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CSULB ETEC 171 Fall 2013 ryoung&tchen

Study Guide: Quiz 1 Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 12


Part I. True/False Indicate in the space provided whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). ____ 1. Can I get you something to drink? is a statement. ____ 2. Wishful thinking is the tendency to accept and defend beliefs that accord with one's own self-interest. ____ 3. Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to all or virtually all members of the group. ____ 4. Relativistic thinking is thinking that is based on the assumption that truth is simply a matter of opinion. ____ 5. A person is guilty of practical inconsistency when he or she is hypocritical or fails to practice what he or she preaches. ____ 6. An argument, as that term is used in critical thinking, is a quarrel or dispute between two or more persons. ____ 7. General encyclopedias are excellent starting points for finding information about a topic. ____ 8. All sentences are statements. ____ 9. Ought imperatives are statements. ____ 10. Conditional statements are "if-then" statements. ____ 11. There are two kinds of arguments: deductive arguments and inductive arguments. ____ 12. Inductive arguments always move from particular premises to a general conclusion. ____ 13. Probably, likely, and it is a good bet that are common induction indicator words. ____ 14. A writer commits plagiarism if he or she paraphrases material from an outside source with no acknowledgment given to the source. ____ 15. Statistical arguments are generally inductive arguments. Part II. Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following does not have to be acknowledged or documented? a. any generally known facts b. any ideas not your own c. direct quotations d. statistics and the results of surveys 2. The goal of a good paraphrase is a. to capture the essence of the original passage. b. to substitute synonyms for synonyms. c. to summarize briefly the main point of a passage. d. none of the above 3. According to the text, plagiarism is wrong because a. it is a kind of kidnapping or theft. b. it violates the principles of academic integrity. c. both a and b d. none of the above 4. Self-interested thinking is a form of a. emotive thinking. b. short-term thinking. c. sociocentrism. d. egocentrism.

CSULB ETEC 171 Fall 2013 ryoung&tchen

5. Statements in an argument offered as evidence or reasons in support of another statement are called a. justifying reasons. b. explanatory reasons. c. premises. d. conclusions. 6. Words or phrases that provide clues when premises or conclusions are being offered are called a. indicator words. b. signal words. c. signifying phrases. d. markers. 7. Which of the following are arguments? a. reports b. conditional statements c. explanations d. none of the above 8. "Capital punishment should be abolished, because innocent people may be mistakenly executed" is an example of a. a report. b. an explanation. c. an unsupported assertion. d. an argument. 9. The argument 'Every previous U.S. president has been a man, so it's likely that the next U.S. president will be a man.' is a. deductive. b. inductive. c. neither deductive nor inductive. d. both deductive and inductive. 10. Identify the main conclusion in the following argument: Every year, innocent people are released from prison when new evidence arises proving they are not guilty of the crimes they were convicted of. This alone is good reason to reject the death penalty. But that's not the only reason. The death penalty is also ineffective as a deterrent. Besides, the number of appeals and other safeguards required in death penalty cases are an astronomical cost to the system. a. Innocent people are often convicted of crimes they did not commit. b. The death penalty is ineffective as a deterrent. c. The death penalty is too expensive. d. The death penalty should be rejected. 11. An argument in which the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises is said to be a. cogent. b. valid. c. strong. d. implicative. 12. Inductive arguments can be either a. valid or invalid. b. sound or unsound. c. true or false. d. strong or weak.

CSULB ETEC 171 Fall 2013 ryoung&tchen

13. Despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, many teen girls believe that they cannot or will not become pregnant after engaging in unprotected sex for the first time. They believe this primarily because they would prefer that it were true. In such cases, these teens are guilty of a. wishful thinking. b. egocentrism. c. the herd instinct. d. stereotyping. 14. Despite the fact that multiple studies show that advertising is effective and does impact the decision making of a large percentage of people, polls indicate that the majority of people believe they are basically immune to the influences of ads. This indicates that at least some of these people are guilty of a. sociocentrism. b. stereotyping. c. superstition. d. self-serving bias. 15. Which of the following is best treated as a non-statement? a. Philosophers have long gray beards and wear glasses. b. Philosophy is dangerous. c. Can't you understand that without justice there will be no peace? d. Please pass the salt.

