent entities are the 9SIS. /.0. X A"" overn*ent a en/ies an! overn*ent:owne! an! /ontro""e! /orporations issuin ID /ar!s to their *e*#ers or /onstituents sha"" #e /overe! #$ this e6e/utive or!er.spe/ifi/ !ata. These overn*ent entities have a"rea!$ #een issuin ID /ar!s even prior to EO G.arita" StatusK %+' Na*e of ParentsK %(0' Bei htK %((' Hei htK %(. At present. To enhan/e the inte rit$ an! re"ia#i"it$ of overn*ent:issue! ID /ar!sK an! e. Thus.' Bo*e A!!ressK %1' Se6K %G' Pi/tureK %-' Si natureK %E' Date of BirthK %2' P"a/e of BirthK %)' . Se/tion ( of EO G. na*e"$: a. To fa/i"itate a//ess to an! !e"iver$ of 5ua"it$ an! effe/tive servi/e.' Pi/tureK %1' PositionK %G' Offi/e Co!e Nu*#erK %-' ID Nu*#erK %E' Bei htK %2' Hei htK %)' Co*p"e6ionK %+' Co"or of BairK %(0' B"oo! T$peK %((' Ri ht Thu*#*arkK %(.T Thus.1 SSS.0 wi"" re!u/e the !ata re5uire! to #e /o""e/te! an! re/or!e! in the ID !ata#ases of the overn*ent entities. either e6press"$ or i*p"ie!"$ #$ the nature of the fun/tions of these overn*ent entities. To ensure reater /onvenien/e for those transa/tin overn*ent an! those avai"in of overn*ent servi/esK #usiness with the These "i*ite! an! spe/ifi/ !ata are the usua" !ata re5uire! for persona" i!entifi/ation #$ overn*ent entities. an! provi!e /onvenien/e to the peop"e serve! #$ overn*ent entities. na*e"$: %(' Na*eK %.0 app"ies on"$ to overn*ent entities that issue ID /ar!s as part of their fun/tions un!er e6istin "aws. of EO G.akin the !ata /o""e/tion an! re/or!in of overn*ent entities unifie!.0 re5uires on"$ Tthe first five ite*s "iste!T in Se/tion 1. Se/tion 1 of EO G. If we /onsi!er that the pi/ture in the ID /an enera""$ a"so show the se6 of the e*p"o$ee..0 provi!es.

EO G. in issuin EO G. If the overn*ent entities /an in!ivi!ua""$ a!opt a for*at for their own ID pursuant to their re u"ar fun/tions un!er e6istin "aws.0 !oes not app"$ to the .0. stu!ent.0 is not /o*pu"sor$ on a"" . the hea!s of these e6istin overn*ent entities /an enter into a *e*oran!u* of a ree*ent *akin their s$ste*s unifor*.0 !oes not re5uire an$ spe/ia" appropriation #e/ause the e6istin ID /ar! s$ste*s of overn*ent entities /overe! #$ EO G. an! /onvenien/e to the pu#"i/. ?e is"ative power is the authorit$ to *ake "aws an! to a"ter or repea" the*. Se/tion (2. when the ID /ar! s$ste* is /o*pu"sor$ on a"" #ran/hes of overn*ent.T The sa*e Se/tion a"so *an!ates the Presi!ent to Tensure that the "aws #e faithfu""$ e6e/ute!. i*prove pu#"i/ servi/es. The purpose of a"" these ID /ar!s is si*p"$ to insure the proper i!entifi/ation of a person as an e*p"o$ee. a"thou h i*pose! as a /on!ition for e6er/isin a privi"e e. &irst. Hhat re5uire "e is"ation are three aspe/ts of a overn*ent *aintaine! ID /ar! s$ste*. EO G. In the present /ase.E?EC whi/h un!er e6istin "aws is a"so authori4e! to issue voter3s ID /ar!s. This is pure"$ an a!*inistrative *atter. The Constitution a"so *an!ates the Presi!ent to ensure that the "aws are faithfu""$ e6e/ute!.0 have the proper appropriation or fun!in .0 re!u/es /osts. The Presi!ent3s /onstitutiona" power of /ontro" is se"f:e6e/utin an! !oes not nee! an$ i*p"e*entin "e is"ation.0 !oes not esta#"ish a nationa" ID s$ste* #e/ause "e is"ation is nee!e! to esta#"ish a sin "e ID s$ste* that is /o*pu"sor$ for a"" #ran/hes of overn*ent. the Presi!ent !i! not *ake. or *e*#er of a /"u#. Arti/"e >II of the (+)2 Constitution provi!es that the TPresi!ent sha"" have /ontro" of a"" e6e/utive !epart*ents. the Presi!ent is si*p"$ perfor*in the /onstitutiona" !ut$ to ensure that the "aws are faithfu""$ e6e/ute!.0. reater effi/ien/$. in the e6er/ise of their fun/tions un!er e6istin "aws. the Presi!ent *a$ #$ e6e/utive or a!*inistrative or!er !ire/t the overn*ent entities un!er the E6e/utive !epart*ent to a!opt a unifor* ID !ata /o""e/tion an! for*at. as we"" as /o*pu"sor$ on a"" /iti4ens whether the$ have a use for the ID /ar! or not. espe/ia""$ if the unifor* for*at wi"" resu"t in su#stantia" savin s.0 is we"" within the /onstitutiona" power of the Presi!ent to pro*u" ate. EO G. A unifie! ID s$ste* for a"" these overn*ent entities /an #e a/hieve! in either of two wa$s. the$ /an a"so a!opt #$ *utua" a ree*ent a unifor* ID for*at. Private e*p"o$ers routine"$ issue ID /ar!s to their e*p"o$ees.There is no !ispute that overn*ent entities /an in!ivi!ua""$ "i*it the /o""e/tion an! re/or!in of their !ata to the (G spe/ifi/ ite*s in Se/tion 1 of EO G.T Certain"$. #ureaus an! offi/es. Thir!.0 is an e6er/ise of E6e/utive power X the Presi!ent3s /onstitutiona" power of /ontro" over the E6e/utive !epart*ent. stu!ent or *e*#er of a /"u#. effi/ien/$. Thus.0. an! !oes not invo"ve the e6er/ise of "e is"ative power. su/h that the /iti4en3s ri ht to priva/$ is infrin e!. an! in enera". re"ia#i"it$. EO G. EO G. /o*pati#i"it$ an! user:frien!"iness in the i*p"e*entation of /urrent ID s$ste*s of overn*ent entities un!er e6istin "aws. to a!opt a unifor* ID !ata /o""e/tion an! ID for*at to a/hieve savin s.0 is a"so /o*p"ian/e #$ the Presi!ent of the /onstitutiona" !ut$ to ensure that the "aws are faithfu""$ e6e/ute!. Of /ourse. Se/on!. as we"" as insures effi/ien/$. re"ia#i"it$. EO G. /o*pati#i"it$. There are severa" "aws *an!atin overn*ent entities to re!u/e /osts. the Presi!ent3s power of /ontro" is "i*ite! to the E6e/utive #ran/h of overn*ent an! !oes not e6ten! to the . i*prove pu#"i/ servi/es. In issuin EO G. Se/on!. C"ear"$. are vo"untar$ #e/ause a person is not /o*pe""e! to #e an e*p"o$ee. or to the CO. an! opti*u* /o*pati#i"it$. in/"u!in the in!epen!ent /onstitutiona" /o**issions.0 is !esi ne! to re!u/e /osts. Su/h an a/t is /ertain"$ within the authorit$ of the hea!s or overnin #oar!s of the overn*ent entities that are a"rea!$ authori4e! un!er e6istin "aws to issue IDs.(( The a!option of a unifor* ID !ata /o""e/tion an! for*at un!er EO G. Private an! pu#"i/ s/hoo"s a"so routine"$ issue ID /ar!s to their stu!ents. Even private /"u#s an! asso/iations issue ID /ar!s to their *e*#ers. The a/t of issuin ID /ar!s an! /o""e/tin the ne/essar$ persona" !ata for i*printin on the ID /ar! !oes not re5uire "e is"ation. These ID /ar!s. when the i*p"e*entation of an ID /ar! s$ste* re5uires a spe/ia" appropriation #e/ause there is no e6istin appropriation for su/h purpose. EO G. Thus. a"ter or repea" an$ "aw #ut *ere"$ i*p"e*ente! an! e6e/ute! e6istin "aws.(0 This on"$ shows that EO G.0. in/rease effi/ien/$. &irst. There is a"so no !ispute that these overn*ent entities /an in!ivi!ua""$ a!opt the ID for*at as spe/ifie! in Se/tion 1 of EO G. an! in enera".u!i/iar$. Thus.0 is si*p"$ an e6e/utive issuan/e an! not an a/t of "e is"ation. in/rease effi/ien/$. The Presi!ent has not usurpe! "e is"ative power in issuin EO G.0. un!er this /onstitutiona" power of /ontro" the Presi!ent /an !ire/t a"" overn*ent entities.u!i/iar$ or to the in!epen!ent /onstitutiona" /o**issions. when the ID /ar! s$ste* re5uires the /o""e/tion an! re/or!in of persona" !ata #e$on! what is routine"$ or usua""$ re5uire! for su/h purpose. EO G.

In a!!ition. re/or!in an! ID /ar! s$ste* un!er EO G. A"so. The i!entifi/ation /ar! to #e issue! sha"" #e prote/te! #$ a!van/e! se/urit$ features an! /r$pto raphi/ te/hno"o $K f. the a en/$ ID nu*#er. . EO G. There have #een no /o*p"aints fro* /iti4ens that the ID /ar!s of these overn*ent entities vio"ate their ri ht to priva/$. On the A""e e! Infrin e*ent of the Ri ht to Priva/$ A"" these $ears.0.0 wi"" even re5uire "ess !ata /o""e/te!. nature an! e6tent of !ata to #e /o""e/te! an! store! for their ID s$ste*s. This Court shou"! not interfere how overn*ent entities un!er the E6e/utive !epart*ent shou"! un!ertake /ost savin s. seven "ess !ata than what the Supre*e Court3s ID shows. an! the ID /ar! itse"f wi"" show on"$ ei ht spe/ifi/ !ata. sha"" #e "i*ite! to those spe/ifie! in Se/tion 1 of this e6e/utive or!erK #. store! an! revea"e! than un!er the !isparate s$ste*s prior to EO G. Strin ent s$ste*s of a//ess /ontro" to !ata in the i!entifi/ation s$ste* sha"" #e institute!K !.#ran/hes of overn*ent an! is not /o*pu"sor$ on a"" /iti4ens. The on"$ !ifferen/e is that the ID /ar! wi"" /ontain on"$ the five !ata spe/ifie! in Se/tion 1 of EO G. Phi"hea"th an! other overn*ent entities have #een issuin ID /ar!s in the perfor*an/e of their overn*enta" fun/tions. Thus. whi/h sha"" #e use! on"$ for purposes of esta#"ishin the i!entit$ of a person. The !ata /o""e/te! an! store! for the unifie! ID s$ste* un!er EO G. In fa/t. a/hieve effi/ien/$ in operations. San!i an#a$an an! Court of Ta6 Appea"s.0 vio"ate their ri ht to priva/$. Even the Supre*e Court has its own ID s$ste* for e*p"o$ees of the Court an! a"" first an! se/on! "eve" /ourts. re/or!in . prior to EO G. EO G. There is nothin "e is"ative a#out unif$in e6istin ID s$ste*s of a"" /ourts within the .0. overn*ent entities ha! a free han! in !eter*inin the kin!. insure /o*pati#i"it$ of e5uip*ent an! s$ste*s. The !ata /o""e/tion. un!er Se/tion .of EO G. EO G. In fa/t.0.u!i/iar$.0. an! the /o**on referen/e nu*#er whi/h is nee!e! for /ross:verifi/ation to ensure inte rit$ an! re"ia#i"it$ of i!entifi/ation.0. ?TO.0. an! !is/"osure of persona" i!entifi/ation !ata to prote/t the ri ht to priva/$. overn*ent entities /an /o""e/t an! re/or! on"$ the (G spe/ifi/ !ata *entione! in Se/tion 1 of EO G. /o*pati#i"it$ an! /onvenien/e.0. EO G. the 9SIS. Prior to EO G. The !ata to #e re/or!e! an! store!. The sa*e is true for overn*ent entities un!er the E6e/utive !epart*ent. su/h a/t !oes not invo"ve the e6er/ise of an$ "e is"ative power. A written re5uest #$ the Owner of the i!entifi/ation /ar! sha"" #e re5uire! for an$ /orre/tion or revision of re"evant !ata. an! provi!e user:frien!"$ servi/e to the pu#"i/. the$ even have "ess #asis to /o*p"ain a ainst the unifie! ID s$ste* un!er EO G.0 !oes not /o*pe" a"" /iti4ens to have an ID /ar!. If overn*ent entities un!er the E6e/utive !epart*ent !e/i!e to unif$ their e6istin ID !ata /o""e/tion an! ID /ar! issuan/e s$ste*s to a/hieve savin s.0 re5uires a ver$ narrow an! fo/use! /o""e/tion an! re/or!in of persona" !ata whi"e safe uar!in the /onfi!entia"it$ of su/h !ata.0. The Court is even tr$in to unif$ its ID s$ste* with those of the appe""ate /ourts.0 are far "ess than the !ata /o""e/te! an! re/or!e! un!er the ID s$ste*s e6istin prior to EO G. The /o""e/tion of ID !ata an! issuan/e of ID /ar!s are !a$:to:!a$ fun/tions of *an$ overn*ent entities un!er e6istin "aws. In no /ase sha"" the /o""e/tion or /o*pi"ation of other !ata in vio"ation of a person3s ri ht to priva/$ #e a""owe! or to"erate! un!er this or!erK /. petitioners in the present /ases !o not /"ai* that the ID s$ste*s of overn*ent entities prior to EO G. overn*ent entities /an show in their ID /ar!s on"$ ei ht of these spe/ifi/ !ata. na*e"$ the Court of Appea"s. the !ata /o""e/te! an! re/or!e! un!er EO G.0 !oes not esta#"ish a nationa" ID /ar! s$ste*. effi/ien/$. @n!er EO G. the fo""owin safe uar!s are institute!: a. p"us the fin erprint.0 wi"" #e "i*ite! to on"$ (G spe/ifi/ !ata.0 app"ies on"$ to overn*ent entities that un!er e6istin "aws are a"rea!$ /o""e/tin !ata an! issuin ID /ar!s as part of their overn*enta" fun/tions. There have a"so #een no /o*p"aints of a#use #$ these overn*ent entities in the /o""e/tion an! re/or!in of persona" i!entifi/ation !ata. Sin/e petitioners !o not *ake su/h /"ai*. the issuan/e of EO G. Ever$ overn*ent entit$ that present"$ issues an ID /ar! wi"" sti"" issue its own ID /ar! un!er its own na*e. Data /o""e/te! an! store! for this purpose sha"" #e kept an! treate! as stri/t"$ /onfi!entia" an! a persona" or written authori4ation of the Owner sha"" #e re5uire! for a//ess an! !is/"osure of !ataK e. Now.0. or un!er su/h /on!itions as the parti/ipatin a en/$ issuin the i!entifi/ation /ar! sha"" pres/ri#e. SSS.0 !oes not /onstitute usurpation of "e is"ative power. there was no e6e/utive issuan/e to overn*ent entities pres/ri#in safe uar!s on the /o""e/tion.

On its fa/e, EO G,0 shows no /onstitutiona" infir*it$ #e/ause it even narrow"$ "i*its the !ata that /an #e /o""e/te!, re/or!e! an! shown /o*pare! to the e6istin ID s$ste*s of overn*ent entities. EO G,0 further provi!es stri/t safe uar!s to prote/t the /onfi!entia"it$ of the !ata /o""e/te!, in /ontrast to the prior ID s$ste*s whi/h are #ereft of stri/t a!*inistrative safe uar!s. The ri ht to priva/$ !oes not #ar the a!option of reasona#"e ID s$ste*s #$ overn*ent entities. So*e one hun!re! /ountries have /o*pu"sor$ nationa" ID s$ste*s, in/"u!in !e*o/ra/ies su/h as Spain, &ran/e, 9er*an$, Be" iu*, 9ree/e, ?u6e*#our , an! Portu a". Other /ountries whi/h !o not have nationa" ID s$ste*s, "ike the @nite! States, Cana!a, Austra"ia, New Jea"an!, Ire"an!, the Nor!i/ Countries an! Swe!en, have se/tora" /ar!s for hea"th, so/ia" or other pu#"i/ servi/es.(, Even with EO G,0, the Phi"ippines wi"" sti"" fa"" un!er the /ountries that !o not have /o*pu"sor$ nationa" ID s$ste*s #ut a""ow on"$ se/tora" /ar!s for so/ia" se/urit$, hea"th servi/es, an! other spe/ifi/ purposes. Hithout a re"ia#"e ID s$ste*, overn*ent entities "ike 9SIS, SSS, Phi"hea"th, an! ?TO /annot perfor* effe/tive"$ an! effi/ient"$ their *an!ate! fun/tions un!er e6istin "aws. Hithout a re"ia#"e ID s$ste*, 9SIS, SSS, Phi"hea"th an! si*i"ar overn*ent entities stan! to suffer su#stantia" "osses arisin fro* fa"se na*es an! i!entities. The inte rit$ of the ?TO3s "i/ensin s$ste* wi"" suffer in the a#sen/e of a re"ia#"e ID s$ste*. The !issentin opinion /ites three A*eri/an !e/isions on the ri ht to priva/$, na*e"$, 9riswo"! v. Conne/ti/ut,(1 H.S. ;usti/e Depart*ent v. Reporters Co**ittee for &ree!o* of the Press,(G an! Hha"en v. Roe.(- The "ast two !e/isions a/tua""$ support the va"i!it$ of EO G,0, whi"e the first is inapp"i/a#"e to the present /ase. In 9riswo"!, the @.S. Supre*e Court !e/"are! un/onstitutiona" a state "aw that prohi#ite! the use an! !istri#ution of /ontra/eptives #e/ause enfor/e*ent of the "aw wou"! a""ow the po"i/e entr$ into the #e!roo*s of *arrie! /oup"es. De/"are! the @.S. Supre*e Court: THou"! we a""ow the po"i/e to sear/h the sa/re! pre/in/ts of the *arita" #e!roo*s for te""ta"e si ns of the use of /ontra/eptivesR The ver$ i!ea is repu"sive to the notions of priva/$ surroun!in the *arria e re"ationship.T Be/ause the fa/ts an! the issue invo"ve! in 9riswo"! are *ateria""$ !ifferent fro* the present /ase, 9riswo"! has no persuasive #earin on the present /ase. In @.S. ;usti/e Depart*ent, the issue was not whether the State /ou"! /o""e/t an! store infor*ation on in!ivi!ua"s fro* pu#"i/ re/or!s nationwi!e #ut whether the State /ou"! withho"! su/h infor*ation fro* the press. The pre*ise of the

issue in @.S. ;usti/e Depart*ent is that the State /an /o""e/t an! store in a /entra" !ata#ase infor*ation on /iti4ens athere! fro* pu#"i/ re/or!s a/ross the /ountr$. In fa/t, the "aw authori4e! the Depart*ent of ;usti/e to /o""e/t an! preserve fin erprints an! other /ri*ina" i!entifi/ation re/or!s nationwi!e. The "aw a"so authori4e! the Depart*ent of ;usti/e to e6/han e su/h infor*ation with Toffi/ia"s of States, /ities an! other institutions.T The Depart*ent of ;usti/e treate! su/h infor*ation as /onfi!entia". A CBS news /orrespon!ent an! the Reporters Co**ittee !e*an!e! the /ri*ina" re/or!s of four *e*#ers of a fa*i"$ pursuant to the &ree!o* of Infor*ation A/t. The @.S. Supre*e Court ru"e! that the &ree!o* of Infor*ation A/t e6press"$ e6e*pts re"ease of infor*ation that wou"! T/onstitute an unwarrante! invasion of persona" priva/$,T an! the infor*ation !e*an!e! fa""s un!er that /ate or$ of e6e*pt infor*ation. Hith the e6/eption of the ) spe/ifi/ !ata shown on the ID /ar!, the persona" !ata /o""e/te! an! re/or!e! un!er EO G,0 are treate! as Tstri/t"$ /onfi!entia"T un!er Se/tion E%!' of EO G,0. These !ata are not on"$ stri/t"$ /onfi!entia" #ut a"so persona" *atters. Se/tion 2, Arti/"e III of the (+)2 Constitution rants the Tri ht of the peop"e to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern.T Persona" *atters are e6e*pt or outsi!e the /overa e of the peop"e3s ri ht to infor*ation on *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern. The !ata treate! as Tstri/t"$ /onfi!entia"T un!er EO G,0 #ein private *atters an! not *atters of pu#"i/ /on/ern, these !ata /annot #e re"ease! to the pu#"i/ or the press. Thus, the ru"in in @.S. ;usti/e Depart*ent !oes not /o""i!e with EO G,0 #ut a/tua""$ supports the va"i!it$ EO G,0. Hha"en v. Roe is the "ea!in A*eri/an /ase on the /onstitutiona" prote/tion for /ontro" over infor*ation. In Hha"en, the @.S. Supre*e Court uphe"! the va"i!it$ of a New Aork "aw that re5uire! !o/tors to furnish the overn*ent reports i!entif$in patients who re/eive! pres/ription !ru s that have a potentia" for a#use. The overn*ent *aintaine! a /entra" /o*puteri4e! !ata#ase /ontainin the na*es an! a!!resses of the patients, as we"" as the i!entit$ of the pres/ri#in !o/tors. The "aw was assai"e! #e/ause the !ata#ase a""e e!"$ infrin e! the ri ht to priva/$ of in!ivi!ua"s who want to keep their persona" *atters /onfi!entia". The @.S. Supre*e Court re<e/te! the priva/$ /"ai*, an! !e/"are!: Dis/"osures of private *e!i/a" infor*ation to !o/tors, to hospita" personne", to insuran/e /o*panies, an! to pu#"i/ hea"th a en/ies are often an essentia" part of *o!ern *e!i/a" pra/ti/e even when the !is/"osure *a$ ref"e/t unfavora#"$ on the /hara/ter of the patient. Re5uirin su/h !is/"osures to representatives of the State havin responsi#i"it$ for the hea"th of the /o**unit$ !oes not

auto*ati/a""$ a*ount to an i*per*issi#"e invasion of priva/$. %E*phasis supp"ie!' Co*pare! to the persona" *e!i/a" !ata re5uire! for !is/"osure to the New Aork State in Hha"en, the (G spe/ifi/ !ata re5uire! for !is/"osure to the Phi"ippine overn*ent un!er EO G,0 are far "ess sensitive an! far "ess persona". In fa/t, the (G spe/ifi/ !ata re5uire! un!er EO G,0 are routine !ata for ID s$ste*s, un"ike the sensitive an! potentia""$ e*#arrassin *e!i/a" re/or!s of patients takin pres/ription !ru s. Hha"en, therefore, /arries persuasive for/e for upho"!in the /onstitutiona"it$ of EO G,0 as non:vio"ative of the ri ht to priva/$. Su#se5uent @.S. Supre*e Court !e/isions have reiterate! Hha"en. In P"anne! Parenthoo! of Centra" .issouri v. Danforth,(E the @.S. Supre*e Court uphe"! the va"i!it$ of a "aw that re5uire! !o/tors perfor*in a#ortions to fi"" up for*s, *aintain re/or!s for seven $ears, an! a""ow the inspe/tion of su/h re/or!s #$ pu#"i/ hea"th offi/ia"s. The @.S. Supre*e Court ru"e! that Tre/or!keepin an! reportin re5uire*ents that are reasona#"$ !ire/te! to the preservation of *aterna" hea"th an! that proper"$ respe/t a patient3s /onfi!entia"it$ an! priva/$ are per*issi#"e.T A ain, in P"anne! Parenthoo! of Southeastern Penns$"vania v. Case$,(2 the @.S. Supre*e Court uphe"! a "aw that re5uire! !o/tors perfor*in an a#ortion to fi"e a report to the overn*ent that in/"u!e! the !o/tor3s na*e, the wo*an3s a e, the nu*#er of prior pre nan/ies an! a#ortions that the wo*an ha!, the *e!i/a" /o*p"i/ations fro* the a#ortion, the wei ht of the fetus, an! the *arita" status of the wo*an. In /ase of state:fun!e! institutions, the "aw *a!e su/h infor*ation pu#"i/"$ avai"a#"e. In Case$, the @.S. Supre*e Court state!: TThe /o""e/tion of infor*ation with respe/t to a/tua" patients is a vita" e"e*ent of *e!i/a" resear/h, an! so it /annot #e sai! that the re5uire*ents serve no purpose other than to *ake a#ortion *ore !iffi/u"t.T Co*pare! to the !is/"osure re5uire*ents of persona" !ata that the @.S. Supre*e Court have uphe"! in Hha"en, Danforth an! Case$ as not vio"ative of the ri ht to priva/$, the !is/"osure re5uire*ents un!er EO G,0 are far #eni n an! /annot therefore /onstitute vio"ation of the ri ht to priva/$. EO G,0 re5uires !is/"osure of (G persona" !ata that are routine for ID purposes, !ata that /annot possi#"$ e*#arrass or hu*i"iate an$one. Petitioners have not shown how EO G,0 wi"" vio"ate their ri ht to priva/$. Petitioners /annot show su/h vio"ation #$ a *ere fa/ia" e6a*ination of EO G,0 #e/ause EO G,0 narrow"$ !raws the !ata /o""e/tion, re/or!in an! e6hi#ition whi"e pres/ri#in /o*prehensive safe uar!s. Op"e v. Torres() is not authorit$ to

ho"! that EO G,0 vio"ates the ri ht to priva/$ #e/ause in that /ase the assai"e! e6e/utive issuan/e, #roa!"$ !rawn an! !evoi! of safe uar!s, was annu""e! so"e"$ on the roun! that the su#<e/t *atter re5uire! "e is"ation. As then Asso/iate ;usti/e, now Chief ;usti/e Arte*io >. Pan ani#an note! in his /on/urrin opinion in Op"e v. Torres, TThe votin is !e/isive on"$ on the nee! for appropriate "e is"ation, an! it is on"$ on this roun! that the petition is rante! #$ this Court.T EO G,0 app"ies on"$ to overn*ent entities that a"rea!$ *aintain ID s$ste*s an! issue ID /ar!s pursuant to their re u"ar fun/tions un!er e6istin "aws. EO G,0 !oes not rant su/h overn*ent entities an$ power that the$ !o not a"rea!$ possess un!er e6istin "aws. In /ontrast, the assai"e! e6e/utive issuan/e in Op"e v. Torres sou ht to esta#"ish a TNationa" Co*puteri4e! I!entifi/ation Referen/e S$ste*,T(+ a nationa" ID s$ste* that !i! not e6ist prior to the assai"e! e6e/utive issuan/e. O#vious"$, a nationa" ID /ar! s$ste* re5uires "e is"ation #e/ause it /reates a new nationa" !ata /o""e/tion an! /ar! issuan/e s$ste* where none e6iste! #efore. In the present /ase, EO G,0 !oes not esta#"ish a nationa" ID s$ste* #ut *akes the e6istin se/tora" /ar! s$ste*s of overn*ent entities "ike 9SIS, SSS, Phi"hea"th an! ?TO "ess /ost"$, *ore effi/ient, re"ia#"e an! user:frien!"$ to the pu#"i/. Ben/e, EO G,0 is a proper su#<e/t of e6e/utive issuan/e un!er the Presi!ent3s /onstitutiona" power of /ontro" over overn*ent entities in the E6e/utive !epart*ent, as we"" as un!er the Presi!ent3s /onstitutiona" !ut$ to ensure that "aws are faithfu""$ e6e/ute!. ;<*R*1:R*, the petitions are ,B!%B!!*,. E6e/utive Or!er No. G,0 is !e/"are! E-CB,. !: :R,*R*,.

G.R. No. 16642>

,ece)be' 1>, 200=

R*P?/CB5 :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*!, Rep'e ente# by *9ecuti2e !ec'et"'y *#u"'#o R. *')it", the ,*P-RA%*NA :1 AR-N!P:RA-AB:N -N, 5:%%?NB5-AB:N! 7,:A58, "n# the %-NBC- BNA*RN-AB:N-C -BRP:RA -?A<:RBAG 7%B--8, Petitioners, vs. <:N. <*NRB5H 1. GBNG:G:N, Bn hi c"p"city " P'e i#in$ Ju#$e of the Re$ion"l A'i"l 5ou't, /'"nch 117, P" "y 5ity "n# P<BCBPPBN* BNA*RN-AB:N-C -BR A*R%BN-C! 5:., BN5., Respon!ents ABNG-, J.; The Nino$ A5uino Internationa" Airport Passen er Ter*ina" III %NAIA 1' was /on/eive!, !esi ne! an! /onstru/te! to serve as the /ountr$Qs show win!ow to the wor"!. Re retta#"$, it has spawne! /ontroversies. Re retta#"$ too, !espite the apparent /o*p"etion of the ter*ina" /o*p"e6 wa$ #a/k it has not $et #een operate!. This has /ause! i**easura#"e e/ono*i/ !a*a e to the /ountr$, not to *ention its !ep"ora#"e !is/re!it in the internationa" /o**unit$. In the first /ase that rea/he! this Court, A an v. PIATCO,( the /ontra/ts whi/h the 9overn*ent ha! with the /ontra/tor were voi!e! for #ein /ontrar$ to "aw an! pu#"i/ po"i/$. The se/on! /ase now #efore the Court invo"ves the *atter of <ust /o*pensation !ue the /ontra/tor for the ter*ina" /o*p"e6 it #ui"t. He !e/i!e the /ase on the #asis of fairness, the sa*e nor* that perva!es #oth the CourtQs ,00G Reso"ution in the first /ase an! the "atest e6propriation "aw. The present /ontrovers$ has its roots with the pro*u" ation of the CourtQs !e/ision in A an v. PIATCO,, pro*u" ate! in ,001 %,001 De/ision'. This !e/ision nu""ifie! the TCon/ession A ree*ent for the Bui"!:Operate:an!: Transfer Arran e*ent of the Nino$ A5uino Internationa" Airport Passen er Ter*ina" IIIT entere! into #etween the Phi"ippine 9overn*ent %9overn*ent' an! the Phi"ippine Internationa" Air Ter*ina"s Co., In/. %PIATCO', as we"" as the a*en!*ents an! supp"e*ents thereto. The a ree*ent ha! authori4e! PIATCO to #ui"! a new internationa" airport ter*ina" %NAIA 1', as we"" as a fran/hise to operate an! *aintain the sai! ter*ina" !urin the /on/ession perio! of ,- $ears. The /ontra/ts were nu""ifie!, a*on others, that Pair/ar o Consortiu*, pre!e/essor of PIATCO, !i! not possess the re5uisite finan/ia" /apa/it$ when it was awar!e! the NAIA 1 /ontra/t an! that the a ree*ent was /ontrar$ to pu#"i/ po"i/$.1

At the ti*e of the pro*u" ation of the ,001 De/ision, the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities ha! a"rea!$ #een #ui"t #$ PIATCO an! were nearin /o*p"etion.G Bowever, the ponen/ia was si"ent as to the "e a" status of the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities fo""owin the nu""ifi/ation of the /ontra/ts, as we"" as whatever ri hts of PIATCO for rei*#urse*ent for its e6penses in the /onstru/tion of the fa/i"ities. Sti"", in his Separate Opinion, ;usti/e Pan ani#an, <oine! #$ ;usti/e Ca""e<o, !e/"are! as fo""ows: Shou"! overn*ent pa$ at a"" for reasona#"e e6penses in/urre! in the /onstru/tion of the Ter*ina"R In!ee! it shou"!, otherwise it wi"" #e un<ust"$ enri/hin itse"f at the e6pense of Piat/o an!, in parti/u"ar, its fun!ers, /ontra/tors an! investors : #oth "o/a" an! forei n. After a"", there is no 5uestion that the State nee!s an! wi"" *ake use of Ter*ina" III, it #ein part an! par/e" of the /riti/a" infrastru/ture an! transportation:re"ate! pro ra*s of overn*ent.PIATCO an! severa" respon!ents:intervenors fi"e! their respe/tive *otions for the re/onsi!eration of the ,001 De/ision. These *otions were !enie! #$ the Court in its Reso"ution !ate! ,( ;anuar$ ,00G %,00G Reso"ution'.E Bowever, the Court this ti*e s5uare"$ a!!resse! the issue of the ri hts of PIATCO to refun!, /o*pensation or rei*#urse*ent for its e6penses in the /onstru/tion of the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities. The ho"!in of the Court on this /ru/ia" point fo""ows: This Court, however, is not un*in!fu" of the rea"it$ that the stru/tures /o*prisin the NAIA IPT III fa/i"it$ are a"*ost /o*p"ete an! that fun!s have #een spent #$ PIATCO in their /onstru/tion. &or the overn*ent to take over the sai! fa/i"it$, it has to /o*pensate respon!ent PIATCO as #ui"!er of the sai! stru/tures. The /o*pensation *ust #e <ust an! in a//or!an/e with "aw an! e5uit$ for the overn*ent /an not un<ust"$ enri/h itse"f at the e6pense of PIATCO an! its investors.2 After the pro*u" ation of the ru"in s in A an, the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities have re*aine! in the possession of PIATCO, !espite the avowe! intent of the 9overn*ent to put the airport ter*ina" into i**e!iate operation. The 9overn*ent an! PIATCO /on!u/te! severa" roun!s of ne otiation re ar!in the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities.) It a"so appears that ar#itra" pro/ee!in s were /o**en/e! #efore the Internationa" Cha*#er of Co**er/e Internationa" Court of Ar#itration an! the Internationa" Centre for the Sett"e*ent of Invest*ent Disputes,+ a"thou h the 9overn*ent has raise! <uris!i/tiona" 5uestions #efore those two #o!ies.(0 Then, on ,( De/e*#er ,00G, the 9overn*ent(( fi"e! a Co*p"aint for e6propriation with the Pasa$ Cit$ Re iona" Tria" Court %RTC', to ether with an

the 9overn*ent was !ire/te! Tto *aintain. Nonethe"ess.anuar$ . pen!in e6propriation pro/ee!in s an! fu"" pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. the RTC issue! another Or!er !esi ne! to supp"e*ent its .00-. Thir!. the RTC issue! an Or!er(E !ire/tin the issuan/e of a writ of possession to the 9overn*ent. the 9overn*ent was prohi#ite! Tfro* perfor*in a/ts of ownership "ike awar!in /on/essions or "easin an$ part of NNAIA 1O to other parties. on G . the RTC issue! another Or!er. On 2 . Benri/k &. un"ike Rep.00G Or!er an! the Hrit of Possession.00. The 9overn*ent sou ht upon the fi"in of the /o*p"aint the issuan/e of a writ of possession authori4in it to take i**e!iate possession an! /ontro" over the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities.anuar$ .( De/e*#er . preserve an! safe uar!T the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities or Tperfor* su/h as a/ts or a/tivities in preparation for their !ire/t operationT of the airport ter*ina". The 9overn*ent a"so !e/"are! that it ha! !eposite! the a*ount of P1.App"i/ation for Spe/ia" Raff"e seekin the i**e!iate ho"!in of a spe/ia" raff"e. whi"e the O*ni#us Or!er affir*e! the ear"ier !ispositions in the G . representin the NAIA 1 ter*ina"Qs assesse! va"ue for ta6ation purposes.T. the 9overn*ent fi"e! an @r ent . )+2G whi/h provi!es.T(+ The ver$ ne6t !a$ after the issuan/e of the assai"e! G .T A"so on the sa*e !a$.1G1.. it !ire/te! the ?an! Bank of the Phi"ippines. the se/on! now assai"e! #efore this Court. to i**e!iate"$ re"ease the a*ount of @SDE.(. The RTC hear! the @r ent .Or!er. A/t No.anuar$ . This is the thir! Or!er now assai"e! #efore this Court. now assai"e! in the present petition.oreover. Ru"e E2 of the (++2 Ru"es of Civi" Pro/e!ure. the RTC issue! a Hrit of Possession.anuar$ . the 9overn*ent was a#"e to take possession over the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities i**e!iate"$ after the Hrit of Possession was issue!. otherwise known as TAn A/t to &a/i"itate the A/5uisition of Ri ht:of:Ha$. The RTC foun! these re5uisites present.00.00-. an authori4e! !epositar$.(G The /ase(. 9in o$on'. Site or ?o/ation for Nationa" 9overn*ent Infrastru/ture Pro<e/ts an! &or Other PurposesT an! its I*p"e*entin Ru"es an! Re u"ations %I*p"e*entin Ru"es' ha! a*en!e! Ru"e E2 in *an$ respe/ts. The petition pra$e! for the nu""ifi/ation of the RTC or!ers . On the sa*e !a$ that the Co*p"aint was fi"e!. On the sa*e !a$. parti/u"ar"$ notin that TNtOhe /ase re/or! shows that Nthe 9overn*ent hasO !eposite! the assesse! va"ue of the NNAIA 1 fa/i"itiesO in the ?an! Bank of the Phi"ippines. authori4in it to Ttake or enter upon the possessionT of the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities. Bowever. whereas in Ru"e E2. the RTC note! that its ear"ier issuan/e of its writ of possession was pursuant to Se/tion . the RTC *a!e ke$ 5ua"ifi/ations to its ear"ier issuan/es.-. That sa*e !a$. Ru"e E2 pres/ri#es that the initia" !eposit #e e5uiva"ent to the assesse! va"ue of the propert$ for purposes of ta6ation. @n!er the statute. )+2G an! Se/tion (0 of the I*p"e*entin Ru"es.. the *arket va"ue of the propert$ as state! in the ta6 !e/"aration or the /urrent re"evant 4ona" va"uation of the Bureau of Interna" Revenue %BIR'.Or!er. presi!e! #$ respon!ent <u! e Bon.otion for Re/onsi!eration. A//or!in to PIATCO.00.otion for Inhi#ition on (0 . on the #asis of Se/tions G an! 2 of Rep. the 9overn*ent is re5uire! on"$ to *ake an initia" !eposit with an authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$.anuar$ .0 Thus. Bowever. the 9overn*ent was !ire/te! to su#*it to the RTC a Certifi/ate of Avai"a#i"it$ of &un!s si ne! #$ authori4e! offi/ia"s to /over the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. A//or!in "$.otion for Re/onsi!eration an! .ani"a v.00-. whi/h appointe! three %1' Co**issioners to as/ertain the a*ount of <ust /o*pensation for the NAIA 1 Co*p"e6. the 9overn*ent fi"e! a . A/t No. an! the va"ue of the i*prove*ents an!Cor stru/tures usin the rep"a/e*ent /ost *etho!. whi/hever is hi her. it e6/epte! fro* affir*an/e Tthe superf"uous part of the Or!er prohi#itin the p"aintiffs fro* awar!in /on/essions or "easin an$ part of NNAIA 1O to other parties.was raff"e! to Bran/h ((2 of the Pasa$ Cit$ RTC. )+2G %Rep. an! upon !eposit *a!e #$ the overn*ent of the a*ount e5uiva"ent to the assesse! va"ue of the propert$ su#<e/t to e6propriation.00-.() Bowever.. Serrano. %1 Bi""ion'(1 in Cash with the ?an! Bank of the Phi"ippines.anuar$ .000. &irst. it !enie! these *otions in an O*ni#us Or!er !ate! (0 . Citin the /ase of Cit$ of .anuar$ . A/t No.otion for Inhi#ition of Bon. In the G . There are at "east two /ru/ia" !ifferen/es #etween the respe/tive pro/e!ures un!er Rep. Ba/"aran Bran/h %?BP:Ba/"aran'.was fi"e! on (1 . )+2G an! Ru"e E2. the present Petition for Certiorari an! Prohi#ition un!er Ru"e E.(2 the RTC note! that it ha! the *inisteria" !ut$ to issue the writ of possession upon the fi"in of a /o*p"aint for e6propriation suffi/ient in for* an! su#stan/e.anuar$ .00-. )+2G'.00(.00-.(2-.anuar$ . A/t No. it was o#serve! that Repu#"i/ A/t No.Or!er. as the re"evant stan!ar! for initia" /o*pensation.22 to PIATCO. 9in o$on. the 9overn*ent is re5uire! to *ake i**e!iate pa$*ent to the propert$ owner upon the fi"in of the /o*p"aint to #e entit"e! to a writ of possession. . 9in o$on %Bon. Se/on!. whi/h was set for hearin on (0 . an a*ount whi/h the RTC /hara/teri4e! as that whi/h the 9overn*ent Tspe/ifi/a""$ *a!e avai"a#"e for the purpose of this e6propriationKT an! su/h a*ount to #e !e!u/te! fro* the a*ount of <ust /o*pensation !ue PIATCO as eventua""$ !eter*ine! #$ the RTC.00. as shown #$ the /ertifi/ation atta/he! to their /o*p"aint.

