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# LSAT Workbook

3 Lesson One: An Introduction to the LSAT 9 Lesson Two: Welcome to the Workbook! 84 Lesson Three: An Introduction to Logic Games 115 Lesson Four: Logical Reasoning Main Point, Logical Completion, Method of Reasoning, and Role of Statement Questions 137 Lesson Five: Inference and Disagreement Questions 181 Lesson Six: Strengthening, Weakening, and Paradox Questions 217 Lesson Seven: An Introduction to Reading Comprehension 251 Lesson Eight: Grouping Games 261 Lesson Nine: Assumption Questions 297 Lesson Ten: Flawed Reasoning 322 Lesson Eleven: Reading Comprehension II 327 Lesson Twelve: Advanced Sequence Hybrid Games 368 Review: Prep Test 61 337 Lesson Thirteen: Parallel Reasoning and Principle Questions

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An Introduction to the LSAT

LSAT Course Workbook
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Why we o!er a free LSAT course
• A!ordable - all you need to do get started is download the June 2007 test from lsac.org , and to enjoy the full course all you need to buy is one book of 10 LSATs (buying a second book, to really hone your skills at prep tests, is suggested, but not required). • Excellent – we have many of same basic strategies as the major test preparation companies, but I’ve reﬁned and improved many of them over my years of teaching. I started teaching the LSAT in 1996, and by working with 1000s of students, I’ve seen how some companies’ strategies are needlessly confusing and/or deceptively simple. • Why do we do this – the purpose of standardized testing, from the ﬁrst known standardized test in human history (the Chinese Civil Service exam) to the LSAT, is to ﬁnd the students with the greatest ability. Money should not be a barrier to the best possible performance.

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The LSAT
• Three scored sections • Two sections of Logical Reasoning " The heart of the LSAT, the most important part of any preparation course. • One section of Analytical Reasoning (Logic Games) " The scariest section, but it has gotten easier since 2004 " Students typically see the most dramatic improvements here • One section of Reading Comprehension " The most straight-forward section, so we spend the least amount of time on it, but don’t ignore it in your preparation.
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The LSAT
• One experimental section " Always in the ﬁrst three sections, could be any of the three section types " No way to tell which one is experimental before the test, but you can ﬁgure it out afterward. For example, if you had Logic Games ﬁrst and fourth, you know the ﬁrst section was experimental. • One Writing Sample " Not scored (there was a recent scare that it would be scored, but that possibility has been tabled “indeﬁnitely”) " Used as proof of ability to write in the English language. It’s not a major factor in admissions, so we don’t spend any time on it in class

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Scoring on the LSAT
• 120-180 (just like the SAT 200-800) • Raw score is the number of questions you get right (there are no points o! for wrong answers, so always guess!) • Raw score is equated to a “scaled score” on the 120-180 scale, which is equivalent to a percentile – the test is curved using experimental sections; i.e., the curve is not simply against those who take the same LSAT as you. The di#cultly of a test has been determined beforehand. • Just three more points, three more correct answers, in each scored section can be enough to boost your percentile by 20, so a little improvement goes a long way!

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aspx • Register for the LSAT: the best locations ﬁll up quickly!: • http://lsac.pdf • Purchase the 10 New Actual LSAT Prep Tests w/ Comparative Reading: • https://os.Before you go to Lesson Two • Take the free June 2007 LSAT: http:// lsac.org/JD/LSAT/test-datesdeadlines.asp LSAT Course Workbook www.org/Release/Shop/ PublicationDetail.lsac.org/jd/pdfs/SamplePTJune.com .CaseBriefs.

Welcome to the workbook! • This workbook is intended to be read along with the video.CaseBriefs. You’ll also ﬁnd exercises not included in the videos. you also need your June 2007 Prep Test on hand.com . I’ve tried to include anything not included in the video. For this lesson. Let’s get started! LSAT Course Workbook www. Take your time to do them before we move on.

Your ﬁrst prep test • Don’t worry too much about your score. It’s just a baseline to see how much you need to improve to get the score you want. As you can see in the video.com .CaseBriefs. even slight improvements in your raw score (the number of questions you get right) can lead to dramatic improvements in your percentile (the percentage of students LSAT Course Workbook www.

com .CaseBriefs. Section II. Here’s a question from your recent test: • June 2007. and ultimately. ﬁrst. it’s up LSAT Course Workbook www. #21 • I think that you should read the passage.Lesson Two: Logical • So let’s get started with Logical Reasoning. I feel that one becomes a better reader and analyzer of arguments this way. Others might disagree. not the question.

LSAT Course Workbook www. these thousands of authors produce questions that all “think” roughly the same way.” The LSAT questions are written by thousands of individual authors. Even if we are convinced by the reasoning. Section II.June 2007. • It is an oversimpliﬁcation to say that “the LSAT thinks.CaseBriefs. the questions asks us for where the argument is “most vulnerable to criticism” implying that the LSAT thinks this is a bad argument. But as we shall see. If we can learn more about this kind of thinking. we’ll be well on our way to mastering the test. #21 • The ﬁrst step is to understand that this is a poor argument.com .

#21 • So the LSAT thinks this argument is a bad one? Why? Because the evidence does not fully support the conclusion. On the LSAT. So we accept that minivans have lower accident rates than sports cars. we almost never get to the right answer by doubting the evidence. we accept the evidence. but we doubt that changing cars would cause the Driver to drive more safely.June 2007. but on the LSAT. It might be true that the Driver has done some poor research and that accident rates are really not lower for minivans.CaseBriefs. yet doubt the conclusion. Section II. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

com . so it’s not hard to see that it is ﬂawed in some major way.CaseBriefs. #21 • It is a pretty silly conclusion. who is responsible for driving safely or recklessly. LSAT Course Workbook www. Section II. But the di!cult part of the LSAT is translating our gut response that the argument is poor into a correct answer. Most of us realize that it’s not the kind of car.June 2007. but the driver.

com . #21 • So we are asked to choose an answer that tells us where the argument is at its most vulnerable. Clearly. LSAT Course Workbook www. there is some kind of cause and e!ect error here.CaseBriefs. So we have to ask ourselves. what did this argument do? It gave evidence that minivans have lower accident rates than sports cars. Section II. then. It concluded that a minivan would cause the driver to drive more safely.June 2007.

