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User name: Rica Young Book: Crit ical Thinking: A S t udent 's Int roduct ion, 5t h Edit ion Page: 91. No part of any book may be reproduced or t ransmit t ed by any means w it hout t he publisher's prior permission. Use (ot her t han qualified fair use) in v iolat ion of t he law or Terms of S erv ice is prohibit ed. V iolat ors w ill be prosecut ed t o t he full ext ent of t he law .

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11/20/13

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User name: Rica Young Book: Crit ical Thinking: A S t udent 's Int roduct ion, 5t h Edit ion Page: 92. No part of any book may be reproduced or t ransmit t ed by any means w it hout t he publisher's prior permission. Use (ot her t han qualified fair use) in v iolat ion of t he law or Terms of S erv ice is prohibit ed. V iolat ors w ill be prosecut ed t o t he full ext ent of t he law .

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CSULB ETEC 171 Fall 2013 ryoung&tchen

Chapter 4: Textbook Exercise Answers


Exercise 4.1 I. 1. Vague and overgeneral. 5. Vague and overgeneral. 9. Overgeneral. 2. Overgeneral. 6. Vague and overgeneral. 10. Vague and overgeneral. 3. Overgeneral. 7. Overgeneral. 4. Overgeneral. 8. Vague and overgeneral. II. 1. Vague and overgeneral (not to mention ungrammatical). Terms such as verbal assaults and derogatory comments are highly vague. Much of the language is also overgeneral (e.g., any language or behavior that challenges another person or puts them in a state of fear or anxiety apparently counts as harassment). 2. Ambiguous because of unclear pronoun references. It could refer to Sheridans having called the honorable member a liar or to the honorable members being a liar. 3. Ambiguous. Should the security officer have experience as a shoplifter or as someone who has enforced laws against shoplifting? 4. Unhelpfully vague. How likely is it to rain? 5 percent? 95 percent? 5. Ambiguous. Who, precisely, is on drugs? 6. Ambiguous. With relish could refer to the condiment made of chopped pickles, or it could describe the enjoyment with which the cheesecake was eaten. 7. Ambiguous. Whose bottom is enormous, Ellens or the ships? (If you have time, you might use this comical sentence to remind students about the confusion caused by dangling modifiers.) 8. Overgeneral. Of course the minister was against sin, but Coolidge, very cleverly, doesnt provide specifics. 9. Ambiguous. Does this mean (a) that only riders carrying dogs may ride the elevator or (b) that riders accompanied by dogs must carry those dogs? 10. Ambiguous. Who is hot, Bob or Devlin? And "hot " in what sense? 11. Ambiguous. 12. Ambiguous. Without parentheses it is impossible to know how to proceed in solving this equation. Is it (3 + 5) x 3 = 24? Or is it 3 + (5 x 3) = 18? 13. Ambiguous. 14. Ambiguous. The verb bear can mean carry, produce, or tolerate. 15. Ambiguous. 16. Brilliantly ambiguous. The phrase lose no time in reading it can be read to mean that Disraeli would immediately read the manuscript or refuse to waste his time. 17. Vague and overgeneral. The words small and brown have fuzzy meanings (How small? What shade of brown?). And the phrase small brown dog is not specific enough to distinguish the lost dog from many other dogs. Generous reward is also vague because there are many borderline cases. A million dollars is clearly generous; a nickel is not. But what about one hundred dollars? 18. Ambiguous. A teacher is hitting lazy students, or the teachers are on strike, which is leaving the kids with nothing to do. 19. Ambiguous pronoun reference: she can refer to either Jana or her sister. 20. Ambiguous, thankfully. III. 1. Verbal 4. Factual 7. Factual 2. Factual 5. Verbal 8. Verbal 3. Verbal 6. Verbal Exercise 4.2 I. Will vary II. Will Vary III. 1. Stipulative 5. Stipulative 9. Precising 2. Lexical 6. Precising 10. Persuasive 3. Persuasive 7. Lexical 11. Persuasive 4. Precising 8. Stipulative 12. Precising