The 9overn*ent !oes not /ontest the effi/a/$ of this pronoun/e*ent in the .. the proper re*e!$ shou"! #e akin to an a/tion for e<e/t*ent. to wit: %i' that Ru"e E2. sin/e the State a"rea!$ owns the propert$ on whi/h NAIA 1 stan!s. re*ain in !ispute an! sha"" #e reso"ve! forthwith. At first #"ush. whi/h has the a!!e! #enefit of an inte rate! pro/ess for the !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation an! the pa$*ent thereof to PIATCO. the a/tions of respon!ent <u! e un!er review.00G Reso"ution is espe/ia""$ si nifi/ant to this /ase in two aspe/ts. su/h as the /o*p"aint for e*inent !o*ain.anuar$ .00G Reso"ution Hhi/h Is ?aw of This Case 9enera""$ Per*its E6propriation . Bowever. as we"" as the ar u*ents of the parties *ust. an! for the inhi#ition of Bon. Thus.!ate! G . %ii' that Bon.. &or the overn*ent to take over the sai! fa/i"it$.. He appre/iate that the /ase at #ar is a hi h"$ unusua" /ase.( The 9overn*ent.00-. it has to /o*pensate respon!ent PIATCO as #ui"!er of the sai! stru/tures. Thus.anuar$ . raises five enera" ar u*ents.00-. it is essentia" to /onsi!er the /ru/ia" ho"!in of the Court in its . 9in o$on erre! when he or!ere! the i**e!iate re"ease of the a*ount of @SDE. Of /ourse. fina" an! e6e/utor$ as it is. is not un*in!fu" of the rea"it$ that the stru/tures /o*prisin the NAIA IPT III fa/i"it$ are a"*ost /o*p"ete an! that fun!s have #een spent #$ PIATCO in their /onstru/tion. effe/tive"$ pre/"u!e! it fro* a/5uirin possession or ownership of the NAIA 1 throu h the uni"atera" e6er/ise of its ri hts as the owner of the roun! on whi/h the fa/i"ities stoo!. The 9overn*ent has /hosen to resort to e6propriation.i""ion to PIATCO /onsi!erin that the assesse! va"ue as a""e e! in the /o*p"aint was on"$ P1 Bi""ionK %iii' that the RTC /ou"! not have prohi#ite! the 9overn*ent fro* en<oinin the perfor*an/e of a/ts of ownershipK %iv' that the appoint*ent of the three /o**issioners was erroneousK an! %v' that Bon.There is an inherent i""o i/ in the resort to e*inent !o*ain on propert$ a"rea!$ owne! #$ the State. a re*e!$ avai"a#"e un!er the "aw.. 2 .1 . 9in o$on. in re5uirin the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation prior to the takeover #$ the 9overn*ent of NAIA 1. in i*putin rave a#use of !is/retion to the a/ts of Bon. to *erit affir*ation.00G Reso"ution. A an. A/t No. The . however. 9in o$on fro* takin further a/tion on the e6propriation /ase. 5uestions su/h as what is the stan!ar! of T<ust /o*pensationT an! whi/h parti/u"ar "aws an! e5uita#"e prin/ip"es are app"i/a#"e..00G Reso"ution. It /annot #e !enie! thou h that the Court in the . Before we !e"ve into the *erits of the issues raise! #$ the 9overn*ent. The parties /annot #e a""owe! to eva!e the !ire/tives "ai! !own #$ this Court throu h an$ *o!e of <u!i/ia" a/tion.00G Reso"ution. na*e"$: %i' that PIATCO *ust re/eive pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation !eter*ine! in a//or!an/e with "aw an! e5uit$K an! %ii' that the overn*ent is #arre! fro* takin over NAIA 1 unti" su/h <ust /o*pensation is pai!. the ri ht of the 9overn*ent to take over the NAIA 1 ter*ina" was pre/on!itione! #$ "awfu" or!er on the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation to PIATCO as #ui"!er of the stru/tures. The . where#$ the 9overn*ent seeks to e6propriate a #ui"!in /o*p"e6 /onstru/te! on "an! whi/h the State a"rea!$ owns.G thus its app"i/ation to the /ase at #ar is not a *atter of /ontrovers$.00G Reso"ution. )+2G..anuar$ . The /o*pensation *ust #e <ust an! in a//or!an/e with "aw an! e5uit$ for the overn*ent /an not un<ust"$ enri/h itse"f at the e6pense of PIATCO an! its investors. not Rep. an! an$ !isposition of the present petition *ust /onfor* to the /on!itions "ai! !own #$ the Court in its .00G Reso"ution.00-.00G Reso"ution in A an. an! (0 . In!ee!.00-. 9in o$on shou"! #e /o*pe""e! to inhi#it hi*se"f fro* the e6propriation /ase. stan!s as overnin "aw in this /ase.. as thin s stoo! after the .1 This pronoun/e*ent /ontains the fun!a*enta" pre*ises whi/h per*eate this !e/ision of the Court..anuar$ . A /on/urrent pra$er for the issuan/e of a te*porar$ restrainin or!er an! pre"i*inar$ in<un/tion was rante! #$ this Court in a Reso"ution !ate! (G . pass the thresho"! test of whether su/h propositions are in a//or! with the . pro/ee!in sK overns the present e6propriation The pronoun/e*ent in the .00G Reso"ution pres/ri#e! *an!ator$ ui!e"ines whi/h the 9overn*ent *ust o#serve #efore it /ou"! a/5uire the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities. the reason for the resort #$ the 9overn*ent to e6propriation pro/ee!in s is un!erstan!a#"e in this /ase. whi/h we repeat #e"ow: This Court.

whi/h provi!es for a pro/e!ure e*inent"$ *ore favora#"e to the propert$ owner than Ru"e E2. )+2G. @n"ike in the /ase of "o/a" overn*ents whi/h ne/essitate an authori4in or!inan/e #efore e6propriation *a$ #e a//o*p"ishe!. e*inent !o*ain is not the so"e <u!i/ia" re/ourse #$ whi/h the 9overn*ent *a$ have a/5uire! the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities whi"e satisf$in the re5uisites in the . with !ue re ar! not on"$ to the "aw on e6propriation #ut a"so to the CourtQs . there is no nee! un!er Ru"e E2 or Rep.) Thus. &urther e"a#oration is in or!er. in the reso"ution of this petition. A/t No. another a en/$ of Nthe Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippinesO. in app"$in the "aws an! ru"es on e6propriation in the /ase at #ar. It shou"! a"so #e note! that Se/tion ( of Ru"e E2 %on E6propriation' re/o ni4es the possi#i"it$ that the propert$ sou ht to #e e6propriate! *a$ #e tit"e! in the na*e of the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines.. whether Ru"e E2 of the Ru"es of Court or Rep.00G Reso"ution in A anR The ri ht of e*inent !o*ain e6ten!s to persona" an! rea" propert$.. )+2G. A/t No. Thus. Ru"e E2 out"ines the pro/e!ure un!er whi/h e*inent !o*ain *a$ #e e6er/ise! #$ the 9overn*ent.00G Reso"ution. as we"" as the spee!iest *eans #$ whi/h su/h oa"s *a$ #e a//o*p"ishe!.The !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation /ou"! ver$ we"" #e a ree! upon #$ the parties without <u!i/ia" intervention.00G A an Reso"ution The 9overn*ent insists that Ru"e E2 of the Ru"es of Court overns the e6propriation pro/ee!in s in this /ase to the e6/"usion of a"" other "aws. ines/apa#"$ app"ies in instan/es when the nationa" overn*ent e6propriates propert$ Tfor nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/ts. the assesse! va"ue stan!ar! an! the !eposit *o!e pres/ri#e! in Ru"e E2 /ontinues to app"$. a"thou h o//upie! #$ private in!ivi!ua"s. The *ost /ru/ia" !ifferen/e #etween Ru"e E2 an! Rep. an! the NAIA 1 stru/tures.T. the inte rit$ an! effi/a/$ of the ru"in s of this Court wi"" #e severe"$ !i*inishe!. Entr$ of p"aintiff upon !epositin va"ue with authori4e! overn*ent !epositor$. we ha! a!verte! to the #asi/ !ifferen/es #etween the statute an! the pro/e!ura" ru"e. an! in su/h /ase an aver*ent to that effe/t shou"! #e *a!e in the /o*p"aint. un"ess in "ieu thereof the /ourt authori4es the !eposit of a /ertifi/ate of !eposit of a overn*ent #ank of . &or e6a*p"e.00G Reso"ution to a/hieve the en! effe/t that the 9overn*ent *a$ va"i!"$ take over the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities. Is e*inent !o*ain appropriate in the first p"a/e. we are i*pe""e! to app"$ or /onstrue these ru"es in a//or!an/e with the CourtQs pres/riptions in the . Rep. an! it appears that steps towar!s that !ire/tion ha! #een en a e! in. a!here! as the$ are to the soi". u"ti*ate"$. if e6propriation is en a e! in #$ the nationa" overn*ent for purposes other than nationa" infrastru/ture pro<e/ts. An! then there is Rep. . there shou"! #e no 5uestion as to the propriet$ of e*inent !o*ain pro/ee!in s in this /ase.T. A/t No. On the other han!. A/t No. The instant e6propriation /o*p"aint !i! aver that the NAIA 1 /o*p"e6 Tstan!s on a par/e" of "an! owne! #$ the Bases Conversion Deve"op*ent Authorit$. @n!er #oth Ru"e E2 an! Rep. whi/h /overs e6propriation pro/ee!in s inten!e! for nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/ts. the 9overn*ent /o**en/es e6propriation pro/ee!in s throu h the fi"in of a /o*p"aint. Se/tion (+ of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e overns as to the e6er/ise #$ "o/a" overn*ent units of the power of e*inent !o*ain throu h an ena#"in or!inan/e. Not on"$ !oes it ena#"e i**e!iate possession after satisfa/tion of the re5uisites un!er the "aw. the . A/t No. It is fro* these pre*ises that we reso"ve the first 5uestion. Sti"". )+2G overns the e6propriation pro/ee!in s in this /ase. A/t No. Otherwise. #ut as the sour/e of ri hts an! pres/riptions that *ust #e uarantee!. it a"so has a #ui"t:in pro/e!ure throu h whi/h <ust /o*pensation *a$ #e as/ertaine!. : @pon the fi"in of the /o*p"aint or at an$ ti*e thereafter an! after !ue noti/e to the !efen!ant. are /onsi!ere! as rea" propert$. The first para raph of Se/tion . Su/h !eposit sha"" #e in *one$. the 9overn*ent resorte! to its inherent power of e*inent !o*ain throu h e6propriation pro/ee!in s. Sti"".00G Reso"ution is effe/tive not on"$ as a "e a" pre/e!ent. Ear"ier. App"i/ation of Ru"e E2 >io"ates the . )+2G. E*inent !o*ain thou h *a$ #e the *ost effe/tive. )+2G whi/h !oes app"$. if not enfor/e!. of Ru"e E2 provi!es: SEC.E The pu#"i/ purpose for the e6propriation is a"so #e$on! !ispute. )+2G /on/erns the parti/u"ar essentia" step the 9overn*ent has to un!ertake to #e entit"e! to a writ of possession. A/t No.2 A!*itte!"$. Aet #$ no *eans !oes it serve at present as the so"itar$ ui!e"ine throu h whi/h the State *a$ e6propriate private propert$. the p"aintiff sha"" have the ri ht to take or enter upon the possession of the rea" propert$ invo"ve! if he !eposits with the authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$ an a*ount e5uiva"ent to the assesse! va"ue of the propert$ for purposes of ta6ation to #e he"! #$ su/h #ank su#<e/t to the or!ers of the /ourt. Insofar as this /ase is /on/erne!. PIATCO /"ai*s that it is Rep. )+2G for "e is"ative authori4ation #efore the 9overn*ent *a$ pro/ee! with a parti/u"ar e6er/ise of e*inent !o*ain.

an! after !ue noti/e to the !efen!ant. Ru"e E2 /annot app"$ in this /ase without vio"atin the . )+2G re5uires that the 9overn*ent *ake a !ire/t pa$*ent to the propert$ owner #efore the writ *a$ issue. In /ontrast. an! there is no e6istin va"uation of the area /on/erne!. As /an #e "eane! fro* the a#ove:5uote! te6ts. the proffere! va"ue of the propert$ to #e sei4e!. the va"ue of the i*prove*ents or stru/tures un!er the rep"a/e*ent /ost *etho!. it wou"! not #e o#"i e! to i**e!iate"$ pa$ an$ a*ount to PIATCO #efore it /an o#tain the writ of possession sin/e a"" it nee! !o is !eposit the a*ount e5uiva"ent to the assesse! va"ue with an authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$.00G Reso"ution in A an. . the i*p"e*entin a en/$ sha"" i**e!iate"$ pa$ the owner of the propert$ the a*ount e5uiva"ent to the su* of %(' one hun!re! per/ent %(00Z' of the va"ue of the propert$ #ase! on the /urrent re"evant 4ona" va"uation of the Bureau of Interna" Revenue %BIR'K an! %. Ru"e E2 wou"! in turn vio"ate the CourtQs . A/t No. A/t No. 9ui!e"ines for E6propriation Pro/ee!in s. Se/tion . @pon /o*p"etion with the ui!e"ines a#ove*entione!. Thus.' the va"ue of the i*prove*ents an!Cor stru/tures as !eter*ine! un!er Se/tion 2 hereofK . .. G.00G Reso"ution. at the ver$ "east.hereof. This Court /annot san/tion !eviation fro* its own fina" an! e6e/utor$ or!ers. After a"". A/t No. notwithstan!in the un!enia#"e rea"it$ that NAIA 1 is a nationa" overn*ent pro<e/t. site or "o/ation for an$ nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/t throu h e6propriation. @n!er Ru"e E2. of Ru"e E2 were to app"$. these efforts fai". espe/ia""$ /onsi!erin the /ontro""in effe/t of the . the appropriate pro/ee!in s #efore the proper /ourt un!er the fo""owin ui!e"ines: a' @pon the fi"in of the /o*p"aint. su/h pa$*ent is #ase! on the 4ona" va"uation of the BIR in the /ase of "an!. . Hou"! the !eposit un!er Se/tion .00G Reso"ution that TNfOor the overn*ent to take over the sai! fa/i"it$. )+2G !oes not overn in this /ase. the i*p"e*entin a en/$ sha"" i**e!iate"$ pa$ the owner of the propert$ its proffere! va"ue takin into /onsi!eration the stan!ar!s pres/ri#e! in Se/tion . of Ru"e E2 provi!es that the State Tsha"" have the ri ht to take or enter upon the possession of the rea" propert$ invo"ve! if Nthe p"aintiffO !eposits with the authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$ an a*ount e5uiva"ent to the assesse! va"ue of the propert$ for purposes of ta6ation to #e he"! #$ su/h #ank su#<e/t to the or!ers of the /ourt. a"" the 9overn*ent nee! !o to o#tain a writ of possession is to !eposit the a*ount e5uiva"ent to the assesse! va"ue with an authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$. )+2G !oes not app"$ in this /ase. Ben/e. the /ourt sha"" i**e!iate"$ issue to the i*p"e*entin a en/$ an or!er to take possession of the propert$ an! start the i*p"e*entation of the pro<e/t. the position of the 9overn*ent san/tions its own !isre ar! or vio"ation the pres/ription "ai! !own #$ this Court that there *ust first #e <ust /o*pensation pai! to PIATCO #efore the 9overn*ent *a$ take over the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities. )+2G. Before the /ourt /an issue a Hrit of Possession. it !evotes /onsi!era#"e effort to point out that Rep. It is 5uite apparent wh$ the 9overn*ent wou"! prefer to app"$ Ru"e E2 in "ieu of Rep. of Ru"e E2 satisf$ the re5uire*ent "ai! !own in the . Ru"e E2 *ere"$ re5uires the 9overn*ent to !eposit with an authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$ the assesse! va"ue of the propert$ for e6propriation for it to #e entit"e! to a writ of possession.the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines pa$a#"e on !e*an! to the authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$. Rep.00G Reso"ution in A an on the a!<u!i/ation of this /ase.oreover. the i*p"e*entin a en/$ sha"" present to the /ourt a /ertifi/ate of avai"a#i"it$ of fun!s fro* the proper offi/ia" /on/erne!. Su/h an in<un/tion s5uare"$ /ontra!i/ts the "etter an! intent of the . A/t No. If Se/tion . . PIATCO wou"! #e en<oine! fro* re/eivin a sin "e /entavo as <ust /o*pensation #efore the 9overn*ent takes over the NAIA 1 fa/i"it$ #$ virtue of a writ of possession. On the other han!. a!heren/e to the "etter of Se/tion . it !oes not ne/essari"$ fo""ow that Ru"e E2 shou"! then app"$.00G Reso"ution.: Hhenever it is ne/essar$ to a/5uire rea" propert$ for the ri ht:of:wa$. Even assu*in that Rep. /' In /ase the /o*p"etion of a overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/t is of ut*ost ur en/$ an! i*portan/e.+ or if no su/h va"uation is avai"a#"e an! in /ases of ut*ost ur en/$. Se/tion G of Rep. )+2G re"evant"$ states: SEC..T10 It is thus apparent that un!er the provision. A/t No. . it has to /o*pensate respon!ent PIATCO as #ui"!er of the sai! stru/turesTR Evi!ent"$ not. Aet. . It is the fin!in of this Court that the sta in of e6propriation pro/ee!in s in this /ase with the e6/"usive use of Ru"e E2 wou"! a""ow for the 9overn*ent to take over the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities in a fashion that !ire/t"$ re#ukes our . Ben/e.

T1. an! *oreover. p. >ER9ARA'. /ite! #$ PIATCO in its . Spe/ifi/a""$. $ou know. At the sa*e ti*e. this pres/ri#es the new stan!ar!s in !eter*inin the a*ount of <ust /o*pensation in e6propriation /ases re"atin to nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/ts. it is not !eposit. issues on un/ertain ownership an! /onf"i/tin /"ai*s..00G Reso"ution *i"itates a ainst the /ontinue! use of the nor* un!er Se/tion . E+-2. Oka$. the "aw is inten!e! to /over e6propriation pro/ee!in s inten!e! for nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/ts. ho. i*p"e*entation. pp. CAAETANO'. Rep. CAAETANO'. ItQs pa$*ent. an! su/h other in/i!ents affe/tin the /o*p"aint sha"" #e reso"ve! un!er the provisions on e6propriation of Ru"e E2 of the Ru"es of Court. No. >ER9ARA'. of possession. As a/know"e! e! in the . a"" pro<e/ts /overe! #$ Repu#"i/ A/t No. 9iven that the . as a*en!e!. 666 TBE CBAIR. )+2G to superse!e the s$ste* of !eposit un!er Ru"e E2 with the s/he*e of Ti**e!iate pa$*entT in /ases invo"vin nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/ts. we *i ht as we"" pa$ the* as *u/h.00G Reso"ution. T6 6 6 Be/ause the Senate #e"ieves that. )+2G &its to the Situation at Bar an! Co*p"e*ents the .T %I!.T REP.AN %SEN. Qno. /onstru/tion.e*oran!u*. A/t No. The fo""owin portion of the Senate !e"i#erations. its app"i/ation in this /ase /o*p"e*ents rather than /ontravenes the pres/riptions "ai! !own in the . is worth 5uotin to /o itate on the purpose #ehin! the p"ain *eanin of the "aw: TBE CBAIR. (G:. $ou know.00G Reso"ution that there *ust first #e pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation to PIATCO #efore the 9overn*ent *a$ take over the propert$. operation. an! other re"ate! an! ne/essar$ a/tivities.T O#vious"$. we have to pa$ the "an!owners i**e!iate"$ not #$ treasur$ #i""s #ut #$ /ash. whi/h it !i! throu h the ena/t*ent of Rep.AN %SEN.. )+2G is entit"e! TAn A/t To &a/i"itate The A/5uisition Of Ri ht:Of: Ha$. otherwise known as the Bui"!:Operate: an!:Transfer ?aw.0' 666 TBE CBAIR. @nan :una. )+2G. as we"" as the *anner of pa$*ent thereof. E1' 1( It "ikewise #ears notin that the appropriate stan!ar! of <ust /o*pensation is a su#stantive *atter. !i #aR I$on 4ona" : ta"a an *a #a#a$a! *una. the !eve"op*ent of NAIA 1 was *a!e pursuant to a #ui"!:operate:an!:transfer arran e*ent pursuant to Repu#"i/ A/t No. It sa$s here: i$on first para raph. oka$. In other wor!s. repair an! reha#i"itation. Qno.000. Qno. 22(). TBE CBAIR. A//epte!. Au ust . : The ter* Tnationa" overn*ent pro<e/tsT sha"" refer to a"" nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture.((2. Be/ause this is rea""$ in favor of the "an!owners.AN %SEN. in/"u!in pro<e/ts un!ertaken #$ overn*ent:owne! an! /ontro""e! /orporations. upon pa$*ent. ThatQs wh$ we nee! to rea""$ se/ure the avai"a#i"it$ of fun!s. Se/tion (G of the I*p"e*entin Ru"es re/o ni4es the /ontinue! app"i/a#i"it$ of Ru"e E2 on pro/e!ura" aspe/ts when it provi!es Ta"" *atters re ar!in !efenses an! o#<e/tions to the /o*p"aint. .. of Rep. A/t No. effe/ts of appea" on the ri hts of the parties. *aintenan/e. )+2G e6p"ains what are /onsi!ere! as Tnationa" overn*ent pro<e/ts. Bi/a*era" Conferen/e on the Disa reein Provisions of Bouse Bi"" (G. Ru"e E2. CAAETANO'. . re ar!"ess of the sour/e of fun!in . $ou know.re5uire*ent in the . /o*p"etion. Qno. Site Or ?o/ation &or Nationa" 9overn*ent Infrastru/ture Pro<e/ts An! &or Other Purposes. A/t No. Oo. )+2GR He fin! that it is. no. as a*en!e! #$ Repu#"i/ A/t No. hin!i "an -0 per/ent.11 whi/h pertains to infrastru/ture or !eve"op*ent pro<e/ts nor*a""$ finan/e! #$ the pu#"i/ se/tor #ut whi/h are now who""$ or . %TSN.00G A an Reso"ution Rep. It is we"" within the provin/e of the "e is"ature to fi6 the stan!ar!.. ItQs pa$*ent. there *ust #e a pa$*ent kaa a!. CAAETANO'. A/t No. 666 TBE CBAIR.AN %REP. en ineerin works an! servi/e /ontra/ts.T Se/. E+-2. i*prove*ent.+.AN %REP.AN %SEN.001 De/ision. A/t No. It is the p"ain intent of Rep. 666 TBE CBAIR. ItQs the sa*e. Se/tion . is it then possi#"e to app"$ Rep. su/h as site a/5uisition. Nationa" 9overn*ent Pro<e/ts. supp"$ an!Cor insta""ation of e5uip*ent an! *ateria"s. Sin/e we are !eprivin the*. an! Senate Bi"" . A/t No. pa$*ent. e. BATERINA.

ter*ina"s an! the power p"ant. of a iven infrastru/ture fa/i"it$. un!er an$ sensi#"e /onte*p"ation. A/t No. the thresho"! test *ust sti"" #e *et whether its i*p"e*entation wou"! /onfor* to the !i/tates of the Court in the . these fa/i"ities are ine"u/ta#"$ i**ova#"e or rea" propert$. within the No. $et there are no purposive !istin/tions that wou"! <ustif$ a variant treat*ent for purposes of e6propriation. an! a !isparate treat*ent #etween those two /"asses of rea" propert$ infrin es the e5ua" prote/tion /"ause.00G Reso"ution s5uare"$ re/o ni4e! that ri ht when it *an!ate! the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation to PIATCO prior to the takeover #$ the 9overn*ent of NAIA 1. )+2G /a"" for that "awQs app"i/ation in this /ase. nothin in the "aw wou"! prohi#it the app"i/ation of Se/tion 2. pe##"es an! wee!s. A/t No. a Tri ht:of:wa$.T whi/h un!er /ivi" "aw in/"u!es #ui"!in s. A/t No. There is none.T Aet we /annot a ree with the 9overn*entQs insisten/e that neither /ou"! NAIA 1 #e a TsiteT or T"o/ationT. we /annot a//ept the 9overn*entQs proposition that the on"$ properties that *a$ #e e6propriate! un!er Rep.TG( Se/tion G is 5uite e6p"i/it in statin that the s/ope of the "aw re"ates to the a/5uisition of Trea" propert$. Even as the provisions of Rep. A/t . whi/h provi!es for the va"uation *etho! of the i*prove*ents an! or stru/tures in the instan/es wherein it is ne/essar$ for the 9overn*ent to e6propriate on"$ the i*prove*ents or stru/tures. ro""in sto/ks "ike the /oa/hes. A/t No.In Tata! v. )+2G. fa/i"ities. if no su/h ri ht is re/o ni4e!.part"$ i*p"e*ente! #$ the private se/tor. Both the "an! itse"f an! the i*prove*ents thereupon are sus/epti#"e to private ownership in!epen!ent of ea/h other. Se/tion ( of Rep. A/t No. @n"ike in the /ase There is no !ou#t that the NAIA 1 is not. )+2G. Thus. @n!er Se/tion G(-%(' of the Civi" Co!e. otherwise the e5ua" prote/tion /"ause of the Constitution is vio"ate!.1. This point is /riti/a". an! if taken fro* the owner. the NAIA 1 propert$ owne! #$ PIATCO. /apa#"e of pe/uniar$ esti*ation. #oth as to ri hts /onferre! an! responsi#i"ities i*pose!.1) Certain"$.1G @n!er the #ui"!:operate:an!:transfer s/he*e. In!ee!.1E the Court a/know"e! e! that the operator of the EDSA ?i ht Rai" Transit pro<e/t un!er a BOT s/he*e was the owner of the fa/i"ities su/h as Tthe rai" tra/ks. then there shou"! #e no i*pe!i*ent for the 9overn*ent to sei4e /ontro" of NAIA 1 throu h or!inar$ e<e/t*ent pro/ee!in s. are rea" the 9overn*entQs the Tri ht:of:wa$T. )+2G itse"f re/o ni4es that the i*prove*ents or stru/tures on the "an! *a$ ver$ we"" #e the su#<e/t of e6propriation pro/ee!in s. roa!s an! /onstru/tions of a"" kin!s a!here! to the soi". rai" stations. )+2G /onte*p"ates within its /overa e su/h rea" propert$ /onstitutin "an!. rass.T12 There /an #e no !ou#t that PIATCO has ownership ri hts over the fa/i"ities whi/h it ha! finan/e! an! /onstru/te!. the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities are of su/h nature that the$ /annot <ust #e pa/ke! up an! transporte! #$ PIATCO "ike a trave"in /ir/us /aravan. &or purposes of e6propriation.QT1+ Aet even B"a/kQs ?aw Di/tionar$ provi!es that TNtOhe ter* NsiteO !oes not of itse"f ne/essari"$ *ean a p"a/e or tra/t of "an! fi6e! #$ !efinite #oun!aries. There *a$ #e perhaps a *o"e/u"ar !istin/tion #etween soi" an! the inor ani/ i*prove*ents a!here! thereto. refers to Trea" propert$ a/5uire! for nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/ts are pro*pt"$ pai! <ust /o*pensation. /onsi!erin insisten/e that the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities /annot #e !ee*e! as TsiteT or T"o/ationT of a nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture /overa e of Rep. An$ su#:/"assifi/ations of rea" propert$ an! !iver ent treat*ent #ase! thereupon for purposes of e6propriation *ust #e #ase! on su#stantia" !istin/tions. Sin/e the ri hts of PIATCO over the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities are esta#"ishe!. it is the pro<e/t proponent whi/h un!ertakes the /onstru/tion. The petition 5uotes the !efinitions provi!e! in B"a/kQs ?aw Di/tionar$ of T"o/ationQT as the spe/ifi/ p"a/e or position of a person or thin an! QsiteQ as pertainin to a p"a/e or "o/ation or a pie/e of propert$ set asi!e for spe/ifi/ use. in re"ation to Se/tion 2 of the "aw provi!es for the ui!e"ines for the va"uation of the i*prove*ents or stru/tures to #e e6propriate!. The owner of i*prove*ents sei4e! throu h e6propriation suffers the sa*e !e ree of "oss as the owner of "an! sei4e! throu h si*i"ar *eans. In!ee!. as the$ /onstitute #ui"!in s. whi/h sets the !e/"aration of the "awQs po"i/$. the propert$ su#<e/t of e6propriation. It is *oreover apparent that the "aw an! its i*p"e*entin ru"es /o**on"$ provi!e for a ru"e for the va"uation of i*prove*ents an!Cor stru/tures thereupon separate fro* that of the "an! on whi/h su/h are /onstru/te!. E5ua" prote/tion !e*an!s that a"" persons or thin s si*i"ar"$ situate! shou"! #e treate! a"ike. Se/tion G%a'. to #a/k up its /ontention. of Rep.00G Reso"ution. )+2G are par/e"s of "an!. The fa/t that the 9overn*ent resorte! to e*inent !o*ain pro/ee!in s in the first p"a/e is a /on/ession on its part of PIATCOQs ownership. Rep. 9ar/ia. roa!s an! /onstru/tions of a"" kin!s a!here! to the soi". pro<e/t. #ui"!in s. the nature of these fa/i"ities shou"! now #e !eter*ine!. In!ee!. roa!s an! /onstru/tions a!here! to the soi". The . wou"! #e a#"e to point to a /"ear:/ut ru"e that a TsiteT or T"o/ationT e6/"usive"$ refers to soi". /onsi!ere! as a !eprivation of propert$.TG0 One wou"! assu*e that the 9overn*ent. par/e"s of "an! are si*i"ar"$ situate! as the #ui"!in s or i*prove*ents /onstru/te! thereon. Se/tion . The "aw /"assifies the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities as rea" properties <ust "ike the soi" to whi/h the$ are a!here!. in/"u!in the finan/in . as in this /ase.

Su/h pa$*ent of the proffere! va"ue to the owner.T with Se/tion 2 referrin to the Ti*p"e*entin ru"es an! re u"ations for the e5uita#"e va"uation of the i*prove*ents an!Cor stru/tures on the "an!. at the ver$ "east. /onsonant to Rep. the i*p"e*entin a en/$ sha"" i**e!iate"$ pa$ the owner of the propert$ its proferre! va"ue. as re ar!s the a*ount. A/t No. )+2G !oes provi!e re"evant stan!ar!s #$ whi/h Tproffere! va"ueT shou"! #e #ase!. in/"u!in the !eter*ination of the a*ount of the !eposit. is pre/ise"$ the s/he*ati/ un!er Rep. A/t No. takin into /onsi!eration the stan!ar!s pres/ri#e! in Se/tion . A/t No. there is no wa$. $et !oes not see it as an i*pe!i*ent for the app"i/ation of Rep. The uti"i4ation of Rep. Bowever. Se/tion G%/' of Rep. A/t No.Nof the "awO. )+2G. . one whi/h fa/ia""$ /o*p"ies with the pres/ription "ai! !own in the . At this <un/ture.00G Reso"ution. C"ear"$ then. in the initia" !eter*ination of the proffere! va"ue. )+2G states that Tin /ase the /o*p"etion of a overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/t is of ut*ost ur en/$ an! i*portan/e.TG. @n!er Rep. After a"". to i**e!iate"$ as/ertain the va"ue of the i*prove*ents an! stru/tures sin/e su/h va"uation is a *atter for fa/tua" !eter*ination. an! there is no e6istin va"uation of the area /on/erne!. A/t No. A/t No. It *ust #e /"arifie! that PIATCO /annot #e rei*#urse! or <ust"$ /o*pensate! for the va"ue of the par/e" of "an! on whi/h NAIA 1 stan!s. )+2G. The *akin of the !eposit.00G Reso"ution !oes not parti/u"ari4e the e6tent su/h pa$*ent *ust #e effe/te! #efore the takeover. )+2G. )+2G. A/t No. Sti"". sin/e 4ona" va"uations are on"$ for par/e"s of "an!. )+2G. A/t No.G1 Aet Rep. )+2G. #ut it un5uestiona#"$ re5uires at "east so*e !e ree of pa$*ent to the private propert$ owner #efore a writ of possession *a$ issue. an! it shou"! not #e entit"e! to <ust /o*pensation that is in/"usive of the va"ue of the "an! itse"f. )+2G overns the instant e6propriation pro/ee!in s. )+2G. Thus.G.T @n!er the present i*p"e*entin ru"es in p"a/e. the va"uation of the i*prove*entsCstru/tures are to #e #ase! usin Tthe rep"a/e*ent /ost *etho!. In a!!ition to Rep. as provi!e! in Rep. The . A/t No. the 9overn*ent a""e e! to have !eposite! the a*ount of P1 Bi""ion ear*arke! for e6propriation. thus the a*ount su#<e/t to i**e!iate pa$*ent shou"! #e "i*ite! to Tthe va"ue of the i*prove*ents an!Cor stru/tures as !eter*ine! un!er Se/tion 2. whi/h re5uires the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation #efore an$ takeover of the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities #$ the 9overn*ent. )+2G uarantees /o*p"ian/e with this #are *ini*u* re5uire*ent. The Court a rees with this point. )+2G wi"" not /ontravene the . )+2G. #ut Rep. A/t No. Its entit"e*ent to <ust /o*pensation shou"! #e "i*ite! to the va"ue of the i*prove*ents an!Cor stru/tures the*se"ves. A/t No. the !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation /annot in/"u!e the BIR 4ona" va"uation un!er Se/tion G of Rep.00G Reso"ution in A an a"so *an!ate! that the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation shou"! #e in a//or!an/e with e5uit$ as we"". we see no error on the part of the RTC when it ru"e! that Rep. )+2G per*its an e6pe!ite! *eans #$ whi/h the 9overn*ent /an i**e!iate"$ take possession of the propert$ without havin to await pre/ise !eter*ination of the va"uation.GE In fi"in the /o*p"aint for e6propriation. A/t No.of Ru"e E2. A/t No. the !ut$ of the tria" /ourt is to ensure that su/h a*ount /onfor*s not on"$ to the "aw. It wou"! #e hi h"$ !isin enuous to /o*pensate PIATCO for the va"ue of "an! it !oes not own. representin the assesse! va"ue of the propert$. As state! a#ove. the BIR 4ona" va"uation /annot app"$ in this /ase. The Proper A*ount to #e Pai! un!er Rep. the Court sees no i*pe!i*ent to re/o ni4e this su* of P1 Bi""ion as the proffere! va"ue un!er Se/tion G%#' of Rep. at "east for the present. was un!ertaken un!er the erroneous notion that Ru"e E2. A/t No. not for airport ter*ina"s. A/t No. A!*itte!"$. the rep"a/e*ent /ost is on"$ one of the fa/tors to #e /onsi!ere! in !eter*inin the <ust /o*pensation. is the app"i/a#"e "aw. )+2G. the 9overn*ent is not stri/t"$ re5uire! to a!here to an$ pre!eter*ine! stan!ar!s. PIATCO is not the owner of the "an! on whi/h the NAIA 1 fa/i"it$ is /onstru/te!.' the va"ue of the i*prove*ents an!Cor stru/tures as !eter*ine! un!er Se/tion 2. )+2G Then. A/t No. there is the *atter of the proper a*ount whi/h shou"! #e pai! to PIATCO #$ the 9overn*ent #efore the writ of possession *a$ issue. A/t No. Thus. the proffere! va"ue of the propert$ to #e sei4e!. the 9overn*ent is re5uire! to Ti**e!iate"$ pa$T the owner of the propert$ the a*ount e5uiva"ent to the su* of %(' one hun!re! per/ent %(00Z' of the va"ue of the propert$ #ase! on the /urrent re"evant 4ona" va"uation of the NBIROK an! %. in as/ertainin the u"ti*ate a*ount of <ust /o*pensation.TGG The Tproffere! va"ueT *a$ strike as a hi h"$ su#<e/tive stan!ar! #ase! so"e"$ on the intuition of the overn*ent. #ut to prin/ip"es of e5uit$ as we"". we *ust a!!ress the o#servation *a!e #$ the Offi/e of the So"i/itor 9enera" in #eha"f of the 9overn*ent that there /ou"! #e no TBIR 4ona" va"uationsT on the NAIA 1 fa/i"it$. su/h as Rep. the . the app"i/ation of Rep.as we"" as the /ertaint$ of <u!i/ia" !eter*ination of the propriet$ of the proffere! va"ue. )+2G. fo""owe! #$ the issuan/e of the writ of possession in favor of the 9overn*ent. as it assures the private propert$ owner the pa$*ent of.00G Reso"ution. an! not Rep.

the e6presse! "inka e #etween the BIR 4ona" va"uation an! the a*ount of <ust /o*pensation in this /ase. he wou"! have to esta#"ish that the hi her a*ount represents the va"uation of the stru/turesCi*prove*ents.i""ion is not /"ear. the proffere! va"ue of P1 Bi""ion. The su#<e/t or!er is f"awe! insofar as it fai"s to 5ua"if$ that su/h stan!ar! is inappropriate. the a*ount !eposite! #$ the 9overn*ent /onstitute! on"$ ()Z of this va"ue.1 .. Hhi"e the Court a rees that P1 Bi""ion shou"! #e /onsi!ere! as the /orre/t proffere! va"ue. the wor!in of the ?an! Bank Certifi/ation notwithstan!in .anuar$ . )+2G.i""ion.G+ One /ou"! rea!i"$ /on/"u!e that the entire a*ount of @SDE.of Rep.i""ion. is reve"ator$ of erroneous thou ht on the part of the RTC.G2 The RTC then pro/ee!e! to o#serve that whi"e Rep.00. Sti"". Hithout su/h !ire/t pa$*ent. He have a"rea!$ pointe! out the irre"evan/e of the BIR 4ona" va"uation as an appropriate #asis for va"uation in this /ase. A/t No.-. whi/h shou"! not #e the /ase.of Rep. no #in!in i*port shou"! #e iven to this o#servation that the a/tua" /ost of #ui"!in NAIA 1 was Tnot "ess thanT @SD1-0 . the RTC note! that the /on/essions a ree*ent entere! into #etween the 9overn*ent an! PIATCO state! that the a/tua" /ost of #ui"!in NAIA 1 was Tnot "ess thanT @SD1-0 .fai"s to esta#"ish su/h inte ra" fa/t.i""ionR The Or!er !ate! G . The ?an! Bank Certifi/ation e6pressin su/h a*ount !oes state that it was issue! upon re5uest of the .. as the fina" /on/"usions on the a*ount of <ust /o*pensation /an /o*e on"$ after !ue as/ertain*ent in a//or!an/e with the stan!ar!s set un!er Rep.a$ Not Be I*p"e*ente! @nti" A/tua" Re/eipt #$ PIATCO of Proferre! >a"ue The Court thus fin!s another error on the part of the RTC. an! in the a#sen/e of /ontravenin proof.1 ..1 . thus "eavin the i*pression that the BIR 4ona" va"uation *a$ for* part of the #asis for <ust /o*pensation.1 .i""ion as the initia" pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. At this point. the a*ount of P1 Bi""ion as the a*ount !eposite! /hara/teri4e! in the /o*p"aint as Tto #e he"! #$ N?an! BankO su#<e/t to the NRTCQsO or!ers..TG) The 9overn*ent /"ai*s in its . a stan!ar! whi/h shou"! not however app"$ in this /ase. an! not a *ere !eposit with the authori4e! overn*ent !epositar$. A/t No.ani"a Internationa" Airport Authorit$ Tpurporte!"$ as uarant$ !eposit for the e6propriation /o*p"aint. A/t No.T-0 shou"! #e !ee*e! as /ontro""in . proves pro#"e*ati/ in that re ar!.1 .i""ion. as presente! #$ the 9overn*ent. &or the "aw p"ain"$ re5uires !ire/t pa$*ent to the propert$ owner.. an! not the BIR 4ona" va"uation on the "an! wherein NAIA 1 is #ui"t.i""ion to PIATCO an! not P1 Bi""ion Pesos. respon!ent <u! e *a!e no atte*pt to app"$ the enu*erate! ui!e"ines for !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation un!er Se/tion .e*oran!u* that the entire a*ount was *a!e avai"a#"e as a uarant$ fun! for the fina" an! e6e/utor$ <u! *ent of the tria" /ourt. as re5uire! for <u!i/ia" review of the proffere! va"ue. an! not *ere"$ for the issuan/e of the writ of possession. Strikin "$. sti"" we /annot !ee* the 9overn*ent as havin faithfu""$ /o*p"ie! with Rep. In an$ event. whi/h *an!ate! su/h a*ount. for the RTC to #e a#"e to <ustif$ the pa$*ent of @SDE.i""ion was inten!e! #$ the 9overn*ent to answer for whatever uaranties *a$ #e re5uire! for the purpose of the e6propriation /o*p"aint.i""ion is on"$ inferentia""$ esta#"ishe!.. )+2G. it shou"! #e !ee*e! as havin faithfu""$ /o*p"ie! with the re5uire*ents of the statute. )+2G. sin/e the a*ount was #ase! on /o*parative va"ues *a!e #$ the Cit$ Assessor. The Court notes that in the (0 .1 .a"thou h its proffere! va"ue *a$ "ater #e su#<e/te! to <u!i/ia" review usin the stan!ar!s enu*erate! un!er Se/tion . an! /re!en/e shou"! #e iven to the /onsistent position of the 9overn*ent on that aspe/t.00-. Aet the a/tua" representation of the DE. A/t No. PIATCO not #ein the owner of the "an! on whi/h the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities stan!.O*ni#us Or!er. The Or!er !ate! . It !oes appear that the a*ount of @SDE. no writ of possession *a$ #e o#taine!. not the !e/"arations of the parties.00. the 9overn*ent su#*its that assu*in that Rep. the RTC /ites without 5ua"ifi/ation Se/tion G%a' of Rep. )+2G re5uire! the i**e!iate pa$*ent to PIATCO the a*ount e5uiva"ent to (00Z of the va"ue of NAIA 1. )+2G. )+2G as the #asis for the a*ount of DE. the !eposite! a*ount of P1 Bi""ion shou"! #e /onsi!ere! as the proffere! va"ue. The RTC authori4e! the issuan/e of the writ of possession to the 9overn*ent notwithstan!in the . whi/h pe e! the a*ount to #e i**e!iate"$ pai! to PIATCO at aroun! DE.oreover.anuar$ . In as/ertainin the proffere! va"ue a!!u/e! #$ the 9overn*ent..anuar$ . At the sa*e ti*e. A/t No. A/t No. . Hrit of Possession .1 . shou"! prevai". su/h intention the 9overn*ent *a$ have ha! as to the entire @SDE. There is no /"ear evi!en/e that the 9overn*ent inten!e! to offer @SDE. )+2G is app"i/a#"e.1 .i""ion was #ase! on the /ertifi/ation issue! #$ the ?BP:Ba/"aran that the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines *aintaine! a tota" #a"an/e in that #ran/h a*ountin to su/h a*ount. Bow shou"! we appre/iate the 5uestione! or!er of Bon. 9in o$on. Hhi"e the initia" su* of P1 Bi""ion *a$ have #een #ase! on the assesse! va"ue.. A/t No.-( A//or!in "$.

the private owner sees i**e!iate *onetar$ re/o*pense with the sa*e !e ree of spee! as the takin of hisCher propert$. To #e /ertain. . A/t No. Ru"e E2 an! the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e *ere"$ provi!e! that the 9overn*ent !eposit the initia" a*ounts-1 ante/e!ent to a/5uirin possession of the propert$ with. the overpowerin intention of Rep. &or another.00G Reso"ution "ess strin ent"$. as hi h"i hte! un!er Rep. *u/h "ess operation of the fa/i"ities. A//or!in "$.anuar$ .T a phrase whi/h in the stri/test sense /ou"! en/o*pass even a #ar of ph$si/a" possession of NAIA 1. or even Se/tion (+ of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e. It enshrines a new approa/h towar!s e*inent !o*ain that re/on/i"es the inherent unease atten!in e6propriation pro/ee!in s with a position of fun!a*enta" e5uit$. e6press"$ state! that it was not affir*in Tthe superf"uous part of the Or!er Nof G .( De/e*#er .T The o#vious i*port of this ho"!in is that un"ess PIATCO is pai! <ust /o*pensation. Otherwise. Hhi"e the RTC !i! !ire/t the ?BP:Ba/"aran to i**e!iate"$ re"ease the a*ount of @SDE.00. )+2G.anuar$ . or that the pa$*ent of the private owner #e protra/te! as far as pra/ti/a#"e.-.00G Reso"ution in A an /annot #e i nore!. there is no re5uire*ent that it un!ertake a pro"on e! pro/e!ure. Hhi"e e6propriation pro/ee!in s have a"wa$s !e*an!e! <ust /o*pensation in e6/han e for private propert$. )+2G an! to !ire/t /o*p"ian/e with the re5uire*ent of i**e!iate pa$*ent in this /ase. Hhi"e e*inent !o*ain "ies as one of the inherent powers of the State.00.O*ni#us Or!er. parti/u"ar"$ the !e/"aration that TNfOor the overn*ent to take over the sai! fa/i"it$. A/t No.00. unti" the 9overn*ent sha"" have a/tua""$ pai! PIATCO.. Rep.T-E Sti"".00. A/t No. )+2G of ensurin pa$*ent first #efore transfer of repossession wou"! #e evis/erate!. )+2G *an!ates i**e!iate pa$*ent of the initia" <ust /o*pensation prior to the issuan/e of the writ of possession in favor of the 9overn*ent. )+2G is p"ain"$ /"ear in i*posin the re5uire*ent of i**e!iate prepa$*ent. with!rawn it a"to ether. &or one. A/t No. respe/tive"$. There are /riti/a" reasons for the Court to view the .anuar$ . in its (0 . A/t No. Rep. an authori4e! 9overn*ent !epositar$-G or the proper /ourt. the e6pe!ite! pro/e!ure of pa$*ent. it was o#vious"$ in/apa/itate! to perfor* su/h a/ts of ownership. The Court has the !ut$ to i*p"e*ent Rep. )+2G that there *ust first #e pa$*ent #efore the writ of possession /an issue. the e/ono*i/ #enefits to the 9overn*ent an! the /ountr$ at "ar e are #e$on! !ispute on/e the NAIA 1 is put in operation. I**e!iate pa$*ent p"a/ates to so*e !e ree whatever i"":wi"" that arises fro* e6propriation. Rep.-.00G shou"! #e he"! in a#e$an/e. it has to /o*pensate respon!ent PIATCO as #ui"!er of the sai! stru/tures. An! sti"" for another. whi/h tota"s P1. the RTC. the Hrit of Possession !ate! . if it has not a"rea!$. su/h state*ent was pre!i/ate! on the notion that sin/e the 9overn*ent was not $et the owner of NAIA 1 unti" fina" pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. .00-O prohi#itin the p"aintiffs fro* awar!in /on/essions or "easin an$ part of NAIA N1O to other parties.000. @n!er the new *o!a"it$ pres/ri#e! #$ Rep. na$. )+2G. espe/ia""$ in /ases wherein the !eter*ination of the fina" a*ount of /o*pensation wou"! prove hi h"$ !ispute!. Bowever. pen!in proof of a/tua" pa$*ent #$ the 9overn*ent to PIATCO of the proffere! va"ue of the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities.i""ion to PIATCO. an! no a*ount of statutor$ !e/onstru/tion /an eva!e su/h re5uisite. A/t No. On the other han!. the private owner !oes not re/eive /o*pensation prior to the !eprivation of propert$. This is the inevita#"e /onse5uen/e of the /"ear /o**an! of Rep. the . In !e/i!in this 5uestion.fa/t that no pa$*ent of an$ a*ount ha! $et #een *a!e to PIATCO. is inherent"$ *ore fair.(. In fa/t. A/t No. it wi"" #e entit"e! to the Hrit of Possession. the nationa" presti e is !i*inishe! ever$ !a$ that passes with the NAIA 1 re*ainin *oth#a""e!. Ri hts of the 9overn*ent upon Issuan/e of the Hrit of Possession On/e the 9overn*ent pa$s PIATCO the a*ount of the proffere! va"ue of P1 Bi""ion. it shou"! have "ikewise suspen!e! the writ of possession. an! thus a""ow the operation #$ the 9overn*ent of NAIA 1 upon the effe/tivit$ of the Hrit of Possession.Or!er /onsistin of the prohi#ition on the 9overn*ent fro* perfor*in a/ts of ownership su/h as awar!in /on/essions or "easin an$ part of NAIA 1 to other parties. the 9overn*ent 5uestions the 5ua"ifi/ation i*pose! #$ the RTC in its G . !espite the /"ear /o**an! of Rep. )+2G represents a si nifi/ant /han e fro* previous e6propriation "aws su/h as Ru"e E2. espe/ia""$ to the "a$person who wou"! #e har!:presse! to fu""$ /o*prehen! the so/ia" va"ue of e6propriation in the first p"a/e. A/t No. the 9overn*ent is #arre! fro* Ttakin over. A/t No. )+2G that re5uires i**e!iate pa$*ent of the initia""$ !eter*ine! a*ount of <ust /o*pensation shou"! #e effe/te!.In #oth /ases. the /ontinue! non:use of the fa/i"ities /ontri#utes to its ph$si/a" !eterioration. as we"" as satisfies the !e*an! of #asi/ fairness. the previous !eposit re5uire*ent i*pe!e! i**e!iate /o*pensation to the private owner.