June 2007.com . proved that owning a minivan would cause him to drive more safely. The driver took evidence of a correlation (which is just a fancy word for some kind of statistical relationship) and mistakenly concluded that the relationship was causal. that minivans have a lower accident rate. If our same reckless driver purchased a minivan. #21 • In the drivers mind. he probably would be just as likely to crash it as he would a corvette.CaseBriefs. Let’s take a look at the answer choices: LSAT Course Workbook www. Section II. What’s really going on here is that minivans have lower accident rates than sports cars because di!erent kinds of drivers buy di!erent kinds of cars. his research ﬁndings.

Section II. so you must understand how they can be employed correctly and incorrectly in order to get a large number of questions right.! There are positive correlations: as your LSAT score increases. LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. your chances of getting into Yale increase. #21 • A) "infers a cause from a mere correlation":! correlations are very common on the LSAT. A correlation is a statistical relationship that appears not to be merely coincidental.com .June 2007.

! In the last two examples.com . the less likely it is that one will have heart disease. Section II. it is clear that there also a causal relationship at work.! LSAT Course Workbook www. We know that a high LSAT score is a major factor (a factor is a synonym for a cause) in getting into a good law school. just as we know that exercise is a factor in having a healthy heart.CaseBriefs.June 2007. #21 • There are also negative correlations: the more one exercises.

LSAT Course Workbook www. but it! is also possible that vegetarians might engage in other healthy behaviors (exercise.com . etc) that are the true cause of their longer life spans. Such a study suggests that being a vegetarian contributes to longevity. not smoking.June 2007. #21 • But there can be other correlations that do not necessarily imply a causal relationship. Section II.! Let's say that we did a study that showed that vegetarians were more likely to live longer than meateaters.CaseBriefs.

On test day.June 2007. #21 • “A” states clearly what the argument did incorrectly. if we have done the work analyzing the argument properly. Also. even the best LSAT test-takers will sometimes not see exactly what an argument did improperly.CaseBriefs. But for now it’s instructive to look at the incorrect answers. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . Section II. and so will have to decide between the competing answer choices. we could conﬁdently pick A and move on.

But because we know nothing about the driver’s research – its sources. the size of its sample – we want to avoid this answer choice.com . It’s speculative. Section II.CaseBriefs. #21 • B) “relies on a sample that is too narrow.” This might be true. LSAT Course Workbook www. We really know nothing about how extensive the driver’s research was. whereas we have clear proof that the driver deﬁnitely committed the error in answer choice A.June 2007.

But C fails because the argument’s evidence doesn’t even do that. #21 • C) “misinterprets evidence that a result is likely as evidence that a result is certain. Section II.com . and then the driver concluded that. and it’s the leap from correlation to causation that is the argument’s fatal ﬂaw. It only establishes a correlation. after purchasing a minivan.June 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.” C would be better if the argument had evidence that minivans DO cause a majority of drivers to drive more safely. he deﬁnitely WILL be a safer driver.

In this argument.com . there are none of the key words that indicate conditional reasoning. Section II. Su!cient/necessary reversals are extremely common on the LSAT. Such words (all. every. only. depends. see the analysis of 23. etc.) must be present in order to declare that answer choice like D is correct. unless. however.) LSAT Course Workbook www. #21 • D) "mistakes a condition su!cient for bringing about a result for a condition necessary for doing so“." when. so you need to be aware of them. except. if.CaseBriefs.June 2007." (For a further discussion of su!cient and necessary conditions.

CaseBriefs.com . Therefore. attacking the sources for an argument's evidence is usually a major LSAT ﬂaw. #21 • E) "relies on a source that is probably not well-informed":! We have no indication that the Driver's sources are suspect. Section II.! • Let’s look at another problem that contains a bad argument: LSAT Course Workbook www. it would be a mistake to speculate as to whether or not his sources are appropriate.! Actually.June 2007.

June 2007. what we "should" do. "we should make the protection of our client's conﬁdentiality our highest priority.CaseBriefs. Section II.com . We’ll discuss these keywords further when we get into Main Points questions in Lesson 4. #17 • The ﬁrst step is analyzing any argument is identifying the conclusion." Usually. there are two features of the last sentence that indicate it contains the argument's main point: 1) "In light of this testimony" : this phrase introduces that last sentence. 2) "we should make" : conclusions often tell us what the author thinks we "should" do. conclusions can be identiﬁed through conclusion keywords. LSAT Course Workbook www.! The argument starts with the opinion of "computer experts" which forms the basis of a call to action. The conclusion is that. and tells us that the testimony supports what follows. Although there are no typical conclusion keywords here.

Statements that contain words such as these are called "prescriptive" because they (like a doctor) "prescribe" what we ought to do. ("You should brush your teeth twice a day. simply enough. #17 • Words like "should" and "ought" do not describe the world as it is.June 2007.com ." because such statements also can be used to deﬁne what is proper. Section II. it’s enough to know that prescriptive statements are often part of a conclusion. "normal" behavior.CaseBriefs. You might also might hear them referred to as "normative. they indicate to us a good course of action. because a conclusion is trying to convince us of what we “should” believe or do.") Statements that merely describe the world are called.“ We’ll talk more about this prescriptive/descriptive distinction when we cover Assumptions in Lesson 9 and Principle Questions in Lesson 13. LSAT Course Workbook www. "descriptive. For now.

Section II. and we know it’s a bad one.” So why is wrong for a hospital executive to conclude that “we should make the protection of our clients’ conﬁdentiality our highest priority”? LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .June 2007. #17 • We know what the conclusion is.” So what is wrong here? The evidence is that “several computer experts maintained that the most signiﬁcant threat faced by large institutions such as universities and hospitals is unauthorized access to conﬁdential data. because the question stem tells us to ﬁnd the “objection” to which the argument is “most vulnerable.

com . patients. maybe even lawyers? LSAT Course Workbook www. Wouldn’t it also be worthwhile to consult the opinions of doctors.June 2007. but when I go to a hospital. and. Section II. it’s odd that the hospital executive would only seek the opinion of a computer expert. nurses. I’m most concerned with leaving alive.CaseBriefs. let’s think about this is the simplest terms possible: what do you think should be a hospital’s highest priority? I don’t know about you. heaven forbid. Also. #17 • Well. and a more minor concern might be my private information being hacked by Wikileaks or News Corporation.

