EXCAVATION OF

Author: Partha Das sharma, (B.Tech – Hons., in Mining Engineering) E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com, Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/

TERMINOLOGY for UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Adit Tunnel Subway Shaft Chamber Portal Pilot adit Centre Face Wall ~ site Floor Roof
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Overbreak Excavated profile Natural archling Load Support Failure Gentle failure Rock burst Squeezing ground Swelling ground Clay-filled joint Long term stability Ground treatment Support before excavation
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Jet grouted roof cover Shotcrete initial lining Jet grouted floor cover Top heading Invert Bench Final concrete lining SHIELD tunnelling method CUT & COVER tunnelling method TBM (Full face ~ Total Boring Machine)
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TERMINOLOGY for EXCAVATIONS of ROCKS & SOILS DRILLING Hardness Toughness Abrasiveness Structure Drilkling fluids AUGERING MACHINE BORING Total Boring Machine (TBM) Full face excavation BLASTING http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ 5 .

wordpress.SCRAPING RIPPING DIGGING GROUND WATER Control of groundwater Groundwater flow Rate of flow Volume of flow Boundaries http://miningandblasting.com/ 6 .

3. Made into natural material (rocks) Empty inside Carry the loads itself Both ends are open to atmosphere Generally horizontal Thick walled structure looks like cylinder http://miningandblasting. 4. 5.com/ 7 .wordpress.TUNNEL DESCRIPTION 1. 2. 6.

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Key stone 2.Bench 6.Arch 3.Top heading 8.Floor 5.Wall 4.wordpress.1.Invert http://miningandblasting.Bench line or plane 7.com/ 9 .

wordpress.Tunnel Section for Swelling Ground 1.com/ 10 .Digging section 2.Pressurized area 5.Swelling section 4.Support 3.Flow direction of water http://miningandblasting.

SURFACE EXCAVATIONS Deformation & failure http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ 11 .

........wordpress....above water table Wet tunnel.....com/ 12 .UNDERGROUND EXCAVATIONS In Rock In Sediment Stability & Arching Water Dry tunnel..........below water table Gases Carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon monoxide (CO) Methane (CH4) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) Other gases http://miningandblasting....

wordpress.com/ 13 .Gas bursts Rock falls Rock bursts Squeezing ground Temperature Subsidence http://miningandblasting.

EXPLORATION & INVESTIGATIONS RELATED of SLOPE STABILITY Geomorphologic maping and preparation of longitudinal & cross sections Geological maping & surveyings (aerial photographs) Geophysical surveyings Underground explorations.wordpress. boreholes Ground water surveyings Laboratory tests Model studies http://miningandblasting.com/ 14 .

SURFACE EXCAVATIONS Permanent Short term excavations http://miningandblasting.com/ 15 .wordpress.

wordpress. c.SUBSURFACE EXCAVATIONS 1. a.com/ 16 . b. d. GEOLOGY Soil profile or hard rock geology Structure Ground water (hydrogeology) Stability http://miningandblasting.

etc. http://miningandblasting. geologic. INVESTIGATIONS Mapping (Topographic.com/ 17 . a..) Geophysical surveying (especially seismic velocity of rocks) Trial pits & boreholes General and local stability analysis Decide to excavation method c.wordpress.2. e. b.. d.

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shaft.. mining . store.UNDERGROUND EXCAVATIONS Adit. incline. large chamber Tunnel Subway ~ metro Underpass Shelter Power house Ware house.wordpress.com/ 19 .etc http://miningandblasting..

19 of air (Highly toxic and explosive) Sulphur dioxide (SO2) http://miningandblasting.97 of air Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1.wordpress.53 of air Methane (CH4) 0.GASES (can be lethal or burst) Carbon monoxide (CO) 0.com/ 20 .55 of air (Highly explosive with air) marsh gas Hydrogene sulphide (H2S) 1.

wordpress. clay) ROCK BURST BULKING (Increase in volume.ROCK FALL SQUEEZING GROUND (sand. shale. 10-40%) http://miningandblasting. silt.com/ 21 .

FACTORS EFFECTING EXCAVATION of ROCKS Mineralogical composition of rocks Texture & fabric Petrographic features Structure Rock mass Strike & dip of beds in relation to face of excavation Intensity of tectonic disturbances Degreee of weathering http://miningandblasting.com/ 22 .wordpress.