He reiterate! the various !o/trines of su/h i*port in our re/ent ho"!in in Repu#"i/ v. #ut a"so the "e a" ri ht to possess the propert$. Ta "e /on/erne! whether a writ of possession in favor of the 9overn*ent was sti"" ne/essar$ in "i ht of the fa/t that it was a"rea!$ in a/tua" possession of the propert$. In!ee!. tit"e to the propert$ taken re*ains in the owner unti" pa$*ent is a/tua""$ *a!e. The 9overn*entQs position is *ore e6pansive than that a!opte! #$ the Court. . Se/tion G states that Tthe /ourt sha"" i**e!iate"$ issue to the i*p"e*entin a en/$ an or!er to take possession of the propert$ an! start the i*p"e*entation of the pro<e/t. In Asso/iation of S*a"" ?an!owners in the Phi"ippines. vs. Ienne!$ further sai! that Q#oth on prin/ip"e an! authorit$ the ru"e is . re/on!itionin an! i*prove*ent of the /o*p"e6. It /ites Repu#"i/ v. neither Ta "e nor an$ other /ase or "aw. %E*phasis supp"ie!. as soon as the propert$ is .-2 as we"" as the state*ent therein that Tthe e6propriation of rea" propert$ !oes not in/"u!e *ere ph$si/a" entr$ or o//upation of "an!.urispru!en/e on this sett"e! prin/ip"e is /onsistent #oth here an! in other !e*o/rati/ <uris!i/tions. Certain"$. . . et a". the 9overn*ent itse"f is authori4e! to perfor* the a/ts that are essentia" to the operation of the NAIA 1 as an internationa" airport ter*ina" upon the effe/tivit$ of the Hrit of Possession.' In Ienne!$ v. #ut the /on!e*norQs tit"e re"ates #a/k to the !ate on whi/h the petition un!er the E*inent Do*ain A/t. the @S Supre*e Court /ite! severa" /ases ho"!in that tit"e to propert$ !oes not pass to the /on!e*nor unti" <ust /o*pensation ha! a/tua""$ #een *a!e. Ini ht. *aintenan/e of the e6istin fa/i"ities an! e5uip*ent. or the /o**issionerQs report un!er the ?o/a" I*prove*ent A/t. . it was he"! that Qa/tua" pa$*ent to the owner of the /on!e*ne! propert$ was a /on!ition pre/e!ent to the invest*ent of the tit"e to the propert$ in the StateQ a"#eit Qnot to the appropriation of it to pu#"i/ use.T He ho"! that a//or!in "$. Ta "e /onfor*s to the o#vious. insta""ation of new fa/i"ities an! e5uip*ent. su/h "e a" ri ht to possess was parti/u"ar"$ i*portant in the /ase. it is ena#"e! to perfor* a/ts !e <ure on the e6propriate! propert$. A/t No. Continues the Court. in Ru#otto* v. an! other servi/es that are inte ra" to a *o!ern:!a$ internationa" airport. that the ri ht to enter on an! use the propert$ is /o*p"ete. As ear"$ as ()1). 6 6 6 A"thou h the ri ht to appropriate an! use "an! taken for a /ana" is /o*p"ete at the ti*e of entr$. Se/retar$ of A rarian Refor*NE(O.-+ At the sa*e ti*e. this Court has #een vi i"ant in !efense of the ri hts of the propert$ owner who has #een va"i!"$ !eprive! of possession. is fi"e!. the Court of Appea"s of New Aork sai! that the /onstru/tion upon the statutes was that the fee !i! not vest in the State unti" the pa$*ent of the /o*pensation a"thou h the authorit$ to enter upon an! appropriate the "an! was /o*p"ete prior to the pa$*ent. ?i*:E0 The re/o ni4e! ru"e is that tit"e to the propert$ e6propriate! sha"" pass fro* the owner to the e6propriator on"$ upon fu"" pa$*ent of the <ust /o*pensation. an! the writ of possession wou"! serve to safe uar! the 9overn*ent fro* evi/tion. the Court in Ta "e e6p"ains that su/h writ veste! not on"$ ph$si/a" possession. thus: TTit"e to propert$ whi/h is the su#<e/t of /on!e*nation pro/ee!in s !oes not vest the /on!e*nor unti" the <u! *ent fi6in <ust /o*pensation is entere! an! pai!. In fa/t. that there is no transfer of ownership as of $et #$ virtue of the writ of possession.Q In Re6for! v. as there was a pen!in suit a ainst the Repu#"i/ for un"awfu" !etainer. )+2G provi!es the appropriate answer for the stan!ar! that overns the e6tent of the a/ts the 9overn*ent *a$ #e authori4e! to perfor* upon the issuan/e of the writ of possession.T an! fro* the* /on/"u!es that Tits *ere ph$si/a" entr$ an! o//upation of the propert$ fa"" short of the takin of tit"e. In!ianapo"is. In/. In ru"in that the 9overn*ent was entit"e! to the writ of possession. provision of servi/es an! fa/i"ities pertainin to the fa/i"itation of air traffi/ an! transport.T This /on/"usion is in!ee! "ifte! !ire/t"$ fro* state*ents in Ta "e. Ta "e. $et retains "e a" tit"e over the e6propriate! propert$ pen!in pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. "en!s support to the 9overn*entQs proposition that it a/5uires #enefi/ia" or e5uita#"e ownership of the e6propriate! propert$ *ere"$ throu h the writ of possession. $et it /annot #e /onstrue! to rant the 9overn*ent the entire panop"$ of ri hts that are avai"a#"e to the owner. Ta "e *a$ /on/e!e that the 9overn*ent is entit"e! to e6er/ise *ore than <ust the ri ht of possession #$ virtue of the writ of possession../?ure. on/e the Hrit of Possession is effe/tive. These wou"! in/"u!e the repair. whi/h in/"u!es a"" the ri hts that *a$ #e e6er/ise! #$ an owner over the su#<e/t propert$. -) #ut not fro* the ratio !e/i!en!i of that /ase. the !e/isions appear to #e unifor* to this effe/t.Rep. It ar ues that with the writ of possession.

9ar/iaNE.ust Co*pensation Hithin E0 Da$s The issuan/e of the writ of possession !oes not write finis to the e6propriation pro/ee!in s. In!ee!. that: Co. Hhen the !e/ision of the /ourt #e/o*es fina" an! e6e/utor$. Si nifi/ant"$. the owners /on/erne! sha"" have the ri ht to re/over possession of their propert$. upon the pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation to #e !eter*ine! as of the !ate of the fi"in of the /o*p"aintT 6 6 6. here.. to wit: T6 6 6 The first is /on/erne! with the !eter*ination of the authorit$ of the p"aintiff to e6er/ise the power of e*inent !o*ain an! the propriet$ of its e6er/ise in the /onte6t of the fa/ts invo"ve! in the suit. Tof /on!e*nation !e/"arin that the p"aintiff has a "awfu" ri ht to take the propert$ sou ht to #e /on!e*ne!. the pa$*ent of whi/h is suffi/ient to transfer possession of the propert$ to the 9overn*ent. the reversion of the va"i!"$ e6propriate! propert$ to private ownership !ue to the fai"ure of the 9overn*ent to pa$ <ust /o*pensation in that /ase. As ear"ier pointe! out. #ut that the tit"e !oes not pass fro* the owner without his /onsent. In ?i*. the Repu#"i/Qs a/5uisition of ownership is /on!itione! upon the fu"" pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation within a reasona#"e ti*e. . &ina" Deter*ination of . The se/on! phase of the e*inent !o*ain a/tion is /on/erne! with the !eter*ination #$ the /ourt of Tthe <ust /o*pensation for the propert$ sou ht to #e taken.T Thus..O this Court ru"e! that the e6propriation of "an!s /onsists of two sta es. It en!s with an or!er. The proffere! va"ue stan!s as *ere"$ a provisiona" !eter*ination of the a*ount of <ust /o*pensation. the /ourt sha"" !eter*ine the <ust /o*pensation to #e pai! the owner within si6t$ %E0' !a$s fro* the !ate of fi"in of the e6propriation /ase. in . the i*p"e*entin a en/$ sha"" pa$ the owner the !ifferen/e #etween the a*ount a"rea!$ pai! an! the <ust /o*pensation as !eter*ine! #$ the /ourt. we ru"e! that.T Our own Supre*e Court has he"! in >isa$an Refinin Pare!es. *an!ates that the 9overn*ent *ust pa$ for the private propert$ it e6propriates. the Court went as far as to /ountenan/e. 6 6 6.TERep.EG It was note! in that /ase that the 9overn*ent !e"i#erate"$ refuse! to pa$ <ust /o*pensation. without fu"" pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. the pu#"i/ po"i/$. ?i* serves fair warnin to the 9overn*ent an! its a en/ies who /onsistent"$ refuse to pa$ <ust /o*pensation !ue to the private propert$ owner whose propert$ ha! #een e6propriate!. Se/tion G provi!es: In the event that the owner of the propert$ /ontests the i*p"e*entin a en/$Qs proffere! va"ue. enshrine! fore*ost in the Constitution.a/tua""$ appropriate! un!er the authorit$ of "aw for a pu#"i/ use.QT%E*phasis supp"ie!. the fai"ure of the Repu#"i/ to pa$ respon!ent an! his pre!e/essors: in:interest for a perio! of -2 $ears ren!ere! the e6propriation pro/ess in/o*p"ete. Conse5uent"$. At the sa*e ti*e. without !i*inishin the poten/$ of su/h ri hts.' C"ear"$. the proper <u!i/ia" attitu!e is to uarantee /o*p"ian/e with this pri*or!ia" ri ht to <ust /o*pensation. ?i* e*phasi4es the fra i"it$ of the ri hts of the 9overn*ent as possessor pen!in the fina" pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. Bowever. v. for the pu#"i/ use or purpose !es/ri#e! in the /o*p"aint.. A/t No. there /an #e no transfer of tit"e fro* the "an!owner to the e6propriator. iven the e6/eptiona" /ir/u*stan/es of that /ase.T This is !one #$ the /ourt with the assistan/e of not *ore than three %1' /o**issioners. Ca*us an! QIf the "aws whi/h we have e6hi#ite! or /ite! in the pre/e!in !is/ussion are attentive"$ e6a*ine! it wi"" #e apparent that the *etho! of e6propriation a!opte! in this <uris!i/tion is su/h as to affor! a#so"ute reassuran/e that no pie/e of "an! /an #e fina""$ an! irrevo/a#"$ taken fro* an unwi""in owner unti" /o*pensation is pai!. e6propriation is not /o*p"ete! unti" pa$*ent to the propert$ owner of <ust /o*pensation. unti" <ust /o*pensation has #een *a!e to hi*. Tthe pro/ess is not /o*p"ete! unti" pa$*ent of <ust /o*pensation. Otherwise state!. )+2G *an!ates a spee!$ *etho! #$ whi/h the fina" !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation *a$ #e ha!. it is ne/essar$ for the 9overn*ent to pa$ the propert$ owner the fina" <ust /o*pensation. It is on"$ upon the /o*p"etion of these two sta es that e6propriation is sai! to have #een /o*p"ete!. if not of !is*issa" of the a/tion. Sa"e* Invest*ent CorporationNE1O . In Repu#"i/ v.uni/ipa"it$ of BiFan v. The Court went on to ru"e that Tin /ases where the overn*ent fai"e! to pa$ <ust /o*pensation within five %-' $ears fro* the fina"it$ of the <u! *ent in the e6propriation pro/ee!in s. to effe/tuate the transfer of ownership.

the 9overn*ent is o#"i e! to pa$ PIATCO the sai! a*ount. A/t No.00. )+2G re5uires that the RTC /onsu"t with the parties in the e6propriation /ase on who shou"! #e appointe! as /o**issioners.T In parti/u"ar. 9in o$on has pre<u! e! the e6propriation /ase a ainst the 9overn*entQs /ause an!. Appoint*ent of Co**issioners The ne6t ar u*ent for /onsi!eration is the /"ai* of the 9overn*ent that the RTC erre! in appointin the three /o**issioners in its 2 . )+2G. as /onte*p"ate! #$ the "aw. These o#<e/tions thou h *ust #e *a!e fi"e! within ten %(0' !a$s fro* servi/e of the or!er of appoint*ent of the /o**issioners.of the Ru"e. it is per*issi#"e to a""ow the parties to fi"e their o#<e/tions with the RTC within five %-' !a$s fro* fina"it$ of this !e/ision. )+2G. Of /ourse. )+2G. even in e6propriation pro/ee!in s un!er Rep. This rave /har e is pre!i/ate! on fa/ts whi/h the 9overn*ent /hara/teri4es as Tun!enia#"e. It .Or!er was issue! *otu proprio. He !i! ru"e in . an! it is no "on er possi#"e for the RTC to !eter*ine the <ust /o*pensation !ue PIATCO within si6t$ %E0' !a$s fro* the fi"in of the /o*p"aint "ast .2( In this /ase. su/h so"i/itation of re/o**en!ations is not o#"i ator$ on the part of the /ourt. was atten!e! with error in the /o*putation of <ust /o*pensation. As shown in ?i* an! other "ike:*in!e! /ases. in a//or!an/e with the ui!e"ines "ai! !own in Rep. He /an !ispose of this ar u*ent without /o*p"i/ation. thus. sin/e the app"i/ation of the provisions of Ru"e E2 in that re ar! !o not /onf"i/t with the statute.anuar$ . As ear"ier state!. Even without Ru"e E2. A/t No. He ru"e that the appoint*ent of /o**issioners un!er Ru"e E2 *a$ #e resorte! to.Or!er without prior /onsu"tation with either the 9overn*ent or PIATCO. Ra*ire4 E+ that Tthere is nothin to prevent Nthe tria" /ourtO fro* seekin the re/o**en!ations of the parties on NtheO *atter Nof appoint*ent of /o**issionersO. whi/h !ire/te! the pa$*ent of @SDE. But whi"e the appoint*ent of /o**issioners un!er the ae is of Ru"e E2 *a$ #e san/tione! in e6propriation pro/ee!in s un!er Rep. &urther. the 9overn*ent notes that the G . it is feasi#"e to effe/tuate the spirit of the "aw #$ re5uirin the tria" /ourt to *ake su/h !eter*ination within si6t$ %E0' !a$s fro* fina"it$ of this !e/ision. Se/tion (G of the I*p"e*entin Ru"es !oes a""ow su/h other in/i!ents affe/tin the /o*p"aint to #e reso"ve! un!er the provisions on e6propriation of Ru"e E2 of the Ru"es of Court. the #etter to ensure their fair representation.E2 This proto/o" thou h is san/tione! un!er Ru"e E2.uni/ipa"it$ of Ta"isa$ v. whi/h provi!es for the rep"a/e*ent /ost *etho! in the va"uation of i*prove*ents an! stru/tures.He ho"! that this provision shou"! app"$ in this /ase. there a"rea!$ has #een irreversi#"e !e"a$ in the pro*pt pa$*ent of PIATCO of <ust /o*pensation. A/t No.00G. /onfor*a#"$ with Se/tion -. Neither !oes the Court fee" that su/h a re5uire*ent shou"! #e i*pose! in this /ase. )+2G is si"ent on the appoint*ent of /o**issioners taske! with the as/ertain*ent of <ust /o*pensation. noti/e or hearin . Consi!erin that the e6propriation pro/ee!in s in this /ase were effe/tive"$ ha"te! seven %2' !a$s after the Or!er appointin the /o**issioners. In parti/u"ar. referen/e !urin tria" to a /o**issioner of the e6a*ination of an issue of fa/t is san/tione! un!er Ru"e 1. of the Ru"es of Court.00.anuar$ .i""ion to PIATCO.E) Nothin in Ru"e E2 or Rep. hen/e we /annot i*pute error on the part of the RTC in its e6er/ise of so"itar$ !is/retion in the appoint*ent of the /o**issioners. the 9overn*entQs refusa" to *ake su/h pa$*ent is in!u#ita#"$ a/tiona#"e in /ourt. A/t No. Sti"". Insuffi/ient 9roun! for Inhi#ition of Respon!ent . Ru"e E2.u! e The fina" ar u*ent for !isposition is the /"ai* of the 9overn*ent is that Bon. A/t No. )+2G an! its I*p"e*entin Ru"es. an! not as it has !one.T20 At the sa*e ti*e. The 9overn*ent a"so notes that the sai! Or!er was issue! even #efore su**ons ha! #een serve! on PIATCO. su/h or!er. 2. .( De/e*#er . on/e the a*ount of <ust /o*pensation has #een fina""$ !eter*ine!. )+2G ives teeth to the "awQs avowe! po"i/$ Tto ensure that owners of rea" propert$ a/5uire! for nationa" overn*ent infrastru/ture pro<e/ts are pro*pt"$ pai! <ust /o*pensation. the overnin stan!ar!s for the !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation for the NAIA 1 fa/i"ities are foun! in Se/tion (0 of the I*p"e*entin Ru"es for Rep. the stan!ar!s to #e o#serve! for the !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation are provi!e! not in Ru"e E2 #ut in the statute. The si6t$ %E0':!a$ perio! pres/ri#e! in Rep. assai" the sa*e throu h a spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion for /ertiorari. A/t No. It *ust #e note! that Rep. A/t No. as provi!e! un!er Se/tion . Hhat Ru"e E2 !oes a""ow thou h is for the parties to protest the appoint*ent of an$ of these /o**issioners. The !is5ua"ifi/ation of a <u! e is a !eprivation of hisCher <u!i/ia" power21 an! shou"! not #e a""owe! on the #asis of *ere spe/u"ations an! sur*ises. the proper re/ourse of the 9overn*ent to /ha""en e the /hoi/e of the /o**issioners is to fi"e an o#<e/tion with the tria" /ourt. or without affor!in the 9overn*ent the opportunit$ to o#<e/t to the appoint*ent of these /o**issioners. shou"! #e re5uire! to inhi#it hi*se"f. without an$ pre/e!in *otion.TEE In this /ase.

was in!ee! severe"$ f"awe! as it erroneous"$ app"ie! the provisions of Ru"e E2 of the Ru"es of Court. Sti"". a"thou h erroneous. espe/ia""$ if these ru"in s are in a//or! with "aw. parti/u"ar"$ to app"$ the /orre/t "aw of the /ase.re5uires the /on!u/t of a hearin prior to the issuan/e of the writ of possession. are not a #asis for !is5ua"ifi/ation of a <u! e on roun!s of #ias an! pre<u!i/e.Or!er !i! not /orre/t"$ app"$ Rep.anuar$ . Of /ourse. an! that to a!here to its !e/ision wi"" /ause in<usti/e to a part$ "iti ant.Or!er. whi/h a//or!in to the 9overn*ent esta#"ishes Bon. Certain"$ *erit /an #e seen #$ the fa/t that the G .anuar$ .00Or!er. whi/h the G .00.anuar$ . hearin is not *an!ator$.00. suffi/ient"$ evin/es #ias on the part of Bon. instea! of Rep. Peop"e:2G To prove #ias an! pre<u!i/e on the part of respon!ent <u! e. As a enera" ru"e.Or!er sou ht to re/tif$. The Court wou"! #e *ore /harita#"$ !ispose! towar!s this ar u*ent if not for the fa/t that the ear"ier or!er with the G . 9in o$on. Consi!erin these pre!i/ates. The G . Nonethe"ess. 2) This inherent power in/"u!es the ri ht of the /ourt to reverse itse"f. A/t No. )+2G. )+2. He e*phasi4e! in He## v. the G . Bowever. It wou"! not speak we"" of the Court if it san/tions a <u! e for wantin or even atte*ptin to /orre/t a previous erroneous or!er whi/h pre/ise"$ is the ri ht *ove to take.2+ Certain"$. The *otu proprio a*en!*ent #$ a /ourt of an erroneous or!er previous"$ issue! *a$ #e san/tione! !epen!in on the /ir/u*stan/es. this effort prove! in/o*p"ete. B$ the*se"ves. it wou"! #e hi h"$ awr$ to !e*an! that an or!er *o!if$in the ear"ier issuan/e of a writ of possession in an e6propriation /ase #e #arre! unti" the sta in of a hearin . this e6pe!ite! pro/ess for the o#tention of a writ of possession in e6propriation /ases /o*es at the e6pense of the ri hts of the propert$ owner to #e hear! or to #e !eprive! of possession./ertain"$ /annot #e pre!i/ate! on the a!verse nature of the <u! eQs ru"in s towar!s the *ovant for inhi#ition.2The 9overn*entQs /ontentions a ainst Bon. the$ !o not suffi/ient"$ prove #ias an! pre<u!i/e to !is5ua"if$ respon!ent <u! e.anuar$ . Ru"e (1. Neither /ou"! inhi#ition #e <ustifie! *ere"$ on the erroneous nature of the ru"in s of the <u! e.of the Ru"es of Court further re/o ni4es the inherent power of /ourts Tto a*en! an! /ontro" its pro/ess an! or!ers so as to *ake the* /onfor*a#"e to "aw an! <usti/e.Or!er /orre/t"$ refor*e! the *ost #asi/ pre*ise of the /ase that Rep. repeate! ru"in s a ainst a "iti ant. 9in o$on note! in his (0 . Opinions for*e! in the /ourse of <u!i/ia" pro/ee!in s. E6trinsi/ evi!en/e is re5uire! to esta#"ish #ias. #a! faith. the 9overn*ent /"ai*s that the uni"atera" a/t of the RTC !i! not /onfor* to "aw or <usti/e.00G Or!er. The on"$ e6/eption to the ru"e is when the error is so ross an! patent as to pro!u/e an ine"u/ta#"e inferen/e of #a! faith or *a"i/e.anuar$ . the G . in "ine with the "on :re/o ni4e! prin/ip"e that ever$ /ourt has inherent power to !o a"" thin s reasona#"$ ne/essar$ for the a!*inistration of <usti/e within the s/ope of its <uris!i/tion. To #e !is5ua"if$in .00. *a"i/e or /orrupt purpose.2E Se/tion -% '. an! the fai"ure to /on!u/t one !oes not esta#"ish the *anifest #ias re5uire! for the inhi#ition of the <u! e. )+2G in severa" respe/ts. !o not prove persona" #ias or pre<u!i/e on the part of the <u! e. the #ias an! pre<u!i/e *ust #e shown to have ste**e! fro* an e6tra<u!i/ia" sour/e an! resu"t in an opinion on the *erits on so*e #asis other than what the <u! e "earne! fro* his parti/ipation in the /ase. In!ee!.anuar$ . in a!!ition to the pa"pa#"e error whi/h *a$ #e inferre! fro* the !e/ision or or!er itse"f. espe/ia""$ when in its honest opinion it has /o**itte! an error or *istake in <u! *ent. A/t No. was pro*u" ate! pre/ise"$ to /orre/t the previous error #$ app"$in the /orre/t provisions of "aw. 9in o$onQs invo/ation of Se/tion -% '.as Tpatent"$ without *eritT. Ru"e (1. as the G .( De/e*#er .T 22 a power whi/h Bon. petitioners harp on the a""e e! a!verse an! erroneous ru"in s of respon!ent <u! e on their various *otions. when the issuan/e of the writ of possession itse"f is not su#<e/t to hearin . no *atter how erroneous an! vi orous"$ an! /onsistent"$ e6presse!. )+2G overns the e6propriation pro/ee!in s. Sti"".anuar$ . whi/h #$ !esi n is avai"a#"e i**e!iate"$ upon the fi"in of the /o*p"aint provi!e! that the re5uisites atta/hin thereto are present.Or!er reoriente! the e6propriation pro/ee!in s towar!s the /orre/t overnin "aw. as it was not affor!e! the ri ht to #e hear!. Neither are we /onvin/e! that the *otu proprio issuan/e of the G . the !e/ision itse"f wou"! #e insuffi/ient to esta#"ish a /ase a ainst the <u! e.Or!er was !esi ne! to *ake the RTCQs previous or!er /onfor*a#"e to "aw an! <usti/e. at "east. Perhaps the /on!u/t of a hearin un!er these /ir/u*stan/es wou"! #e pru!ent.00.anuar$ .00. as ear"ier esta#"ishe!. the 9overn*ent #e"itt"es Bon. In fa/t.00.Or!er sou ht to /orre/t was itse"f issue! without the #enefit of an$ hearin . nothin either in Ru"e E2 or Rep. 9in o$onQs #ias. 9in o$on are severe"$ un!er/ut #$ the fa/t that the . as "on as the$ are #ase! on the evi!en/e presente! an! /on!u/t o#serve! #$ the <u! e.anuar$ . in as/ertainin /o*p"ian/e with the re5uisites for the issuan/e of the writ of possession. A/t No. .O*ni#us Or!er. without the #enefit of noti/e or hearin . a#sent e6trinsi/ evi!en/e. however.00. A/t No. A"thou h the !e/ision *a$ see* so erroneous as to raise !ou#ts /on/ernin a <u! eQs inte rit$.00.

A/t No. shou"! #e re"ease! to PIATCO. or in/ite su/h state of *in!. Aet this is *anifest not of #ias. the 9overn*ent was not the on"$ vi/ti* of the errors of the RTC in the assai"e! or!ers. The *ere vehe*en/e of the 9overn*entQs /"ai* of #ias !oes not trans"ate to /"ear an! /onvin/in evi!en/e of i*pairin #ias.00G Reso"ution in A an sets the #ase re5uire*ent that has to #e o#serve! #efore the 9overn*ent *a$ take over the NAIA 1.i""ion. The Court shou"! ne/essari"$ uar! a ainst a!optin a stan!ar! that a <u! e shou"! #e inhi#ite! fro* hearin the /ase if one "iti ant "oses trust in the <u! e. )+2G. In!ee!. Be shou"! e6er/ise his !is/retion in a wa$ that the peop"eQs faith in the Courts of . 9in o$on fro* hearin the e6propriation /ase. persona" or otherwise. A/t No. even thou h the for*er ha! $et to #e pai! an$ a*ount of <ust /o*pensation. %. the 9overn*ent was a"so pre<u!i/e! #$ the erroneous ru"in of the RTC that the a*ount of @SDE. to the pre<u!i/e of #oth parties. #ut the CourtQs <u!i/ious esti*ation. an! not P1 Bi""ion. parti/u"ar"$ insofar as it re5uires the i**e!iate pa$*ent #$ the 9overn*ent of at "east the proffere! va"ue of the .). the <u! e has no other a"ternative #ut to inhi#it hi*se"f fro* the /ase. This attitu!e of error towar!s a"" !oes not ipso fa/to ne ate the /har e of #ias. in the prose/ution of the /ase. He have repeate!"$ he"! that *ere suspi/ion that a <u! e is partia" to a part$ is not enou h. In!ee!. the Court su**ari4es its ru"in s as fo""ows: %(' The . As he"! in Chin v. he shou"! /on!u/t a /arefu" se"f: e6a*ination. whether su/h #ias has #een irrefuta#"$ e6hi#ite!. an! heCshe wi"" ain a s$*patheti/ ear fro* frien!s.usti/e is not i*paire!. an! peop"e who !o not un!erstan! the <u!i/ia" pro/ess. /onstitutes *ere /on<e/ture an! is not one of the T<ust an! va"i! reasonsT /onte*p"ate! in the se/on! para raph of Ru"e (12 of the Ru"es of Court for whi/h a <u! e *a$ inhi#it hi*se"f fro* hearin the /ase. as peop"e who know #etter than to #e"ieve an$ o"! /r$ of Two"f_T. #ut when /ir/u*stan/es appear that wi"" in!u/e !ou#t to his honest a/tuations an! pro#it$ in favor of either part$. In /on/"usion.' Rep.T)( An! a se"f:assess*ent #$ the <u! e that heCshe is not i*paire! to hear the /ase wi"" #e respe/te! #$ the Court a#sent an$ evi!en/e to the /ontrar$. that there *ust #e pa$*ent to PIATCO of <ust /o*pensation in a//or!an/e with "aw an! e5uit$. an! there *ust #e showin that the <u! e ha! an interest. without *ore. reat /are shou"! #e ha! in re5uirin the inhi#ition of <u! es si*p"$ #e/ause the *a istrate !i! err. $et inhi#ition /annot #e roun!e! *ere"$ on the fee"in s of the part$:"iti ants. whi/h re5uires "a/k of o#<e/tivit$ or i*partia"it$ to sit on a /ase. The test in #e"ievin su/h a proposition shou"! not #e the vehe*en/e of the "iti antQs /"ai* of #ias. the #ias an! pre<u!i/e *ust #e shown to have ste**e! fro* an e6tra<u!i/ia" sour/e an! resu"t in an opinion on the *erits on so*e #asis other than what the <u! e "earne! fro* his parti/ipation in the /ase. The Court has not #een re*iss in pointin out the *u"tip"e errors /o**itte! #$ the RTC in its assai"e! or!ers. Su/h "oss of trust on the part of the 9overn*ent *a$ #e pa"pa#"e. PIATCO itse"f was in<ure! #$ the issuan/e #$ the RTC of the writ of possession. Sti"". An$ ru"in in the present e6propriation /ase *ust #e /onfor*a#"e to the !i/tates of the Court as pronoun/e! in the A an /ases.i""ion as the #asis for the (00Z !eposit un!er Rep. At the sa*e ti*e. There shou"! #e a!e5uate evi!en/e to prove the a""e ations.. #ut not for inhi#ition. whether we"": roun!e! or not. There is no suffi/ient roun! to !ire/t the inhi#ition of Bon. To #e a !is5ua"if$in /ir/u*stan/e.1 . ever$ "osin "iti ant in an$ /ase /an resort to /"ai*in that the <u! e was #iase!. 9in o$on for usin the a*ount of @SD1-0 . In/o*peten/e *a$ #e a roun! for a!*inistrative san/tion.The 9overn*ent "ikewise fau"ts Bon.T)0 But this !o/trine is 5ua"ifie! #$ the entren/he! ru"e that Ta <u! e *a$ not #e "e a""$ prohi#ite! fro* sittin in a "iti ation. The Court a/know"e! es that it ha! #een previous"$ he"! that Tat the ver$ first si n of "a/k of faith an! trust in his a/tions. Court of Appea"s: An a""e ation of pre<u! *ent. #ut *ere"$ of error on the part of the <u! e. The Court has note! that this state*ent was pre!i/ate! on the erroneous #e"ief that the BIR 4ona" va"uation app"ies as a stan!ar! for !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation in this /ase. fa*i"$. )+2G app"ies in this /ase. Bare a""e ations of partia"it$ an! pre<u! *ent wi"" not suffi/e in the a#sen/e of /"ear an! /onvin/in evi!en/e to over/o*e the presu*ption that the <u! e wi"" un!ertake his no#"e ro"e to !ispense <usti/e a//or!in to "aw an! evi!en/e an! without fear or favor.

the RTC is o#"i e! to /o*p"$ with T"aw an! e5uit$T as or!aine! in A ain an! the stan!ar! set un!er I*p"e*entin Ru"es of Rep.00. an! other servi/es that are inte ra" to a *o!ern:!a$ internationa" airport.00.i""ion One Bun!re! Twent$ &ive Thousan! Pesos %P1.T)1 %-' The RTC is *an!ate! to /o*p"ete its !eter*ination of the <ust /o*pensation within si6t$ %E0' !a$s fro* fina"it$ of this De/ision. insta""ation of new fa/i"ities an! e5uip*ent. )+2G whi/h is the Trep"a/e*ent /ost *etho!T as the stan!ar! of va"uation of stru/tures an! i*prove*ents.is BE?D IN ABEAANCE. No pronoun/e*ent as to /osts. su/h authorit$ en/o*passes Tthe repair.is here#$ ?I&TED. representin the proffere! va"ue of NAIA 1 un!er Se/tion G%/' of the "aw. %G' App"$in Rep. A"" to"!.ED in a"" respe/ts su#<e/t to the 5ua"ifi/ation that the parties are iven ten %(0' !a$s fro* fina"it$ of this De/ision to fi"e. %)' There is no #asis for the Court to !ire/t the inhi#ition of Bon. A/t No.anuar$ . Sai! or!ers are A&&IR.( De/e*#er .00.00. 9in o$on. HBERE&ORE. or the ru"in s of the Court in A an. %E' There was no rave a#use of !is/retion atten!in the RTC Or!er appointin the /o**issioners for the purpose of !eter*inin <ust /o*pensation. portions of these or!ers shou"! #e *o!ifie! to /onfor* with "aw an! the pronoun/e*ents *a!e #$ the Court herein. re/on!itionin an! i*prove*ent of the /o*p"e6. The provisions on /o**issioners un!er Ru"e E2 sha"" app"$ insofar as the$ are not in/onsistent with Rep. the Court fin!s no rave a#use of !is/retion on the part of the RTC to warrant the nu""ifi/ation of the 5uestione! or!ers. )+2G.(. the i*p"e*entation of Hrit of Possession in favor of the 9overn*ent over NAIA 1 is he"! in a#e$an/e unti" PIATCO is !ire/t"$ pai! the a*ount of P1 Bi""ion. SO ORDERED. In !oin so. *aintenan/e of the e6istin fa/i"ities an! e5uip*ent. within si6t$ %E0' !a$s fro* fina"it$ of this De/ision.an! (0 . . to !eter*ine the <ust /o*pensation to #e pai! to PIATCO #$ the 9overn*ent.ODI&ICATIONS: (' The i*p"e*entation of the Hrit of Possession !ate! .00. The Te*porar$ Restrainin Or!er !ate! (G . are authori4e! start the i*p"e*entation of the Nino$ A5uino Internationa" Airport Pasen er Ter*ina" III pro<e/t #$ perfor*in the a/ts that are essentia" to the operation of the sai! Internationa" Airport Passen er Ter*ina" pro<e/tK 1' RTC Bran/h ((2 is here#$ !ire/te!. representin the proffere! va"ue of the NAIA 1 fa/i"itiesK . A/t No. A/t No. The Or!er !ate! 2 . the Petition is 9RANTED in PART with respe/t to the or!ers !ate! G . if the$ so /hoose.00. )+2G.ED with the fo""owin . pen!in pa$*ent #$ petitioners to PIATCO of the a*ount of Three Bi""ion Two .of the "ower /ourt. Nonethe"ess.-.000.anuar$ . As pres/ri#e! #$ the Court.00'. provision of servi/es an! fa/i"ities pertainin to the fa/i"itation of air traffi/ an! transport. its I*p"e*entin Ru"es.anuar$ .is A&&IR. o#<e/tions to the appoint*ent of the /o**issioners !e/ree! therein. the 9overn*ent is authori4e! to start the i*p"e*entation of the NAIA 1 Airport ter*ina" pro<e/t #$ perfor*in the a/ts that are essentia" to the operation of the NAIA 1 as an internationa" airport ter*ina" upon the effe/tivit$ of the Hrit of Possession. A/t No. )+2G.NAIA 1 fa/i"ities to PIATCO an! provi!es /ertain va"uation stan!ar!s or *etho!s for the !eter*ination of <ust /o*pensation.' Petitioners.anuar$ .. %2' The 9overn*ent sha"" pa$ the <ust /o*pensation fi6e! in the !e/ision of the tria" /ourt to PIATCO i**e!iate"$ upon the fina"it$ of the sai! !e/ision. %1' App"$in Rep. su#<e/t to the /on!itions a#ove:state!. upon the effe/tivit$ of the Hrit of Possession.