June 2007. This kind of choice might be tempting for some students.” This choice doesn’t seem to apply at all. and feel that the LSAT is trying to play a trick on them. yet you understand all the words in the choice.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www. because they don’t get it. #17 • Let’s look at the answer choices: • A) “The argument confuses the causes of a problem with the appropriate solutions to a problem.com . the choice is meaningless in the context of the argument and therefore incorrect. Section II. Usually. but the choice itself. The “causes” of unauthorized access are not discussed. if you don’t understand a choice. it’s probably not you that’s wrong. Don’t even let yourself get bullied by a choice: if you don’t get it.

or lawyers). Section II.CaseBriefs. and all it’s really saying is that these computer experts (unless we were told that they are also doctors. or patients. LSAT Course Workbook www. or nurses.com .” This is the correct answer choice. #17 • B) “The argument relies on the testimony of experts whose expertise is not shown to be su!ciently broad to support their general claim. don’t have the knowledge to decide what should be the highest priority for a hospital.June 2007.

CaseBriefs. I hope you can see how learning the common LSAT ﬂaws can really help your performance on Logical Reasoning.” This is the same ﬂaw from the previous question. but it’s wrong here. Section II.June 2007.com . it was correct then. We’ll discuss this further in Lesson 8. #17 • C) “The argument assumes that a correlation between two phenomena is evidence that one is the cause of the other. LSAT Course Workbook www.

their expertise would not be wide enough to dictate what a large.com . #17 • D) “The argument draws a general conclusion about a group based on data about an unrepresentative sample of that group. LSAT Course Workbook www. Perhaps these computer experts are particularly crazy.” This choice is similar to B from the previous question. But even if ALL computer experts everywhere agreed that protecting conﬁdentiality should be the highest priority. Section II. While this can be the ﬂaw on a Logical Reasoning question. there is usually speciﬁc evidence that the sample is too small or drawn from a part of a group that probably does not speak for the whole.CaseBriefs. complex institution like a hospital should do. the answer choice that said that the Driver’s research was based on too narrow a sample.June 2007.

LSAT Course Workbook www. #17 • E) “The argument infers that a property belonging to large institutions belongs to all institutions.June 2007. Section II.” The argument never makes a leap from large institutions to all institutions.com .CaseBriefs. so this choice is clearly incorrect.

Section II.” Well.com .June 2007.CaseBriefs. Those of you who have taken another LSAT course might object: “My teacher told me that common sense plays no roll on the LSAT. If we weren’t able to use our common sense realization that a hospital has more important things to worry about than hiding a patient’s private information. #17 • You may have noticed that I relied a bit on common sense earlier. that the real world doesn’t matter. You don’t have to take my word for it. that only the passage is real. that’s just not true. we would probably ﬁnd that question much more di!cult. Let’s see what the LSAT authors have to say: LSAT Course Workbook www.

com .Logical Reasoning LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.

Now let’s tackle another question.CaseBriefs. let’s just make sure that it is good common sense.Logical Reasoning • The passage trumps any outside knowledge. But you can use common sense on the LSAT.com . LSAT Course Workbook www. Part of learning the LSAT is learning how to reﬁne your thinking so your own intuitive reasoning becomes more precise and more powerful.

the conclusion is that “the human species could not have survived prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural environments” is false.CaseBriefs.”. What is the evidence for this? LSAT Course Workbook www.” concludes that this claim is false.com . “Some anthropologists argue…. #25 • The conclusion is introduced by conclusion key word. This argument structure is very common: the argument begins with a claim about what “some people think. Sec III. “hence. The conclusion is “the anthropologists’ claim is false.” We’ll say more about conclusion key words when we discuss Main Point questions in Lesson 4.June 2007.” So what was that that claim? The argument begins with that claim. So really.

which had had such an ability to cope with diverse environments. Australopithecus Afarensis. LSAT Course Workbook www.June 2007. even if such an ability is not enough to guarantee survival. So why is this evidence not enough to prove the conclusion is true? Because it is still possible that humans NEEDED the ability to survive in diverse environments. Let’s now take a look at the answer choices. but did not survive.com .CaseBriefs. Sec III. #25 • The evidence is of one species.

because Australopithecus Afarensis became extinct. the ability to cope with diverse environments.com .CaseBriefs. Sec III.e. but all it is saying is that the argument confuses a condition that is required (“necessary”). i. #25 • A) This is the correct answer.June 2007. The anthropologists claimed that such an ability was necessary.. and so the anthropologists were wrong. Let’s think of a similarly ﬂawed argument: LSAT Course Workbook www. with one that is enough to ensure survival (“su!cient”). The argument claimed that such an ability was not su!cient. The language might be confusing.

This argument is analogous to that in #25. • Sean: No it’s not. Sec III. that it guarantees survival. The arguer only showed that an ability to cope with diverse environments is not su!cient. #25 • David: Water is necessary for survival.June 2007. My uncle Shamus had plenty of water. so it is incorrect to say that the anthropologists are “wrong” LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. Sean’s argument fails because in giving an example that proves that water is not su!cient. • It’s clear here that David was not saying that water is su!cient.com . His claim was that it was necessary. because the arguer did nothing to disprove the anthropologists’ claim. and he still died. he has done nothing to disprove David.

Sec III. But before we discuss this topic further.com . let’s take a quick look at the other answer choices.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www. #25 • This question introduced the theme of su!cient and necessary conditions. which is the one of most important and di!cult topics in LSAT prep.June 2007.

So this choice must be incorrect. LSAT Course Workbook www. So this is clearly incorrect. • C) This choice mentions a species that survived. #25 • B) This choice mentions a “related extinct species” but there is no speciﬁc species mentioned other than Austalopithecus afarensis.com . but all that is mentioned in the argument is a species that went extinct.June 2007.CaseBriefs. Sec III.

rather than what it failed to do.com . LSAT Course Workbook www. But when choosing the argument’s most vulnerable weakness.• D) This choice is kind of interesting. So it’s tempting.CaseBriefs. we should ﬁrst focus on what the argument actually did. The most serious error is the confusion of su!cient and necessary conditions. so A remains a better choice. because clearly the arguer “failed to consider” lots of factors that might have led to Austalopithecus afarensis’ extinction.

went extinct. Sec III. So this choice doesn’t apply to this argument and is therefore incorrect. #25 • E) describes a cause and e!ect error.com . But this argument doesn’t deal with cause and e!ect.June 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www.A.CaseBriefs. It never tells us why A.