CSULB ETEC 171 Fall 2013 ryoung&tchen

Answer Key: Quiz 1 Study Guide Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 12


Part I. True/False Indicate in the space provided whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). F 1. Can I get you something to drink? is a statement. F 2. Wishful thinking is the tendency to accept and defend beliefs that accord with one's own self-interest. T 3. Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to all or virtually all members of the group. T 4. Relativistic thinking is thinking that is based on the assumption that truth is simply a matter of opinion. T 5. A person is guilty of practical inconsistency when he or she is hypocritical or fails to practice what he or she preaches. F 6. An argument, as that term is used in critical thinking, is a quarrel or dispute between two or more persons. T 7. General encyclopedias are excellent starting points for finding information about a topic. F 8. All sentences are statements. T 9. Ought imperatives are statements. T 10. Conditional statements are "if-then" statements. T 11. There are two kinds of arguments: deductive arguments and inductive arguments. F 12. Inductive arguments always move from particular premises to a general conclusion. T 13. Probably, likely, and it is a good bet that are common induction indicator words. T 14. A writer commits plagiarism if he or she paraphrases material from an outside source with no acknowledgment given to the source. T 15. Statistical arguments are generally inductive arguments. Part II. Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following does not have to be acknowledged or documented? a. any generally known facts b. any ideas not your own c. direct quotations d. statistics and the results of surveys 2. The goal of a good paraphrase is a. to capture the essence of the original passage. b. to substitute synonyms for synonyms. c. to summarize briefly the main point of a passage. d. none of the above 3. According to the text, plagiarism is wrong because a. it is a kind of kidnapping or theft. b. it violates the principles of academic integrity. c. both a and b d. none of the above 4. Self-interested thinking is a form of a. emotive thinking. b. short-term thinking. c. sociocentrism. d. egocentrism.

CSULB ETEC 171 Fall 2013 ryoung&tchen

5. Statements in an argument offered as evidence or reasons in support of another statement are called a. justifying reasons. b. explanatory reasons. c. premises. d. conclusions. 6. Words or phrases that provide clues when premises or conclusions are being offered are called a. indicator words. b. signal words. c. signifying phrases. d. markers. 7. Which of the following are arguments? a. reports b. conditional statements c. explanations d. none of the above 8. "Capital punishment should be abolished, because innocent people may be mistakenly executed" is an example of a. a report. b. an explanation. c. an unsupported assertion. d. an argument. 9. The argument 'Every previous U.S. president has been a man, so it's likely that the next U.S. president will be a man.' is a. deductive. b. inductive. c. neither deductive nor inductive. d. both deductive and inductive. 10. Identify the main conclusion in the following argument: Every year, innocent people are released from prison when new evidence arises proving they are not guilty of the crimes they were convicted of. This alone is good reason to reject the death penalty. But that's not the only reason. The death penalty is also ineffective as a deterrent. Besides, the number of appeals and other safeguards required in death penalty cases are an astronomical cost to the system. a. Innocent people are often convicted of crimes they did not commit. b. The death penalty is ineffective as a deterrent. c. The death penalty is too expensive. d. The death penalty should be rejected. 11. An argument in which the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises is said to be a. cogent. b. valid. c. strong. d. implicative. 12. Inductive arguments can be either a. valid or invalid. b. sound or unsound. c. true or false. d. strong or weak.

CSULB ETEC 171 Fall 2013 ryoung&tchen

13. Despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, many teen girls believe that they cannot or will not become pregnant after engaging in unprotected sex for the first time. They believe this primarily because they would prefer that it were true. In such cases, these teens are guilty of a. wishful thinking. b. egocentrism. c. the herd instinct. d. stereotyping. 14. Despite the fact that multiple studies show that advertising is effective and does impact the decision making of a large percentage of people, polls indicate that the majority of people believe they are basically immune to the influences of ads. This indicates that at least some of these people are guilty of a. sociocentrism. b. stereotyping. c. superstition. d. self-serving bias. 15. Which of the following is best treated as a non-statement? a. Philosophers have long gray beards and wear glasses. b. Philosophy is dangerous. c. Can't you understand that without justice there will be no peace? d. Please pass the salt.