I t(e voices said. R:%%*C J-5BNA: . (+E.00. as witnesses. t(e bamboo crac9ed and slit open.. Be a"so presente! Dr.a/intoT to T. J.ar/e"ino Re$sio:Cru4. respon!ent. he /onsu"te! severa" !o/tors in the @nite! States. in Ban kok.r. The petition.ani"a.e"e/io Petines Si"verio an! Anita A5uino Dantes on Apri" G. <uris!i/tiona" re5uire*ents were esta#"ishe!.E. On the s/he!u"e! initia" hearin . a p"asti/ an! re/onstru/tion sur eon in the Phi"ippines. . Re$sio:Cru4. No. that is.*5B!B:N 5:R:N-. E!e". thinks an! a/ts as a fe*a"eT an! that he ha! a"wa$s i!entifie! hi*se"f with ir"s sin/e /hi"!hoo!. t(en t8ice.T Be further a""e e! that he is a *a"e transse6ua".ani"a to the spouses . . Durin tria". B'(e )egend of Mala9as and MagandaD Hhen is a *an a *an an! when is a wo*an a wo*anR In parti/u"ar. 0.1 Copies of the or!er were sent to the Offi/e of the So"i/itor 9enera" %OS9' an! the /ivi" re istrar of . Tanato*i/a""$ *a"e #ut fee"s. On .ort( CindJ . 3ll of a sudden. B!enesis 2:*.ani"a.e"$. Bran/h ). Be was thereafter e6a*ine! #$ Dr. petitioner Ro**e" .ani"a. the tria" /ourt ren!ere! a !e/isionG in favor of petitioner.anuar$ . a newspaper of enera" /ir/u"ation in . who issue! a *e!i/a" /ertifi/ate attestin that he %petitioner' ha! in fa/t un!er one the pro/e!ure.-NA*! !BCE*RB:. R*P?/CB5 :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*!. Be un!erwent ps$/ho"o i/a" e6a*ination.ourna" Toni ht. !ru s an! /ounse"in with re ar! to a person3s se6R . 3mi(an named t(e man IMala9asI BStrongD and t(e 8oman IMagandaI B%eautifulD. !oes the "aw re/o ni4e the /han es *a!e #$ a ph$si/ian usin s/a"pe". an! his A*eri/an fian/U. hor*one treat*ent an! #reast au *entation.6D 3mi(an gazed upon t(e bamboo reed planted by %at(ala and s(e (eard voices coming from inside t(e bamboo. I?( .R.2.ani"a as respon!ent.for a /han e of na*e an! se6 appearin in the #irth /ertifi/ate to ref"e/t the resu"t of a se6 reassi n*ent sur er$R On Nove*#er .ort( CindJ lease let us outJ. Ri/har! P. &ro* then on.une G.a$ a person su//essfu""$ petition .00( when he un!erwent se6 reassi n*ent sur er$. . . i*p"ea!e! the /ivi" re istrar of .001. !o/kete! as SP Case No. petitioner testifie! for hi*se"f.T An or!er settin the /ase for initia" hearin was pu#"ishe! in the Peop"e3s . petitioner "ive! as a fe*a"e an! was in fa/t en a e! to #e *arrie!.. ?ut came t8o (uman beings> one 8as a male and t(e ot(er 8as a female. vs. 2007 petitioner.. Bis atte*pts to transfor* hi*se"f to a Two*anT /u"*inate! on .K C(en !od created man.a/into Dantes Si"verioT in his /ertifi/ate of "ive #irth %#irth /ertifi/ate'. . Petitioner a""e e! in his petition that he was #orn in the Cit$ of .r. S(e pec9ed t(e reed once.a/into Dantes Si"verio fi"e! a petition for the /han e of his first na*e an! se6 in his #irth /ertifi/ate in the Re iona" Tria" Court of .etro . Ee made (im in t(e li9eness of !od> Ee created t(em male and female.:(0-.T an! his se6 fro* T*a"eT to Tfe*a"e. No opposition to the petition was *a!e.( &ee"in trappe! in a *an3s #o!$. Thai"an!. Be then sou ht to have his na*e in his #irth /ertifi/ate /han e! fro* TRo**e" . for three /onse/utive weeks. . Bis se6 was re istere! as T*a"e. 17468> :ctobe' 22. Its re"evant portions rea!: G.02. . Bis na*e was re istere! as TRo**e" .

thou ht an! a/te! "ike a wo*an. the Court of Appea"s rante! the Repu#"i/3s petition. @n!er the "aw.a"eT to 6EM-. the N/Oourt #e"ieves that no har*. the N/Oourt is of the opinion that rantin the petition wou"! #e *ore in /onsonan/e with the prin/ip"es of <usti/e an! e5uit$. e6/ept for /"eri/a" or t$po raphi/a" errors an! /han e of first na*e or ni/kna*e whi/h /an #e /orre/te! or /han e! #$ the /on/erne! /it$ or *uni/ipa" /ivi" re istrar or /onsu" enera" in a//or!an/e with the provisions of this A/t an! its i*p"e*entin ru"es an! re u"ations. On Au ust (). This Civi" Co!e provision was a*en!e! #$ RA +0G) %C"eri/a" Error ?aw'.Petitioner fi"e! the present petition not to eva!e an$ "aw or <u! *ent or an$ infra/tion thereof or for an$ un"awfu" *otive #ut so"e"$ for the purpose of *akin his #irth re/or!s /o*pati#"e with his present se6.001. It ru"e! that the tria" /ourt3s !e/ision "a/ke! "e a" #asis. who has a"wa$s fe"t. In parti/u"ar. The intent an! effe/t of the "aw is to . Ru"es (01 an! (0) of the Ru"es of Court an! RA +0G). spe/ifi/a""$ for petitioner3s first na*e fro* TRo**e" . . <u! *ent is here#$ ren!ere! 9RANTIN9 the petition an! or!erin the Civi" Re istrar of .Pe' onP 1i' t N")e 5"nnot /e 5h"n$e# :n the G'oun# of !e9 Re" i$n)ent Petitioner invoke! his se6 reassi n*ent as the roun! for his petition for /han e of na*e an! se6. rantin the petition wou"! #rin the *u/h:awaite! happiness on the part of the petitioner an! her Nfian/UO an! the rea"i4ation of their !rea*s. now possesses the ph$si5ue of a fe*a"e. Arti/"e 12E of the Civi" Co!e provi!es: ART. &ina""$.ani"a to /han e the entries appearin in the Certifi/ate of Birth of NpOetitioner. &irst"$.(( A /han e of na*e is a privi"e e. (. . Se/tion ( of RA +0G) provi!es: SECTION (. No person /an /han e his na*e or surna*e without <u!i/ia" authorit$. he #e/a*e entit"e! to the /ivi" re istr$ /han es sou ht. . X No entr$ in a /ivi" re ister sha"" #e /han e! or /orre/te! without a <u!i/ia" or!er.a/intoT to ME.:(0-.ic9name.ame or .1. Petitioner essentia""$ /"ai*s that the /han e of his na*e an! se6 in his #irth /ertifi/ate is a""owe! un!er Arti/"es G02 to G(1 of the Civi" Co!e. in<ur$ NorO pre<u!i/e wi"" #e /ause! to an$#o!$ or the /o**unit$ in rantin the petition.B an! petitioner3s en!er fro* T. On the /ontrar$.E. The State has an interest in the na*es #orne #$ in!ivi!ua"s an! entities for purposes of i!entifi/ation.00E. not a ri ht. Thus. fi"e! a petition for /ertiorari in the Court of Appea"s. As foun! #$ the tria" /ourt: Petitioner fi"e! the present petition not to eva!e an$ "aw or <u! *ent or an$ infra/tion thereof or for an$ un"awfu" *otive #ut olely fo' the pu'po e of )"4in$ hi bi'th 'eco'# co)p"tible 0ith hi p'e ent e9. no evi!en/e was presente! to show an$ /ause or roun! to !en$ the present petition !espite !ue noti/e an! pu#"i/ation thereof. ?ikewise. HBERE&ORE. this petition. petitioner.E It a""e e! that there is no "aw a""owin the /han e of entries in the #irth /ertifi/ate #$ reason of se6 a"teration. (1 In this /onne/tion. 0. throu h the NOS9O has not seen fit to interpose an$ NoOpposition. the Repu#"i/ of the Phi"ippines %Repu#"i/'. The so"e issue here is whether or not petitioner is entit"e! to the re"ief aske! for. 3ut(ority to Correct Clerical or 'ypograp(ical &rror and C(ange of First . therefore. thru the OS9. Hith his se6ua" Nre: assi n*entO. <uris!i/tion over app"i/ations for /han e of first na*e is now pri*ari"$ "o! e! with the afore*entione! a!*inistrative offi/ers.02. Petitioner3s *isfortune to #e trappe! in a *an3s #o!$ is not his own !oin an! shou"! not #e in an$ wa$ taken a ainst hi*. RA +0G) now overns the /han e of first na*e. 12E.(0 The petition "a/ks *erit. the Court of Appea"s2 ren!ere! a !e/ision) in favor of the Repu#"i/. The N/Oourt ru"es in the affir*ative. He !isa ree. Petitions for /han e of na*e are /ontro""e! #$ statutes. There is no "aw a""owin the /han e of either na*e or se6 in the /ertifi/ate of #irth on the roun! of se6 reassi n*ent throu h sur er$. On &e#ruar$ . Petitioner *ove! for re/onsi!eration #ut it was !enie!.+ Ben/e. set asi!e the !e/ision of the tria" /ourt an! or!ere! the !is*issa" of SP Case No. Even the State. %e*phasis supp"ie!' Petitioner #e"ieves that after havin a/5uire! the ph$si/a" features of a fe*a"e.(G It vests the power an! authorit$ to entertain petitions for /han e of first na*e to the /it$ or *uni/ipa" /ivi" re istrar or /onsu" enera" /on/erne!.

Ru"e (0) now app"ies on"$ to su#stantia" /han es an! /orre/tions in entries in the /ivi" re ister. &or a"" these reasons. it ha! no *erit sin/e the use of his true an! offi/ia" na*e !oes not pre<u!i/e hi* at a"". $efinition of 'erms. the Court of Appea"s /orre/t"$ !is*isse! petitioner3s petition in so far as the /han e of his first na*e was /on/erne!.. No C"0 -llo0 Ahe 5h"n$e of *nt'y Bn Ahe /i'th 5e'tific"te . the fo""owin ter*s sha"" *ean: 666 666 666 %1' TC"eri/a" or t$po raphi/a" errorT refers to a *istake /o**itte! in the perfor*an/e of /"eri/a" work in writin .(.. No entr$ in the /ivi" re ister sha"" #e /han e! or /orre/te! without a <u!i/ia" or!er. Be inten!e! to *ake his first na*e /o*pati#"e with the se6 he thou ht he transfor*e! hi*se"f into throu h sur er$..Ao !e9 :n the G'oun# of !e9 Re" i$n)ent The !eter*ination of a person3s se6 appearin in his #irth /ertifi/ate is a "e a" issue an! the /ourt *ust "ook to the statutes. It was a"so fi"e! in the wron venue as the proper venue was in the Offi/e of the Civi" Re istrar of . () RA +0G) !oes not san/tion a /han e of first na*e on the roun! of se6 reassi n*ent. Arti/"e G(.It "ikewise "a$s !own the /orrespon!in venue. /han in petitioner3s first na*e for his !e/"are! purpose *a$ on"$ /reate rave /o*p"i/ations in the /ivi" re istr$ an! the pu#"i/ interest. tainte! with !ishonor or e6tre*e"$ !iffi/u"t to write or pronoun/eK %.(+ In a!!ition.. Rather than avoi!in /onfusion.( In this /onne/tion. su/h as *isspe""e! na*e or *isspe""e! p"a/e of #irth or the "ike. !rounds for C(ange of First . a /han e of na*e !oes not a"ter one3s "e a" /apa/it$ or /ivi" status. In su*. not <u!i/ia". To ether with Arti/"e 12E of the Civi" Co!e. X The petition for /han e of first na*e or ni/kna*e *a$ #e a""owe! in an$ of the fo""owin /ases: %(' The petitioner fin!s the first na*e or ni/kna*e to #e ri!i/u"ous. The /orre/tion or /han e of su/h *atters /an now #e *a!e throu h a!*inistrative pro/ee!in s an! without the nee! for a <u!i/ia" or!er. trans/ri#in or t$pin an entr$ in the /ivi" re ister that is har*"ess an! inno/uous.%/' of RA +0G) !efines what a T/"eri/a" or t$po raphi/a" errorT is: SECTION . assu*in it /ou"! #e "e a""$ !one. In effe/t. %e*phasis supp"ie!' . X As use! in this A/t. Bowever. whi/h is visi#"e to the e$es or o#vious to the un!erstan!in . Before a person /an "e a""$ /han e his iven na*e. the petition in the tria" /ourt in so far as it pra$e! for the /han e of petitioner3s first na*e was not within that /ourt3s pri*ar$ <uris!i/tion as the petition shou"! have #een fi"e! with the "o/a" /ivi" re istrar /on/erne!. he fai"e! to show. he *ust present proper or reasona#"e /ause or an$ /o*pe""in reason <ustif$in su/h /han e.1 Se/tion . that provi!e! un!er RA +0G).. RA +0G) "ikewise provi!es the roun!s for whi/h /han e of first na*e *a$ #e a""owe!: SECTION G..ic9name. In su*.e6/"u!e the /han e of first na*e fro* the /overa e of Ru"es (01 %Chan e of Na*e' an! (0) %Can/e""ation or Corre/tion of Entries in the Civi" Re istr$' of the Ru"es of Court. It was an i*proper re*e!$ #e/ause the proper re*e!$ was a!*inistrative. . or even a""e e.' The new first na*e or ni/kna*e has #een ha#itua""$ an! /ontinuous"$ use! #$ the petitioner an! he has #een pu#"i/"$ known #$ that first na*e or ni/kna*e in the /o**unit$K or %1' The /han e wi"" avoi! /onfusion.. an$ pre<u!i/e that he *i ht suffer as a resu"t of usin his true an! offi/ia" na*e. this provision was a*en!e! #$ RA +0G) in so far as clerical or typograp(ical errors are invo"ve!.ame or . of the Civi" Co!e provi!es: ART. he *ust show that he wi"" #e pre<u!i/e! #$ the use of his true an! offi/ia" na*e. unti" an! un"ess an a!*inistrative petition for /han e of na*e is first fi"e! an! su#se5uent"$ !enie!.(E for*(2 an! pro/e!ure.ani"a where his #irth /ertifi/ate is kept. That no co''ection )u t in2ol2e the ch"n$e of nationa"it$. an! /an #e /orre/te! or /han e! on"$ #$ referen/e to other e6istin re/or! or re/or!s: rovided.0 In this /ase.ore i*portant"$. /op$in . the re*e!$ an! the pro/ee!in s re u"atin /han e of first na*e are pri*ari"$ a!*inistrative in nature. (o8ever. Petitioner3s #asis in pra$in for the /han e of his first na*e was his se6 reassi n*ent. status or e9 of the petitioner. that is. RA +0G) re*ove! fro* the a*#it of Ru"e (0) of the Ru"es of Court the /orre/tion of su/h errors. G(. a e.

a!option. Their effe/ts are e6press"$ san/tione! #$ the "aws.. ART. A"" other *atters pertainin to the re istration of /ivi" status sha"" #e overne! #$ spe/ia" "aws.2 The status of a person in "aw in/"u!es a"" his persona" 5ua"ities an! re"ations. e6press"$ or i*p"ie!"$.) %e*phasis supp"ie!' A person3s se6 is an essentia" fa/tor in *arria e an! fa*i"$ re"ations. events or fa/tua" errors /onte*p"ate! un!er Arti/"e G02 of the Civi" Co!e in/"u!e even those that o//ur after #irth. /ivi" inter!i/tion. TStatusT refers to the /ir/u*stan/es affe/tin the "e a" situation %that is. events %su/h as #irths. A"" entries therein.' re/over$ of /iti4enshipK %(1' /ivi" inter!i/tionK %(G' <u!i/ia" !eter*ination of fi"iationK %(-' vo"untar$ e*an/ipation of a *inorK an! %(E' /han es of na*e. But there is no su/h spe/ia" "aw in the Phi"ippines overnin se6 reassi n*ent an! its effe/ts.T. To /orre/t si*p"$ *eans Tto *ake or set ari htK to re*ove the fau"ts or error fro*T whi"e to /han e *eans Tto rep"a/e so*ethin with so*ethin e"se of the sa*e kin! or with so*ethin that serves as a su#stitute. *arria es.' *arria esK %1' !eathsK %G' "e a" separationsK %-' annu"*ents of *arria eK %E' <u! *ents !e/"arin *arria es voi! fro* the #e innin K %2' "e iti*ationsK %)' a!optionsK %+' a/know"e! *ents of natura" /hi"!renK %(0' natura"i4ationK %((' "oss. !ivor/e. !e/"arations of nu""it$ of *arria es. events an! <u!i/ia" !e/rees pro!u/e "e a" /onse5uen/es that tou/h upon the "e a" /apa/it$. su/h as his #ein "e iti*ate or i""e iti*ate.@n!er RA +0G).. In this /onne/tion. a/know"e! *ents of i""e iti*ate /hi"!ren an! natura"i4ation'. These a/ts.E The #irth /ertifi/ate of petitioner /ontaine! no error. natura"i4ation an! !eaths' an! #udicial decrees %su/h as "e a" separations. su/h as #irth. a /orre/tion in the /ivi" re istr$ invo"vin the /han e of se6 is not a *ere /"eri/a" or t$po raphi/a" error. nationa"it$ an! his fa*i"$ *e*#ership. sha"" #e suffi/ient for the re istration of a #irth in the /ivi" re ister. of the Civi" Co!e an! /orre/ta#"e un!er Ru"e (0) of the Ru"es of Court are those provi!e! in Arti/"es G02 an! G0) of the Civi" Co!e:. *arria e. G(1. Su/h !e/"aration sha"" #e e6e*pt fro* !o/u*entar$ sta*p ta6 an! sha"" #e sent to the "o/a" /ivi" re istrar not "ater . Arti/"e G(1 of the Civi" Co!e provi!es: ART. G02. . annu"*ents of *arria e. Se/tion . -. status an! nationa"it$ of a person. A/ts.Bowever. e*an/ipation. G0). The a/ts. were a"" /orre/t. )o'e o' le pe')"nent in n"tu'e. the !e/"aration of either parent of the new#orn /hi"!.oreover. The fo""owin sha"" #e entere! in the /ivi" re ister: %(' BirthsK %. This is fata" to petitioner3s /ause.of A/t 12-1 %the Civi" Re ister ?aw' provi!es: SEC. not o'#in"'ily te')in"ble "t hi o0n 0ill. /apa/it$ to have ri hts in enera". an! so*eti*es even su//ession. "oss or re/over$ of /iti4enship. "e iti*ation. an! its various aspe/ts. fa*i"$ re"ations.. In /ontrast. events an! <u!i/ia" !e/rees /on/ernin persons sha"" #e re/or!e! in the /ivi" re ister. natura"i4ation. The /o*prehensive ter* statusV in/"u!e su/h *atters as the #e innin an! en! of "e a" persona"it$. It is a part of a person3s "e a" /apa/it$ an! /ivi" status. or his #ein *arrie! or not. or %(. Registration and certification of birt(s. No /orre/tion is ne/essar$. in/"u!in those /orrespon!in to his first na*e an! se6. no reasona#"e interpretation of the provision /an <ustif$ the /on/"usion that it /overs the /orre/tion on the roun! of se6 reassi n*ent. the /ivi" status of Arti/"e G02 of the Civi" Co!e authori4es the entr$ in the /ivi" re istr$ of /ertain acts %su/h as "e iti*ations. It is a su#stantia" /han e for whi/h the app"i/a#"e pro/e!ure is Ru"e (0) of the Ru"es of Court. se6 reassi n*ent is not a*on those a/ts or events *entione! in Arti/"e G02. in !efau"t thereof. the su* tota" of /apa/ities an! in/apa/ities' of a person in view of his a e. X The !e/"aration of the ph$si/ian or *i!wife in atten!an/e at the #irth or. Neither is it re/o ni4e! nor even *entione! #$ an$ "aw.G ART. <u!i/ia" !eter*ination of fi"iation an! /han es of na*e'. The entries envisa e! in Arti/"e G(. a!options..

&urther*ore. or Tthe !istin/tion #etween *a"e an! fe*a"e. not to *ake or a*en! it. it /annot #e ar ue! that the ter* Tse6T as use! then is so*ethin a"tera#"e throu h sur er$ or so*ethin that a""ows a post:operative *a"e:to:fe*a"e transse6ua" to #e in/"u!e! in the /ate or$ Tfe*a"e. even the tria" /ourt itse"f foun! that the petition was #ut petitioner3s first step towar!s his eventua" *arria e to his *a"e fian/U.than thirt$ !a$s after the #irth.Thus. . If the "e is"ature inten!s to /onfer on a person who has un!er one se6 reassi n*ent the privi"e e to /han e his na*e an! se6 to /onfor* with his reassi ne! se6. visua""$ !one #$ the #irth atten!ant %the ph$si/ian or *i!wife' #$ e6a*inin the enita"s of the infant. o#s/urit$ or insuffi/ien/$ of the "aw. The /han es sou ht #$ petitioner wi"" have serious an! wi!e:ran in "e a" an! pu#"i/ po"i/$ /onse5uen/es. in /ase the father is not known. one of the *ost sa/re! so/ia" institutions. in<ur$ or pre<u!i/e to an$one. what roun!s *a$ #e invoke!.10 is i**uta#"e. Se/on!. 666 666 666 %e*phasis supp"ie!' Neithe' %"y *nt'ie in the /i'th 5e'tific"te . In our s$ste* of overn*ent. t(e seA of a person is determined at birt(. it is not a "i/ense for /ourts to en a e in <u!i/ia" "e is"ation. whi"e petitioner *a$ have su//ee!e! in a"terin his #o!$ an! appearan/e throu h the intervention of *o!ern sur er$. Bowever. the person a#ove *entione! sha"" /ertif$ to the fo""owin fa/ts: %a' !ate an! hour of #irthK %#' e9 an! nationa"it$ of inf"ntK %/' na*es. the statutes !efine who *a$ fi"e petitions for /han e of first na*e an! for /orre/tion or /han e of entries in the /ivi" re istr$. #$ the ph$si/ian or *i!wife in atten!an/e at the #irth or #$ either parent of the new#orn /hi"!. It #e"ieve! that a""owin the petition wou"! /ause no har*. there is no "e a" #asis for his petition for the /orre/tion or /han e of the entries in his #irth /ertifi/ate.. /iti4enship an! re"i ion of parents or. to !eter*ine what ui!e"ines shou"! overn the re/o nition of the effe/ts of se6 reassi n*ent. Thus. @n!er the Civi" Re ister ?aw. To reiterate.T1.1+ /ertain fe"onies un!er the Revise! Pena" Co!eG0 an! the presu*ption of survivorship in /ase of /a"a*ities un!er Ru"e (1( of the Ru"es of Court. it is for the "e is"ature. Twor!s that are e*p"o$e! in a statute whi/h ha! at the ti*e a we"":known *eanin are presu*e! to have #een use! in that sense un"ess the /onte6t /o*pe"s to the /ontrar$. a #irth /ertifi/ate is a histori/a" re/or! of the fa/ts as the$ e6iste! at the ti*e of #irth. The !ut$ of the /ourts is to app"$ or interpret the "aw.T &or these reasons.T1E Sin/e the statutor$ "an ua e of the Civi" Re ister ?aw was ena/te! in the ear"$ (+00s an! re*ains un/han e!. se6 is !efine! as Tthe su* of pe/u"iarities of stru/ture an! fun/tion that !istin uish a *a"e fro* a fe*a"eT 1. This is wron . what proof *ust #e presente! an! what pro/e!ures sha"" #e o#serve!. shou"! it /hoose to !o so. It wi"" a""ow the union of a *an with another *an who has un!er one se6 reassi n*ent %a *a"e:to:fe*a"e post:operative transse6ua"'.T Bowever.+ Thus. It is true that Arti/"e + of the Civi" Co!e *an!ates that TNnOo <u! e or /ourt sha"" !e/"ine to ren!er <u! *ent #$ reason of the si"en/e.to 1i' t N")e o' !e9 /e 5h"n$e# on the G'oun# of *6uity The tria" /ourt opine! that its rant of the petition was in /onsonan/e with the prin/ip"es of <usti/e an! e5uit$. The nee! for "e is"ative ui!e"ines #e/o*es parti/u"ar"$ i*portant in this /ase where the /"ai*s asserte! are statute:#ase!. In su/h !e/"aration. These "aws un!ers/ore the pu#"i/ po"i/$ in re"ation to wo*en whi/h /ou"! #e su#stantia""$ affe/te! if petitioner3s petition were to #e rante!. *arria e. &irst. the wor!s T*a"eT an! Tfe*a"eT in ever$!a$ un!erstan!in !o not in/"u!e persons who have un!er one se6 reassi n*ent. if not atten!e! #$ error. where the$ *a$ #e fi"e!. there #ein no "e is"ative intent to the /ontrar$.1( Hhen wor!s are not !efine! in a statute the$ are to #e iven their /o**on an! or!inar$ *eanin in the a#sen/e of a /ontrar$ "e is"ative intent. no "aw authori4es the /han e of entr$ as to se6 in the /ivi" re istr$ for that reason.G( a*on others. it has to ena/t "e is"ation "a$in !own the ui!e"ines in turn overnin the /onfer*ent of that privi"e e. of the *other a"oneK %!' /ivi" status of parentsK %e' p"a/e where the infant was #ornK an! %f' su/h other !ata as *a$ #e re5uire! in the re u"ations to #e issue!. is a spe/ia" /ontra/t of per*anent union bet8een a man and a 8oman. there are various "aws whi/h app"$ parti/u"ar"$ to wo*en su/h as the provisions of the ?a#or Co!e on e*p"o$*ent of wo*en. Consi!erin that there is no "aw "e a""$ re/o ni4in se6 reassi n*ent.T11 &e*a"e is Tthe se6 that pro!u/es ova or #ears $oun T1G an! *a"e is Tthe se6 that has or ans to pro!u/e sper*ato4oa for ferti"i4in ova. In this /onne/tion. the !eter*ination of a person3s se6 *a!e at the ti*e of his or her #irth.T T*a"eT an! Tfe*a"eT as use! in the Civi" Re ister ?aw an! "aws /on/ernin the /ivi" re istr$ %an! even a"" other "aws' shou"! therefore #e un!erstoo! in their /o**on an! or!inar$ usa e.1) To rant the /han es sou ht #$ petitioner wi"" su#stantia""$ re/onfi ure an! reat"$ a"ter the "aws on *arria e an! fa*i"$ re"ations. The wor!s Tse6.12 One of its essentia" re5uisites is the legal capacity of t(e contracting parties 8(o must be a male and a female.

r. at "east for the*.*R*.E. the Offi/er:in:Char e of the RTC of 9ui*#a. to the Court of Appea"s. Bowever. not #$ the /ourts. 04.001 after . %it see*s to have #een /usto*ar$ on his part. 6 6 6 . 5le'4.r.%. ((GG:9. . Bowever. Costs a ainst petitioner. Sta. an! e6oneratin De 9u4*an an! &"oren/io .anan an whi/h he a""e e!"$ !i! not trans*it #efore owin to so*e *inor /orre/tions in the in!e6in .%. this Court has no authorit$ to fashion a "aw on that *atter. Bran/h 1(. /ontent*ent an! NtheO rea"i4ation of their !rea*s. in the sa*e Reso"ution. Sansano. Re iona" Tria" Court %RTC' of 9ui*#a. for this he wou"! !o to other pressin assi n*ent' he wou"! /o*e to the offi/e the ne6t !a$. DECISION . As a""e e! #$ Re$es: 6 6 6 . %Att$. Bran/h 1(.. A//or!in to Re$es. "ife is in!ee! an or!ea". Bran/h 1(.1 :ffice'. was NinO /har e of the preparation an! trans*ission of the re/or!s on appea" 6 6 6.RA58 2010 :11B5* :1 A<* 5:?RA -. . 6 6 6 thou h unsu//essfu""$ 6 6 6.1 -. %er curiam.%.BPB No. 1C:R*N5B: %. . we a!opte! the fin!in s an! re/o**en!ation of the Offi/e of the Court A!*inistrator %OCA' !e/"arin as /"ose! an! ter*inate! the a!*inistrative *atter re"ative to the !e"a$ in the trans*itta" of the re/or!s of Cri*ina" Case No. Con ress. .` This /o*p"aint for ross *is/on!u/t a ainst Rene !e 9u4*an %De 9u4*an'.5h"'$e. De 9u4*an un!er o a !ru test 6 6 6. :5. we a"so re5uire! De 9u4*an to /o**ent on the a""e ation that he is usin i""e a" !ru s an! ha! #een *anifestin irrationa" an! 5ueer #ehavior whi"e at work.T No ar u*ent a#out that.u! e Napo"eon R. This was after a nu*#er of weeks fro* . in the trans*itta" of the re/or!s of Cri*ina" Case No. /'"nch 31. No. .r. Gui)b". Petitioner p"ea!s that TNtOhe unfortunates are a"so entit"e! to a "ife of happiness.08. Nueva E/i<a. De 9u4*an wou"! <ust 6 6 6 !is*iss the su#<e/t in ri!i/u"e an! with the e*pt$ assuran/e that the task is as oo! as finishe! an! what 6 6 6 nee!NsO to #e !one NisO si*p"$ ret$pin of the /orre/te! in!i/es or the "ike an! that he wou"! su#*it the sa*e in NnoO ti*e at a"". Re$es %Re$es'. De 9u4*an3s *anifestations of a#sur! #ehavior pro*pte! . ((GG:9. the petition is here#$ . Respon!ents.in. Rene !e 9u4*an a#out the *atter. Bu o B.ar/h . . <u#i"ant that the pro#"e* has #een so"ve! at "ast_ But to no avai". Co*p"ainant. Nueva E/i<a. !: :R. Rene !e 9u4*an. the re*e!ies petitioner seeks invo"ve 5uestions of pu#"i/ po"i/$ to #e a!!resse! so"e"$ #$ the "e is"ature. C"erk. No. Ro*ana' to re5uest the Phi"ippine Nationa" Po"i/e Cri*e ?a#orator$ to perfor* a !ru test on De 9u4*an.%BNB!AR-A:R.r. 04. vs. P.r. Ro*ana to have .2=3= June 23.r. The Court /annot ena/t a "aw where no "aw e6ists. In our Reso"ution !ate! Septe*#er (2.<*R*1:R*.* G?@%-N. Ro*ana wou"! 6 6 6 often 6 6 6 Nre*in! hi*O a#out the trans*itta" of re/or!s of the appea"e! /ases Nfor *ore thanO a !o4en ti*es. This attitu!e see*in "$ #or!erin on the irrationa" if not to sa$ that a sense of responsi#i"it$ is utter"$ "a/kin *a$ have iven /ue for .u! e Sta. It /an on"$ app"$ or interpret the written wor! of its /o:e5ua" #ran/h of overn*ent.002. Sansano' re"ative to the a""e e! in/o*peten/eCineffi/ien/$ of the RTC of 9ui*#a. Ro*ana %. 71o')e'ly -. Nonethe"ess..434. R*G*!. is an offshoot of the /o*p"aint fi"e! #$ Att$.u! e Sta.It *i ht #e theoreti/a""$ possi#"e for this Court to write a proto/o" on when a person *a$ #e re/o ni4e! as havin su//essfu""$ /han e! his se6.. Bowever. The Court re/o ni4es that there are peop"e whose preferen/es an! orientation !o not fit neat"$ into the /o**on"$ re/o ni4e! para*eters of so/ia" /onvention an! that. "n# R*N* . Nue2" *ci&". the Do/ket C"erk.P "n# -. Nueva E/i<a. even persona""$ /onfrontin . 2022.*NB*. A"" too often.u! e Sta. or on an$thin e"se. De 9u4*an *a!e the un!ersi ne! si n the trans*itta" of PP v. Re$ion"l A'i"l 5ou't.

De 9u4*an un!erwent a 5ua"itative e6a*ination the resu"ts of whi/h $ie"!e! positive for Tetrah$!ro/anna#ino" *eta#o"ites %mari#uana' an! . Su/h fai"ure to /o*p"$ a//or!in "$ #etra$s not on"$ a re/a"/itrant streak in /hara/ter. It is sett"e! that respon!ent3s Tin!ifferen/e to Nthe reso"utionsO re5uirin hi* to /o**ent on the a//usation%s' in the /o*p"aint thorou h"$ an! su#stantia""$ is ross *is/on!u/t. &or fai"ure to over/o*e the /har e of use of prohi#ite! !ru s an! to satisfa/tori"$ e6p"ain his fai"ure to su#*it pro*pt"$ his /o*p"ian/e to the Court3s show /ause or!er. .00G.B!%B!!*.2. Ro*ana re5ueste! the Nueva E/i<a Provin/ia" Cri*e ?a#orator$ Offi/e to /on!u/t a !ru test on De 9u4*an. . we referre! the sa*e to the OCA for eva"uation. and for t(at B(eD almost forgot about itI is neither a va"i! reason nor an e6/use for the !e"a$ in /o*p"$in with the or!er of the Court. Be !i! not a"so pro*pt"$ su#*it another test report or other !o/u*ent to /ontrovert the !ru test report. De 9u4*an fai"e! to fi"e his Co**ent..002 Reso"ution.T After a"". as a re u"ar a!*inistrative /aseK an! .or e Caoi"e an! to show /ause wh$ he shou"! not #e a!*inistrative"$ !ea"t with for his fai"ure to /o*p"$ with a show /ause or!er. a reso"ution of the Supre*e Court is not a *ere re5uest an! shou"! #e /o*p"ie! with pro*pt"$ an! /o*p"ete"$. /orporations an! finan/ia" institutions.That .002. The OCA thus su#*itte! the fo""owin the Court viz: re/o**en!ations for /onsi!eration of (.u! e Sta. in/"u!in overn*ent:owne! or /ontro""e! a en/ies.:5H*A*.G. . . if not /onte*pt of the <u!i/ia" s$ste*.00).r. De 9u4*an /o*p"ie! with our !ire/tive on"$ on . Re"ative to respon!ent3s !e"a$ in fi"in his /o**ent to the /har e of *is/on!u/t. . #ut has "ikewise #een /onsi!ere! as an utter "a/k of interest to re*ain with. .00G. Thus.G On Au ust .etha*pheta*ine %s(abu'.. On .a$ . Respon!ent Rene !e 9u4*an #e foun! ui"t$ of ross *is/on!u/t an! a//or!in "$ #e . . In his "etter. Treatin De 9u4*an3s "etter as his Co**ent.E.u"$ .00) whi/h rea!s in part: 6666 Noti/ea#"$. with pre<u!i/e to his re: e*p"o$*ent in an$ #ran/h or instru*enta"it$ of the overn*ent.ar/h (. we !ire/te! De 9u4*an to show /ause wh$ he shou"! not #e he"! in /onte*pt for fai"ure to /o*p"$ with the Septe*#er (2.00). At the sa*e ti*e. respon!ent !e 9u4*an !i! not /ha""en e the authenti/it$ an! va"i!it$ of the /he*istr$ report of the Nueva E/i<a Provin/ia" Cri*e ?a#orator$ Offi/e whi/h foun! hi* positive for T*ari<uanaT an! Tsha#uT. Bis p"ain refutation of the /har e an! his wi""in ness to su#*it hi*se"f now to a !ru test are token atte*pts at /an!or an! assertion of inno/en/e. ever$#o!$ is apprehensive for his we"" #ein an! in his #eha"f. It shou"! #e *entione! that this is not the first instan/e that respon!ent is or!ere! to a//ount for his fai"ure to /o*p"$ with a /ourt or!er.1.. on . The instant *atter #e R*. Notwithstan!in the Court3s !ire/tive. In our Reso"ution of Septe*#er (2. fro* the servi/e effe/tive i**e!iate"$ with forfeiture of a"" #enefits e6/ept a//rue! "eave /re!its.1.002 Reso"ution. we re5uire! De 9u4*an to su#*it his /o**ent on the /har e of *is/on!u/t re"ative to the a""e e! use of prohi#ite! !ru s within (0 !a$s fro* noti/e. report an! re/o**en!ation. 6 6 6 On . On the /ontrar$. an! *a$ even #e /onsi!ere! as outri ht !isrespe/t to the Court.a$ . Bis f"ippant attitu!e towar!s the repeate! or!ers of the Court to e6p"ain his /on!u/t !oes not *erit /onsi!eration an! <ustifi/ation for !e"a$. #oth !an erous !ru s. These perfun/tor$ atte*pts /annot prevai" over the so"itar$ $et /o*pe""in evi!en/e of *is/on!u/t for use of prohi#ite! !ru s. he was re5uire! to e6p"ain to the Court his fai"ure to pro*pt"$ su#*it a /op$ of the affi!avit of retire! /ourt steno rapher . . respon!ent *a$ #e he"! ui"t$ of two /ounts of ross *is/on!u/t. his /"ai* that he Tlost and misplaced B(isD copy of said resolution. The OCA su#*itte! its Report an! Re/o**en!ation on . De 9u4*an /"ai*e! that he fai"e! to /o*p"$ with the Court3s !ire/tive #e/ause he "ost his /op$ of the Septe*#er (2.00).anuar$ . we reso"ve! to re5uire hi* to su#*it his /o**ent within (0 !a$s fro* noti/e. . Ear"ier. we re5uire! De 9u4*an to *anifest within (0 !a$s fro* re/eipt whether he is wi""in to su#*it the /ase for reso"ution on the #asis of the . De 9u4*an /ou"! #rush asi!e even the persona" i*portunin #$ the <u! e is a fete no other of our /o:e*p"o$ees !are e*u"ate. .

((GG:9. or after the "apse of one $ear an! two *onths.Reso"ution wherein we *entione! that we are awaitin his su#*ission of the affi!avit of Caoi"e whi/h sha"" #e /onsi!ere! as part of his %De 9u4*an3s' /o**ent. 6 6 6 Anent the use of i""e a" !ru s.000. . &ina""$. In his "etter:e6p"anation in the a!*inistrative *atter re"ative to the !e"a$ in the trans*itta" of the re/or!s of Cri*ina" Case No. who. we are no "on er wont to /ountenan/e su/h !isrespe/tfu" #ehavior.002 Reso"ution. !anzan. As we have /ate ori/a""$ !e/"are! in ?ffice of t(e Court 3dministrator v.0. 0ho. . Claveria. we a"so re5uire! De 9u4*an to fi"e his /o**ent within (0 !a$s fro* noti/e as re ar!s the a""e ation that he was usin prohi#ite! !ru s. i*pose !is/ip"inar$ san/tions.1.002. Thus. *ore than an or!inar$ /iti4en. The o#<e/tives of the sai! pro ra* are as fo""ows: (. on Nove*#er . An! if RA +(E. As re ar!s pu#"i/ offi/ers an! e*p"o$ees. As #efore. we re5uire! De 9u4*an to show /ause wh$ he shou"! not #e !is/ip"inari"$ !ea"t with or he"! in /onte*pt for su/h fai"ure. Bowever. on Au ust (0. an! provi!e a!*inistrative re*e!ies in /ases where an e*p"o$ee is foun! positive for !an erous !ru use. As /orre/t"$ o#serve! #$ the OCA. Su/h fai"ure to /o*p"$ #etra$s. the *ore reason that it shou"! pass the test for ci2il e'2"nt . As #efore. we re5uire! hi* to show /ause wh$ he shou"! not #e he"! in /onte*pt for su/h fai"ure.anuar$ . he re5ueste! for a perio! of (0 !a$s or unti" Nove*#er (-. he a ain i nore! our !ire/tive as /ontaine! in the Reso"ution of Septe*#er (2.002.00-.00).00. No.00). .passes the nor* of reasona#"eness for private e*p"o$ees. as part of his /o**ent. . in A. Jasaan. we have uphe"! in Social Justice Society BSJSD v. De 9u4*an has $et to /o*p"$ with his un!ertakin . on Au ust .ar/h (. MC'C. at this <un/ture.00E. He note that De 9u4*an is a!ept at i norin the Court3s !ire/tives.anuar$ . De 9u4*an *ere"$ i nore! our show /ause or!er. De 9u4*an su#*itte! the affi!avit of Caoi"e. if not /onte*pt of. .. . he fai"e! to /o*p"$ with the sa*e. To !ete/t the use of !an erous !ru s a*on "ower /ourt e*p"o$ees. . B$ wa$ of e6p"anation. shou"! #e aware of her !ut$ to o#e$ the or!ers an! pro/esses of the Supre*e Court without !e"a$. . this /ontu*a/ious /on!u/t of refusin to a#i!e #$ the "awfu" !ire/tives issue! #$ the Court has "ikewise #een /onsi!ere! as an utter "a/k of interest to re*ain with. 0E:(:0(:SC+ !ate! . we i*pose! upon hi* a fine of P(. . we re5uire! De 9u4*an to *anifest whether he is wi""in to su#*it the /ase for reso"ution #ase! on the p"ea!in s su#*itte!. :u' Rulin$ He a!opt the fin!in s an! re/o**en!ation of the OCA.p"ea!in sCre/or!s a"rea!$ fi"e! an! su#*itte!. Su#se5uent"$. De 9u4*an si*p"$ i nore! our !ire/tive. 9an4an3s trans ression is hi h"i hte! even *ore #$ the fa/t that she is an e*p"o$ee of the . . parti/u"ar"$ in the first an! se/on! "eve" /ourts.).. "'e 'e6ui'e# to be "ccount"ble "t "ll ti)e to the people "n# to e'2e the) 0ith ut)o t 'e pon ibility "n# efficiency.) Parentheti/a""$. !espite the "apse of five *onths. . on . De 9u4*an su#*itte! a "etter !ate! . we !ee*e! waive! the fi"in of De 9u4*an3s *anifestation..00E. Thus. we furnishe! hi* with a /op$ of the Apri" (). Nine *onths fro* the ti*e he un!ertook to su#*it the affi!avit of Caoi"e. overn*ent offi/ia"s an! e*p"o$ees a"so "a#or un!er reasona#"e supervision an! restri/tions i*pose! #$ the Civi" Servi/e "aw an! other "aws on pu#"i/ offi/ers. the s$ste*..00) wherein he /"ai*e! that he fai"e! to fi"e his /o**ent on the /har e of *is/on!ou/t #e/ause he a""e e!"$ "ost his /op$ of the sai! Septe*#er (2.00+. we spe/ifi/a""$ he"! that: ?ike their /ounterparts in the private se/tor.00.anuar$ (2. . .Bowever. by con titution"l #e)"n#. Misamis ?riental:E 6 6 6 A reso"ution of the Supre*e Court shou"! not #e /onstrue! as a *ere re5uest. the retire! Steno rapher. De 9u4*an has shown his propensit$ to !ef$ the !ire/tives of this Court. a"" ena/te! to pro*ote a hi h stan!ar! of ethi/s in the pu#"i/ servi/e.G.u!i/iar$. #ut a"so !isrespe/t for the "awfu" or!er an! !ire/tive of the Court. Si*i"ar"$. Bowever. on Septe*#er . Conse5uent"$. not on"$ a re/a"/itrant streak in /hara/ter. &urther*ore. on . &ina""$. Cler9 of Court Fe . De 9u4*an sti"" fai"e! to su#*it Caoi"e3s affi!avit.u!i/iar$. Conse5uent"$.2. $angerous $rugs %oard2 the va"i!it$ an! /onstitutiona"it$ of the *an!ator$ #ut ran!o* !ru testin of offi/ers an! e*p"o$ees of #oth public an! private offi/es.00G within whi/h to su#*it the Affi!avit of 9eor e Caoi"e %Caoi"e'. @nfortunate"$. an! shou"! #e /o*p"ie! with pro*pt"$ an! /o*p"ete"$. the Court has a!opte! guidelines for a pro ra* to !eter the use of !an erous !ru s an! institute preventive *easures a ainst !ru a#use for the purpose of e"i*inatin the ha4ar!s of !ru a#use in the .