Conditional Reasoning • Now let’s discuss more deeply one of the most vexing topics for LSAT students.CaseBriefs.com . which involves the diagramming of su!cient and necessary conditions. conditional reasoning. LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs.Conditional Reasoning • “To get into Yale Law School.) LSAT Course Workbook www. one must take the LSAT. I put a slash through a statement to negate it.com . In the workbook. I use the tilda (~) to negate a statement.” • YLS!LSAT • LSAT ! YLS is a bad reversal • ~LSAT!~YLS is a bad negation • ~LSAT!~YLS is the contrapositive (which is good!) • (In the video.

” • “One cannot go to Yale Law School unless one takes the LSAT.CaseBriefs. and can be diagrammed thus: • YLS ! LSAT LSAT Course Workbook www.” • “All those who attend Yale Law School have taken the LSAT. one must take the LSAT.” • All of the above statement are logically equivalent.” • “Only those who have taken the LSAT may attend Yale Law School.Conditional Reasoning • “To get into Yale Law School.com .

CaseBriefs.Conditional Reasoning: su!cient condition words • Words that introduce su!cient conditions: " All " Every " Any " “People who” " If " When LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

CaseBriefs.Conditional Reasoning: necessary condition words • Words that introduce necessary conditions: ! Only (or “Only if”) ! Must ! Depends ! Always ! Requires ! Needs LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

CaseBriefs.com .Conditional Reasoning: “no” statements • • • • “No man is a ﬁsh” M!~F Contrapositive: F!~M (No ﬁsh is a man) A “no” statement has a positive su!cient condition and a negated necessary condition. " LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs.com . Negate the su!cient condition.Conditional Reasoning: “unless” statements • “You cannot go to Yale Law School unless you take the LSAT” • YLS!LSAT • Contrapositive: ~LSAT!~YLS • “Unless”: what the “unless” refers to. make the necessary condition. • The same applies to “except” and “without” LSAT Course Workbook www. it becomes positive in the diagram. If the condition is already negative (“cannot go Yale Law School”).

com .Conditional Reasoning: “if and only if” • “You can go to the party if you do your LSAT homework.” • P!LHW • “You can go to the party if and only if you do your LSAT homework.” • P<--->LHW ! LSAT Course Workbook www.” • LHW!P • “You can go to the party only if you do your LSAT homework.CaseBriefs.

Lexy is fast. argument.! We could diagram the argument this way: C!F L: C " ____!!!!!! L: F LSAT Course Workbook www. • All cougars are fast.CaseBriefs.com . or perfect. If we accept the truth of the premises.Conditional Reasoning • Here is another argument that involves conditional reasoning (this argument is not in the video). Lexy is a cougar. Therefore. this is a valid.

it is enough to know that this animal is fast.a su!cient condition is one that is "enough" to know something else. condition of being a cougar. the necessary condition. the condition on the right. we put the su!cient condition on the left side of the arrow.com . because this condition leads to.Conditional Reasoning • "All" is a word that introduces a su!cient condition . an animal being a cougar is su!cient. Being fast is a necessary. LSAT Course Workbook www." Now consider this argument.CaseBriefs. or implies. In this case. or required." When diagramming a statement.

LSAT Course Workbook www. This is a ﬂawed argument. she could be many things besides a cougar: she could be a cheetah. but it is ﬂawed to conclude that she is one.com . Lexy is fast.Conditional Reasoning • All cougars are fast. the correct answer choice from the previous question?" If we were asked to describe the ﬂaw in the argument above.) Just because Lexy is fast. It would be legitimate to conclude that Lexy might be a cougar. answer choice A would be correct here as well. Therefore. or any number of other fast entities.CaseBriefs. Lexy is a cougar. a marathon runner. because it reverses su!cient and necessary conditions." (Remember answer choice A. a sports car.

Sec II. #23 • Now let’s discuss more deeply one of the most vexing topics for LSAT students. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .June 2007. To get started. #23 in section II.CaseBriefs. su!cient and necessary conditions. let’s look at another di!cult question from the June 2007 test.

CaseBriefs. and measures actions' morality by how they increase or decrease the "aggregate well-being of people a!ected" by them. but with enough LSAT practice. #23 • The argument deals with morality." In other words. • This kind of thinking about morality is called “utilitarianism.June 2007.stanford.com . you will start to become more comfortable with philosophical jargon such as this. Sec II." Many students will ﬁnd the language in this argument di#cult. actions are moral or immoral depending on how happy or unhappy they make most people.” You can ﬁnd out more about it here: http://plato.edu/entries/ utilitarianism-history/ LSAT Course Workbook www.

will be wrong. Sec II." Questions like this often contain conditional reasoning arguments. make the argument logically valid. but not complete.com .June 2007. are extremely common in this question type." Su!cient Assumption questions require that you make the argument perfect. An answer choice that simply makes the argument better. which are part of conditional reasoning. because such arguments (unlike most arguments. Su!cient Assumption questions. in other words.CaseBriefs. #23 • This argument also contains su!cient and necessary conditions. even very reasonable ones) can be made perfect: LSAT Course Workbook www." The question asks us for an answer choice that will make the conclusion "follow logically". These conditions.

#23 • The ﬁrst sentence of the argument can be diagrammed thus: IAW!MR The keyword "if. LSAT Course Workbook www. the diagram will not work to your advantage." "MR" stands for "Morally Right.CaseBriefs." like "all. Sec II.com . Your diagram will be very sloppy if you diagram the ﬁrst sentence REIAWPA!MR"""" "REIAWPA" stands for "Reasonably Expected to Increase the Aggregate Well-being of People A#ected. and counter-productive. complicated than the argument itself.June 2007.if the diagram is just as." introduces a su!cient condition. or more."" Try to keep your abbreviations brief. "EIW" stands for "Expected to Increase Well-being. it is awkward." While more complete than the abbreviation above." The purpose of diagramming is to take a superﬁcially complicated argument and reduce to a simple logical structure .

June 2007. #23 • The second sentence of the argument features the expression "if and only if."! "If" introduces a su"cient condition.com . Sec II. "if and only if" introduces conditions that are BOTH su"cient and necessary for each other. So. so we can diagram the second sentence thus: • RAW<---> MW LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. "only if" introduces a necessary condition.