RESISTANCE of ROCKS to EXCAVATION Loose soils Soil easy to spade Soil easy to dig Crumbling weak rocks Rocks easy to blast Rocks difficult to blast Rocks very difficult to blast http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ 23 .

TUNNELLING METHODS .

After completion of a work shaft. http://miningandblasting. the shield machine is lowered into the shaft and assembled there before excavation and construction of the tunnels using precast concrete lining segments of about 1.com/ 25 . This construction method causes minimal disruption to traffic and the environment because all the work takes place below ground and the ground level environment is unaffected.SHIELD TUNNELLING METHOD This method involves the use of shield machine to drive the tunnels below the ground.2 meter width.wordpress.

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uses diaphragm walls as temporary retaining walls within the site area.com/ 27 . installing struts as work progresses. the structure built and then covered over. and decking. Step one :Construction of diaphragm walls.wordpress. Step four : Fitting out the internal structures. and reinstating the surface structures. Step three :Construction of permanent floor slabs and walls. backfilling. http://miningandblasting. whereby the site is fully excavated. pin piles. Step two :Excavation within the diaphragm walls.CUT and COVER TUNNELLING METHOD This construction method.

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2.com/ 29 . 5.TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) 1.wordpress. 4. 3. Mechanical-support TBM Compressed-air TBM Slurry shield TBM Earth pressure balance machine Mixed-face shield TBM http://miningandblasting.

1. http://miningandblasting.com/ 30 .wordpress.Mechanical Support TBM A mechanical-support TBM has a full-face cutterhead which provides face support by constantly pushing the excavated material ahead of the cutterhead against the surrounding ground.

com/ 31 . http://miningandblasting. Confinement is achieved by pressurizing the air in the cutter chamber.2.Compressed-Air TBM A compressed-air TBM can have either a fullface cutterhead or excavating arms.wordpress.

Confinement is achieved by pressurizing boring fluid inside the cutterhead chamber.Slurry Shield TBM A slurry shield TBM has a full-face cutterhead. http://miningandblasting.3.wordpress.com/ 32 .

Earth Pressure Balance Machine An earth pressure balance machine has a full-face cutterhead.4. http://miningandblasting.com/ 33 . Confinement is achieved by pressurizing the excavated material in the cutterhead chamber.wordpress.

wordpress. http://miningandblasting.5.Mix-Face Shield TBM Mix-face shield TBMs have full-face cutterheads and can work inclosed or open mode and with different confinement techniques.com/ 34 .

http://miningandblasting.wordpress. vertical and inclined layers have different kinds of loading conditions for tunnels.com/ 35 .EFFECT of GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES to TUNNEL EXCAVATION Effect of soil layers: horizontal.

Effect of faults: the relation between the fault slope direction and the tunnel direction. width of the fault zone.wordpress.com/ 36 . Relation between the fault zone and the tunnel http://miningandblasting. type and thickness of the fill material and the hydrostatic pressures in both sides of the fault are some problems in the tunnelling.

fissures) inclined inside or outside of the slope are very important regarding the stress and strength of the tunnel. http://miningandblasting.Tunnel excavations in the slopes: the discontinuities (layers.wordpress.com/ 37 .

different stresses and conditions may occur depending on the fold type. Fold axis and the tunnel direction is vertical Fold axis and the tunnel direction is parallel http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ 38 .Effect of the folds: While tunnel is excavated in an area that contains folded rocks.

CLASSIFICATION of ROCKS for TUNNELING PURPOSES .

com/ 40 . http://miningandblasting.wordpress. But. that the tunnel will be constructed in. The classification of the rocks.Classification of rocks for engineering purposes is needed in analyzing the project costs and to obtain an economic and reliable solution. it is too general and gives qualitative results. is first done by Terzaghi.

com/ 41 .wordpress.Rock classification and determination of unsupported span http://miningandblasting.

wordpress.com/ 42 .ONE of the LONGEST IRRIGATION TUNNELS in the WORLD http://miningandblasting.

http://miningandblasting.62 m in diameter and 26.wordpress.Consist of two concrete lined tunnels each of which is 7.com/ 43 .4 km in length discharging water from the reservoir of Atatürk Dam.

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