3 Otherwise state!. . 9ui*#a. As !ispensers of <usti/e. #ut a"so that of the enera" pu#"i/ who* it serves.00. . Case No. De 9u4*an3s effi/ien/$ as a /usto!ian of /ourt re/or!s is a"so tota""$ wantin ..a$ (. . . inte rit$. to et a/ross his !isp"easure an! !issatisfa/tion with his <o# perfor*an/e.anuar$ . Pu#"i/ offi/e is a pu#"i/ trust.. Nueva E/i<a re/eive! #$ this /ourt on Septe*#er . to put at risk the inte rit$ of the who"e <u!i/iar$. whi/h prohi#its the use of !an erous !ru s. offi/ia" an! otherwise.K Re/or!s re/eive! on . Cri*.1. De 9u4*an3s enera" !enia" that he is not a !ru user /annot prevai" over this /o*pe""in evi!en/e. .O S@PNET X Infor*ation !ate! O/to#er (G. 3nacan.00G.001 !en$in the . 1. . Cri*.001K G.001.00. at a"" ti*es. Su#stantia" evi!en/e is *ore than a *ere s/inti""a of evi!en/e. a"" *e*#ers an! e*p"o$ees of the . . to wit: (. PP vs. #e a#ove suspi/ion so as to earn an! keep the respe/t of the pu#"i/ for the <u!i/iar$.1. Ben/e... Ru#en >i""anueva X Or!er of trans*itta" to the Offi/e of the Provin/ia" Prose/utor of Nueva E/i<a !ate! Au ust E. Capt. Reso"ution of the Provin/ia" Prose/utor !ate! Septe*#er . one of whi/h is Repu#"i/ A/t No.ar/os X Infor*ation !ate! .(0 we he"! that T%a'!*inistrative pro/ee!in s are overne! #$ the Msu#stantia" evi!en/e ru"e. effi/ien/$.001 to reso"ve the . De 9u4*an3s use of prohi#ite! !ru s has reat"$ affe/te! his effi/ien/$ in the perfor*an/e of his fun/tions.00.(G I%t'he i*a e of a /ourt of <usti/e is *irrore! in the /on!u/t.001K . . The Court wou"! never /ountenan/e an$ /on!u/t.u! e. To !is/oura e the use an! a#use of !an erous !ru s a*on first an! se/on! "eve" /ourt e*p"o$ees an! enhan/e awareness of their a!verse effe/ts #$ infor*ation !isse*ination an! perio!i/ ran!o* !ru testin .u! e Sta. Ro*ana. Case No. . whi/h wi"" vio"ate the nor* of pu#"i/ a//ounta#i"it$ an! !i*inish or even <ust ten! to !i*inish the faith of the peop"e in the <u!i/iar$. PP v. Pu#"i/ offi/ers an! e*p"o$ees *ust at a"" ti*es #e a//ounta#"e to the peop"e an! serve the* with ut*ost responsi#i"it$. To institute other *easures that a!!ress the *ena/e of !ru a#use within the personne" of the .00. re/eive! #$ this /ourt on . De 9u4*an !i! not refute the o#servation of his superior.otion for Re/onsi!eration. (++1:9. of the personne" who work thereat. Cri*. Ro*ana issue! a . De 9u4*an never /ha""en e! the authenti/it$ of the Che*istr$ Report of the Nueva E/i<a Provin/ia" Cri*e ?a#orator$ Offi/e.e*oran!u* rea!s: An e6a*ination of the re/or!s foun! in $our !rawer revea" that the fo""owin /ases have not *ove! #e/ause $ou have not #rou ht the sa*e to the attention of the Presi!in .1.IS X Infor*ation !ate! Septe*#er . an! effi/ien/$. the fin!in that De 9u4*an was foun! positive for use of mari#uana an! s(abu re*ains unre#utte!. Its #asi/ !ut$ an! responsi#i"it$ is the !ispensation of <usti/e. It wou"! appear that severa" /ases have not #een pro/ee!e! upon #e/ause De 9u4*an hi! the re/or!s of the sa*e insi!e his !rawer.002:9.anuar$ .T(( This Court is a te*p"e of <usti/e. . .T Arti/"e LI of the Constitution *an!ates that: SECTION (. Case No.0(1:9. re/eive! #$ this Court on Nove*#er (). The te6t of the sai! . It *eans su/h re"evant evi!en/e as a reasona#"e *in! *i ht a//ept as a!e5uate to support a /on/"usion. . . 1(. . . Court of 3ppeals. he %De 9u4*an' was tota""$ inept an! in/o*petent.u!i/iar$. that as a /ri*ina" !o/ket /ourt /"erk. . "o$a"t$. BAAANI CA. As ear"$ as .G. a fin!in of ui"t in an a!*inistrative /ase wou"! have to #e sustaine! for as "on as it is supporte! #$ su#stantia" evi!en/e that the respon!ent has /o**itte! a/ts state! in the /o*p"aint. In $adulo v. Ro*ana ave De 9u4*an an unsatisfa/tor$ ratin . an! we"":#ein not on"$ of a"" the /ourt personne". a/t or o*ission on the part of a"" those in the a!*inistration of <usti/e. +(E-(.u! e Sta. #e /hara/teri4e! #$ propriet$ an! !e/oru* an! a#ove a"" e"se. .u! e Sta.oreover.(1 The Court has a!here! to the po"i/$ of safe uar!in the we"fare.u!i/iar$ are e6pe/te! to a!here stri/t"$ to the "aws of the "an!. Br.G. The fore oin /onstitutes *ore than su#stantia" evi!en/e that De 9u4*an was in!ee! foun! positive for use of !an erous !ru s. The Court wi"" not a""ow its front:"ine representatives. As we he"! in %aron v.K 1.otion for Re/onsi!eration an! trans*ittin the re/or!s to the RTC. an! "ea! *o!est "ives. Case No.. a/t with patriotis* an! <usti/e.e*oran!u* a!!resse! to De 9u4*an re"ative to the Ts"eepin /asesT insi!e the "atter3s !rawer. ?ikewise.une . Ar*an!o . "ike De 9u4*an. In the instant a!*inistrative *atter. Cri*. even if other *in!s e5ua""$ reasona#"e *i ht /on/eiva#"$ opine otherwise. Thus. PP vs. ()G+:C.O. the /on!u/t of a person servin the <u!i/iar$ *ust. . Br $. PP vs.

The "e is"ative power i*posin po"i/ies throu h "aws is not un"i*ite! an! is su#<e/t to the su#stantive an! /onstitutiona" "i*itations that set para*eters #oth in the e6er/ise of the power itse"f an! the a""owa#"e su#<e/ts of "e is"ation.u!i/iar$3s honor.The Presi!in . Ti*prison*ent for !ru !ea"ers an! pushers. Rene !e 9u4*an. an! #ein a front:"ine representative of the .T The$ a"so posit that De 9u4*an3s fai"ure to proper"$ perfor* his !uties an! pro*pt"$ respon! to Court or!ers pre/ise"$ sprin s fro* his !ru a!!i/tion that re5uires reha#i"itation. It is on"$ #$ wee!in out the "ikes of De 9u4*an fro* the ranks that we wou"! #e a#"e to preserve the inte rit$ of this institution. In the sa*e vein. fro* the servi/e with forfeiture of a"" retire*ent #enefits.BNGCG. su/h attitu!e #etra$s not on"$ a re/a"/itrant streak of /hara/ter. De 9u4*an is ui"t$ of ross *is/on!u/t an! has a"rea!$ forfeite! his privi"e e of #ein an e*p"o$ee of the Court. B$ usin prohi#ite! !ru s. !i nit$ an! inte rit$ an! pu#"i/ /onfi!en/e that /an on"$ #e a/hieve! #$ i*posin stri/t an! ri i! stan!ar!s of !e/en/$ an! propriet$ overnin the /on!u/t of <usti/es.u! e /ause! the issuan/e of fin!in of pro#a#"e /auses an! the /orrespon!in Harrants of Arrest. -55:R. <u! es an! /ourt e*p"o$ees. . an! !is5ua"ifi/ation fro* reinstate*ent or appoint*ent to an$ pu#"i/ offi/e. ?ikewise. it /annot #$ an$ *easure #e /ate ori/a""$ state! at this point that it /an #e attri#ute! so"e"$ to his #ein a !ru user. is here#$ . Notwithstan!in the re*in!ers of his superiors. reha#i"itation for their vi/ti*s. in/"u!in overn*ent:owne! or /ontro""e! /orporations. we /annot su#s/ri#e to the i!ea that De 9u4*an3s irrationa" #ehavior ste*s so"e"$ fro* his #ein a !ru user. Aou are here#$ or!ere! to assist the OICCC"erk of Court in sen!in forthwith the Harrants of Arrest to the proper a en/ies for i*p"e*entation. The$ opine that the Court3s a/tion in this /ase /ontravenes an e6press pu#"i/ po"i/$.u! e Sta.(. it /annot "i*it the Court3s power to i*pose !is/ip"inar$ a/tions a ainst errin <usti/es. #e/ause it has reat"$ affe/te! his <o# perfor*an/e an! effi/ien/$. #or!erin on a#sur!. &ina""$. De 9u4*an wou"! sti"" fai" to trans*it the re/or!s. C"erk. i. we /an no "on er /ountenan/e his *anifestations of 5ueer #ehavior.As su/h. Su/h 5ueer #ehavior /an #e attri#ute! to severa" fa/tors. he wou"! report the ne6t !a$ an! <u#i"ant"$ !e/"are that the pro#"e* has #een so"ve! at "ast. De 9u4*an has e6pose! to risk the ver$ institution whi/h he serves. the "e is"ative po"i/$ as e*#o!ie! in Repu#"i/ A/t No. we a ree with the OCA that #$ his repeate! an! /ontu*a/ious /on!u/t of !isrespe/tin the Court3s !ire/tives. A//or!in to Re$es. irrationa" an! irresponsi#"e. In fine. As we have a"rea!$ state!. Bran/h 1(. it *ust #e e*phasi4e! at this <un/ture that De 9u4*an3s !is*issa" is not roun!e! on"$ on his #ein a !ru user. Bowever. Nueva E/i<a.B!%B!!*. Bowever. Neither shou"! su/h po"i/$ #e use! to restri/t the Court3s power to preserve an! *aintain the .. Bowever. Re iona" Tria" Court of 9ui*#a. e6/ept a//rue! "eave /re!its. Re$es a"so put forth the a#sur! #ehaviora" *anifestations of De 9u4*an. SO ORDERED.in !eterrin !an erous !ru use #$ resort to sustaina#"e pro ra*s of reha#i"itation an! treat*ent *ust #e /onsi!ere! in "i ht of this Court3s /onstitutiona" power of a!*inistrative supervision over /ourts an! /ourt personne". the$ state that the Court3s rea" stren th is not in its ri hteousness #ut in its wi""in ness to un!erstan! that *en are not perfe/t an! that there is a ti*e to punish an! a ti*e to ive a /han/e for /ontrition an! /han e.e. Bis outri ht !is*issa" fro* the servi/e is "ikewise an/hore! on his /ontu*a/ious an! repeate! a/ts of not hee!in the !ire/tives of this Court. . +(E. &ina""$. <u! es an! /ourt personne". Ro*ana wou"! a"wa$s re*in! De 9u4*an to prepare an! trans*it the /o*p"ete re/or!s of the appea"e! /ases.u!i/iar$. Instea!. ?ikewise. Two <usti/es !isa ree with the *a<orit$ opinion. #ut a"so !isrespe/t for the "awfu" or!ers an! !ire/tives of the Court. De 9u4*an wou"! on"$ *ake e*pt$ assuran/es to perfor* his task.

Mantolino for respondent. No. 3sperilla. Solicitor )olita ?.. Su/h an assu*ption. serious"$ an! earnest"$ e6presse!. !e/ision. %lanco. on its fa/e #etra$in no kinship with rea"it$. 5:%%B!!B:N*R :1 BNA*RN-C R*E*N?*. C.R. It is his /ontention. foun! e6pression anew in a (+E.:. Rea an..lang and Special 3ttorney !amaliel E.. at one ti*e a /ivi"ian e*p"o$ee of an A*eri/an /orporation provi!in te/hni/a" assistan/e to the @nite! States Air &or/e in the Phi"ippines. *istaken"$ as wi"" hereafter #e *ore fu""$ shown an o#servation to that effe/t in a (+-( opinion. J. far:fet/he! an! i*p"ausi#"e.G. Su/h a p"ea. R*-G-N. that the tra!in fir* as pur/haser of ar*$ oo!s *ust respon! for the sa"es ta6es !ue fro* an i*porter. ( petitioner i norin that su/h utteran/e was *a!e pure"$ as a f"ourish of rhetori/ an! #$ wa$ of e*phasi4in the !e/ision rea/he!.i"itar$ Bases are not forei n territories #oth in the po"iti/a" an! eo raphi/a" sense. A 5uestion nove" in /hara/ter. to ren!er the truth un*istaka#"e.T . *A5. that in "e a" /onte*p"ation the sa"e was *a!e outsi!e Phi"ippine territor$ an! therefore #e$on! our <uris!i/tiona" power to ta6.arine Corps. Kuas(a. Be wou"! !ispute the pa$*ent of the in/o*e ta6 assesse! on hi* #$ respon!ent Co**issioner of Interna" Revenue on an a*ount rea"i4e! #$ hi* on a sa"e of his auto*o#i"e to a *e*#er of the @nite! States . petitioner. is raise! #$ petitioner Hi""ia* C. 1*RN-N. Lafra and 'ayag for petitioner.1 /oup"e! with the re*in!er however. the answer to whi/h has far:rea/hin i*p"i/ations. !al.ece)be' 27. 3ssistant Solicitor !eneral Felicisimo R.2637> . the transa/tion havin taken p"a/e at the C"ark &ie"! Air Base at Pa*pan a. vs. inspire! #$ the /o**en!a#"e ai* to ren!er unavai"in an$ atte*pt at ta6 evasion on the part of su/h ven!ee. Rosete. that Tthe areas /overe! #$ the @nite! States . %arredo. ?ffice of t(e Solicitor !eneral 3ntonio .BCCB-% 5. 1>6> . respon!ent. he wou"! <ustif$ #$ invokin . as the A*eri/an ar*e! for/es #ein e6e*pt /ou"! not #e ta6e! as su/h un!er the Nationa" Interna" Revenue Co!e.

On the sa*e !ate..+(. Pf/. Nine %+' *onths thereafter an! #efore his tour of !ut$ e6pire!.. in the su//in/t "an ua e of . In the !e/ision appea"e! fro*.00 was "e a""$ /o""e/te! #$ respon!ent for petitioner.e""inek.ani"a.. Resort to fun!a*enta"s is unavoi!a#"e to p"a/e thin s in their proper perspe/tive. . . C"ark Air Base.00 as in/o*e ta6 an! !enie! the refun! on the sa*e. penne! #$ <urists of repute. On the sa*e !ate.00 p"us the "e a" rate of interest. pri*ari"$ the /ontention that the C"ark Air Base Tin "e a" /onte*p"ation. s/ant /o*fort.u"$ 2. If it were not thus. for a per*it to se"" the /ar. Hithin its "i*its.r. its /o**an!s para*ount. Its "aws *a$ as to so*e persons foun! within its territor$ no "on er /ontro". . is a #ase outsi!e the Phi"ippinesT the sa"e therefore havin taken p"a/e on Tforei n soi"T. starte! the re/ita" of fa/ts thus: TIt appears that petitioner. one whi/h is "ikewise far fro* ref"e/tin the fa/t as it is. *a$ refrain fro* the e6er/ise of what otherwise is i""i*ita#"e /o*peten/e. in!u/e! no !ou#t #$ the wei ht he wou"! a//or! to the o#servation *a!e #$ this Court in the two opinions ear"ier referre! to. It is to #e a!*itte! that an$ state *a$. Nothin is #etter sett"e! than that the Phi"ippines #ein in!epen!ent an! soverei n.)1. the Court of Ta6 Appea"s.. (+-+ . #$ its /onsent.S. petitioner so"! his /ar for DE. he fi"e! the /ase with the Court of Ta6 Appea"s seekin re/over$ of the su* of P. There is no portion thereof that is #e$on! its power. #ut pen!in a/tion on his re5uest for refun!. That is the /on/ept of soverei nt$ as auto:"i*itation.. after !e!u/tin the "an!e! /ost of the /ar as we"" as the persona" e6e*ption to whi/h petitioner was entit"e!. its !e/rees are supre*e. De/isions /o*in fro* petitionerQs native "an!.ohnson.r. Cavite. there is a !i*inution of its soverei nt$.As thus /"arifie!. whi/h provi!es te/hni/a" assistan/e to the @nite! States Air &or/e.00 to a /ertain Hi""ie .1G. There *a$ thus #e a /urtai"*ent of what otherwise is a power p"enar$ in /hara/ter.. . He !e/"are our stan! in an une5uivo/a" *anner.T2 A state then. it #$ no *eans fo""ows that su/h areas #e/o*e i*presse! with an a"ien /hara/ter. su#*it to a restri/tion of its soverei n ri hts. As note! in the appea"e! !e/ision: TThe on"$ issue su#*itte! for our reso"ution is whether or not the sai! in/o*e ta6 of P. the Court of Ta6 Appea"s foun! nothin o#<e/tiona#"e in the assess*ent an! thereafter the pa$*ent of P. we sustain its !e/ision now #efore us on appea". speak to that effe/t with i*pressive unani*it$. in/"u!in frei ht. The$ are sti"" su#<e/t to its authorit$. so"! the /ar to &re! . Division of Ben!i6 Aviation Corporation... ren!erin hi* "ia#"e for in/o*e ta6 in the su* of P. #ut it !oes not !isappear. "ikewise. After pa$in the su*. *i"itar$ #ases in the Phi"ippines. *ore than two %. It is not pre/"u!e! fro* a""owin another power to parti/ipate in the e6er/ise of <uris!i/tiona" ri ht over /ertain portions of its territor$.+2+.TAs a resu"t of the transa/tion thus *a!e. an! ever$one to who* it app"ies *ust su#*it to its ter*s.eneses for P1. #oth territoria" an! persona". It /ertain"$ /annot /ontro" the reso"ution of the spe/ifi/ 5uestion that /onfronts us. this appea" pre!i/ate! on a "e a" theor$ we /annot a//ept.00 as evi!en/e! #$ a !ee! of sa"e e6e/ute! in .arine Corps.. The$ are not an! /annot #e forei n territor$. %Private first /"ass'. San "e$ Point. petitioner re5ueste! the Base Co**an!er. insuran/e an! other /har es. Ben/e.+2+.TE After !is/ussin the "e a" issues raise!. a /iti4en of the @nite! States an! an e*p"o$ee of Ben!i6 Ra!io. if it /hooses to. (+E0. Ne/essari"$. Hi""ie %Hi""ia*' . That is the e6tent of its <uris!i/tion.E00. respon!ent Co**issioner of Interna" Revenue. petitionerQs "ia#i"it$ for the in/o*e ta6 !ue as a resu"t thereof was unavoi!a#"e.GG1. whi/h. @nite! States . . e6e/ute! at C"ark Air Base. fi6e! as his net ta6a#"e in/o*e arisin fro* su/h transa/tion the a*ount of P(2. (+E0. (.TG Then /a*e the fo""owin : TOn . e6press or i*p"ie!. The$ retain their status as native soi".+2+.00. it has to #e e6/"usive. whi/h was rante! provi!e! that the sa"e was *a!e to a *e*#er of the @nite! States Ar*e! &or/es or a /iti4en of the @nite! States e*p"o$e! in the @. as shown #$ a Bi"" of Sa"e . Tis the propert$ of a state:for/e !ue to whi/h it has the e6/"usive /apa/it$ of "e a" se"f:!eter*ination an! se"f:restri/tion. . To repeat.u"$ ((. petitioner i*porte! on Apri" . Petitioner /annot *ake out a /ase for reversa". Its <uris!i/tion *a$ #e !i*inishe!. Phi"ippines. he sou ht a refun! fro* respon!ent /"ai*in that he was e6e*pt. on or a#out . Phi"ippines.' *onths after the (+E0 Ca!i""a/ /ar was i*porte! into the Phi"ippines. it is *anifest that su/h a view a*ounts at *ost to a "e a" fi/tion an! is *oreover obiter. Nor !oes the *atter en! there. If it !oes so. Its "aws overn therein.u"$ ((.ohnson. So it is with the #ases un!er "ease to the A*eri/an ar*e! for/es #$ virtue of the *i"itar$ #ases a ree*ent of (+G2. was assi ne! at C"ark Air Base. As the Court of Ta6 Appea"s rea/he! a si*i"ar /on/"usion. if at a"" is to #e !erive! fro* su/h an obiter dictum.+2+. petitioner apparent"$ fee"in <ustifie! in his refusa" to !efer to #asi/ postu"ates of /onstitutiona" an! internationa" "aw. He start with the /itation fro* . its authorit$ *a$ #e e6er/ise! over its entire !o*ain. after statin the nature of the /ase. The sa"e havin taken p"a/e on what in!isputa#"$ is Phi"ippine territor$.000. (+E0 a ta6:free (+E0 Ca!i""a/ /ar with a//essories va"ue! at DE..

As to /ertain ta6 *atters. ta6 evasion wou"! have #een fa/i"itate!. Hest"ake. an! a/tin !ire/t"$ upon ea/h Nin!ivi!ua" foun! thereinOK . *a!e /"ear that not even the e*#ass$ pre*ises of a forei n power are to #e /onsi!ere! outsi!e the territoria" !o*ain of the host state.oore. if it se/ures /usto!$ of the offen!er. MMFaddon. /ontrar$ to the wi"" of the State of his so<ourn. even if su/h a /ontention were *ore a!e5uate"$ presse! an! insiste! upon. an! a *ar ina" #e"t of the sea e6ten!in fro* the /oast "ine outwar! a *arine "ea ue. The "awfu"ness or un"awfu"ness of a/ts there /o**itte! is !eter*ine! #$ the territoria" soverei n. Meer.Chief . he wou"! seek to i*part p"ausi#i"it$ to his /"ai* #$ the ostensi#"e invo/ation of the e6e*ption /"ause in the A ree*ent #$ virtue of whi/h a Tnationa" of the @nite! States servin in or e*p"o$e! in the Phi"ippines in /onne/tion with the /onstru/tion. . har#ors. As a *atter of fa/t.arsha"". Hi"son. is *ore apparent than rea" for as note! at the outset of this opinion.T(. Petitioner /ou"! not have #een unaware that to *aintain the /ontrar$ wou"! #e to !ef$ rea"it$ an! wou"! #e an affront to the "aw. #ut rather for the reason that the in!ivi!ua" is e6e*pt fro* prose/ution. Thus: TIt now is sett"e! in the @nite! States an! re/o ni4e! e"sewhere that the territor$ su#<e/t to its <uris!i/tion in/"u!es the "an! areas un!er its !o*inion an! /ontro" the ports. it is on its fa/e !evoi! of *erit as the sour/e /"ear"$ was Phi"ippine.T Chief . there was a reiteration of su/h a view.usti/e Tane$. whi/h wou"! #e *a!e to $ie"! su/h an unwarrante! interpretation at war with the /ontro""in /onstitutiona" an! internationa" "aw prin/ip"es. the first an! /ru/ia" error i*pute! to the Court of Ta6 Appea"s to the effe/t that it shou"! have he"! that the C"ark Air &or/e is forei n soi" or territor$ for purposes of in/o*e ta6 "e is"ation is /"ear"$ without support in "aw. his i**unit$ fro* prose/ution is not #e/ause he has not vio"ate! the "o/a" "aw. It has not #e/o*e forei n soi" or territor$. or 1 eo raphi/ *i"es. si*i"ar"$ /o**its a /ri*e therein. is #oun! #$ its "aws. even thou h its /ri*ina" /o!e nor*a""$ !oes not /onte*p"ate the punish*ent of one who /o**its an offense outsi!e of the nationa" !o*ain.i"itar$ Bases A ree*ent that "en!s support to su/h an assertion. If it were not thus. an appropriate e6e*ption was provi!e! for. The$ /an f"ow fro* no other "e iti*ate sour/e. /ertain"$ not e6/"u!in the power to ta6. to repeat. In Saura Import and &Aport Co. even within his e*#ass$ with respe/t to a/ts there /o**itte!. therefore. that an a*#assa!or hi*se"f possesses the ri ht to e6er/ise <uris!i/tion.T It is no e6a eration then for . The @nite! States for/es that .) an ()(.usti/e >an Devanter.usti/e Brewer to stress that the @nite! States overn*ent Tis one havin <uris!i/tion over ever$ foot of soi" within its territor$.T After whi/h /a*e this para raph: TA"" e6/eptions. su/h e*inent treatise: writers as Ient. as interprete! an! app"ie! #$ the @nite! States. In the "i ht of the a#ove. Nor is there apparent at the present ti*e an$ ten!en/$ on the part of States to a/5uies/e in his e6er/ise of it. An$ restri/tion upon it. !erivin va"i!it$ fro* an e6terna" sour/e.+ affir*e! the fun!a*enta" prin/ip"e of ever$one within the territoria" !o*ain of a state #ein su#<e/t to its /o**an!s: T&or un!ou#te!"$ ever$ person who is foun! within the "i*its of a overn*ent.(. There is nothin in the . If an atta/he /o**its an offense within the pre/in/ts of an e*#ass$. the territoria" soverei n. petitionerQs hope for the reversa" of the !e/ision /o*p"ete"$ fa!es awa$.T(0 Not too "on a o. the tra!in fir* that pur/hase! ar*$ oo!s fro* a @nite! States overn*ent a en/$ in the Phi"ippines. to the fu"" an! /o*p"ete power of a nation within its own territories. announ/e! in the "ea!in /ase of Sc(ooner &Ac(ange v.usti/e . It is easi"$ un!erstan!a#"e wh$. whether the te*porar$ purposes or as a resi!ent. At an$ rate. Hheaton an! Oppenhei*. . If a person not so e6e*pt. . an! other in /"ose! ar*s of the sea a"on its /oast. this Court affir*e! a !e/ision ren!ere! a#out seven *onths previous"$. operation or !efense of the #ases an! resi!in in the Phi"ippines on"$ #$ reason of su/h e*p"o$*entT is not to #e ta6e! on his in/o*e un"ess T!erive! fro* Phi"ippine sour/e or sour/es other than the @nite! States sour/es. As thus /orre/t"$ viewe!. within the /onte*p"ation of the Nationa" Interna" Revenue Co!e provision. this ti*e fro* the pen of . wou"! i*p"$ a !i*inution of its soverei nt$ to the e6tent of the restri/tion. therefore. the e*inent /o**entator B$!e in his three:vo"u*e work on Internationa" ?aw. It is sus/epti#"e of no "i*itation not i*pose! #$ itse"f. an! an invest*ent of that soverei nt$ to the sa*e e6tent in that power whi/h /ou"! i*pose su/h restri/tion. #a$s. or whose i**unit$ is waive!.T(1 The re"ian/e. This /ountr$Qs <uris!i/tiona" ri hts therein. *aintenan/e. have #een preserve!.(G the /ase a#ove referre! to. It is not #e"ieve!.T(( Be /ou"! /ite *oreover. *a$ su#<e/t hi* to prose/ution. !e/ision: TThe <uris!i/tion of the nation within its own territor$ is ne/essari"$ e6/"usive an! a#so"ute. *ust #e tra/e! up to the /onsent of the nation itse"f. in a!!ition to *an$ A*eri/an !e/isions. in an ()-2 !e/ision.. Thus: TThe roun! o//upie! #$ an e*#ass$ is not in fa/t the territor$ of the forei n State to whi/h the pre*ises #e"on throu h possession or ownership.ho"!in "ia#"e as an i*porter. . B$!e. petitioner p"a/es *ore faith not on the "an ua e of the provision on e6e*ption #ut on a senti*ent iven e6pression in a (+-( opinion of this Court. Hhi"e his first assi ne! error is thus wor!e!. v.

The transa/tion havin o//urre! in (+GE. A ain. So we have sai! ear"ier. Be /ou"! have stoppe! there. the on"$ one that /a""s for !is/ussion to the effe/t that for in/o*e ta6 purposes the C"ark Air &or/e Base is outsi!e Phi"ippine territor$. it was #$ wa$ of pure e*#e""ish*ent. when no "on er nee!e! for *i"itar$ purposes. To repeat. a!here! to su/h a rationa"e..usti/e Tuason the *eanin that petitioner wou"! fasten on it is. to repeat.( . as announ/e! at the openin of this opinion. this o#servation of . in the pursuit of "e iti*ate en!s. he pro/ee!e! to !is/uss the ro"e of the A*eri/an *i"itar$ /ontin ent in the Phi"ippines as a #e""i erent o//upant. /ou"! have #een rea/he! without an$ nee! for su/h e6pression as that iven utteran/e #$ . who penne! the Co Po opinion. not so "on after the "i#eration of the Phi"ippines. how far !ivor/e! fro* the truth was su/h state*ent was e*phasi4e! #$ . whether #$ !esi n or ina!verten/e. put a !ifferent /o*p"e6ion on the *atter.i"itar$ Bases are not forei n territories #oth in the po"iti/a" an! eo raphi/a" sense.T To "en! further support to a /on/"usion a"rea!$ announ/e!. a "e a" fi/tion.T. an! thereafter the /ontro""in . Certain"$. To so /on/"u!e is. to paraphrase &rankfurter. !istin uishe! #$ its soun! appre/iation of the issue then #efore this Court an! to pre/"u!e an$ ta6 evasion. Thus: TIt is a *a6i*.arsha"" /ou"! a ain #e "istene! to with profit. 1. as &rankfurter note!. to rea/h the /on/"usion that it was the pur/haser of ar*$ oo!s. who spoke for the Court. It was Car!o4o who pointe! out its va"ue as a !evi/e Tto a!van/e the en!s of <usti/eT a"thou h at ti*es it /ou"! #e T/"u*s$T an! even ToffensiveT. then. The /on/"usion is thus irresisti#"e that the /ru/ia" error assi ne!. It /ou"! #e uti"i4e! a ain.0 a (+E. to #e ui"t$ of su//u*#in to the vi/e of "itera"ness. This is not to sa$ that it shou"! have #een i nore! a"to ether afterwar!s. there #ein no nee! to repeat it. as it un!ou#te!"$ was.T It is thus evi!ent that the first. Collector of Internal Revenue. is utter"$ without *erit. not to #e !isre ar!e!. That it wou"! #e frau ht with su/h peri" to the enfor/e*ent of our ta6 statutes on the *i"itar$ #ases un!er "ease to the A*eri/an ar*e! for/es /ou"! not have . ta6 evasion is pre/"u!e!.usti/e Tuason was /ite! in Co o v.#rou ht in su/h e5uip*ent "ater !ispose! of as surp"us. the "ia#i"it$ of the petitioner for in/o*e ta6 whi/h. !e/ision re"ie! upon #$ petitioner. proper"$ use!. a "e a" fi/tion /ou"! #e re"ie! upon #$ the "aw. To i*pute then to the state*ent of . 5uotin e6tensive"$ fro* the ear"ier opinion. A ain. That was farthest fro* the thou ht of . !rawin on his we"":known ift for rhetori/ an! /o ni4ant that he was *akin an as if state*ent. the$ *a$ #e respe/te!. . Be /hose not to !o so. "ea!in to resu"ts that wou"! have sho/ke! its ori inator. are to #e taken in /onne/tion with the /ase in whi/h those e6pressions are use!. whi"e far fro* o#<e/tiona#"e as thus enun/iate!. thus: TIt is true that the areas /overe! #$ the @nite! States .1 Petitioner then wou"! #e we"":a!vise! to take to heart su/h /ounse" of /are an! /ir/u*spe/tion #efore invokin not a "e a" fi/tion that wou"! avoi! a *o/ker$ of the "aw #$ avoi!in ta6 evasion #ut what /"ear"$ is a *isinterpretation thereof.T(+ Nor !i! the fa/t that su/h utteran/e of . If the$ o #e$on! the /ase. #ut ou ht not to /ontro" the <u! *ent in a su#se5uent suit when the ver$ point is presente! for !e/ision. that enera" e6pressions.T(2 It /ou"! not then #e /ontro""in on the 5uestion #efore us now. that *ust respon! for the a!van/e sa"es ta6es as i*porter. na*e"$ to sti *ati4e as without support in "aw an$ atte*pt on the part of a ta6pa$er to es/ape an o#"i ation in/u*#ent upon hi*. the state*ent on its fa/e is. he !i! sa$: THhi"e in ar*$ #ases or insta""ations within the Phi"ippines those oo!s were in /onte*p"ation of "aw on forei n soi". !e/ision as to the "ia#i"it$ for sa"es ta6es as an i*porter #$ the pur/haser. Its va"ue then as an authoritative !o/trine /annot #e as *u/h as petitioner wou"! *istaken"$ atta/h to it. espe/ia""$ so for the purpose inten!e!. It was /"ear"$ obiter not #ein ne/essar$ for the reso"ution of the issue #efore this Court.(E It was an opinion Tuttere! #$ the wa$. is s5uare"$ raise! for the first ti*e.usti/e Barrera.() On this point. an o#servation /ertain"$ not to #e taken "itera""$ was thus iven utteran/e. It /ertain"$ is not sus/epti#"e of the *is/hievous /onse5uen/es now sou ht to #e fastene! on it #$ petitioner. So it was 5uote! with that en! in view in the Co Po /ase. This is not to !is/ount the uses of a fictio #uris in the s/ien/e of the "aw. Note his stress on Tin /onte*p"ation of "aw. this ti*e fro* *i"itar$ #ases.usti/e . was #e$on! the rea/h of our ta6 statutes. Hhat is *ore. in ever$ opinion. the purpose that ani*ate! the reiteration of su/h a view was /"ear"$ to e*phasi4e that throu h the e*p"o$*ent of su/h a fi/tion. Chief . Hhat is *ore. It /ertain"$ !oes not <ustif$ an$ effort to ren!er futi"e the /o""e/tion of a ta6 "e a""$ !ue.. to *isrea! it. In the /ourse of su/h a !issertion. #ein at that a /onfir*ation of what ha! #een arrive! at in the ear"ier /ase. as here. .usti/e Tuason. what was sai! #$ hi* was in the wa$ of a "e a" fi/tion.usti/e Tuason.usti/e Tuason *oreover *a!e e6p"i/it that rather than /orrespon!in with rea"it$..usti/e Tuason /ou"! #e *isuse! or *is/onstrue! in a /"u*s$ *anner to rea/h an offensive resu"t.usti/e Tuason.

(+EE !en$in the refun! of P. Concepcion.. He ho"!. Ma9alintal.00 as the in/o*e ta6 pai! #$ petitioner is affir*e!. took no part. &or his rea" an! enuine senti*ent on the *atter in /onsonan/e with the i*perative *an!ate of /ontro""in /onstitutiona" an! internationa" "aw /on/epts was /ate ori/a""$ set forth #$ hi*. there is nothin that stan!s in the wa$ of an affir*an/e of the Court of Ta6 Appea"s !e/ision. Be !i! stress further the fu"" e6tent of our territoria" <uris!i/tion in wor!s that !o not a!*it of !ou#t.. /on/ur. JJ. C. Castro and Reyes. $izon. it shou"! #e note!. in eople v. Hith the *ist thus "ifte! fro* the situation as it tru"$ presents itse"f. J. HBERE&ORE. The /onsent was iven pure"$ as a *atter of /o*it$. it is an e*phati/ re/o nition an! reaffir*ation of Phi"ippine soverei nt$ over the #ases an! of the truth that a"" <uris!i/tiona" ri hts rante! to the @nite! States an! not e6er/ise! #$ the "atter are reserve! #$ the Phi"ippines for itse"f. J. Laldivar. Phi"ippine soi" or territor$. J. /on/urs in the resu"t..G thus: TB$ the N.. whi/h /"ear"$ is an! /annot otherwise #e other than. that petitioner was "ia#"e for the in/o*e ta6 arisin fro* a sa"e of his auto*o#i"e in the C"ark &ie"! Air Base. 'ee(an9ee. as announ/e! at the outset.%. Petitioner /annot !o so.. There is further satisfa/tion in fin!in ourse"ves una#"e to in!u" e petitioner in his p"ea for reversa". 3cierto. or e6pe!ien/$ over the #ases as part of the Phi"ippine territor$ or !iveste! itse"f /o*p"ete"$ of <uris!i/tion over offenses /o**itte! therein.#een within the /onte*p"ation of .+2+.. Thus: TThis provision is not an! /an not on prin/ip"e or authorit$ #e /onstrue! as a "i*itation upon the ri hts of the Phi"ippine 9overn*ent. . If an$thin . /ourtes$.). To so attri#ute su/h a #i4arre /onse5uen/e is to #e ui"t$ of a rave !isservi/e to the *e*or$ of a reat <urist. Hith /osts a ainst petitioner. as it ou ht to #e an! as it is. Sanc(ez. his /"ai* for e6e*ption fro* the in/o*e ta6 !ue was !istin uishe! on"$ #$ its futi"it$. within our territoria" <uris!i/tion to ta6. No usefu" purpose wou"! #e serve! #$ !is/ussin the other assi ne! errors. G.usti/e Tuason. He thus *anifest fea"t$ to a pronoun/e*ent *a!e ti*e an! ti*e a ain that the "aw !oes not "ook with favor on ta6 e6e*ptions an! that he who wou"! seek to #e thus privi"e e! *ust <ustif$ it #$ wor!s too p"ain to #e *istaken an! too /ate ori/a" to #e *isinterprete!.T Nor !i! he stop there.E Petitioner ha! not !one so. petitioner hi*se"f #ein fu""$ aware that if the C"ark Air &or/e Base is to #e /onsi!ere!.i"itar$ BasesO A ree*ent.It is in the sa*e spirit that we approa/h the spe/ifi/ 5uestion /onfrontin us in this "iti ation.J.a$ (. the Phi"ippine 9overn*ent *ere"$ /onsents that the @nite! States e6er/ise <uris!i/tion in /ertain /ases. not as an obiter #ut as the rationa"e of the !e/ision. the !e/ision of the Court of Ta6 Appea"s of ... %arredo.T.

!*N-A*8. . then Presi!ent Dios!a!o . petitioner.Presi!ent Dios!a!o . As !is/usse! therein. in (+E-. 200= !?CA-N :!:P /. He !isa ree. 5-%B. Aet un"ike in the *ovies. No. A<* :11B5* :1 A<* PR*!B. 5:%%B!!B:N :N -?.. . -?A:N:%:?! R*GB:N BN %?!CB% %BN.R. C:5-C G:E*RN%*NA. %-N-G*%*NA. vs.G These e6e/utive or!ers were issue! after "e is"ative #i""s for the /reation of *uni/ipa"ities invo"ve! in that /ase ha! fai"e! to pass Con ress.*P-RA%*NA :1 A<* BNA*RB:R -N. .a/apa a" <ustifie! the /reation of these *uni/ipa"ities /itin his . J.G. respondents.in!anao. The /reation of the putative *uni/ipa"it$ was !e/"are! void ab initio #$ this Court four !e/a!es a o.a/apa a" issue! severa" E6e/utive Or!ers1 /reatin thirt$:three %11' *uni/ipa"ities in . 161414 J"nu"'y 17. "n# the 5:NGR*!! :1 A<* P<BCBPPBN*! 7<:?!* of R*PR*!*NA-ABE*! -N. its "e a" persona"it$ shou"! #e iven <u!i/ia" affir*ation. (02. #ut the present petition insists that in spite of this insur*ounta#"e o#sta/"e An!on thrives on.. there is nothin *$sti/a". The fa/tua" ante/e!ents !erive fro* the pro*u" ation of our ru"in in elaez v. This etition for Certiorari presents this Court with the prospe/t of our own %rigadoon( Sthe *uni/ipa"it$ of An!on ..G*A -N.BA. is a town that is not suppose! to e6ist $et is an$wa$ insiste! #$ so*e as a/tua""$ a"ive an! thrivin .*P-RA%*NA of /?. an! hen/e. 3uditor !eneral.*P-RA%*NA of 1BN-N5*. host"$ or an$thin even re*ote"$ /har*in a#out the purporte! e6isten/e of An!on . DECISION ABNG-. ?anao !e" Surawhi/h "ike its /ounterpart in fi"*!o*.-N-:.*NA. A*on the* was An!on in ?anao !e" Sur whi/h was /reate! #$ virtue of E6e/utive Or!er No.