Now let's look at the conclusion: Thus. one that gives us a su"cient condition for a morally right action. and another that gives us a su"cient AND necessary condition for a morally wrong action.June 2007. If an action does not reduce the aggregate wellbeing of people. and vice versa. LSAT Course Workbook www. and vice versa. Sec II. it is not morally wrong. it reduces the aggregate well-being of people.CaseBriefs. #23 • If an action is morally wrong. actions that would be reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people a#ected by them are also right.com .! So we have two principles.

We can diagram the conclusion like this: UAW!MR Leaving the aggregate well-being unchanged (UAW) is also not increasing aggregate well-being (~IAW) and not reducing aggregate well-bring (~RAW). and we know that leaving the total well-being the same is NOT increasing it. we have principles about increasing and reducing total well-being.CaseBriefs. Sec II. #23 • The conclusion talks about a certain kind of action that is morally right: an action that leaves the aggregate well-being unchanged.com . LSAT Course Workbook www. but. nor is it reducing it.June 2007.! We have no explicit principles about actions that leave the total well-being the same.

Just because Lexy is not a cougar." To think so would be a similar ﬂaw to that described in Question 25. which tells us nothing. Consider this argument: All cougars are fast." Having the negative of the su!cient condition does NOT imply the negative of the necessary. answer choice A. LSAT Course Workbook www. doesn't mean she cannot be fast. Lexy is not a cougar. Sec II. this principle is completely useless. Lexy is not fast. we have the negation of the su!cient condition.June 2007. With UAW. But in fact.com .CaseBriefs. Therefore. so the ﬁrst premise (IAW!MR) at ﬁrst might appear helpful. #23 • We want to say that leaving total well-being unchanged is morally right.

So. Sec II. The conclusion we need to prove is that leaving total well-being unchanged is morally right. the evidence tells us that leaving the total well-being unchanged is not morally wrong (~MR). We can therefore predict that the answer choice will be: ~MW!MR A quick glance at the answer choices reveals that C is exactly this ("any" introduces a su!cient condition). LSAT Course Workbook www.com .June 2007.CaseBriefs. MW<--->RAW We know that leaving total well-being unchanged is also not reducing it. #23 • Now let's look at the second principle. We know from the diagram above that an action that does not reduce well-being is not morally wrong.

Sec II. however. we spent a great deal of time analyzing the argument. This is the best way to tackle any question that involves diagramming. allowed us to quickly spot the correct answer choice.com . such analysis. and many of those questions will be Su!cient Assumption Questions. Now let’s look some more at contrapositives. LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. #23 • For this question.June 2007.

com . you must take the LSAT and have a bachelor’s degree.CaseBriefs.” • YLS! LSAT + BD • Contrapositive: ~LSAT or ~BD ! ~YLS • When taking a contrpositive. LSAT Course Workbook www. and “and” always becomes “or”. “or” always becomes “and”.“Or”/”And” in the • “To go to Yale Law School.

unless the logic dictates otherwise.” • ~WH!~R + ~H • Contrapositive: R or H ! WH LSAT Course Workbook www. your parents will be happy. we will be neither rich nor happy.” D or L ! PH If you were both a doctor and lawyer.CaseBriefs.“Or”/”And” in the • “If you become a doctor or a lawyer. “Or” implies the possibility of both.com . • “If we do not work hard. your parents would probably be very happy.

Section III.or" statement. #22 • The ﬁrst sentence begins with the word "if. If we have any doubts about diagramming this question. the question stem should put those doubts to rest: it asks for a statement that "follows logically". In the last sentence. there is an "either. which is another way of asking for a statement that is a necessary condition of the stimulus.com .. i. we see the phrase "only if." Right away.e. a statement that "must be true".. we should be thinking that this question is a very good candidate for diagramming. LSAT Course Workbook www.” which we know introduces a necessary condition.CaseBriefs. So diagramming this question will certainly be to our beneﬁt.. In the second sentence.June 2007.

June 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. so we can diagram it thus: PCI (Price co"ee increases) ! SIP (Store will increase prices) Be careful not to diagram the ﬁrst sentence # PI ! PI. because we would have two PIs in our diagram and that would be needlessly confusing.CaseBriefs.com . Section III. #22 • If introduces the su!cient condition.

and prepositional phrases like this often introduce su!cient conditions.June 2007.com . Section III. So this second sentence can be diagrammed SIP ! SNP (Sell non-co"ee products) or CSD (Co"ee sales decrease) In the third sentence. "That case" clearly refers to the store increasing its price (SIP).CaseBriefs. "will" tells us that a "decrease in overall proﬁtability" is a necessary result of selling non-co"ee products (SNP). #22 • The second sentence starts with "in that case". so we can diagram it SNP ! DOP LSAT Course Workbook www.

If we diagram "avoid decrease in proﬁtability" as “AVP. #22 • In the last sentence. It's much better to diagram “AVP” as “~DOP”. LSAT Course Workbook www. non-proﬁtable for us. which we know introduces a necessary condition.June 2007. if you'll forgive the pun. But to do so would actually be. so might diagram it like this: • AVP (Avoid decrease in proﬁtability) ----> ~CSD (Co!ee sales do not decease. we have "only if".CaseBriefs. Section III.” that prevents us from connecting it to the “DOP” above.com . Diagrams are useful only if we can make su"cient/necessary chains from them.

June 2007.CaseBriefs. Section III. #22 • So we have this: PCI ---> SIP SIP ---> SNP or CSD SNP ---> DOP ~DOP ----> ~CSD We can make this chain: PCI ---> SIP --> SNP! ---> DOP LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

LSAT Course Workbook www. let's take the contrapositive of the entire chain.CaseBriefs. #22 • It looks like we cannot connect the last statement.June 2007.com . Section III. But if we take its contrapositive we get this: CSD ! DOP and we have connected every statement in a full chain: • PCI ! SIP ! CSD or SNP ! DOP now that we have every statement connected in a chain.

June 2007.com .CaseBriefs. Section III. #22 • So the contrapositive of the whole chain is • ~DOP !~CSD ! and ! ! ~SIP ! ~PCI • ~DOP ! ~SNP • The original chain was ! CSD ! DOP • PCI ! SIP ! or ! SNP ! DOP LSAT Course Workbook www.

if not the whole. and because these chains contain every logical statement in the passage. the answer must be at least part. Section III. of one of these chains. because we are searching for an answer choice that “follows logically” from the passage. LSAT Course Workbook www. Let’s now take a look at the answer choices . And. we know that.com .June 2007.CaseBriefs. #22 • Each of these chains are COMPLETELY logically equivalent.