. .aria an! New Core""a in DavaoK Ba!ian an an! .T(E their /onstituents Tin their own "itt"e In support of his /"ai* that An!on re*ains in e6isten/e. Nota#"$. Ca*i! a"so enu*erates a "ist of overn*enta" a en/ies an! private roups that a""e e!"$ re/o ni4e An!on . ru"e! that Se/tion E) of the Revise! A!*inistrative Co!e !i! not *eet the we"":sett"e! re5uire*ents for a va"i! !e"e ation of "e is"ative power to the e6e/utive #ran/h.T Sin/e the ti*e of .aasi* in Saran aniK Ia"i"an an an! ?antapan in Buki!nonK an! .120. the /ore issue presente! in the present petition is the /ontinue! effi/a/$ of the <u!i/ia" annu"*ent of the . Ro6as in Ja*#oan a !e" NorteK . As appropriate re"ief. the Court unani*ous"$ he"! that the /ha""en e! E6e/utive Or!ers were nu"" an! voi!.T(. an! at "east seventeen %(2' T#aran a$ unitsT with their own respe/tive /hair*en. Se/tion E) havin #een repea"e! #$ Repu#"i/ A/t No. Petitioner Su"tan Osop B.arawi Cit$ /on/ernin the popu"ation of An!on .ina in I"oi"oK .T(2 Be a"so su#*its a Certification issue! #$ the Provin/ia" Statisti/s Offi/e of . whose /reations were voi!e! #$ this Court in elaez.(. . the E6e/utive Or!ers in 5uestion are !e/"are! nu"" an! voi! ab initio an! the respon!ent per*anent"$ restraine! fro* passin in au!it an$ e6pen!iture of pu#"i/ fun!s in i*p"e*entation of sai! E6e/utive Or!ers or an$ !is#urse*ent #$ the *uni/ipa"ities a#ove referre! to. an! notes that other *uni/ipa"ities have re/o**en!e! to the Speaker of the Re iona" ?e is"ative Asse*#"$ for the i**e!iate i*p"e*entation of the reviva" or re:esta#"ish*ent of An!on . espe/ia""$ in "i ht of the /urrent re/o nition iven to the ei hteen %()' *uni/ipa"ities si*i"ar"$ annu""e! #$ reason of elaez.T per DI?9 re/or!s.) whi"e three <usti/es opine! that the nu""it$ of the issuan/es was the /onse5uen/e of the ena/t*ent of the (+1.T(1 even thou h he /on/e!es that sin/e (+E). to e6ten! fu"" re/o nition an! support to An!on K the Depart*ent of &inan/e an! the Depart*ent of Bu! et an! . It is so or!ere!. An!on has a""e e!"$ #een ettin #$ !espite the a#sen/e of pu#"i/ fun!s.(+ The Certification enu*erates ei hteen %()' *uni/ipa"ities /ertifie! as Te6istin .(0 A*on the E6e/utive Or!ers annu""e! was E6e/utive Or!er No. Ca*i! pra$s that the Court annu" the DI?9 Certification !ate! .a/apa a".0 Ca*i! i*putes rave a#use of !is/retion on the part of the DI?9 Tin not /"assif$in NAn!on O as a re u"ar e6istin *uni/ipa"it$ an! in not in/"u!in sai! *uni/ipa"it$ in its re/or!s an! offi/ia" !ata#ase as NanO e6istin re u"ar *uni/ipa"it$.001. Ca*i! presents to this Court a Certification issue! #$ the Offi/e of the Co**unit$ Environ*ent an! Natura" Resour/es %CENRO' of the Depart*ent of Environ*ent an! Natura" Resour/es %DENR' /ertif$in the tota" "an! area of the . (02 issue! N"astO O/to#er (. .( Be /hara/teri4es su/h non:/"assifi/ation as une5ua" treat*ent to the !etri*ent of An!on . with the TInteri* Offi/ia"sT servin wa$s an! *eans. (+EG.( Nove*#er . Sta.. to i**e!iate"$ re"ease the interna" revenue a""ot*ents of An!on K an! the pu#"i/ respon!ents.( Nove*#er .ana e*ent.Constitution.a uin in ?anao !e" SurK 9"oria in Orienta" .usti/e %"ater Chief . Na a. Then >i/e: Presi!ent E**anue" Pe"ae4 fi"e! a spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion for a writ of prohi#ition. issue! #$ the Bureau of ?o/a" 9overn*ent Supervision of the Depart*ent of Interior an! ?o/a" 9overn*ent %DI?9'. Pito o.uni/ipa"it$ of An!on . e"e/te! or 5ua"ifie! to serve an$ of the e"e/tive "o/a" overn*ent positions of An!on .2 After !ue !e"i#eration. Be a""e es that An!on Thas *eta*orphose! into a fu"":#"own *uni/ipa"it$ with a /o*p"ete set of offi/ia"s appointe! to han!"e essentia" servi/es for the *uni/ipa"it$ an! its /onstituents.a sa$sa$. (02 whi/h /reate! the .(G Nonethe"ess. Neverthe"ess.T.uni/ipa"it$ of An!on .001K !ire/t the DI?9 to /"assif$ An!on as a Tre u"ar e6istin *uni/ipa"it$KT a"" pu#"i/ respon!ents. Provin/e of ?anao !e" Sur.. no person has #een appointe!. a"on with An!on .&ro* (+EG unti" (+2. a Depart*ent of E!u/ation.anue" A.. a""e in in *ain that the E6e/utive Or!ers were nu"" an! voi!. Cu"ture an! Sports offi/e. T/reate! un!er E6e/utive Or!er No.uni/ipa"it$ of An!on .artia" ?aw in (+2. These *uni/ipa"ities are . whi/h re!u/e! the power of the Chief E6e/utive over "o/a" overn*ents. A *a<orit$ of five <usti/es. Bureau of Posts. to re/o ni4e the TInteri* ?o/a" Offi/ia"sT of An!on . the pu#"i/ offi/ia"s of An!on Thave #een servin their /onstituents throu h the *ini*a" *eans an! resour/es with "east %si/' honorariu* an! re/o nition fro* the Offi/e of the then for*er Presi!ent Dios!a!o . the *uni/ipa"it$ of An!on has its own hi h s/hoo".usti/e' Ro#erto Con/ep/ion.a/o in Co*poste"a >a""e$.E an! sai! or!ers /onstitutin an un!ue !e"e ation of "e is"ative power. parti/u"ar"$ the DI?9.() The petition assai"s a Certification !ate! . Ca*i! %Ca*i!' represents hi*se"f as a /urrent resi!ent of An!on .i!as"ip.uni/ipa"it$ of An!on . "e! #$ the ponente.. whi/h is pe e! at fourteen thousan! fift$ nine %(G. .(( suin as a private /iti4en an! ta6pa$er whose locus standi Tis of pu#"i/ an! para*ount interest espe/ia""$ to the peop"e of the . an! Ba$o in Ja*#oan a !e" SurK Sia$an an! Pres.0-+' stron .powers un!er Se/tion E) of the Revise! A!*inistrative Co!e. a//or!in to Ca*i!.+ elaez was !ispose! in this wise: HBERE&ORE. these ei hteen %()' *uni/ipa"ities are a*on the thirt$:three %11'.in!oroK . .

pre/ise"$ the *anner whi/h the Court in Pe"ae4 ha! !e/"are! as un/onstitutiona". No tria" /ourt has ha! the opportunit$ to as/ertain the va"i!it$ of these fa/tua" /"ai*s. whi/h !oes not san/tion the re/o nition of <ust an$ *uni/ipa"it$. espe/ia""$ in "i ht of the "e a" prin/ip"es overnin the re/o nition of de facto *uni/ipa" /orporations.... it is presu*e! that the$ were !u"$ in/orporate! in the first p"a/e an! that their /harters ha! #een "ost. In!ee!. shou"! have #een fi"e! first with the Court of Appea"s. Apparent"$. These /an #e #etter !is/erne! upon e6a*ination of the proper s/ope an! app"i/ation of Se/tion GG. on/e that was !one. as we"" as the /on/o*itant pre*aturit$ of the present petition. as there is nothin in the !o/u*ent that /o**ents on the present status of An!on . sin/e that /ountr$ was sett"e! "on #efore the Ro*an /on5uest #$ no*a!i/ Ce"ti/ tri#es. But su/h Certification !oes not preten! to #ear the authorit$ to /reate or reva"i!ate a *uni/ipa"it$.arciso /ite!. Certain"$.. the /entra" issue re*ains whether a *uni/ipa"it$ whose /reation #$ e6e/utive fiat was previous"$ voi!e! #$ this Court *a$ attain re/o nition in the a#sen/e of an$ /urative or rei*p"e*entin statute.1 wherein the Court affir*e! the uni5ue status of the *uni/ipa"it$ of San An!res in =ue4on as a Tde facto *uni/ipa" /orporation.2 The$ are espe/ia""$ /o**on in En "an!. Eon.arciso v. with the know"e! e an! a/5uies/en/e of the "e is"ature. as we"" as the a/5uies/en/e thereto #$ the other instru*enta"ities of the state.%!'. whi/h /ou"! have har!"$ #een e6pe/te! to o#tain a *uni/ipa" /harter in the a#sen/e of a nationa" "e a" authorit$. as pointe! out #$ the pu#"i/ respon!ents. rather than a "on :stan!in ha#it or pattern of a/tion that /an #e annu""e! throu h the spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion of /ertiorari. San . #ut it has #een he"! that when no /harter or a/t of in/orporation of a town /an #e foun!. Ca*i!3s p"aint shou"! have un!er one the usua" a!*inistrative aunt"et an!. *uni/ipa" /orporations #$ pres/ription are "ess /o**on. San . has e6iste! as a state for over a thousan! $ears. It is a"so !iffi/u"t to /apture the sense an! via#i"it$ of Ca*i!3s present a/tion. Se/tion GG.. the 5uestion has never #een !e/i!e! #efore. Ca*i!3s see*in i noran/e of the prin/ip"es of e6haustion of a!*inistrative re*e!ies an! hierar/h$ of /ourts. Ca*i! insists on the /ontinuin va"i!it$ of E6e/utive Or!er No. There is in!ee! no wa$ to /onfir* severa" of Ca*i!3s astonishin fa/tua" a""e ations pertainin to the purporte! /ontinuin operation of An!on in the !e/a!es sin/e it was annu""e! #$ this Court. . the annu"*ent of the Certification wi"" rea""$ !o nothin to serve Ca*i!3s u"ti*ate /ause: the re/o nition of An!on . Perhaps the Certification is assai"e! #efore this Court if on"$ to present an a/tua" issuan/e. the fa/tua" !efi/ien/ies asi!e. the re"ation of the Certification to Ca*i!3s /entra" ar u*ent is for"orn"$ straine!.G Si*i"ar to An!on . as we"":worth notin .There are severa" reasons wh$ the petition *ust #e !is*isse!. the appre/iation of whi/h is #e$on! the fun/tion of this Court sin/e it is not a trier of fa/ts. Ca*i! !oes not have the opportunit$ to *ake an initia" fa/tua" !e*onstration of those /ir/u*stan/es #efore this Court.E These *uni/ipa" /orporations have e6er/ise! their powers for a "on perio! without o#<e/tion on the part of the overn*ent that a"thou h no /harter is in e6isten/e. an! without o#<e/tion or interruption for so "on a perio! as to furnish evi!en/e of a pres/riptive ri ht. /annot #e /ountenan/e!. throu h the Offi/e of the So"i/itor 9enera" %OS9'. Mendez. whi/h at "east wou"! have ha! the power to *ake the ne/essar$ fa/tua" !eter*inations. Parti/u"ar"$ /ite! is our $ecision in Municipality of San . as it pertains to the de novo appre/iation of fa/tua" 5uestions. Nota#"$. The i*portan/e of proper fa/tua" as/ertain*ent /annot #e ainsai!.arciso an! its . In the @nite! States. (02. an! without interruption or o#<e/tion for perio! "on enou h to affor! tit"e #$ pres/ription.uni/ipa"ities e6istin as of the !ate of the effe/tivit$ of this Co!e sha"" /ontinue to e6ist an! operate as su/h.%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e of (++( as #asis for the /urrent re/o nition of the i*pu ne! *uni/ipa"it$. it *a$ #e shown to have /"ai*e! an! e6er/ise! the powers of a town with the know"e! e an! assent of the "e is"ature. Be ar ues that elaez has a"rea!$ #een *o!ifie! #$ supervenin events /onsistin of su#se5uent "aws an! <urispru!en/e. The reason for the !eve"op*ent of that ru"e in En "an! is un!erstan!a#"e.. The assai"e! issuan/e is the Certification issue! #$ the DI?9. whi/h.oreover.T.. E6istin *uni/ipa" !istri/ts or ani4e! pursuant to presi!entia" issuan/es or e6e/utive or!ers an! whi/h have their respe/tive sets of e"e/tive *uni/ipa" offi/ia"s ho"!in offi/e at the ti*e of the effe/tivit$ of %the' Co!e sha"" hen/eforth #e /onsi!ere! as re u"ar *uni/ipa"ities. Sti"". as Ca*i! !oes. Neither !oes the Certification even e6press"$ refute the /"ai* that An!on sti"" e6ists. the *uni/ipa"it$ of San An!res was /reate! #$ wa$ of e6e/utive or!er. It has #een opine! that *uni/ipa" /orporations *a$ e6ist #$ pres/ription where it is shown that the /o**unit$ has /"ai*e! an! e6er/ise! /orporate fun/tions. the /ase is not a fit su#<e/t for the spe/ia" /ivi" a/tions of /ertiorari an! *an!a*us. Re5uisites for Creation. The provision rea!s: Se/tion GG. : 666 %!' .oreover.) Hhat is /"ear"$ essentia" is a fa/tua" !e*onstration of the /ontinuous e6er/ise #$ the *uni/ipa" /orporation of its /orporate powers. These !is5uisitions asi!e. This point sha"" #e further e6p"aine! further on.

No pronoun/e*ent was *a!e as to the other *uni/ipa"ities whi/h ha! #een previous"$ /reate! #$ the Presi!ent in the e6er/ise of power the Court !ee*e! un"awfu". In response.uni/ipa"it$ of ?awi an was /reate! #$ virtue of E6e/utive Or!er No. the *ere fa/t that Ba"a#a an was or ani4e! at a ti*e when the statute ha! not . the Court u"ti*ate"$ nu""ifie! on"$ those thirt$:three %11' *uni/ipa"ities. /reate! !urin the perio! fro* G Septe*#er to . even thou h it ha! #een or ani4e! prior to the Court3s !e/ision in elaez. the !e/isions /ou"! fair"$ #e *a!e to rest on the /onsi!eration that there was so*e other va"i! "aw ivin /orporate vita"it$ to the or ani4ation. *u/h "ess those who *a$ /o*port the*se"ves as the *uni/ipa"it$3s TInteri* 9overn*ent. the resi!ents of An!on who #e"a#or un!er the i*pression that their town sti"" e6ists. a ain on the roun! that Se/tion E) of the Revise! A!*inistrative Co!e was un/onstitutiona". The phrase Tab initioT *eans Tfro* the #e innin .T10 Tat first. the Court /on/e!e! that an in5uir$ into the "e a" e6isten/e of a *uni/ipa"it$ is reserve! to the State in a pro/ee!in for 5uo 8arranto. in/"u!in An!on ./reatin a .%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e an! our ru"in in Municipality of San . Moya. The Court !e/"are! voi! the e6e/utive or!er /reatin Ba"a#a an an! restraine! its *uni/ipa" offi/ia"s fro* perfor*in their offi/ia" !uties an! fun/tions.1G and Municipality of Napalong v. #ut the Supre*e Court reverse! the ru"in an! entere! a new !e/ision !e/"arin E6e/utive Or!er No. The effe/t of Se/tion GG. an! that the sa*e have #een or ani4e! an! in a/tua" operation . . an! sti"" is. Siva. %enito. the offi/ia"s of Ba"a#a an invoke! de facto status as a *uni/ipa" /orporation in or!er to !issua!e the Court fro* nu""if$in a/tion.G.nOt In the /ases where a de facto *uni/ipa" /orporation was re/o ni4e! as su/h !espite the fa/t that the statute /reatin it was "ater inva"i!ate!. Besi!es. No su#se5uent "e is"ation has #een passe! sin/e (+E. To un!erstan! the app"i/a#i"it$ of Municipality of San .G( @"ti*ate"$. issue! e6e/utive or!ers /reatin *uni/ipa" /orporations. #ut on"$ if the *uni/ipa" /orporation is a de facto /orporation.G0 an! whi/h. in the /ase at #ar.uni/ipa"it$ of An!on never e6iste!. a"on with thirt$:three %11' other e6e/utive or!ers. whi/h esta#"ishe! An!on . The Court reasone! without e"a#oration that the issue ha! a"rea!$ #een s5uare"$ taken up an! sett"e! in elaez whi/h a ree! with the ar u*ent pose! #$ the /ha""en ers to ?awi an3s va"i!it$. there is har!"$ an$ reason to e"a#orate wh$ An!on !oes not e6ist as a !u"$ /onstitute! *uni/ipa"it$.+ O/to#er (+EG whose e6isten/e petitioner >i/e:Presi!ent Pe"ae4 ha! spe/ifi/a""$ assai"e! #efore this Court.1) In the (+E+ /ase of Municipality of Malabang v. its sweepin a!option *a$ not #e a!vise!"$ appropriate in "i ht of Se/tion GG. A petition for prohi#ition was fi"e! /ontestin the "e a"it$ of the e6e/utive or!er.1. ?awi an was not one of the *uni/ipa"ities or!ere! annu""e! in elaez.uni/ipa"it$ of Ba"a#a an in ?anao !e" Sur.11 Municipality of Malabang v. it is ne/essar$ a ain to /onsi!er the ra*ifi/ations of our !e/ision in elaez. not e*powere! to /reate *uni/ipa"ities throu h e6e/utive issuan/es. But the Court3s fina" /on/"usion was une5uivo/a" that Ba"a#a an was not a de facto /orporation.T wou"! #e we"" serve! #$ a ru!e awakenin . the issue a ain /a*e to fore in Municipality of San Joa5uin v.%#' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e to the situation of An!on .1+ what was /ha""en e! is the va"i!it$ of the /onstitution of the . si*i"ar to ?awi an.No su#se5uent ru"in #$ this Court !e/"are! Pe"ae4 as overturne! or inoperative. the Court refuse! to a/know"e! e Ba"a#a an as a de facto /orporation.uni/ipa"it$ of An!on . Two $ears after elaez was !e/i!e!. G1E in (+E(. was not one of the *uni/ipa"ities annu""e! in elaez. 9iven these fa/ts. G1E voi! ab initio. It /ite! /onf"i/tin A*eri/an authorities on whether a de facto /orporation /an e6ist where the statute or /harter /reatin it is G1 un/onstitutiona". Siva.arciso an! Se/tion GG.kin!re! /ases pertainin as the$ !i! to *uni/ipa"ities whose #ases of /reation were !u#ious $et were never <u!i/ia""$ nu""ifie!.+ E6e/utive Or!er No. The Court /an e*p"o$ a si*p"isti/ approa/h in reso"vin the su#stantive aspe/t of the petition.12 The . The tria" /ourt !is*isse! the petition.%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e on *uni/ipa"ities su/h as An!on warrants e6p"anation. . a"so /reate! #$ an e6e/utive or!er. This ti*e. .T1( Tfro* the in/eption. %enito.#$ this Court in elaez. for *an$ $ears.arciso. (02.T1E Bowever. #oth of whi/h a!*it to the possi#i"it$ of de facto *uni/ipa" /orporations. The e*inent "e a" !o/trine enun/iate! in elaez was that the Presi!ent was then. elaez was never reverse! #$ this Court #ut rather it was e6press"$ affir*e! in the /ases of Municipality of San Joa5uin v. The Court therein re/o ni4e! Tthat the Presi!ent has. The$ a""e e! that its status as a de facto /orporation /annot #e /o""atera""$ atta/ke! #ut shou"! #e in5uire! into !ire/t"$ in an a/tion for 5uo 8arranto at the instan/e of the State. Ben/e. This ratio/ination !oes not a!*it to patent "e a" errors an! has the a!!itiona" virtue of #"esse! austerit$. Sti"". was !e/"are! Tnu"" an! voi! ab initioT in (+E.*a8p(i*.. *ere"$ #$ pointin out that the . an! not #$ a private in!ivi!ua" as it was in that /ase.T1.

as if e6istin "aws have #een /o*p"ie! with. as authori4e! un!er Se/tion E) of the Revise! A!*inistrative Co!e.uni/ipa"it$ of Sina/a#an.%!'-G of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e of (++(. The Court. throu h a petition for 5uo 8arranto fi"e! with the Re iona" Tria" Court of 9u*a/a.uni/ipa"it$ of A"i/ia was strikin "$ si*i"ar to that in San . /itin San . elaez was a ain invoke! in support of the /ha""en e. the Court note! Tpe/u"iar /ir/u*stan/esT that "e! to the /on/"usion that San An!res ha! attaine! the uni5ue status of a T!e fa/to *uni/ipa" /orporation.#een inva"i!ate! /annot /on/eiva#"$ *ake it a de facto /orporation. =ue4on. This state*ent s5uare"$ /ontra!i/ts Ca*i!3s rea!in of San .T -) The va"i! e6isten/e of . it /an not #e a part$ to an$ /ivi" a/tionV. /reate! in a (+G+ e6e/utive or!er. in Municipality of Napalong v. Sti"". Santo To*as ha! not #een e6press"$ nu""ifie! #$ prior <u!i/ia" a/tion. an! ai*e! at ivin Tva"i!it$ to a/ts !one that wou"! have #een inva"i! un!er e6istin "aws. was atta/ke! on"$ #e innin in (+)G.uni/ipa"it$ of San An!res was first /ha""en e! on"$ in (+)+. whi/h !i! /ite elaez as authorit$.arciso at "en th.arcisoG+ in (++-. ha! #een !e/"are! a /o*p"ete nu""it$ on the sa*e roun! of un/onstitutiona" !e"e ation of "e is"ative power foun! in elaez.-. the Presi!ent has no power to /reate a *uni/ipa"it$. %az-2 In Candi#ay. In !is*issin the petition. who /ha""en e! Santo To*as3s "e a" persona"it$ to institute suit. Moya. the Court in Malabang retaine! an e*phati/ attitu!e as to the un/onstitutiona"it$ of the power of the Presi!ent to /reate *uni/ipa" /orporations #$ wa$ of presi!entia" pro*u" ations.G2 The *uni/ipa"it$ of Santo To*as. =ue4on was /reate! on . !espite the fa/t that the Court then /ou"! have ver$ we"" e6ten!e! the !e/ision to inva"i!ate San An!res as we"".-0 The RTC !is*isse! the petition for "a/k of /ause of a/tion. there is no other va"i! statute to ive /o"or of authorit$ to its /reation.T No pretension of un/onstitutiona"it$ per se of Se/tion GG.arcisoK hen/e. It note! a /ir/u*stan/e whi/h is not present in the /ase at #arSthat San An!res was in e6isten/e for near"$ thirt$ %10' $ears #efore its "e a"it$ was /ha""en e!. Notwithstan!in . de #ure *uni/ipa"it$. in!epen!ent"$ of the A!*inistrative Co!e provision in 5uestion. an! the petitioners therein e"evate! the *atter to this Court. The Court note! that the situation of the . Court of 3ppeals-E and Municipality of Jimenez v.%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e to the effe/t that *uni/ipa" !istri/ts Tor ani4e! pursuant to presi!entia" issuan/es or e6e/utive or!ers an! whi/h have their respe/tive sets of e"e/tive *uni/ipa" offi/ia"s ho"!in offi/e at the ti*e of the effe/tivit$ of %the' Co!e sha"" hen/eforth #e /onsi!ere! as re u"ar *uni/ipa"ities. /reate! #$ Presi!ent Car"os P. 9ar/ia. #ut the Court refuse! to inva"i!ate the *uni/ipa"it$.%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e. $et the Court refuse! to re/o ni4e its "e a" e6isten/e.arciso that the /reation of San An!res. even if *a!e. was a*on the issues raise! in Jimenez. The 5uestione! *uni/ipa"it$ of San An!res. The #"unt #ut si*p"e ru"in : TNow then.-1 The Court a"so /onsi!ere! the app"i/a#i"it$ of Se/tion GG.en!o4a. This prin/ip"e was *ost re/ent"$ affir*e! in (+)). The Court !i! not !e/"are the e6e/utive or!er /reatin San An!res nu"" an! voi!.usti/e . wou"! su//ee!.0 Au ust (+-+ #$ E6e/utive Or!er No. 9ar/ia.TG) Neverthe"ess.G. as ru"e! in the Pe"ae4 /ase supra. It is !ou#tfu" whether su/h a prete6t. an! shou"! N#eO /onsi!ere! as a re u"ar. /reate! in a (+G+ e6e/utive or!er. the Court !e"ve! in the *erits of the petition. E6e/utive Or!er No. A ain. the <uri!i/a" persona"it$ of the . when the Court !e/i!e! Municipality of San . whi/h in essen/e are retrospe/tive. the town shou"! "ikewise T#enefit fro* the effe/ts of Se/tion GG. Ahe po0e' to c'e"te politic"l ub#i2i ion i " function of the le$i l"tu'e. throu h . provi!e! an e6pert su**ation of the evo"ution of the ru"e. if on"$ to reso"ve further !ou#t on the "e a" status of San An!res.Ca*i! !evotes severa" pa es of his petition in /itin this point. Curative "aws. 5on$'e #i# &u t th"t 0hen it h" inco'po'"te# !ection 4427#8 in the 5o#e .T are va"i!"$ a//epte! in this <uris!i/tion. it in!i/ate! a shift in the <urispru!entia" treat*ent of *uni/ipa"ities /reate! throu h presi!entia" issuan/es. %E*phasis supp"ie!'-The ho"!in in San Nar/iso was su#se5uent"$ affir*e! in Municipality of Candi#ay v.T-( It note! that elaez "i*ite! its nu""ifi/ator$ effe/t on"$ to those e6e/utive or!ers spe/ifi/a""$ /ha""en e! therein. The prin/ipa" #asis for the view that Sina/a#an was not va"i!"$ /reate! as a *uni/ipa" /orporation is the ru"in in elaez v.GG The Court !i! /"arif$ in Malabang that the previous a/ts !one #$ the *uni/ipa"it$ in the e6er/ise of its /orporate powers were not ne/essari"$ a nu""it$. 1-1 was not one of the thirt$: three issuan/es annu""e! #$ elaez in (+E-. The "e a" status of the . a/tin on the pre*ise that the sai! e6e/utive or!er was a /o*p"ete nu""it$. fi"e! a /o*p"aint a ainst another *uni/ipa"it$. as. GE $et the re"evan/e of the /itation is un/"ear /onsi!erin that Ca*i! !oes not assert the va"i!it$ of an$ /orporate a/t of An!on prior to its <u!i/ia" !isso"ution. <ust "ike An!on . 1-1 issue! #$ Presi!ent Car"os P.%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e is preferre!. Sin/e NSanto To*asO has no "e a" persona"it$. su#<e/t to the usua" 5ua"ifi/ation a ainst i*pair*ent of veste! ri hts. It /"arifie! the i*p"i/ation of the provision as fo""ows: E5ua""$ si nifi/ant is Se/tion GG.uni/ipa"it$ of A"i/ia. 3uditor !eneral that the /reation .

%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e of (++( *ust #e !ee*e! to have /ure! an$ !efe/t in the /reation of Sina/a#anV. !eprivin it of its share of the pu#"i/ fun!s. .' the fa/t that fo""owin the ru"in in Pe"ae4 no 5uo 8arranto suit was fi"e! to 5uestion the va"i!it$ of the e6e/utive or!er /reatin su/h *uni/ipa"it$K an! %1' the fa/t that the *uni/ipa"it$ was "ater /"assifie! as a fifth /"ass *uni/ipa"it$.T Bere. its /reation /an no "on er #e 5uestione!.i*ene4 itse"f have re/o ni4e! Sina/a#anQs /orporate e6isten/e. we have sin/e he"! that where a *uni/ipa"it$ /reate! as su/h #$ e6e/utive or!er is "ater i*p"ie!"$ re/o ni4e! an! its a/ts are a//or!e! "e a" va"i!it$. this Court /onsi!ere! the fo""owin fa/tors as havin va"i!ate! the /reation of a *uni/ipa" /orporation. In!ee! Sina/a#an has attaine! de #ure status #$ virtue of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the (+)2 Constitution.%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e. Kuezon v. There are e*inent !ifferen/es #etween An!on an! *uni/ipa"ities su/h as San An!res. (. @n!er A!*inistrative Or!er No. was /reate! #$ e6e/utive or!er of the Presi!ent #efore the ru"in in elaez v. the$ *ust Thave their respe/tive set of e"e/tive *uni/ipa" offi/ia"s ho"!in offi/e at the ti*e of the effe/tivit$ of Nthe ?o/a" 9overn*entO Co!e. bGG.O. Sina/a#an ha! #een in e6isten/e for si6teen $ears when elaez v. &or its part. This fa/t *ust #e un!ers/ore! #e/ause un!er Ru"e EE. fo""owin the ru"in in Municipality of San . (+2) of this Court. Sr. 2(E0'. No.%!' re5uires that in or!er that the *uni/ipa"it$ /reate! #$ e6e/utive or!er *a$ re/eive re/o nition.isa*is O//i!enta".i*ene4 ha! ear"ier re/o ni4e! Sina/a#an in (+-0 #$ enterin into an a ree*ent with it re ar!in their /o**on #oun!ar$. In Municipality of San . 11 !ate! . 3uditor !eneral: %(' the fa/t that for near"$ 10 $ears the va"i!it$ of the /reation of the *uni/ipa"it$ ha! never #een /ha""en e!K %. an! refusin to /on!u/t *uni/ipa" e"e/tions for the voi! *uni/ipa"it$.ost pro*inent is the fa/t that the e6e/utive or!er /reatin An!on was e6press"$ annu""e! #$ or!er of this Court in (+E-.u!i/iar$ Reor ani4ation A/t of (+)0 %B.E0 This in/apa/it$ ties in with the fa/t that An!on was <u!i/ia""$ annu""e! in (+E-. A#ove a"". The a ree*ent was e*#o!ie! in Reso"ution No.oreover.%!' of whi/h provi!es that T*uni/ipa" !istri/ts or ani4e! pursuant to presi!entia" issuan/es or e6e/utive or!ers an! whi/h have their respe/tive sets of e"e/tive offi/ia"s ho"!in offi/e at the ti*e of the effe/tivit$ of this Co!e sha"" hen/eforth #e /onsi!ere! as re u"ar *uni/ipa"ities. whi/h /onsi!ere! Sina/a#an part of the Se/on! Distri/t of . If we were to affir* An!on 3s de facto status #$ reason of its a""e e! /ontinue! e6isten/e !espite its nu""ifi/ation. . we /an ather the app"i/a#"e ru"es. B" . the nationa" overn*ent /ease! to re/o ni4e the e6isten/e of An!on . Sina/a#an is /onstitute! part of a *uni/ipa" /ir/uit for purposes of the esta#"ish*ent of . Bowever. Sr. The ru"in in this /ase has #een reiterate! in a nu*#er of /ases "ater !e/i!e!. Kuezon v. Create! in (+G+. an! Se/tion GG. Out of o#eisan/e to our ru"in in elaez.. the sa*e fa/tors are present so as to /onfer on Sina/a#an the status of at "east a !e fa/to *uni/ipa" /orporation in the sense that its "e a" e6isten/e has #een re/o ni4e! an! a/5uies/e! pu#"i/"$ an! offi/ia""$. Mendez. with the pro*u" ation of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e in (++(.uni/ipa" Cir/uit Tria" Courts in the /ountr$. Se/tion GG. elaez an! its offsprin /ases ru"e! that the Presi!ent has no power to /reate *uni/ipa"ities.nOt &ro* this surve$ of re"evant <urispru!en/e. On the /ontrar$.%#' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e !ee*e! /urative whatever "e a" !efe/ts to tit"e these *uni/ipa"ities ha! "a#ore! un!er. a 5uo 8arranto suit a ainst a /orporation for forfeiture of its /harter *ust #e /o**en/e! within five %-' $ears fro* the ti*e the a/t /o*p"aine! of was !one or /o**itte!. the "e a" /"ou! was "ifte! over the *uni/ipa"ities si*i"ar"$ /reate! #$ e6e/utive or!er #ut not <u!i/ia""$ annu""e!.-) /reatin it ha! never #een 5uestione!. or ani4e! as part of a *uni/ipa" /ir/uit /ourt an! /onsi!ere! part of a "e is"ative !istri/t in the Constitution apportionin the seats in the Bouse of Representatives. 22 of the Provin/ia" Boar! of .net Court !e/isions /annot o#vious"$ "ose their effi/a/$ !ue to the sheer !efian/e #$ the parties a rieve!. Is An!on si*i"ar"$ entit"e! to re/o nition as a de facto *uni/ipa" /orporationR It is not. A"i/ia an! Sina/a#an.isa*is O//i!enta".une (1. (+E-. 3uditor !eneral was !e/i!e! on De/e*#er .uni/ipa"it$ of . the State an! even the .T Ca*i! a!*its that An!on has never e"e/te! its *uni/ipa" offi/ers at a"". it was on"$ G0 $ears "ater that its e6isten/e was 5uestione! an! on"$ #e/ause it ha! "ai! /"ai* to an area that apparent"$ is !esire! for its revenue. A. It #ears notin that #ase! on Ca*i!3s own a!*issions. we wou"! in effe/t #e /on!onin !efian/e of a va"i! or!er of this Court.uni/ipa"it$ of Sina/a#an. No. it was he"! that whatever !ou#t there *i ht #e as to the de #ure /hara/ter of the *uni/ipa"it$ *ust #e !ee*e! to have #een put to rest #$ the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e of (++( %R.. Aet the va"i!it$ of E. P.-+*a8p(i*. b(E of the Ru"es of Court.of *uni/ipa" /orporations is essentia""$ a "e is"ative *atter an! therefore the Presi!ent was without power to /reate #$ e6e/utive or!er the . Mendez. as reiterate! #$ b1( of the . . apportionin "e is"ative !istri/ts throu hout the /ountr$. An!on !oes not *eet the re5uisites set forth #$ Se/tion GG. A"i/ia an! Sina/a#an was re/o ni4e! #$ this Court. . "ike the .+'. The de facto status of su/h *uni/ipa"ities as San An!res. Bowever.arciso.uni/ipa"it$ of Sina/a#an. whi/h.G. . GG.lPvvp(i*.arciso. $et "i*ite! its nu""ifi/ator$ effe/ts to the parti/u"ar *uni/ipa"ities /ha""en e! in a/tua" /ases #efore this Court.

%!' of the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!eSthat it !oes not serve to affir* or re/onstitute the <u!i/ia""$ !isso"ve! *uni/ipa"ities su/h as An!on . He thus assert the proper purview to Se/tion GG.uni/ipa"it$ of An!on .T then an e6pe!ient po"iti/a" an! "e is"ative so"ution is perhaps ne/essar$. ?anao !e" Sur.ISSED for "a/k of *erit. the so"ution is throu h the "e is"ature an! not <u!i/ia" /onfir*ation of voi! tit"e.%!'. An!on is not "iste! therein as a*on the *uni/ipa"ities of ?anao !e" Sur. San Joa5uin. Aet we /an har!"$ san/tion the retention of An!on 3s "e a" persona"it$ so"e"$ on the #asis of /o""e/tive a*nesia that *a$ have a""owe! An!on to so*ehow preten! itse"f into e6isten/e !espite its <u!i/ia" !isso"ution. enu*erates the various *uni/ipa"ities that are en/o*passe! #$ the various "e is"ative !istri/ts. On the other han!. #oth these /ertifi/ations 5ua"if$ that the$ were issue! upon the re5uest of Ca*i!.respe/tive"$.*aQP@p(i*. The provision affir*s the "e a" persona"ities on"$ of those *uni/ipa"ities su/h as San Nar/iso. a"" these $ears. the petitioner. The "e a" effe/t of the nu""ifi/ation of An!on in elaez was to revert the /onstituent #arrios of the voi!e! town #a/k into their ori ina" *uni/ipa"ities. On the other han!. SO ORDERED.<*R*1:R*. issue! #$ the DENR:CENRO an! the Nationa" Statisti/s Offi/e.net An! what now of An!on an! its resi!entsR Certain"$. In fa/t. or that these towns are a*on the *uni/ipa"ities enu*erate! in the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution. If in!ee! the resi!ents of An!on have. whi/h ha! #een previous"$ /reate! #$ presi!entia" issuan/es or e6e/utive or!ers.arciso.E2 These three *uni/ipa"ities su#sist to this !a$ as part of ?anao !e" Sur. neither elaez or this !e/ision has o#"iterate! An!on into a ho"e on the roun!. An!on has not #een si*i"ar"$ reesta#"ishe! throu h statute. . The /ertifi/ations re"ie! upon #$ Ca*i!. re*ain ine6istent. A"i/ia. whi/h ha! a"so #een re"ie! upon in Jimenez and San .EE It is thus not surprisin that the DI?9 /ertifie! the e6isten/e of these ei hteen %()' *uni/ipa"ities.a$#e those who insist An!on sti"" e6ists prefer to re*ain unpertur#e! in their #"issfu" i noran/e.EG an! . etition is DIS.TE( thus o#vious"$ /on/e!in that the *uni/ipa"it$ is at present inoperative. whi/h *a$ have #een /reate! usin the sa*e infir* "e a" #asis. Buti an! Tu#aran. "e is"ation was ena/te! to re/onstitute these *uni/ipa"ities. C"ear"$ then. #een overne! not #$ their proper *uni/ipa" overn*ents #ut #$ a ra ta TInteri* 9overn*ent. Tto support the restoration or re:operation of the .E. or of an$ other provin/e for that *atter. $et were fortunate enou h not to have #een <u!i/ia""$ annu""e!. Bow a#out the ei hteen %()' *uni/ipa"ities si*i"ar"$ nu""ifie! in elaez #ut /ertifie! as e6istin in the DI?9 Certification presente! #$ Ca*i!R The petition fai"s to *ention that su#se5uent to the ru"in in elaez. #ut fro* the respe/tive "e is"ative statutes whi/h were ena/te! to revive the*.E) an! presu*a#"$ /ontinue to e6er/ise /orporate powers over the #arrios whi/h on/e #e"on e! to An!on . an! Sina/a#an. Those *uni/ipa"ities !erive their "e a" persona"it$ not fro* the presi!entia" issuan/es or e6e/utive or!ers whi/h ori ina""$ /reate! the* or fro* Se/tion GG. "ike the inha#itants of the /ave in P"ato3s fa*e! a""e or$. /an har!"$ serve the purpose of attestin to An!on 3s "e a" effi/a/$. But the ti*e has /o*e for the "i ht to seep in.isa*is O//i!enta"E. whi/h apportione! the seats of the Bouse of Representatives to the !ifferent "e is"ative !istri/ts in the Phi"ippines.*a8p(i*.E1 Boho". un"ess re/reate! throu h spe/ifi/ "e is"ative ena/t*ents. the *uni/ipa"ities <u!i/ia""$ !isso"ve! in /ases su/h as elaez. na*e"$ the *uni/ipa"ities of ?u*#atan. the *uni/ipa"ities of San An!res.The fai"ure to appropriate fun!s for An!on an! the a#sen/e of e"e/tions in the *uni/ipa"it$ in the "ast four !e/a!es are e"o5uent in!i/ia of the non:re/o nition #$ the State of the e6isten/e of the town. an! Malabang. This Or!inan/e. A"i/ia an! Sina/a#an are *entione! in the Or!inan/e as part of =ue4on. as !one with the ei hteen %()' *uni/ipa"ities /ertifie! #$ the DI?9. the fa/t that there are va"i! or ani/ statutes passe! #$ "e is"ation re/reatin these ei hteen %()' *uni/ipa"ities is suffi/ient "e a" #asis to a//or! a !ifferent "e a" treat*ent to An!on as a ainst these ei hteen %()' other *uni/ipa"ities. .nOt He *a$ "ikewise pa$ attention to the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the (+)2 Constitution. an! for the petitioner an! "ike:*in!e! persons to awaken to "e a" rea"it$. Costs a ainst . If there is tru"$ a stron i*pu"se /a""in for the re/onstitution of An!on .

Respon!ents.R. /-B !-N.!. No. 6::::::::::::::::::::::::6 P*R1*5A: 1.BIN9.ORA?ES. Petitioner. . CORONA.R. 177=>7 ?EONARDO:DE CASTRO.BC-NG-C*N.R. CARPIO . NACB@RA. A@STRIA:.-G*N P.. !*%-. G..ARTINEJ. 178628 Present: P@NO.B. . an! BRION. -. No. ANARES:SANTIA9O.J. >E?ASCO. %-R(?*@. TIN9A. : versus : G. C. CBICO:NAJARIO. . REAES. =@IS@.5:%%B!!B:N :N *C*5AB:N! "n# .R. JJ. : versus : AJC@NA. CARPIO. Petitioner.

2+0. +0-G %RA +0-G'. as a*en!e! #$ Repu#"i/ A/t No.) Au ust .. Repu#"i/ A/t No. !ate! (0 . the AR. .a uin!anao for*s part of . Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G. Datu O!in Sinsuat. A"thou h un!er the Or!inan/e. The /orporate e6isten/e of this provin/e sha"" /o**en/e upon the appoint*ent #$ the Re iona" 9overnor or e"e/tion of the overnor an! *a<orit$ of the re u"ar *e*#ers of the San unian Pan"a"awi an.a uin!anao3s first "e is"ative !istri/t.a uin!anao an! /onstitute! into a !istin/t an! in!epen!ent provin/e. Ahe 5" e 6666 These /onso"i!ate! petitions seek to annu" Reso"ution No.atano . a"" in/u*#ent e"e/tive provin/ia" offi/ia"s sha"" have preferen/e for appoint*ent to a hi her e"e/tive va/ant position an! The Or!inan/e appen!e! to the (+)2 Constitution apportione! two "e is"ative !istri/ts for the Provin/e of .0( %. Su"tan Iu!arat. E21G %RA E21G'. havin vote! a ainst its in/"usion in the AR.002.a$ .3s "e is"ature.. to #e known as the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan. . .. Su"tan . Ia#unta"an..0( provi!es: . The . .. 6::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::6 On .uni/ipa"ities of Barira. ena/te! .0(' /reatin the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan /o*pose! of the ei ht *uni/ipa"ities in the first !istri/t of . it is not part of the AR.a uin!anao.. J. the AR. that where an e"e/tive position in #oth provin/es #e/o*es va/ant as a /onse5uen/e of the /reation of the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan.00E.astura. whi/h is here#$ /reate!. e6er/isin its power to /reate provin/es un!er Se/tion (+. Respon!ent.us"i* . ..E?EC' treatin Cota#ato Cit$ as part of the "e is"ative !istri/t of the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan. The first "e is"ative !istri/t /onsists of Cota#ato Cit$ an! ei ht *uni/ipa"ities.a uin!anao..5:%%B!!B:N :N *C*5AB:N!. Pro*u" ate!: .00) the Autono*ous Re ion in . -.A A/t .*5B!B:N 5-RPB:.in!anao %AR. Cota#ato Cit$ for*s part of .us"i* . Re iona" Asse*#"$. /reate! un!er its Or ani/ A/t. in the p"e#is/ite he"! in Nove*#er (+)+.in!anao Autono*$ A/t No.'. Ahe 1"ct The in/u*#ent e"e/tive provin/ia" offi/ia"s of the Provin/e of . Paran .u"$ (E.K Se/tion (. of the Co**ission on E"e/tions %CO.a uin!anao sha"" /ontinue to serve their une6pire! ter*s in the provin/e that the$ wi"" /hoose or where the$ are resi!ents: Provi!e!. an! @pi are here#$ separate! fro* the Provin/e of .A A/t . Bu"!on. Se/. #ut of Re ion LII.