~PCI could be true and the price could stay the same. LSAT Course Workbook www. Section III. • E) Can be diagrammed thus: ~PCI ! CSI. but sales increasing was not a possibility in the passage. #22 • A) is an bad reversal of the original chain. The opposite of sales decreasing is not sales increasing. so it is correct • D) mentions the price of co!ee beans decreasing.June 2007. but remember ~PCI does not equal the price decreasing.CaseBriefs. or we could say it’s a bad negation of the contrapositive chain • B) Another bad reversal • C) Is implied by our chains. Sales could stay unchanged. Remember to be careful with your negations.com .

in some cases.CaseBriefs. But remember. that was a lot of work for just 5 questions.Review of Lesson 2 • Well. reduced to their logical essence through su!cient/necessary diagramming. The point of this lesson was to show that even the hardest questions can be broken down and explained simply. or. these were ﬁve of the hardest logical reasoning questions on the June 2007 exam. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

Which we will cover in Lesson 3. maybe two of these without diagramming. Can I avoid diagramming on the LSAT?” Answer: “Just because something is di!cult. that you can survive on the LR without diagramming. do not be dissuaded from doing it and you should practice these techniques. however. • Often I hear students complain about diagramming: “I’m terrible at this.CaseBriefs.com . you should the exercises at the end of the lesson. But it is absolutely necessary for the Logic Games. and you only pointed out three examples from the LR sections. LSAT Course Workbook www.Review of Lesson 2 • Before next class. Till then good luck. I could have probably gotten one. It is true.

” “requires.CaseBriefs.” introduce necessary conditions • • • • • LSAT Course Workbook www.” “every.” “all.” “needs.” “must. “depends.” “when.Review of Lesson 2 Quick recap: Correlation vs.” introduce su!cient conditions • “Only if”.com .” “people who.” “any. causation ﬂaw Expert opinion ﬂaw Su!cent/Necessary ﬂaw “If.

Su!cient Assumption. Flaw. “and” becomes “or” and “or” becomes “and” • Su!cient/Necessary conditional diagramming is common on Inference. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . and the dreaded Parallel Reasoning questions. which we shall see in Lesson 13.Review of Lesson 2 • When doing contrapositives.CaseBriefs.

CaseBriefs. • People who smile are happy. you must study hard.Diagramming exercises: diagram these and give the contrapositive • Only members of the club may enter • You cannot be a salesman unless you have a good smile. • No men may join the knitting group. • In order to pass the test. • The city will fall if it runs out of food. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

ROF!CF ~CF!~ROF LSAT Course Workbook www.Diagramming exercises: • • • • • • • • • Only members of the club may enter: E!MC ~MC!~E You cannot be a salesman unless you have a good smile. S!GS ~GS!~S The city will fall if it runs out of food.com .CaseBriefs.

S!H ~H!~S In order to pass the test. you must study hard.com . PT!SH ~SH!~PT No men may join the knitting group.CaseBriefs. M!~JKG JKG!~M LSAT Course Workbook www.Diagramming exercises: • • • • • • • • • People who smile are happy.

CaseBriefs.Lesson Three: An Introduction to Logic Games LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

Ingrid. Henry. all in 35 minutes? LSAT Course Workbook www. seat seven diplomats around a circular table.An introduction to Logic • Logic Games – o!cially called “Analytical Reasoning” on the LSAT is one of the most daunting parts of the LSAT. But who has ever had to group into departments the employees of a law ﬁrm. and Michah will view an apartment for rent. and common sense is enough to get correct at least some of the Logical Reasoning. Kiran. We’ve all had to do Reading Comprehension on standardized tests before. Leon.com . Jerome. decide in what order Gupta.CaseBriefs. and rank contestants in a dog show.

Most students see the most dramatic improvement on Logic Games.An introduction to Logic • It’s okay to fear Logic Games. and practices on as many games as possible. I’ve had many students who started out barely ﬁnishing two of the Logic Games and who managed to get near perfect scores on them when they took their actual LSAT.com . Once you’ve mastered the major game types.CaseBriefs. you will almost certainly notice a signiﬁcant improvement where you started. LSAT Course Workbook www. but do not loose hope.

An introduction to Logic • • • • The major game types are: Basic Sequencing Advanced Sequencing Grouping LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .

with the fourth game a wild card – any other of these three. unclassiﬁable game. LSAT Course Workbook www. But don’t worry too much about that last category. so the LSAT authors wanted to restore some balance to the test. you might be getting an inaccurate picture of what your actual Logic Games section will looks like.com . because they found that too many students were getting destroyed by the Games and acing the Reading Comp. So if you’ve been looking at tests from before June 2004.CaseBriefs. We haven’t seen a really strange game since 2003. or potentially a strange.An introduction to Logic • Most games sections consist of one of each of the game types. And the LSAT creators deliberately made the Games section easier beginning in June 2004 – they made the Reading Comprehension more di!cult.

or slots.com .2. LSAT Course Workbook www. Because you must place one of ﬁve items – I like to call them characters – in one of ﬁve positions. even if the rules don’t include instructions to place certain characters before. and we’ll discuss it brieﬂy at the end of class.June 2007 Logic Games • The test you just too had a game section that was rather unique. after. Let’s look at it now.3. We’ll be spending most of our time discussing basic ordering games. or next to one another. this is very similar to a sequencing game.1.CaseBriefs. It’s a unique game. and 4. The ﬁrst game asks you to assign to assign to ﬁve places the digits 0.