02:0G02.002. further*ore. Provi!e!. 2+0.R. Se*a /onten!e! that Shariff Ia#unsuan is entit"e! to one representative in Con ress un!er Se/tion .E?EC issue! Reso"ution No.a uin!anao3s first "e is"ative !istri/t is /o*pose! on"$ of Cota#ato Cit$ #e/ause of the ena/t*ent of .0(.8 On E &e#ruar$ . Cota#ato Cit$. an! sha"" ho"! offi/e unti" their su//essors sha"" have #een e"e/te! an! 5ua"ifie! in the ne6t "o/a" e"e/tionsK Provi!e!. No.8 pra$e! for the nu""ifi/ation of CO. three new *uni/ipa"ities were /arve! out of the ori ina" nine *uni/ipa"ities /onstitutin Shariff Ia#unsuan.E?EC to 7/"arif$ the status of Cota#ato Cit$ in view of the /onversion of the &irst Distri/t of . su#<e/t of these petitions. an! the e6/"usion fro* /anvassin of the votes /ast in Cota#ato Cit$ for that offi/e.!esi natin Cota#ato Cit$ . 1+++ re5uestin the CO. provi!es in pertinent parts: E6/ept as *a$ #e provi!e! #$ nationa" "aw.. who was a /an!i!ate in the (G .a uin!anao.e*oran!u* !ate! .a uin!anao ratifie! Shariff Ia#unsuan3s /reation in a p"e#is/ite he"! on . that the$ sha"" /ontinue to re/eive the sa"aries the$ are re/eivin at the ti*e of the approva" of this A/t unti" the new rea!<ust*ent of sa"aries in a//or!an/e with "aw.8 Reso"ution No. the CO. 02:0G02 #$ rena*in the "e is"ative !istri/t in 5uestion as 7Shariff Ia#unsuan Provin/e with Cota#ato Cit$ %for*er"$ &irst Distri/t of .00E.statin that . the e6istin !istri/t.E?EC Reso"ution No. further. the CO. 2)G. in preparation for the (G . 2+0.+ O/to#er . whi/h in/"u!es Cota#ato as a part thereof. %E*phasis supp"ie!' ?ater.a$ .002 e"e/tions for Representative of 7Shariff Ia#unsuan with Cota#ato Cit$.a uin!anao were the *uni/ipa"ities /onstitutin its se/on! "e is"ative !istri/t. The voters of . whi/h a!opte! the re/o**en!ation of the CO. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution an! Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution. #rin in its tota" nu*#er of *uni/ipa"ities to ((. On (0 .E?EC3s ear"ier !ire/tive in Reso"ution No.002.E?EC a/te! without or in e6/ess of its <uris!i/tion in issuin Reso"ution No. to a!opt the re/o**en!ation of the ?aw Depart*ent that pen#in$ the en"ct)ent of the "pp'op'i"te l"0 by 5on$'e . a"thou h part of . a*en!in Reso"ution No. that there sha"" #e no !i*inution in the nu*#er of the *e*#ers of the San unian Pan"a"awi an of the *other provin/e.A A/t ..E?EC pro*u" ate! on . 02:0G02 on E . Se*a.%1'.a uin!anao. Thus. the CO.a$ ..E?EC issue! Reso"ution No.002 T*aintainin the status 5uo with Cota#ato Cit$ as part of Shariff Ia#unsuan in the &irst ?e is"ative Distri/t of . to *aintain the status 5uo with Cota#ato Cit$ as part of Shariff Ia#unsuan in the &irst ?e is"ative Distri/t of . as it here#$ reso"ves. Thus. Bowever.a uin!anao3s first "e is"ative !istri/t.for the ti*e #ein #e appointe! #$ the Re iona" 9overnor.2 &e#ruar$ .002 e"e/tions.ar/h . whi/h *aintaine! the status 5uo in . In 9. is not part of the Provin/e of .a uin!anao3s first "e is"ative !istri/t !espite the CO.a uin!anao. the San unian Pan"un so! of Cota#ato Cit$ passe! Reso"ution No. In answer to Cota#ato Cit$3s 5uer$.A A/t .ar/h . Se*a asserte! that the CO.a uin!anao into a re u"ar provin/e8 un!er .002 Reso"ution No.002. (22-+2.+ . sha"" re*ain. "e is"ative Consi!erin the fore oin . 2+0. 2)G.a$ .0(. the Co**ission RESO?>ED. what was "eft of .E?EC3s ?aw Depart*ent un!er a .a uin!anao with Cota#ato Cit$'.

Salas state! that 7when a provin/e is /reate! #$ statute. respon!ent Di"an a"en /ountere! that Se*a is estoppe! fro* 5uestionin CO.%1'. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution is one that is /reate! #$ an a/t of Con ress takin into a//ount the provisions in RA 2(E0 on the /reation of provin/esK %#' Se/tion 1. #e/ause the CO.R. 2+0. the CO.002 as representative of the "e is"ative !istri/t of Shariff Ia#unsuan Provin/e with Cota#ato Cit$.E?EC Reso"ution No.8 Respon!ent Di"an a"en a!!e! that CO. a ain represente! #$ the OS9. (22-+2 #e/a*e *oot with the pro/"a*ation of respon!ent Di!a en P.E?EC /ou"! not reapportion .' The CO.+ . the Court re5uire! the parties in 9.E?EC..E?EC Reso"ution No. No. In its Co**ent. of Repu#"i/ A/t No.a uin!anao3s first "e is"ative !istri/t. without a reapportion*ent8K %#' Se/tion GE. Di"an a"en %respon!ent Di"an a"en' on ( .E?EC issue! the sa*e in the e6er/ise of its a!*inistrative.. Re iona" Asse*#"$ is ipso facto entit"e! to one representative in the Bouse of Representatives even in the a#sen/e of a nationa" "awK an! Se*a fi"e! a Conso"i!ate! Rep"$ /ontrovertin the *atters raise! in respon!ents3 Co**ents an! reiteratin her /"ai* that the CO. Arti/"e I> of RA +0-G withhe"! fro* the AR.R.. whi/h en/o*passes the apportion*ent of "e is"ative !istri/ts for *e*#ers of the Bouse of RepresentativesK %/' re/o ni4in a "e is"ative !istri/t in ever$ provin/e the AR. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution is 7se"f:e6e/utin . 2+0. Re iona" Asse*#"$ un!er Se/tion (+.ar/h . The parties su#*itte! their /o*p"ian/e as fo""ows: In his Co**ent. power an! %. the /orrespon!in representative !istri/t /o*es into e6isten/e neither #$ authorit$ of that statute S whi/h /annot provi!e otherwise S nor #$ apportion*ent. Re iona" Asse*#"$ /reates wi"" "ea! to the !isproportionate representation of the AR. Se*a further /"ai*e! that in issuin Reso"ution No. not 5uasi:<u!i/ia".8 Thus.%1'.une .%1'... 2+0.E?EC usurpe! Con ress3 power to /reate or reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts. %1' Respon!ent Di"an a"en answere! the issue in the ne ative on the fo""owin roun!s: %a' the 7provin/e8 /onte*p"ate! in Se/tion . (22-+2 to /o**ent on the issue of whether a provin/e /reate! #$ the AR. not to *ention that Cota#ato Cit$ !oes not *eet the *ini*u* popu"ation re5uire*ent un!er Se/tion . Arti/"e >I of the Constitution for the /reation of a "e is"ative !istri/t within a /it$.002.. %. #e/ause in her /ertifi/ate of /an!i!a/$ fi"e! on .E?EC Reso"ution No.%1'. 2+0. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution an! Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution *an!ate the apportion*ent of a "e is"ative !istri/t in new"$ /reate! provin/es. an! <oine! /auses with Se*a.' Se*a3s pra$er for the writ of prohi#ition in 9.a uin!anao #ut *ere"$ rena*e! . throu h the Offi/e of the So"i/itor 9enera" %OS9'. the CO. /hose not to rea/h the *erits of the /ase an! *ere"$ /onten!e! that %(' Se*a wron "$ avai"e! of the writ of /ertiorari to nu""if$ CO. 2(E0 %RA 2(E0' 7affir*s8 the apportion*ent of a "e is"ative !istri/t in/i!ent to the /reation of a provin/eK an! %/' Se/tion . 2+0. #ut #$ operation of the Constitution. %(' Se*a answere! the issue in the affir*ative on the fo""owin roun!s: %a' the Court in Fel8a v.002.as the "one /o*ponent of . Re iona" Asse*#"$ the power to ena/t *easures re"atin to nationa" e"e/tions. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is entit"e! to one representative in the Bouse of Representatives without nee! of a nationa" "aw /reatin a "e is"ative !istri/t for su/h new provin/e..E?EC. apparent"$ a#an!one! its ear"ier stan/e on the propriet$ of issuin Reso"ution Nos.E?EC a/te! ultra vires in issuin Reso"ution No.a uin!anao3s reapportione! first "e is"ative !istri/t. is /onstitutiona" #e/ause it !i! not apportion a "e is"ative !istri/t for Shariff Ia#unsuan or reapportion the "e is"ative !istri/ts in . 02:0G02 an! 2+0. in the Bouse of Representatives as the Re iona" Asse*#"$ /an /reate provin/es without re ar! to the re5uire*ents in Se/tion GE( of RA 2(E0K an! . Se*a in!i/ate! that she was seekin e"e/tion as representative of 7Shariff Ia#unsuan in/"u!in Cota#ato Cit$.a uin!anao3s first "e is"ative !istri/t to *ake Cota#ato Cit$ its so"e /o*ponent unit as the power to reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts "ies e6/"usive"$ with Con ress. /onten!in that Se/tion . No. Respon!ent Di"an a"en further /"ai*e! that the CO. ever$ new provin/e /reate! #$ the AR. In the Reso"ution of G Septe*#er .

R.' if in the affir*ative. throu h the OS9. is /onstitutiona"K an! %. (2)E.002. In its Co**ent to the petition in 9. *aintaine! the va"i!it$ of CO. Thus.E?EC Reso"ution No. the parties in 9. (22-+2 a!opte! the fo""owin positions: %(' Se*a /onten!e! that Se/tion (+.2 Nove*#er .). Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G to the AR. Re iona" Asse*#"$ of the power to 7pres/ri#e stan!ar!s "ower than those *an!ate!8 in RA 2(E0 in the /reation of provin/es /ontravenes Se/tion (0. (2)E. 2+0. the CO. the Court hear! the parties in 9. whi/h has a popu"ation of "ess than .e*oran!a on the issues raise! in the ora" ar u*ents. the parties in 9. as a te*porar$ *easure pen!in the ena/t*ent #$ Con ress of the 7appropriate "aw.8 . %. throu h their or ani/ a/ts.. "e is"ative powers over 7other *atters as *a$ #e authori4e! #$ "aw for the pro*otion of the enera" we"fare of the peop"e of the re ion8 an! %#' as an a*en!*ent to Se/tion E of RA 2(E0.R. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is entit"e! to one representative in the Bouse of Representatives without nee! of a nationa" "aw /reatin a "e is"ative !istri/t for su/h new provin/e. %1' The CO. Arti/"e >I of RA The pen!en/$ of the petition in 9. Re iona" Asse*#"$ of the power to pres/ri#e stan!ar!s "ower than those *an!ate! in Se/tion GE( of RA 2(E0 on the /reation of provin/es /ontravenes Se/tion (0. No. if taken "itera""$. the rant in Se/tion (+. Arti/"e L of the Constitution. Se*a an! respon!ent Di"an a"en reiterate! in their .0. On the 5uestion of the /onstitutiona"it$ of Se/tion (+. The petition in 9. of the power to /reate provin/es un!er Se/tion . Se*a /on/e!es that.R. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is un/onstitutiona" on the fo""owin roun!s: %a' the power to /reate provin/es was not a*on those rante! to the autono*ous re ions un!er Se/tion .002. No. Arti/"e L of the Constitution an! %#' the rant un!er Se/tion (+.E?EC a!opte! in its Co*p"ian/e with the Reso"ution of G Septe*#er .2 Nove*#er . Arti/"e L of the Constitution. is not entit"e! to a representative in the Bouse of Representatives. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is un/onstitutiona".. (2)E. No. 2+0. No..R.0.e*oran!a the positions the$ a!opte! in their Co*p"ian/e with the Reso"ution of G Septe*#er .%!' Cota#ato Cit$.002.0 %+'. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is un/onstitutiona" #e/ause %a' it /ontravenes Se/tion (0 an! Se/tion E.E?EC a/te! ultra vires in issuin Reso"ution No. in the Reso"ution of (+ &e#ruar$ .2 Nove*#er . +0-G to the AR. Arti/"e L of the Constitution an! %#' the power to /reate provin/es was withhe"! fro* the autono*ous re ions un!er Se/tion .) e/hoe! Se*aQs /ontention that the CO. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G. !eprivin the voters of Cota#ato Cit$ of a representative in the Bouse of Representatives.000.' Respon!ent Di"an a"en /onten!e! that Se/tion (+.E?EC !ee*e! it unne/essar$ to su#*it its position on this issue /onsi!erin its stan/e that Se/tion (+. (2)E.E?EC.) was !is/"ose! !urin the ora" ar u*ents on .R. throu h the OS9. the Court or!ere! 9.R.E?EC.) /onso"i!ate! with 9.002. Arti/"e L of the Constitution an! the E5ua" Prote/tion C"auseK an! On . (22-+2 in ora" ar u*ents on the fo""owin issues: %(' whether Se/tion (+. Re iona" Asse*#"$ the power to /reate provin/es. No. In /o*p"ian/e with the Reso"ution !ate! . whether a provin/e /reate! un!er Se/tion (+. <oine! /auses with respon!ent Di"an a"en %thus effe/tive"$ a#an!onin the position the CO. No.R. The CO.-0. Arti/"e L of the Constitution rantin to the autono*ous re ions. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is /onstitutiona" %a' as a va"i! !e"e ation #$ Con ress to the AR. Se*a propose! that Se/tion (+ 7shou"! #e /onstrue! as prohi#itin the Re iona" Asse*#"$ fro* pres/ri#in stan!ar!s 6 6 6 that !o not /o*p"$ with the *ini*u* /riteria8 un!er RA 2(E0. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G.R. (22-+2. On the 5uestion of whether a provin/e /reate! un!er Se/tion (+. (22-+2 fi"e! their respe/tive .. No. Thus. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is entit"e! to one representative in the Bouse of Representatives without nee! of a nationa" "aw /reatin a "e is"ative !istri/t for su/h new provin/e. Bowever.00). No. !e"e atin to the AR.002' an! /onten!e! that Se/tion (+.

2+0. is /onstitutiona"K an! %.' if in the affir*ative. the writ of .0( /reatin the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan is voi!K an! %1' CO. 2+0. however. Re iona" Asse*#"$ the power to /reate provin/es. (22-+2. On the %reliminary Matters #he :rit of %rohibition is -ppropriate to #est the Constitutionality of Election .R No. !o not <ustif$ the outri ht !is*issa" of the petition in 9.' whether the pro/"a*ation of respon!ent Di"an a"en as representative of Shariff Ia#unsuan Provin/e with Cota#ato Cit$ *oote! the petition in 9. is va"i!. Re iona" Asse*#"$ un!er .8 These. (22-+2 #e/ause Se*a a"so pra$e! for the issuan/e of the .. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G.R. in the e6er/ise of its <u!i/ia" or 5uasi:<u!i/ia" fun/tions..Ahe B ue II. 2+0. (2)E. No. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is un/onstitutiona" insofar as it rants to the AR.E?EC !i! not issue Reso"ution No. or offi/er e6er/isin <u!i/ia" or 5uasi:<u!i/ia" fun/tions. *uni/ipa"ities an! #aran a$s.). Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G is entit"e! to one representative in the Bouse of Representatives without nee! of a nationa" "aw /reatin a "e is"ative !istri/t for su/h provin/e. Rules and Regulations %B' On the *erits X %(' whether Se/tion (+.an!a*us wi"" issue to /o*pe" a tri#una".E?EC Reso"ution No. !espite the /reation of the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan out of su/h !istri/t %e6/"u!in Cota#ato Cit$'. No. The purpose of the writ of Certiorari is to /orre/t rave a#use of !is/retion #$ 7an$ tri#una". the CO. #oar!. He ru"e that %(' Se/tion (+. Nor is there a "aw whi/h spe/ifi/a""$ en<oins the CO. #oar!. The petitions raise the fo""owin issues: I.A A/t .A A/t . (22-+2 an! 9. In 9. whether a provin/e /reate! #$ the AR. !e"e atin to the AR. Prohi#ition.. or person to perfor* an a/t 7whi/h the "aw spe/ifi/a""$ en<oins as a !ut$. Re iona" Asse*#"$ the power to /reate provin/es an! /itiesK %. is va"i! for *aintainin the status 5uo in the first "e is"ative !istri/t of .R.0( pursuant to Se/tion (+. No.a$s. whether CO.. 2+0. (22-+2: %A' Pre"i*inari"$ X %(' whether the writs of Certiorari.8 True.' .R.an!a*us are proper to test the /onstitutiona"it$ of CO.8 On the other han!. an! ..E?EC Reso"ution No. /orporation.a uin!anao with Cota#ato Cit$O8'. /ities. offi/er. Ahe Rulin$ of the 5ou't The petitions have no *erit. In 9.R No.E?EC to e6/"u!e fro* /anvassin the votes /ast in Cota#ato Cit$ for representative of 7Shariff Ia#unsuan Provin/e with Cota#ato Cit$.K an! %.a uin!anao %as 7Shariff Ia#unsuan Provin/e with Cota#ato Cit$ Nfor*er"$ &irst Distri/t of .E?EC Reso"ution No.

A!*itte!"$. su/h /reation *ust not /onf"i/t with an$ provision of the Constitution. su#<e/t to reasona#"e stan!ar!s an! provi!e! no /onf"i/t arises with an$ provision of the Constitution..a$ . there *ust #e a p"e#is/ite in the po"iti/a" units affe/te!. ru"es.. *uni/ipa"it$ or #aran a$ X *ust /o*p"$ with three /on!itions. the 5uestion arises whether the . an! /it$ an! *uni/ipa" /oun/i"s. the power to /reate #aran a$s within their <uris!i/tion. *uni/ipa"ities an! #aran a$s within the AR. Rather. Thir!. The Court3s ru"in in these petitions affe/ts not on"$ the re/ent"$ /on/"u!e! e"e/tions #ut a"so a"" the other su//ee!in e"e/tions for the offi/e in 5uestion. un!er the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e. Bowever. !eter*ines whether the votes /ast in Cota#ato Cit$ for representative of the !istri/t of 7Shariff Ia#unsuan Provin/e with Cota#ato Cit$8 wi"" #e in/"u!e! in the /anvassin of #a""ots.002 e"e/tions for representative of 7Shariff Ia#unsuan Provin/e with Cota#ato Cit$8 *oote! this petition. one wa$ or another. /ities. Re iona" Asse*#"$ to /reate in the future a!!itiona" provin/es.. *uni/ipa"it$. it invo"ves an in5uir$ into the va"i!it$ of CO. an! the p"e#is/ite re5uire*ent in Se/tion (0. On the Main . /it$. 2+0. The /reation of "o/a" overn*ent units is overne! #$ Se/tion (0. No provin/e. the /reation of an$ of the four "o/a" overn*ent units X provin/e. There is a"so no *erit in the /"ai* that respon!ent Di"an a"en3s pro/"a*ation as winner in the (G . In the present /ase.0( an! Se/tion (+. this in/i!enta" /onse5uen/e is no reason for us not to pro/ee! with the reso"ution of the nove" issues raise! here. as we"" as the /onstitutiona"it$ of . Con ress /an !e"e ate to "o/a" "e is"ative #o!ies the power to /reate "o/a" overn*ent units. an! re u"ations. :hether the -RMM Regional -ssembly Can Create the %rovince of Shariff Cabunsuan @n!er Se/tion (+. /it$. Arti/"e L of the Constitution.A A/t . su#<e/t to /o*p"ian/e with the /riteria esta#"ishe! in the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e. In fa/t. a#o"ishe! or its #oun!ar$ su#stantia""$ a"tere! e6/ept in a//or!an/e with the /riteria esta#"ishe! in the "o/a" overn*ent /o!e an! su#<e/t to approva" #$ a *a<orit$ of the votes /ast in a p"e#is/ite in the po"iti/a" units !ire/t"$ affe/te!. Con ress !e"e ate! to the AR. Arti/"e L of the Constitution. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G. Bowever. Re iona" Asse*#"$ the power to /reate provin/es. Bowever. whi/h provi!es: Respondent >ilangalen1s %roclamation >oes ot Moot the %etition Se/. Se/on!. This /ase !oes not /on/ern respon!ent Di"an a"en3s e"e/tion.. un!er its p"enar$ "e is"ative powers. *er e!.ssues There is neither an e6press prohi#ition nor an e6press rant of authorit$ in the Constitution for Con ress to !e"e ate to re iona" or "o/a" "e is"ative #o!ies the power to /reate "o/a" overn*ent units. 7on"$ 6 6 6 an A/t of Con ress8 /an /reate provin/es. /ities or *uni/ipa"ities.. Thus.writ of Prohi#ition an! we have "on re/o ni4e! this writ as proper for testin the /onstitutiona"it$ of e"e/tion "aws.E?EC Reso"ution No. the out/o*e of this petition.. or #aran a$ *a$ #e /reate!. (0. Con ress has !e"e ate! to provin/ia" #oar!s. the /reation of a "o/a" overn*ent unit *ust fo""ow the /riteria fi6e! in the ?o/a" 9overn*ent Co!e. as we"" as the power of the AR. Con ress *a!e the !e"e ation un!er its p"enar$ "e is"ative powers #e/ause the power to /reate "o/a" overn*ent units is not one of the e6press "e is"ative powers rante! #$ the Constitution to re iona" "e is"ative #o!ies. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G. !ivi!e!. &irst.

Se/tion -. /o*pa/t. the a""owa#"e *e*#ership in the Bouse of Representatives. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution an! Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution.000. who sha"" #e e"e/te! fro* "e is"ative !istri/ts apportione! a*on the provin/es. Se/tion . Arti/"e >I of the Constitution provi!es. Con ress e6er/ises . the /reation of provin/es an! /ities is another *atter. is veste! e6/"usive"$ in Con ress.-0. 7Ea/h /it$ with a popu"ation of at "east two hun!re! fift$ thousan!. sha"" #e e"e/te! throu h a part$:"ist s$ste* of re istere! nationa". &or the sa*e reason.!e"e ation to the AR. an! to reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts.. %E*phasis supp"ie!' &or Con ress to !e"e ate va"i!"$ the power to /reate a provin/e or /it$. throu h a "aw. the /it$ auto*ati/a""$ #e/o*es entit"e! to one representative un!er Se/tion .-0. re5uires a"so the power to /reate a "e is"ative !istri/t. sha"" have at "east one representative8 in the Bouse of Representatives. . The thresho"! issue then is.ani"a area in a//or!an/e with the nu*#er of their respe/tive inha#itants.-0. unle othe'0i e fi9e# by l"0.%1'.000 invo"ves the power to /reate a "e is"ative !istri/t #e/ause on/e the /it$3s popu"ation rea/hes . %G' Hithin three $ears fo""owin the return of ever$ /ensus. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution provi!es: SECTION -. or a /it$ with a popu"ation of . /ities.%('. or an$ /it$ whose popu"ation *a$ hereafter in/rease to *ore than two hun!re! fift$ thousan! sha"" #e entit"e! in the i**e!iate"$ fo""owin e"e/tion to at "east one . a provin/e /annot #e /reate! without a "e is"ative !istri/t #e/ause it wi"" vio"ate Se/tion . the po0e' to c'e"te " p'o2ince o' city inhe'ently in2ol2e the po0e' to c'e"te " le$i l"ti2e #i t'ict.etropo"itan . Si*i"ar"$. a /it$ with a popu"ation of . /onti uous. Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution provi!es. as provi!e! #$ "aw. C"ear"$. the power to in/rease the a""owa#"e *e*#ership in the Bouse of Representatives.%1'. *uni/ipa"ities an! #aran a$s /onf"i/ts with an$ provision of the Constitution. The power to reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts ne/essari"$ in/"u!es the power to /reate "e is"ative !istri/ts out of e6istin ones. as we"" as in past Constitutions. an! on the #asis of a unifor* an! pro ressive ratio.8 @n!er the present Constitution. provi!e! Se/tion (0. 7An$ provin/e that *a$ hereafter #e /reate!. it *ust a"so va"i!"$ !e"e ate at the sa*e ti*e the power to /reate a "e is"ative !istri/t. Re iona" Asse*#"$ of the power to /reate provin/es. Se/tion . or ea/h provin/e.%G' e*powers Con ress to reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts. Even the /reation of a /it$ with a popu"ation of "ess than .%1'. Bowever. Se/tion . Thus. an! se/tora" parties or or ani4ations. an! those who.e*#er 6 6 6. Ahu . sha"" have at "east one representative.egislative >istricts are Created or Reapportioned Only by an -ct of Congress There is no provision in the Constitution that /onf"i/ts with the !e"e ation to re iona" "e is"ative #o!ies of the power to /reate *uni/ipa"ities an! #aran a$s. Arti/"e L of the Constitution is fo""owe!.000 or *ore. the power to /reate a provin/e. as far as pra/ti/a#"e. 6666 %1' Ea/h "e is"ative !istri/t sha"" /o*prise. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution as we"" as Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution vests in Con ress the power to in/rease. an! the . %(' The Bouse of Representatives sha"" #e /o*pose! of not )o'e th"n t0o hun#'e# "n# fifty )e)be' .-0. re iona".000 or *ore /annot a"so #e /reate! without a "e is"ative !istri/t. /ities. an! a!<a/ent territor$. Re iona" Asse*#"$ the power to /reate "e is"ative !istri/ts for the Bouse of RepresentativesR The answer is in the ne ative.. Ea/h /it$ with a popu"ation of at "east two hun!re! fift$ thousan!. /an Con ress va"i!"$ !e"e ate to the AR. the 5on$'e h"ll )"4e " 'e"ppo'tion)ent of le$i l"ti2e #i t'ict #ase! on the stan!ar!s provi!e! in this se/tion. or ea/h provin/e.

%E' %2' %)' E/ono*i/. Or ani/ A/t. e9p'e ly o' i)plie#ly. the first representative is a"wa$s e"e/te! in the 7ne6t nationa" e"e/tions8 fro* the effe/tivit$ of the "aw. to c'e"te o' 'e"ppo'tion le$i l"ti2e #i t'ict fo' 5on$'e . provi!es. as a*en!e!. Hhenever Con ress ena/ts a "aw /reatin a "e is"ative !istri/t. an! touris* !eve"op*entK E!u/ationa" po"i/iesK Preservation an! !eve"op*ent of the /u"tura" herita eK an! %+' Su/h other *atters as *a$ #e authori4e! #$ "aw for the pro*otion of the enera" we"fare of the peop"e of the re ion. Se/tion .. It wou"! #e in/on ruous for a re iona" "e is"ative #o!$ "ike the AR. Thus. an! the rant of "e is"ative powers to its Re iona" Asse*#"$ un!er its or ani/ a/t. Or ani/ A/t. In Monte#o v. The a""owa#"e *e*#ership of the Bouse of Representatives /an #e in/rease!. This is /"ear fro* the Constitution an! the AR. An inferior "e is"ative #o!$. it /annot /reate a "e is"ative !istri/t whose representative is e"e/te! in nationa" e"e/tions. The /reation of the AR. !i! not !ivest Con ress of its e6/"usive authorit$ to /reate "e is"ative !istri/ts. Arti/"e I> of RA +0-G a*en!in the AR. Nothin$ in !ection 20.e*#er of the Bouse of Representatives. respe/tive"$.. The offi/e of a !istri/t representative is *aintaine! #$ nationa" fun!s an! the sa"ar$ of its o//upant is pai! out of nationa" fun!s. Re iona" Asse*#"$ to /reate a nationa" offi/e when its "e is"ative powers e6ten! on"$ to its re iona" territor$. the offi/e of a "e is"ative !istri/t representative to Con ress is a n"tion"l office..8 an! thus is veste! e6/"usive"$ in Con ress. On"$ Con ress /an ena/t su/h a "aw.. so/ia". an! new "e is"ative !istri/ts of Con ress /an #e /reate!. the or ani/ a/t of autono*ous re ions sha"" provi!e for "e is"ative powers over: %(' %.8 Sin/e the AR. Se/tion 1. Hithin its territoria" <uris!i/tion an! su#<e/t to the provisions of this Constitution an! nationa" "aws. /annot /han e the *e*#ership of the superior "e is"ative #o!$. This te6tua" /o**it*ent to Con ress of the e6/"usive power to /reate or reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts is "o i/a". It is a se"f:evi!ent inherent "i*itation on the "e is"ative powers of ever$ "o/a" or re iona" "e is"ative #o!$ that it /an on"$ /reate "o/a" or re iona" offi/es. an! not throu h a "aw that re iona" or "o/a" "e is"ative #o!ies ena/t. /reate! #$ a superior "e is"ative #o!$. an! it /an never /reate a nationa" offi/e. It wou"! #e ano*a"ous for re iona" or "o/a" "e is"ative #o!ies to /reate or reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts for a nationa" "e is"ature "ike Con ress.0.. on"$ throu h a nationa" "aw passe! #$ Con ress. SECTION . an! its o//upant. 6 6 6. Con ress is a nationa" "e is"ature an! an$ in/rease in its a""owa#"e *e*#ership or in its in/u*#ent *e*#ership throu h the /reation of "e is"ative !istri/ts *ust #e e*#o!ie! in a nationa" "aw. 7Ahe Re$ion"l . In!ee!. is a n"tion"l offici"l. fa*i"$.' %1' %G' %-' A!*inistrative or ani4ationK Creation of sour/es of revenuesK An/estra" !o*ain an! natura" resour/esK Persona".0.. -'ticle J of the 5on titution "utho'i+e "utono)ou 'e$ion . C?M&)&C.e)bly )"y e9e'ci e le$i l"ti2e po0e' 6 6 6 e9cept on the follo0in$ )"tte' K 6 6 6 748 N"tion"l election . an! propert$ re"ationsK Re iona" ur#an an! rura" p"annin !eve"op*entK .these powers throu h a "aw that Con ress itse"f ena/ts. Re iona" Asse*#"$ has no "e is"ative power to ena/t "aws re"atin to nationa" e"e/tions. a . we he"! that the 7power of re!istri/tin 6 6 6 is tra!itiona""$ re ar!e! as part of the power %of Con ress' to *ake "aws. Arti/"e L of the Constitution provi!es: On the other han!.

. The nu*#er of . Re iona" Asse*#"$ to /reate a nationa" offi/e is to a""ow its "e is"ative powers to operate outsi!e the AR. As further support for her stan/e. an! Ia"in a:Apa$ao an! provi!in for /on ressiona" representation in the o"! an! new provin/es. /reate! on . thus: The Constitution or!ains: an! Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution.3s territoria" <uris!i/tion. /onti uous. *"ch city 0ith " popul"tion of "t le" t t0o hun#'e# fifty thou "n#. #ut #$ operation of the Constitution. /reatin the provin/es of Ben uet.%1'.R. an! a!<a/ent territor$.00E.ountain Provin/e. a*on others. the /reation of the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan without a "e is"ative !istri/t is un/onstitutiona".To a""ow the AR.e*#ers apportione! to the provin/e out of whi/h su/h new provin/e was /reate! or where the /it$. serve as #ases for the /on/"usion that the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan.+ O/to#er . the e6istin "e is"ative !istri/t.002 e"e/tions.8 The /ontention has no *erit. Se/tion . petitioner invokes the state*ent in Fel8a that 7when a provin/e is /reate! #$ statute.8 The Court answere! in the ne ative. is auto*ati/a""$ entit"e! to one *e*#er in the Bouse of Representatives in the (G . %E*phasis supp"ie!' *9cept " )"y be p'o2i#e# by n"tion"l l"0. !ection = of -'ticle EB of the 5on titution. The issue in Fel8a. was un/onstitutiona" for 7/reatiNn O /on ressiona" !istri/ts without the apportion*ent provi!e! in the Constitution.%RA GE+-'. %E*phasis supp"ie!' First.A A/t . /o*pa/t... %E*phasis supp"ie!' Bowever. Ifu ao. Re iona" Asse*#"$ itse"f. GE+.a$ .of .. o' e"ch p'o2ince.8 Thus. whi/h provi!es: Ea/h "e is"ative !istri/t sha"" /o*prise. a provin/e /annot "e a""$ #e /reate! without a "e is"ative !istri/t #e/ause the Constitution *an!ates that 7ea/h provin/e sha"" have at "east one representative. h"ll h"2e "t le" t one 'ep'e ent"ti2e. -'ticle J of the 5on titution 0hich e9p'e ly li)it the co2e'"$e of the Re$ion"l . petitioner in 9.M The AR. sha"" re*ain. the /orrespon!in representative !istri/t /o*es into e6isten/e neither #$ authorit$ of that statute S whi/h /annot provi!e otherwise S nor #$ apportion*ent. in /reatin Shariff Ia#unsuan.0( provi!es that: -ny p'o2ince th"t )"y he'e"fte' be c'e"te#. without a reapportion*ent. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution. whi/h states: . o' "ny city 0ho e popul"tion )"y he'e"fte' inc'e" e to )o'e th"n t0o hun#'e# fifty thou "n# h"ll be entitle# in the i))e#i"tely follo0in$ election to "t le" t one %e)be' o' uch nu)be' of %e)be' " it )"y be entitle# to on the b" i of the nu)be' of it inh"bit"nt "n# "cco'#in$ to the t"n#"'# et fo'th in p"'"$'"ph 738. /onten!s that Se/tion .e)blyP le$i l"ti2e po0e' L[0]ithin it te''ito'i"l &u'i #iction 6 6 6. as far as pra/ti/a#"e. whi/h in/"u!es Cota#ato Cit$ as a part thereof. No. (22-+2. was whether Repu#"i/ A/t No. Se*a. is eo raphi/a""$ "o/ate! sha"" #e /orrespon!in "$ a!<uste! #$ the Co**ission on E"e/tions #ut su/h a!<ust*ent sha"" not #e *a!e within one hun!re! an! twent$ !a$s #efore the e"e/tion. whose popu"ation has so in/rease!. Ahi 2iol"te !ection 20. . re/o ni4e! the e6/"usive nature of Con ress3 power to /reate or reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts #$ a#stainin fro* /reatin a "e is"ative !istri/t for Shariff Ia#unsuan.

#ut ea/h provin/e sha"" have at "east one . As a *atter of fa/t. a "e is"ative !istri/t. Thus. the new provin/e was /reate! *ere"$ #$ a 'e$ion"l l"0 en"cte# by the -R%% Re$ion"l . fro* the fa/t that the apportion*ent therein a""u!e! to refers to that whi/h is *a!e #$ an A/t of Con ress. territor$ of.a uin!anao.' the /reation of the "e is"ative !istri/ts wi"" not resu"t in #rea/hin the *a6i*u* nu*#er of "e is"ative !istri/ts provi!e! un!er the (+1. if as Se*a /"ai*s . This !oes not !etra/t fro* the /onstitutiona" prin/ip"e that the power to /reate "e is"ative !istri/ts #e"on s e6/"usive"$ to Con ress. There is no /onstitutiona" "i*itation as to the ti*e when.a uin!anao wi"" vio"ate Se/tion . but by ope'"tion of the 5on titution. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution whi/h re5uires that 7NEOa/h /it$ with a popu"ation of at "east two hun!re! fift$ thousan! 6 6 6. this wi"" "eave Cota#ato Cit$ as the "one /o*ponent of the first "e is"ative !istri/t of . when a provin/e is /reate!. Hhat Fel8a tea/hes is that the /reation of a "e is"ative !istri/t #$ Con ress !oes not e*anate a"one fro* Con ress3 power to reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts. Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G. Bere.0( apportione! a "e is"ative !istri/t to Shariff Ia#unsuan upon its /reation.7The Bouse of Representatives sha"" #e /o*pose! of not *ore than one hun!re! an! twent$ . or other /on!itions un!er whi/h a provin/e *a$ #e /reate!. 0hen " p'o2ince i c'e"te# by t"tute. e6/ept Con ress. Bowever. @nti" su/h apportion*ent sha"" have #een *a!e. if the /onse5uen/e thereof were to e6/ee! the *a6i*u* of (. Se*a3s theor$ a"so un!er*ines the /o*position an! in!epen!en/e of the Bouse of Representatives. " 'ep'e ent"ti2e #i t'ict )"y co)e into e9i tenceK 7"8 in#i'ectly. Cota#ato Cit$ /annot /onstitute a "e is"ative !istri/t #$ itse"f #e/ause as of the /ensus taken in . the Bouse of Representatives sha"" have the sa*e nu*#er of . who sha"" #e e"e/te! #$ the 5ua"ifie! e"e/tors fro* the present Asse*#"$ !istri/ts. provin/es have #een /reate! or su#!ivi!e! into other provin/es. #ut. @n!er Se/tion (+. without /o*p"$in with the afore*entione! re5uire*ents. th'ou$h the c'e"tion of " p'o2ince Q fo' Le"ch p'o2ince h"ll h"2e "t le" t one )e)be'M in the <ou e of Rep'e ent"ti2e D o' 7b8 by #i'ect c'e"tion of e2e'"l 'ep'e ent"ti2e #i t'ict 0ithin " p'o2ince. #ut a"so fro* Con ress3 power to /reate provin/es whi/h /annot #e /reate! without a "e is"ative !istri/t. it ha! a popu"ation of on"$ (E1. e6/ept. a "e is"ative !istri/t is /reate! by ope'"tion of the 5on titution bec"u e the 5on titution p'o2i#e th"t Le"ch p'o2ince h"ll h"2e "t le" t one 'ep'e ent"ti2e8 in the Bouse of Representatives. Ea/h representative !istri/t sha"" /o*prise as far as pra/ti/a#"e. an! !o not app"$ to those in/i!enta" to the /reation of provin/es.Constitution. Thus. To /onstitute Cota#ato Cit$ a"one as the survivin first "e is"ative !istri/t of . un!er the first *etho!. on"$ Con ress has the power to /reate. /onti uous an! /o*pa/t territor$. the Court sustaine! the /onstitutiona"it$ of RA GE+. The re5uire*ents /on/ernin the apportion*ent of representative !istri/ts an! the territor$ thereof refer on"$ to the se/on! *etho! of /reation of representative !istri/ts. The Con ress sha"" #$ "aw *ake an apportion*ent within three $ears after the return of ever$ enu*eration.)G+. whi/h is not the effe/t of the "e is"ation un!er /onsi!eration.oreover.#e/ause %(' it va"i!"$ /reate! "e is"ative !istri/ts 7in!ire/t"$8 th'ou$h " peci"l l"0 en"cte# by 5on$'e c'e"tin$ " p'o2ince an! %. an! not otherwise. fro* /reatin provin/es #e/ause for a "e is"ative #o!$ to /reate a provin/e su/h "e is"ative #o!$ *ust have the power to /reate "e is"ative !istri/ts. not on"$ fro* the enera" tenor of the provision a#ove 5uote!. perhaps. In short. with the /onse5uent /reation of a!!itiona" representative !istri/ts. It *ere"$ prevents an$ other "e is"ative #o!$. a"so.e*#er. co)e into e9i tence neithe' by "utho'ity of th"t t"tute Q 0hich c"nnot p'o2i#e othe'0i e Q no' by "ppo'tion)ent.8 Second. sha"" have at "east one representative.0 representative !istri/ts pres/ri#e! in the Constitution. Thus. Bn#ee#.A A/t .. the co''e pon#in$ 'ep'e ent"ti2e #i t'ict. or tri er the /reation of. %E*phasis supp"ie!' .%1'.000. on"$ an a/t of Con ress /an tri er the /reation of a "e is"ative !istri/t #$ operation of the Constitution.e)bly.e*#ers who sha"" #e apportione! a*on the severa" provin/es as near"$ as *a$ #e a//or!in to the nu*#er of their respe/tive inha#itants. Fel8a !oes not app"$ to the present /ase #e/ause in Fel8a the new provin/es were /reate! #$ a n"tion"l l"0 en"cte# by 5on$'e it elf. This is !e!u/i#"e. 0ithout " 'e"ppo'tion)ent.8 Pu' u"nt to thi !ection.e*#ers as that fi6e! #$ "aw for the Nationa" Asse*#"$. the .