Friday. the main issue here is how the characters are going to be grouped. LSAT Course Workbook www.June 2007 Logic Games • The second does not have a strict onecharacter-to-one-position correspondence. so we call this a grouping game.com . This game category is the most diverse of the three major categories and will be discussed in Lesson 8.CaseBriefs. and Saturday – where at least one and up to three characters can be placed. While games with days of the week usually are classiﬁed as ordering games. There are places – Thursday.

we have three groups.CaseBriefs. the recycling centers. albeit one in which certain characters will go more than once.com . Let’s now explore more deeply the third game.June 2007 Logic Games • The third game tells us to schedule a cruise to one of four destinations in each of seven weeks. and ﬁve characters – the products that are recycled. In the last game. So this is clearly a grouping game. While there is not a one-characterto-one position correspondence. we are deﬁnitely dealing an ordering game. LSAT Course Workbook www. Let’s take a look at last game before we explore this game further.

the two Ms. • 4th rule – formal logic! “J needs a G before it. and your setup to the right of the rules. so keep deductions to a minimum LSAT Course Workbook www. but there could be another G. either within.June 2007: Game III • Put your characters in a vertical line on the left. the rules to the right. but G could go alone. • The rules: • The ﬁrst two are “gift” rules • Third rule: M – G – M.CaseBriefs. or outside of. Don’t do a bad reversal and think that G always needs a J.com . • Last rule – diagram or remember? • Deductions – basic sequencing.

CaseBriefs.June 2007: Game III setup G J M T M—G—M M=2 J! G J ~J ~T No consecutive characters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

Never erase good work. should be answerable by deductions alone (if you misunderstood the conditional rule. focusing on the problematic “J” and learn from the wrong ones • 14 – Local (If) “Must be true” – do the deductions and ﬁnd the answer. LSAT Course Workbook www. choose A and run with it! • 17 – Global (Which) “Must be true” – what have we learned? Use your work. If you’re testing choices.com . you might have picked “E”) • 13 – Local (If) “Could be true” – start testing answers.June 2007: Game III questions • 11 – List question. you’re wasting time! • 15 – Local (If) “Must be true” – we can use our work from 14.CaseBriefs. grab a rule or test a choice? • 12 -. it can help us later on! • 16 – Local (If) “Could be true – we’re doing well. early in the game.Global (Which) “Must be false” question. and your knowledge of “problem characters” to ﬁnd the answer quickly.

but it must be twice the ﬁrst. • Let’s write out the two scenarios: ! 12 ! 24 LSAT Course Workbook www. This means that the ﬁrst position must be 1 or 2.June 2007: Game I • Let’s now take a look at the ﬁrst game. so must be 2 or 4. even though it’s an odd game: • The second digit is twice the ﬁrst. Must be even. I know you math nerds out there know that zero is even. Can’t be zero.com .CaseBriefs. and zero can’t be ﬁrst and second.

June 2007: Game I setup Now we can write out the possibilities in each of these scenarios.com .CaseBriefs. Digits!! 1 2 3 4 5 Characters! 1 2 0 3/4 4/3 ! ! ! 1 2 3 0 4 ! ! ! 2 4 0 1/3 3/1 ! ! ! 2 4 1 0 3 LSAT Course Workbook www.

You can do the questions using hypotheticals like we did in the previous game. If you didn’t see that you could write out four scenarios and six possibilities quickly.CaseBriefs. but in this game a vertical setup will work better for us.June 2007: Game I • Now we can answer the questions in very little time. LSAT Course Workbook www. don’t worry.com . Now let’s look at another Basic Sequencing Game.

June 2008. Prep Test 54.com . L M O R S V S R S | O | M L V = Random ~O ~M ~L 6 ~M ~L 5 ~L 4 ~S 3 ~O ~S 2 ~M ~O ~S 1 LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.

so B is correct. So R could be immediately above V.June 2008. so any answer choice with “Fourth” is wrong. the only character that can come between them is V.” It doesn’t work. Start testing “Fourth. Prep Test 54.com . LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. • 13: A • 14: If S is not immediately above 0. You waste your time testing “Fifth” and “Sixth”. • 15: Speciﬁc/character list question. E is correct.

• 16: The su!cient condition in the question requires this setup: " 6S " 5O " 4M " 3L " 2 V/R " 1 R/V So only B can be true.CaseBriefs. so B is correct. Prep Test 54. 17. we can see V can be 1 and R can be 2. especially questions near or at the end of the game. Never erase your valid hypotheticals! LSAT Course Workbook www. Let the work you’ve done already help you with later questions.com . In the possibility above.June 2008.

LSAT Course Workbook www. Game 1. For example.Relative Ordering Games • These have become very popular lately. there were two on the most recent (June 2011) LSAT • Let’s look at a game from September 2007. PT 52.CaseBriefs.com .

CaseBriefs. Prep Test 52.September 2007. Game 1 Part 4 LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

PT 52.com .CaseBriefs.September 2007. Game I setup G H I K L N O P K P N G I H—O—L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I/L LSAT Course Workbook www.

Game I questions . If I is second we have the following setup: ! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ! K I L ! In this situation H cannot be fourth.com September 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. B is correct. because H must have K. E • 2. PT 52. Just use your setup and count: there must be four characters after K. so it cannot be ﬁfth.• 1.CaseBriefs. and N before it. P. C is correct • 3.

LSAT Course Workbook www. E is correct.CaseBriefs.com September 2007. we should scan the answer choices to see if our deduction immediately gives us the answer. and when we make a deduction on a “Must be true/ Cannot be false” or “Must be false/ Cannot be true” question. just use your setup.• 4. If L is seventh. Global question. • 5. B. PT 52. Game 1 questions . I must be eighth. We made this deduction.

CaseBriefs. and G must be in the ﬁrst three slots. and that is enough to get this question correct. N.• 6. N could be second. Game 1 questions . LSAT Course Workbook www. P. If G is ﬁrst and I is third. PT 52. • 7. If K is fourth. we have the following setup: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ! G K I P/N N/P H O L ! Answer is B. but we cannot determine their order.com September 2007. Answer is B. however.

so we have J and L before G. • G – J or L – G. but not both.com J L . • G is presented before J. then G is not after L . Game 2 • Second and third rules are tricky. or after L. but not both? What does this really mean? If G is before J. So really G is after both or before both. Prep Test 53. then J must before G. so it is really G before J and L • If the opposite is true and G is after L.December 2007. • G– J L or – G LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.

regardless of which preposition comes before which character. but not both. G is after J. so we have G before both. Prep Test 53. so it’s after both. so it’s not before L. but not both. we can always say that X is before BOTH or after BOTH. So anytime we have a rule that says X is before Y or after Z. • G is before L.December 2007. so its not after J. Game 2 • Let’s say we reworded that last rule: G is either after J or before L. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs.