000K an! Att$. @n!er $our theor$.usti/e Carpio: %1' Representatives fro* the AR.0.. #e/ause the Constitution a""ows that. that is what we are sa$in . Re iona" Asse*#"$ nee! not /o*p"$ with the re5uire*ent in Se/tion GE(%a'%ii' of RA 2(E0 that ever$ provin/e /reate! *ust have a popu"ation of at "east . the Bouse of Representatives..usti/e Carpio: . #e$on! the *a6i*u* "i*it of .-0. $es.000' Npopu"ationO. the AR. provin/es /an #e/o*e the *a<orit$ in the Bouse of Representatives throu h the AR.' The proportiona" representation in the Bouse of Representatives #ase! on one representative for at "east ever$ . "e is"ature /an /reate thirt$:five %1-' new provin/es.-0 fi6e! in the Constitution %un"ess a nationa" "aw provi!es otherwise'K So.usti/e Carpio: %(' An inferior "e is"ative #o!$ "ike the AR. na*e"$: *ini*u* annua" in/o*e of P. >istan II: Aes. Aour Bonor.. /an /reate an! /reate 6 6 6 provin/es 6 6 6 an!.... Re iona" Asse*#"$ /an /reate provin/es an! /ities within the AR. Re iona" Asse*#"$ /an /reate provin/es: Att$.. the$ /an have thirt$:five %1-' new representatives in the Bouse of Representatives without Con ress a reein to it. .000. Re iona" Asse*#"$ /an /reate (00 or *ore provin/es an! thus in/rease the *e*#ership of a superior "e is"ative #o!$. . un!er $our theor$NRO %. .AR.R. $ou *ean to sa$ NaO ?o/a" 9overn*ent /an /reate "e is"ative !istri/tNsO an! pa/k Con ress with their own representatives NRO 6666 . >istan II: Aes. 6 6 6.000.. Aour Bonor.. Re iona" Asse*#"$3s /ontinuous /reation of provin/es or /ities within the AR.-0. The fo""owin s/enarios thus #e/o*e !istin/t possi#i"ities: Att$. an! *ini*u* /onti uous territor$ of . is that what $ou are sa$in R The fo""owin e6/han e !urin the ora" ar u*ents of the petition in 9. NtheO Re iona" Asse*#"$ of NtheO AR..usti/e Carpio: So. un!er the /orre/t fa/tua" /ir/u*stan/es. an! the$ wi"" ea/h have one representative 6 6 6 to Con ress without an$ nationa" "aw. therefore.-0.000 s5uare ki"o*eters or *ini*u* popu"ation of . (22-+2 hi h"i hts the a#sur!it$ of Se*a3s position that the AR.. Aour Bonor. 0ith o' 0ithout re ar! to the /riteria fi6e! in Se/tion GE( of RA 2(E0.000 resi!ents wi"" #e ne ate! #e/ause the AR.000.. No. is that what $ou are sa$in R That /an #e !one. there *a$ #e 6 6 6 Non"$O one hun!re! thousan! %(00. >istan II: Hithout "aw passe! #$ Con ress.

a power on"$ Con ress /an e6er/ise un!er Se/tion -. >istan II: Ge . The Court wi"" not pass upon the /onstitutiona"it$ of the /reation of *uni/ipa"ities an! #aran a$s that !oes not /o*p"$ with the /riteria esta#"ishe! in Se/tion GE( of RA 2(E0. In/i!enta""$. en[#] one thou "n# 710008 'ep'e ent"ti2e to the <ou e of Rep'e ent"ti2e 0ithout " n"tion"l l"0[. Thus.. Gou' <ono'. in the present (Gth Con ress.0.0. 7NAOn$ provin/e that *a$ hereafter #e /reate! 6 6 6 sha"" #e entit"e! in the i**e!iate"$ fo""owin e"e/tion to at "east one .(+ in/u*#ent !istri/t representatives. is voi! for #ein /ontrar$ to Se/tion . ena/te! #$ the AR. The Constitution e*powere! Con ress to /reate or reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts. 7 h"ll be c'e"te# 6 6 6 0ithin the f'")e0o'4 of thi 5on titution "n# the n"tion"l o2e'ei$nty " 0ell " te''ito'i"l inte$'ity of the Republic of the Philippine . nor Con ress in ena/tin RA +0-G. Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e to the Constitution whi/h states. .of Arti/"e >I an! Se/tion . 6 6 6. *u/h "ess than the .8 refers to a provin/e /reate! #$ Con ress itse"f throu h a nationa" "aw.A A/t .0 of Arti/"e L of the Constitution. we ru"e that .0(. as we"" as Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution... there is a nee! now for Con ress to in/rease #$ "aw the a""owa#"e *e*#ership of the Bouse.. Arti/"e >I of the Constitution an! Se/tion 1 of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution. Sin/e part$: "ist *e*#ers sha"" /onstitute .. envisione! or inten!e! these !isastrous /onse5uen/es that /ertain"$ wou"! wre/k the tri: #ran/h s$ste* of overn*ent un!er our Constitution. Re iona" Asse*#"$ the power to /reate provin/es an! /ities. Arti/"e L of the Constitution..8 Neither the fra*ers of the (+)2 Constitution in a!optin the provisions in Arti/"e L on re iona" autono*$.00 seats for !istri/t representatives. In su**ar$. Or ani/ A/t %RA +0-G' itse"f states that the AR. 9overn*ent is esta#"ishe! 7within the fra*ework of the Constitution. there shou"! at "east #e -0 part$:"ist seats avai"a#"e in ever$ e"e/tion in /ase -0 part$:"ist /an!i!ates are pro/"ai*e! winners. Arti/"e L of the Constitution e6press"$ provi!es that the "e is"ative powers of re iona" asse*#"ies are "i*ite! L[0]ithin it te''ito'i"l &u'i #iction "n# ub&ect to the p'o2i ion of the 5on titution "n# n"tion"l l"0 .0 per/ent of tota" *e*#ership of the Bouse.e*#er. they c"n "l o c'e"te one thou "n# 710008 ne0 p'o2ince .. The reason is that the /reation of a provin/e in/reases the a/tua" *e*#ership of the Bouse of Representatives. Re iona" Asse*#"$ an! /reatin the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan. Re iona" Asse*#"$ operate on"$ within its territoria" <uris!i/tion as provi!e! in Se/tion .8 The Prea*#"e of the AR. Arti/"e L of the Constitution whi/h *an!ates that the AR.oreover.. the power to /reate or reapportion "e is"ative !istri/ts /annot #e !e"e ate! #$ Con ress #ut *ust #e e6er/ise! #$ Con ress itse"f. #e/ause the /reation of su/h *uni/ipa"ities an! #aran a$s !oes not invo"ve the /reation of "e is"ative !istri/ts. Re iona" Asse*#"$ re/o ni4es this. Thus. the AR.8 This fo""ows Se/tion (-. He "eave the reso"ution of this issue to an appropriate /ase. This "eaves on"$ . Re iona" Asse*#"$ /annot ena/t a "aw /reatin a nationa" offi/e "ike the offi/e of a !istri/t representative of Con ress #e/ause the "e is"ative powers of the AR.-0 seats in the Bouse of Representatives.. On"$ Con ress /an /reate provin/es an! /ities #e/ause the /reation of provin/es an! /ities ne/essari"$ in/"u!es the /reation of "e is"ative !istri/ts. an in/rease that on"$ Con ress /an !e/i!e. not the re iona" asse*#"ies. insofar as it rants to the AR. as *an!ate! in Se/tion (0. Arti/"e L of the Constitution.. there are .(+ !istri/t representatives out of the *a6i*u* . Arti/"e >I of RA +0-G. %E*phasis supp"ie!' It is a6io*ati/ that or ani/ a/ts of autono*ous re ions /annot prevai" over the Constitution. we ru"e that Se/tion (+. . co''ectR Att$. Re iona" Asse*#"$ /annot /reate a provin/e without a "e is"ative !istri/t #e/ause the Constitution *an!ates that ever$ provin/e sha"" have a "e is"ative !istri/t. The present /ase invo"ves the /reation of a "o/a" overn*ent unit that ne/essari"$ invo"ves a"so the /reation of a "e is"ative !istri/t.!o. C"ear"$.] th"t i le$"lly po ible. Even the AR. Se/tion . is voi!. even #efore Con ress /an /reate new provin/es. The AR.

%-RB?! P. we !e/"are E:B.BN-.:RH*R! ?NB:N 7N*. GR*G:RG C..ch"'$e35*: of N"tion"l Po0e' 5o'po'"tion "n# %e)be' of N"tion"l Po0e' /o"'#. JR. .. Conse5uent"$. G. J:!* B!B.-. %*. in thei' in#i2i#u"l c"p"citie " e)ployee of N"tion"l Po0e' 5o'po'"tion.00. :!:RB:. 1=6208 !epte)be' 26.*5B!B:N 5<B5:.*R 5:RP:R-AB:N 7NP58. !R. !ire/tin . N-AB:N-C P:... %-G-NA*. " P'e i#ent T :ffice'. we ho"! that CO.<*R*1:R*. 5BRB:. !-C%-N.R: N. !: :R. is E-CB.0( /reatin the Provin/e of Shariff Ia#unsuan.K Before @s is a spe/ia" /ivi" a/tion for In#unction to en<oin pu#"i/ respon!ents fro* i*p"e*entin the Nationa" Power Boar! %NPB' Reso"utions No. in thei' o0n in#i2i#u"l c"p"citie "n# in beh"lf of the )e)be' of the " oci"tion "n# "ll "ffecte# office' "n# e)ployee of N"tion"l Po0e' 5o'po'"tion 7NP58. 5-%-5<: " 5h"i')"n of the N"tion"l Po0e' /o"'# of ... *%BCB. as we"" as Se/tion ( of the Or!inan/e appen!e! to the Constitution. %*5<-NB5! -!!:5B-AB:N.R. "n# EBN5*NA !. . R:C-N.: !. 'ep'e ente# by it Re$ion"l P'e i#ent JB%%G . P*R*@. . +0-G ?N5:N!ABA?AB:N-C insofar as it rants to the Re iona" Asse*#"$ of the Autono*ous Re ion in . Arti/"e >I of Repu#"i/ A/t No. is va"i! as it *ere"$ /o*p"ies with Se/tion . /:N5:.of Arti/"e >I an! Se/tion . . @:C . A<* N-AB:N-C P:. 2+0.E?EC Reso"ution No. .. 5:RP?!. N*5BA-! /. )(D" Complies $ith the Constitution ?et a /op$ of this ru"in #e serve! on the Presi!ent of the Senate an! the Speaker of the Bouse of Representatives. JR..i'ecto' 7NP/8. No. 'ep'e ente# by Bt P'e i#ent R:G*R !.0 of Arti/"e L of the Constitution. 2+0. (?BC-C-.*R /:-R. JR. vs.in!anao the power to /reate provin/es an! /ities.A. #oth !ate! () Nove*#er .E?EC Reso"ution No. EB5*NA* /.a uin!anao with Cota#ato Cit$. 7NP5 . Conse5uent"$. NP5 *%PC:G**! S . !-N J?-N. petitioners.in!anao Autono*$ A/t No. J. :1 .Resolution o. 5-%-%-. we !e/"are Se/tion (+.00. N-R5B!: %.?8 T N:RA<*RN C?@:N R*GB:N-C 5*NA*R.G an! No.:%BNG: "n# NB*E*! C.in. we ru"e that CO. .us"i* . R*BN:!:. R?/*N !..:(.00. preservin the eo raphi/ an! "e is"ative !istri/t of the &irst Distri/t of .BN.. 2006 NP5 .RBE*R! -N.BR*5A:R! 7NP/8.us"i* . a*on other .N-@-RB:.*R*.-%-8. . respon!ents. Thus.:(.

the Se/retar$ of Bu! et an! . To serve as the overa"" or ani4ationa" fra*ework for the rea"i ne! fun/tions of the NPC *an!ate! un!er the EPIRA ?aw. . the Se/retar$ of the Depart*ent of Tra!e an! In!ustr$.G an! No. Scope.-. . fi"e! the present Petition for In<un/tion to restrain respon!ents fro* i*p"e*entin NPB Reso"utions No.00.:(. X It is here#$ !e/"are! the po"i/$ of the State: 6666 %i' To provi!e for an or!er"$ an! transparent privati4ation of the assets an! "ia#i"ities of the Nationa" Power Corporation %NPC'K 6666 Se/tion 1. Sai! IRR were approve! #$ the . in/"u!in the privati4ation of the assets of NPC. In#unction and Restraining ?rder. In a . On . in their in!ivi!ua" an! representative /apa/ities. Nove*#er . the Restru/turin Co**ittee propose! a new NPC Ta#"e of Or ani4ation whi/h was approve! #$ the NPB throu h NPB Reso"ution No. a"so in pursuant to the provisions of the EPIRA ?aw. Pa5uito &.thin s.00.a/apa a":Arro$o. the DOE /reate! the Ener $ Restru/turin Steerin Co**ittee %Restru/turin Co**ittee' to *ana e the privati4ation an! restru/turin of the NPC. to a"" NPC offi/ia"s an! e*p"o$ees provi!in for a /he/k"ist of the !o/u*ents re5uire! for se/urin /"earan/es for the pro/essin of separation #enefits of a"" e*p"o$ees who sha"" #e ter*inate! un!er the Restru/turin P"an.anuar$ . the Restru/turin Co**ittee reviewe! the propose! . . the Se/retar$ of Environ*ent an! Natura" Resour/es.00(. where#$ a Transition Tea* was /onstitute! to *ana e an! i*p"e*ent the NPCQs Separation Pro ra*.anuar$ .00.2 &e#ruar$ .:(. were .:(.ana e*ent. an! the !efinition of the responsi#i"ities of the various overn*ent a en/ies an! private entities. =ui"a"a /ir/u"ate! the assai"e! Reso"utions an! !ire/te! the /on/erne! NPC offi/ia"s to !isse*inate an! /o*p"$ with sai! Reso"utions an! i*p"e*ent the sa*e within the perio! provi!e! for in the ti*eta#"e set in NPB Reso"ution No. to wit: Se/tion 2).%i' an! Se/tion 1 of the EPIRA ?aw states: Se/tion .00.001 in "ine with the restru/turin of the NPC. the NPC OIC:Presi!ent an! CEO Ro"an!o S.:(. petitioners *aintain that sai! Reso"utions were not passe! an! issue! #$ a *a<orit$ of the *e*#ers of the !u"$ /onstitute! Boar! of Dire/tors sin/e on"$ three of its *e*#ers. the NPB approve! NPB Reso"ution No.001. On ) .00. the Se/retar$ of A ri/u"ture. On () Nove*#er . a new Nationa" Power Boar! of Dire/tors was /onstitute! /o*pose! of the Se/retar$ of &inan/e as Chair*an.:(.00.00. .e*oran!u* !ate! .. was approve! an! si ne! into "aw #$ Presi!ent 9"oria .G an! No. as provi!e! un!er Se/tion G)E of the EPIRA ?aw.. takin into /onsi!eration the re/o**en!ation of the Restru/turin Co**ittee.'. . @n!er sai! Reso"ution.00. .E .00. an! the Presi!ent of the Nationa" Power Corporation as *e*#ers.00. +(1E.oint Con ressiona" Power Co**ission on even !ate. In assai"in the va"i!it$ of NPB Reso"utions No. the Nationa" Trans*ission Corporation %TRANSCO'. an! thereafter re/o**en!e! to the NPB for approva" the a!option of *easures pertainin to the separation an! hirin of NPC personne". pursuant to Se/tion E1G of the EPIRA ?aw an! Ru"e 11of the IRR.une .00. the Se/retar$ of the Depart*ent of Ener $ %DOE' pro*u" ate! the I*p"e*entin Ru"es an! Re u"ations %IRR' of the EPIRA ?aw.( @n!er the EPIRA ?aw. an! the Power Se/tor Assets an! ?ia#i"ities Corporation %PSA?.00. NPC Restru/turin P"an an! assiste! in the i*p"e*entation of Phase I %Rea"i n*ent' of sai! P"an. .00(T %EPIRA ?aw'.eanwhi"e.00.G whi/h provi!e! for the 9ui!e"ines on the Separation Pro ra* of the NPC an! the Se"e/tion an! P"a/e*ent of Personne" in the NPC Ta#"e of Or ani4ation. thus a*en!e! the Restru/turin P"an approve! un!er NPB Reso"ution No. . X This A/t sha"" provi!e a fra*ework for the restru/turin of the e"e/tri/ power in!ustr$.:(. $eclaration of olicy.( Nove*#er .00. Repu#"i/ A/t No. 9ar/ia.. with the Se/retar$ of Ener $. The NPB. pursuant to Se/tion 221 thereof.00(.:(. otherwise known as the TE"e/tri/ Power In!ustr$ Refor* A/t of . an! sha"" #e entit"e! to separation #enefits.00. an! took effe/t on .-.:-1. ?ikewise. On the sa*e !a$.:-1 !ate! (( Apri" . . X The i*p"e*entation of the provisions of this A/t sha"" not #e restraine! or en<oine! e6/ept #$ an or!er issue! #$ the Supre*e Court of the Phi"ippines. In support thereof. Se/tion . petitioners invoke Se/tion 2) of the EPIRA ?aw. herein petitioners. .r. As a resu"t thereof.. the Dire/tor:9enera" of the Nationa" E/ono*i/ an! Deve"op*ent Authorit$. .-. the ter*ination of a"" e*p"o$ees of the Nationa" Power Corporation %NPC' on 1( .une .. the Se/retar$ of Interior an! ?o/a" 9overn*ent. the NPB passe! NPB Reso"ution No. Conten!in that the assai"e! NPB Reso"utions are voi! an! without for/e an! effe/t. the transition to the !esire! /o*petitive stru/ture.ana er X BRSD an! Resour/es an! A!*inistration Coor!inator of NPC.. /ir/u"ate! a . a"" NPC personne" sha"" #e "e a""$ ter*inate! on 1( .e*oran!u* !ate! . ..-.

oint Con ressiona" Power Co**ission an! the approva" of the Presi!ent of the Phi"ippines. Petitioners /"ai* that the a/ts of these representatives are vio"ative of the we"":sett"e! prin/ip"e that T!e"e ate! power /annot #e further !e"e ate!. whi/h.:(.:(. without wi""fu"ness or favor.G an! No. sai! Reso"utions /annot sti"" #e iven "e a" effe/t #e/ause the sa*e !i! not /o*p"$ with the *an!ator$ re5uire*ent of en!orse*ent #$ the .-. the "e is"ature has veste! upon these persons the power to e6er/ise their <u! *ent an! !is/retion in runnin the affairs of the NPC. as provi!e! un!er Se/tion G) of the EPIRA ?aw.. were present an! 5ua"ifie! to sit an! vote. rea" estate. the !epart*ent se/retaries /annot !e"e ate their !uties as *e*#ers of the NPB.ana e*ent Se/retar$ E*i"ia T. the Depart*ent of Tra!e an! In!ustr$. Dis/retion *a$ #e !efine! as Tthe a/t or the "i#ert$ to !e/i!e a//or!in to the prin/ip"es of <usti/e an! oneQs i!eas of what is ri ht an! proper un!er the /ir/u*stan/es. .00. is /ontrar$ to the *an!ate of the Constitution to pro*ote fu"" e*p"o$*ent an! se/urit$ of tenure. were not the a/tua" si natories in NPB Reso"utions No.oint Con ressiona" Power Co**ission an! the approva" of the Presi!ent of the Phi"ippines. a//or!in to the !i/tates of their own <u! *ent an! /ons/ien/e.. parti/u"ar"$ the respe/tive Se/retaries of the Depart*ent of Interior an! ?o/a" 9overn*ent. Thus.00.T Thus. su/h a pro/ess is an inte ra" part of Tprivati4ationT an! Trestru/turin T as !efine! un!er the EPIRA ?aw an!. He a ree with petitioners. *eans a power or ri ht /onferre! upon the* #$ "aw of a/tin offi/ia""$ in /ertain /ir/u*stan/es. It is petitionersQ su#*ission that even assu*in arguendo that there was no un!ue !e"e ation of power to the four representatives who si ne! the assai"e! Reso"utions. it is evi!ent that the pivota" issue to #e reso"ve! in this Petition for In<un/tion is whether or not NPB Reso"utions No. petitioner hi h"i ht the fa/t that sai! Reso"utions wi"" have an a!verse effe/t on a#out -. =ui"a"a. *u/h "ess their power to vote an! approve #oar! reso"utions. Pere4.00. petitioners /on/"u!e that the 5uestione! Reso"utions have #een i""e a""$ issue! as it were not issue! #$ a !u"$ /onstitute! #oar! sin/e no 5uoru* e6iste! #e/ause on"$ three of the nine *e*#ers.r. a#"$ represente! #$ their respe/tive a"ternates. the PSA?. an! the Depart*ent of &inan/e. petitioners ar ue. other !isposa#"e assets as we"" as e6istin IPP /ontra/ts of NPC an! thereafter.120 e*p"o$ees. i*p"e*ent the sa*e.G an! No. e6/ept as provi!e! for in para raph %f' herein: 6 6 6. on the other han!. A//or!in to petitioners. . the$ were.EG) e*p"o$ees of the NPC an! wi"" resu"t in the !isp"a/e*ent of so*e . therefore. *ust /o*p"$ with the a#ove:5uote! provision re5uirin the en!orse*ent of the . Corp. as we"" as the Dire/tor:9enera" of the Nationa" E/ono*i/ an! Deve"op*ent Authorit$. In enu*eratin un!er Se/tion G) those who sha"" /o*pose the Nationa" Power Boar! of Dire/tors. . on the tota" privati4ation of the eneration assets. as provi!e! un!er Se/tion G2 of the EPIRA ?aw whi/h states that: Se/tion G2. the other four *e*#ers who were present at the *eetin an! si ne! the Reso"utions were not the se/retaries of their respe/tive !epart*ents #ut were *ere"$ representatives or !esi nate! a"ternates of the offi/ia"s who were na*e! un!er the EPIRA ?aw to sit as *e*#ers of the NPB. upho"! the va"i!it$ of the assai"e! Reso"utions #$ ar uin that whi"e it is true that four *e*#ers of the Nationa" Power Boar! of Dire/tors. Hithin si6 %E' *onths fro* effe/tivit$ of this A/t. an! other !isposa#"e assets as we"" as IPP /ontra/ts of NPC sha"" #e privati4e! in a//or!an/e with this A/t. when app"ie! to pu#"i/ fun/tionaries.oint Con ressiona" Power Co**ission an! approva" of the Presi!ent of the Phi"ippines. Bon/o!inK an! NPC OIC:Presi!ent Ro"an!o S. the "e is"ature /hose these se/retaries of the various e6e/utive !epart*ents on the #asis of their persona" 5ua"ifi/ations an! a/u*en whi/h *a!e the* e"i i#"e to o//up$ their present positions as !epart*ent hea!s.:(. the eneration assets. &urther*ore.:(.+ It is to #e presu*e! that in na*in the respe/tive !epart*ent hea!s as *e*#ers of the #oar! of !ire/tors. #e/ause it is their persona" <u! *ent that *ust #e e6er/ise! in the fu"fi""*ent of su/h responsi#i"it$. Respon!ents. Petitioners insist that if ever there e6ists a va"i! who"esa"e a#o"ition of their positions an! their /on/o*itant separation for* the servi/e. in a//or!an/e with the fo""owin ui!e"ines. C rivatization. Respon!ents /"ai* that the va"i!it$ of su/h a!*inistrative pra/ti/e where#$ an authorit$ is e6er/ise! #$ persons or su#or!inates appointe! #$ the responsi#"e offi/ia" has "on #een sett"e!.) Dis/retion. . . rea" estate. however. It is petitionersQ /ontention that the fai"ure of the four spe/ifi/a""$ i!entifie! !epart*ent hea!s2 un!er Se/tion G) of the EPIRA ?aw to persona""$ approve an! si n the assai"e! Reso"utions inva"i!ates the a!option of sai! Reso"utions. Respon!ents further /onten! that Se/tion G) of the EPIRA ?aw !oes not in an$ wa$ prohi#it an$ *e*#er of the NPB fro* authori4in his representative to si n reso"utions a!opte! #$ the Boar!.were proper"$ ena/te!. sha"" su#*it a p"an for the en!orse*ent #$ the . &ro* the ar u*ents put forwar! #$ herein parties.00. .K Depart*ent of Bu! et an! . . Petitioners *aintain that there was un!ue !e"e ation of !e"e ate! power when on"$ the representatives of /ertain *e*#ers of the NPB atten!e! the #oar! *eetin s an! passe! an! si ne! the 5uestione! Reso"utions. un/ontro""e! #$ the <u! *ent or /ons/ien/e of others. na*e"$: DOE Se/retar$ >in/ent S. X E6/ept for the assets of SP@9.present.

:(. an! un"ess the power to su#stitute another in his p"a/e has #een iven to hi*.r.:(. Bavin !eter*ine! that the assai"e! Reso"utions are voi! as the$ "a/k the ne/essar$ nu*#er of votes for their a!option.<*R*1:R*. .BA<:?A C*G-C *11*5A.. NPB Reso"utions No. fro* i*p"e*entin sai! NPB Reso"utions No. !arruc(o(0 is re"evant in the present /ontrovers$.:(. the ru"e that re5uires an a!*inistrative offi/er to e6er/ise his own <u! *ent an! !is/retion !oes not pre/"u!e hi* fro* uti"i4in . the ru"e enun/iate! in the /ase of %inamira v.00. This. he /annot !e"e ate his !uties to another.00. Hhi"e it is true that the Court has !eter*ine! in the /ase of 3merican 'obacco Company v.G an! No.ana e*ent Se/retar$ E*i"ia T. he /annot !e"e ate his !uties to another.00. . vio"ates the !ut$ i*pose! upon the spe/ifi/a""$ enu*erate! !epart*ent hea!s to e*p"o$ their own soun! !is/retion in e6er/isin the /orporate powers of the NPC.G an! No. pre*ises /onsi!ere!. as shown #$ the fa/t that it is the si natures of the respe/tive representatives that are affi6e! to the 5uestione! Reso"utions. In the /ase at #ar.00. Pere4.-. it is the representatives of the se/retaries of the !ifferent e6e/utive !epart*ents an! not the se/retaries the*se"ves who e6er/ise! <u! *ent in passin the assai"e! Reso"ution. !: :R. the ai! of su#or!inates.:(. so "on as it is the "e a""$ authori4e! offi/ia" who *akes the final decision throu h the use of his own persona" <u! *ent.There is no 5uestion that the ena/t*ent of the assai"e! Reso"utions invo"ves the e6er/ise of !is/retion an! not *ere"$ a *inisteria" a/t that /ou"! #e va"i!"$ perfor*e! #$ a !e"e ate. there #ein on"$ three va"i! votes /ast out of the nine #oar! *e*#ers. . A//or!in to the Court. In those /ases in whi/h the proper e6e/ution of the offi/e re5uires. na*e"$ those of DOE Se/retar$ >in/ent S.. . . it *ust #e stresse! that the Court e6p"i/it"$ state! in the sa*e /ase that sai! pra/ti/e is per*issi#"e on"$ when the &u#$)ent "n# #i c'etion fin"lly e9e'ci e# "'e tho e of the office' "utho'i+e# by l"0. The Petition for In<un/tion is here#$ GR-NA*. .00. thus.:(. Ben/e. $irector of atents(( that a !e"e ate *a$ e6er/ise his authorit$ throu h persons he appoints to assist hi* in his fun/tions.*R*. . on the part of the offi/er. Nationa" Power Boar! Reso"utions No. the presu*ption is that he was /hosen #e/ause he was !ee*e! fit an! /o*petent to e6er/ise that <u! *ent an! !is/retion. the votes /ast #$ these *ere representatives in favor of the a!option of the sai! Reso"utions *ust not #e /onsi!ere! in !eter*inin whether or not the ne/essar$ nu*#er of votes was arnere! in or!er that the assai"e! Reso"utions *a$ #e va"i!"$ ena/te!.:(. to wit: An offi/er to who* a !is/retion is entruste! /annot !e"e ate it to another.are here#$ !e/"are! E:B. an! respon!ents are here#$ *NJ:BN*. the presu*ption #ein that he was /hosen #e/ause he was !ee*e! fit an! /o*petent to e6er/ise that <u! *ent an! !is/retion. it is not !iffi/u"t to /o*prehen! that in approvin NPB Reso"utions No.K Depart*ent of Bu! et an! .00. an! .. un"ess power to su#stitute another in his p"a/e has #een iven to hi*.:(. He no "on er !ee* it ne/essar$ to pass upon the other issues raise! in the instant petition . The ru"in in the /ase /ite! #$ respon!ents to support their /ontention is not app"i/a#"e in the /ase at #ar. Respon!entsQ assertion to the /ontrar$ is not tena#"e. .G an! No.00.are voi! an! are of no "e a" effe/t.G an! No. .00. as a *atter of pra/ti/a" a!*inistrative pro/e!ure.:(.-. Bon/o!inK an! NPC OIC:Presi!ent Ro"an!o S. . the e6er/ise of <u! *ent or !is/retion. to our *in!. an!. =ui"a"a. Evi!ent"$.

1*R%:. %-G:. . OC.M.-. . Bowever.%. 5-%-RBN*! N:RA*. instea! of su**onin the a//use! for a TPre"i*inar$ Investi ationT. J?. vs. Ca*arines Norte a /o*p"aint for rave /oer/ion a ainst Sheriff A"e6 Ro!o"fo An e"es %of the Depart*ent of A rarian Refor* A!<u!i/ation Boar! NDARABO'. %A5.(.%. !o/kete! as Cri*ina" Case No. he re/eive! a /o*p"aint /har in hi* an! his two %. Ca*arines Sur . DECISION 5-RPB: %:R-C*!.171= %"'ch 1>. 0G:2)((. No. Sheriff An e"es fi"e! a /ounter:/har e for rave threats a ainst /o*p"ainant an! his sons. 0G: 2)00. 200> E6ormerly -. .TC ?a#o. o. Respon!ent. The /ase was !o/kete! as Cri*ina" Case No. the !etai"s of whi/h were su**ari4e! #$ the Offi/e of the Court A!*inistrator %OCA' as fo""ows:( .. P*F-C:!-. A""e in that Presi!in . D4<"D*)<M#JF R:.G* -?R*. 0G:2)00.a o /"ai*s that on Apri" .u! e Aurea 9. J.u! e of the .' sons with . Co*p"ainant. PeFa"osa:&er*o %respon!ent' /o**itte! ross i noran/e of the "aw an! #ias in the !isposition of his /o*p"aint an! of the /ounter:/har e a ainst hi*.r.:C1: R. et al.TC' of ?a#o.08.G. /o*p"ainant fi"e! the present a!*inistrative /o*p"aint. Ro!o"fo R.a o %/o*p"ainant' fi"e! #efore the .uni/ipa" Tria" Court %. %AJ. C-/:.00G he fi"e! a /o*p"aint for 9rave Coer/ion a ainst Depart*ent of A rarian Refor* A!<u!i/ation Boar! %DARAB for #revit$' Sheriff A"e6 Ro#erto An e"es whi/h was !o/kete! as Cri*ina" Case No..

an!ator$ In<un/tion an! &A. (0 On the a""e ation of #ias on her part. on even !ateK an! that /o*p"ainant was arreste! on . he was re"ease! after he poste! #ai" in the a*ount of Php(. Prohi#ition with App"i/ation for . the respon!ent <u! e /ontinue! to !ire/t hi* to appear at the pre:tria"Cpre"i*inar$ /onferen/e. the /o*p"aint in Cri*ina" Case No. an! the affi!avits of the therein /o*p"ainant:sheriff3s witnesses were atta/he! to the re/or!. A"so. .1 respon!ent ave her si!e of the /ase as fo""ows: Contrar$ to /o*p"ainant3s a""e ation.0.) A!*ittin that there was !e"a$ in s/he!u"in the arrai n*ent of /o*p"ainant after his arrest. . he re/eive! a su#poena to atten! the pre"i*inar$ investi ation of Cri*ina" Case No. this is /onvenient when *ore than one pre"i*inar$ e6a*ination is s/he!u"e! for the !a$.0. the [ ]teno$'"phe' t"4e o2e' ince the p'ep"'e# heet "'e $i2en to the) o they coul# p'opoun# the 6ue tion "n# the "n 0e' "'e type# #i'ectly. This is !one to )"4e it e" y fo' the !teno$'"phe' to t"4e3p'int the t'"n c'ipt of the p'ocee#in$ .(.u"$ . she !i! not know an$ of the parties. Thereafter. . 0G:2)((O. Be a!!s that !espite the fi"in of this petition. an! even without the assistan/e of /ounse".n! In!orse*ent !ate! . /o*p"ainant3s /ounse" oppose! the sa*e an! fi"e! an O*ni#us . fin!in pro#a#"e /ause an! !ire/tin the issuan/e of a warrant of arrest2 a ainst /o*p"ainant whi/h the warrant offi/er re/eive! at G:G0 p. inspe/t an! /op$ !o/u*entar$ evi!en/e. suppress evi!en/e an! pro!u/e. that when the arrai n*ent was s/he!u"e!. &ina""$. ita"i/s an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' Den$in /o*p"ainant3s a""e ation that he was arreste! within the /ourt pre*ises on . 6 6 6. Co*p"ainant further !e/"ares that on . Co*p"ainant a"so a""e es that he fi"e! a Petition for Certiorari.u"$ (+. . Ca*arines Norte. In /o*p"ian/e.. . Be avers that the affi!avits of the witnesses in the sai! /ase /ou"! not #e foun! in the re/or!s of the .r. . respon!ent oes on to a""e e that in /o*p"ainant3s atte*pt to #"o/k his arrai n*ent an! to 5uash the Infor*ation a ainst hi*. arte . /onsi!erin the /ra*pe! offi/e spa/e. he fi"e! a Petition for Certiorari.00G at the Po#"a/ion. Mandamus. 0G:2)((.9rave Threats Nwhi/h was !o/kete! as Cri*ina" Case No. %Ita"i/s in the ori ina"K e*phasis an un!ers/orin supp"ie!' B$ .u"$ .%E*phasis. respon!ent sur*ises that the C"erk of Court or the /"erk:in: /har e *i ht have over"ooke! the Return of Servi/e of the warrant offi/er. respon!ent /"ai*s that unti" the /ri*ina" /o*p"aints were fi"e!. Att$. the$ were e6a*ine! throu h a prepare! set of 5uestions han!e! to the* #$ the steno rapher. The respon!ent <u! e was not present then. ?a#o.u"$ . Be "ikewise avers that his arrai n*ent was set #e$on! the perio! a""owe! #$ the Ru"es of Court. as shown #$ the Harrant Offi/er3s Return of Servi/e.otion whi/h resu"te! in the repeate! resettin of the arrai n*ent. he was i**e!iate"$ arreste! an! was i*prisone! for three %1' !a$s.u"$ .otion for Te*porar$ Restrainin Or!er with the Re iona" Tria" Court of ?a#o whi/h was !enie! for "a/k of *erit.uni/ipa" Tria" Court %.00G. Mandamus. respon!ent a""e es that the pre"i*inar$ e6a*ination was /on!u/te! at +:00 o3/"o/k in the *ornin of .TC'.une E.00GK that she issue! an Or!erE the fo""owin !a$. Respon!ent a!!s that after /o*p"ainant was arrai ne! on . however. .otion for Te*porar$ Restrainin Or!er 5uestionin the or!er of respon!ent <u! e in !en$in his o*ni#us *otion to 5uash the infor*ation.00G. After the witnesses are #riefe!.0. Be a"so "a*ents that he /ou"! not "o/ate his "aw$er. Be stresses the /o*p"aint a ainst hi* as pure"$ fa#ri/ate!. too. ?a*#erto Bonifa/io.00E. the un!ersi ne! prepares her 5uestions for pre"i*inar$ e6a*ination #ase! on the affi!avits of the /o*p"ainin witnesses an! the /ounter affi!avits of the a//use!. 0G: 2)(( %for rave threats'. . The /o*p"ainant a"so states that ri ht after the pre"i*inar$ investi ation.000 pesos. This pro/e!ure *akes it easier for the Steno raphers an! the witnesses.002.00G or ri ht after the /on!u/t of the pre"i*inar$ e6a*ination /on!u/te! in the rave threats /o*p"aint a ainst hi*. respon!ent e6p"ains as fo""ows: Hhat N/o*p"ainantO /"ai*e! in his ?etter:Co*p"aint that the Court Steno rapher has a prepare! sheet of 5uestions !urin the pre"i*inar$ e6a*ination is t'ue #e/ause after a /o*p"aint is fi"e!. . So*e witnesses even ask to rea!Cstu!$ the 5uestion an! re5uest that the$ write !own their answers to the 5uestions for the Steno raphers to fina"i4e. Be states that the /o*p"ainant in the sai! /ase was not DARAB Sheriff An e"es. Respon!ent states.*. Prohi#ition with App"i/ation for Pre"i*inar$ In<un/tion an! E6:Parte . he a""e es that the respon!ent <u! e ha! #een #iase! when hearin his /ase. .G A!*ittin /o*p"ainant3s a""e ation that the /ourt steno rapher e6a*ine! /o*p"ainant an! his witnesses !urin the pre"i*inar$ investi ation of the rave threats /o*p"aint a ainst hi* with the use of prepare! written set of 5uestions. the pre"i*inar$ /onferen/eCpre:tria" was set #ut was not ter*inate! !ue to the a#sen/e of /o*p"ainant or his /ounse".+ In fa/t.. he an! his witnesses atten!e!.u"$ 1(.

O this #ein her first offense. the presu*ption is that he was /hosen #e/ause he was !ee*e! fit an! /o*petent to e6er/ise that <u! *ent an! !is/retion. Bias an! partia"it$ of a <u! e *ust #e prove! #$ /"ear an! /onvin/in evi!en/e. 0-:):. Prior to the a*en!*ent on O/to#er 1. .. .0. as now.000 in this wise: NHOe !ee* it proper to re/o**en! the i*position upon the respon!ent <u! e of a pena"t$ of fine in the a*ount of P. In those /ases in whi/h the proper e6e/ution of the offi/e re5uires on the part of the offi/er. . 6666 . Ru"e ((. (%@n!ers/orin supp"ie!' Then. /o*p"ainant fai"e! to su#*it an$ evi!en/e showin the respon!ent #iase! or partia" in hearin the /ase. he /annot !e"e ate his !uties to another. .00) Report. an authori4e! offi/er. the presu*ption #ein that he was /hosen #e/ause he was !ee*e! fit an! /o*petent to e6er/ise that <u! *ent an! !is/retion. . on the issue of #ias. the Tinvesti atin fis/a"T was re5uire! to T/ertif$ un!er oath that he. . As re ar!s the issue of /ontinuous hearin of the /ase #$ the respon!ent <u! e.0.une ().otion for Re/onsi!eration thereto fi"e! #$ /o*p"ainant with the Re iona" Tria" Court. a persona" e6a*ination of the /o*p"ainant in a /ri*ina" /ase an! his witnessCes was re5uire!.otion for Te*porar$ Restrainin Or!er an! the . <u! es of *uni/ipa" tria" /ourts were e*powere! to /on!u/t pre"i*inar$ investi ations in whi/h the$ e6er/ise! !is/retion in !eter*inin whether there was pro#a#"e /ause to ha"e the respon!ent into /ourt. The Court fin!s the eva"uation we"":taken. Bran/h EG. an! un"ess the power to su#stitute another in his p"a/e has #een iven to hi*. the e6er/ise of <u! *ent or !is/retion.(( the OCA /a*e up with the fo""owin Eva"uation: 6666 .*avvp(i* &ina""$.. we opine that the respon!ent <u! e on"$ a/te! in oo! faith an! in a//or!an/e with "aw when she /ontinue! to !ire/t the herein /o*p"ainant to atten! the pre:tria". an! ((G of the Ru"es of Court via A. the OCA re/o**en!e! that respon!ent #e &INED in the a*ount of P.ere suspi/ion that a <u! e is #ias or partia" wou"! not #e enou h. Respon!ent shou"! not have a""owe! her steno rapher to han!"e the "atter part of the pro/ee!in s even if she on"$ wante! to e6pe!ite the pro/ee!in s an! it was *ore /onvenient. un"ess power to su#stitute another in his p"a/e has #een iven to hi*. the steno raphers took /har e of the pro/ee!in s. has persona""$ e6a*ine! the /o*p"ainant an! his witnesses .00). the Petition for Certiorari.B$ . NROespon!ent a!*itte! that after the /o*p"aint was fi"e!. Su/h #ein the /ase. An offi/er to who* a !is/retion is entruste! /annot !e"e ate it to another. re:!o/kete! the /ase an! re5uire! the parties to *anifest within ten !a$s fro* noti/e whether the$ were wi""in to su#*it the *atter for reso"ution on the #asis of the p"ea!in s fi"e! an! su#*itte!.0. the respon!ent <u! e vio"ate! the ru"es on pre"i*inar$ investi ation. Ca*arines Norte were a"rea!$ !enie!K thus the respon!ent <u! e ha! the authorit$ to pro/ee! with the /ase.000N.of Ru"es ((.(1 %Ita"i/s in the ori ina"K un!ers/orin supp"ie!' B$ Reso"ution of Au ust . No. NHOe ho"! Nrespon!entO a!*inistrative"$ "ia#"e for her unf")ili"'ity 0ith the b" ic 'ule on p'eli)in"'y in2e ti$"tion. %E*phasis an! un!ers/orin supp"ie!' &in!in respon!ent ui"t$ of ross i noran/e of the "aw or pro/e!ure. or as shown #$ the re/or!. he /annot !e"e ate his !uties to another. She further a!!e! that !urin the pre"i*inar$ investi ation an! after #riefin the a//use! an! his witnesses. she prepare! a set of 5uestions #ase! on the affi!avits of the /o*p"ainin witnesses an! /ounter affi!avits of the a//use!.an!ator$ In<un/tion an! E6:Parte . . . There was irre u"arit$ !urin the pre"i*inar$ investi ation when the respon!ent <u! e a""owe! the steno raphers to han!"e the "atter part of the pro/ee!in s. Both parties have *anifeste! in the affir*ative.00. T .(G the Court. 6 6 6 6(. an!. un!er Se/tion G. on the re/o**en!ation of the OCA. Mandamus. . Ben/e. of the Revise! Ru"es of Court #efore its a*en!*ent. Re: 3mendment of Rules **6 and **/ of t(e Revised Rules on Criminal rocedure by Removing t(e Conduct of reliminary Investigation from Judges of t(e First )evel Courts. Respon!ent <u! e shou"! have persona""$ taken /har e of the entire pro/ee!in s sin/e the po0e' to con#uct p'eli)in"'y in2e ti$"tion 2e t only on he' "n# not on the teno$'"phe'. . Thus. Base! on the re/or!s. ?a#o. Prohi#ition with App"i/ation for .E:SC. The postpone*ents in the pre:tria" were not attri#uta#"e to the respon!ent <u! e #ut to the a//use! an! his /ounse". the$ /ou"! not !e"e ate the !is/retion to another.

0. X A. Dis*issa" fro* the servi/e.000 on respon!ent. whi/h took effe/t on O/to#er 1. The Court thus fin!s in or!er the Re/o**en!ation of the OCA to i*pose a fine of P. the Court fin!s respon!ent. respon!ent #etra$e! her "a/k of know"e! e of pro/e!ure. .00-. A.0. SO ORDERED. The OCA3s re/o**en!ation to warn respon!ent that a Trepetition of the ")e "ct wi"" #e !ea"t with *ore severe"$T !oes not "ie.0. Respon!ent is thus ui"t$ of ross i noran/e of the "aw or pro/e!ure whi/h. .000' Pesos an! warne! that a /o**ission of another infra/tion whi/h is tanta*ount to the sa*e /har e sha"" #e !ea"t with *ore severe"$. That the forfeiture of #enefits sha"" in no /ase in/"u!e a//rue! "eave /re!itsK . (E for whi/h Se/tion (( %A' of the sa*e Ru"e pres/ri#es the fo""owin pena"t$: SEC. If the respon!ent is ui"t$ of a serious /har e.000 #ut not e6/ee!in PG0. 0-:):.. Suspension fro* offi/e without sa"ar$ an! other #enefits for *ore than three %1' #ut not e6/ee!in si6 %E' *onthsK or 1. in/"u!in overn*ent:owne! an! /ontro""e! /orporations.u! e Aurea 9. havin re*ove! the power of <u! es of the first "eve" /ourts(2 to /on!u/t pre"i*inar$ investi ation. an! !is5ua"ifi/ation fro* reinstate*ent or appoint*ent to an$ pu#"i/ offi/e. Sanctions. No. #$ a""owin the witnesses to Trea!Cstu!$ the NwrittenO 5uestionNsOT to #e propoun!e! to the* an! to Twrite their answers NtheretoOT upon respon!ent3s <ustifi/ation that the s/he*e was for the /onvenien/e of the steno raphers. She is &INED in the a*ount of Twent$ Thousan! %P. there#$ /ontri#utin to the erosion of pu#"i/ /onfi!en/e in the <u!i/ia" s$ste*.000.E:SC. A warnin that a /o**ission of another infra/tion tanta*ount to ross i noran/e of "aw or pro/e!ures sha"" #e !ea"t with *ore severe"$ "ies. ((.uni/ipa" Tria" Court of ?a#o. ui"t$ of 9ross I noran/e of the ?aw or Pro/e!ure. . PeFa"osa:&er*o of the .. A fine of *ore than P. rovided. forfeiture of a"" or part of the #enefits as the Court *a$ !eter*ine. Ru"e (G0 of the Ru"es of Court.. however. is a serious /har e. .<*R*1:R*. however.B$ respon!ent3s !e"e ation of the e6a*ination of the sheriff:/o*p"ainant in the rave threats /ase to the steno rapher. Ca*arines Norte. un!er Se/tion ). (o8ever. an$ of the fo""owin san/tions *a$ #e i*pose!: (.00. an! worse.

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