Prep Test 53.com .CaseBriefs. so we have P – V – G. but not both. If V is before G. Game 2 • Let’s think of a similar rule: V is before G or before P.December 2007. So really when you have this rule. it’s not before G. the result is P/G – V – G/P. LSAT Course Workbook www. “V is after G or after P. If V is before P. • If the rule above had said. it’s not before P. but not both. so we have G – V – P. the result would still be: ! P/G – V – G/P.

CaseBriefs. the central character is before both or after both.December 2007. Game 2 • So if the preposition changes “before… after” or “after…before”.com . This approach helps us to quickly diagram these unwieldy rules. LSAT Course Workbook www. If the preposition. Prep Test 53. the central character is always between the two others. stays the same.

December 2007.CaseBriefs. Prep Test 53. Game 2 G H I K L N O P P–M–L J L G P G or G J L G V or V P ~L ~M ~L 1 2 3 4 5 6 ~P ~P ~M LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

C is correct.December 2007.com . so D cannot be be true and is therefore the correct answer. LSAT Course Workbook www. I messed up here. but caught it later in the video! See if you can ﬁgure out where. If J is before M. then it’s obviously after G. so it can never be ﬁrst. Game 2 • 6. Prep Test 53. L must come after P and M. • 10. C • 7. • 11. • 9. the latest J can go is fourth. If L is last.CaseBriefs. so J must also be after G. A • 8. Answer is A.

December 2007, Prep Test 53, Game 2
• 11. When explaining B, I forgot that V could also be before G and P, and could go ﬁrst. If you make a mistake like this, and ﬁnd that none of the answers work, don’t panic. It doesn’t necessarily mean you’ve messed up the entire game. Just take a deep breath and try the question again.
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Lesson 3 Review
• Basic Sequencing: pay attention to blocks, and heavily restricted characters (like “J” in the ﬁrst game). If the setup is vertical, make sure it’s logical (i.e., ﬂoors of a building have 6 as the highest slot and 1 as the lowest). • Relative Ordering: these games have become very common lately, and learn that “before…after” rule shortcut.
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Lesson Four: Logical Reasoning Main Point, Logical Completion, Method of Reasoning, and Role of Statement Questions

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Main Point Questions
• Every argument has a conclusion. Usually identifying the conclusion is easy. It’s often at the end of the argument, and there are keywords, such as “therefore, thus, so” which indicate a conclusion. We can also be on the lookout for keywords, such as “since or because” that introduce a premise, or evidence. Main point questions can be di!cult because the conclusion usually will be at the end of argument, and the conclusion might not be stated explicitly.
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Main Point: June 2007, Sec III,
• A, B, C, and D are true according to the passage. A, B, C are all explicitly stated premises. D is the correct answer. It answers the charge of plagiarism by saying it is unlikely. It resolves the fundamental issue raised by the argument, a necessary condition of an argument’s conclusion. E is not the conclusion because the conclusion provides a judgment, not a conditional statement that can lead to that judgment. But E is what we would call an assumption, something not stated but that connects the evidence to the conclusion. We shall look at assumptions in depth in Lesson 9. Let’s look at another main point question.
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Main Point: June 2007, Sec II,
• B is the correct answer. It is a paraphrase of the second sentence. D and E are both true according to the passage, but they do not address the argument’s central point. D is background information, and E goes on to support the more general claim in B. The main point will not support any other claim in the argument. It is the ﬁnal logical point in the argument, even if it is not the last sentence. A and C have extreme language (“cannot”) in A and “only” in B, and so would not even be correct on “Must be true” questions.
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Logical Completion: June 2007, Sec II, #8
• Most Logical Completion questions, like this one, ask for a main point. A is correct. The argument is not about popularity, so B is out. C is true, but not the main point. D is too extreme, as is E. It is almost always the case on the LSAT that any argument introduced by a claim put forth by some other group endorses will have as a main point a rejection of that claim.
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com . Sec I. #13 • Note the conclusion is a rejection of the belief of “some paleontologists.Logical Completion: September 2007. or similar. situation (that of modern crocodiles) to make its point. • Also note how the argument uses an analogous.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www.” so the answer is E.

LSAT Course Workbook www. the extreme language supported by the language “no nation can survive”. and while the argument discusses morality. D and E are moral claims that use the word should. B is the correct.com .CaseBriefs.Logical Completion: June 2007. Sec III. it is not an argument that evaluates the world. #16 (In the video. C is extreme. The argument merely describes a situation in the world. I mistakenly said it was • A is wrong because the argument does not mention the need to ﬁnd new beliefs.

LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec III. I mistakenly said it was • The second sentence in the argument is actually a kind of conclusion. and is supported by the previous sentence.Logical Completion: June 2007. But it is not the main conclusion because the argument goes on to support a further claim. We know it is a conclusion because it is introduced by the word “thus”. #16 (In the video.com .CaseBriefs. but not the main conclusion.

these were sometimes called “subsidiary conclusions. LSAT Course Workbook www. but the LSAT has since dropped that term).com . Intermediate conclusions are a halfway point between the premises and the conclusion.CaseBriefs. a premise will be unsupported.Intermediate Conclusions • These kinds of conclusions are called “intermediate conclusions” (in the LSATs in the 90s. just stated as a fact. Strictly speaking.

CaseBriefs. but are there to provide background information or for rhetorical purposes. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . Some arguments have intermediate conclusions.Argument Structure • So we have the basic building blocks of an argument: Premises and Conclusions. and others have premises that do not directly support the conclusion.

Argument Structure • Be on the lookout for Logical Completion questions that do not ask for a conclusion. but right before the blank there is a “since” or “because” some other phrase that indicates a premise. If you are asked to complete an argument. LSAT Course Workbook www. but for a premise. the correct answer will be a premise. These are rare but they do occur.com . The conclusion will usually directly precede the blank.CaseBriefs.

LSAT Course Workbook www.com . and Role of Statement question ask about the purpose of a particular phrase or sentence in an argument.CaseBriefs.Method of Reasoning and Role of Statement Questions • Now we shall look at two question types that involve distinguishing premises from conclusions and describing how arguments function. Method of Reasoning questions ask you to describe an argument.

are all incorrect. E.CaseBriefs.com . I believe. If there is a “general hypothesis” here. The LSAT. the most tempting wrong answer. Sec II. LSAT Course Workbook www. A is too extreme (nothing is being “destroyed” here). would not call such an analogy direct evidence. it is that technology just not destroy human intelligence. it alters it. But “inseparable” to too extreme. #11 • This argument uses a historical analogy to make its point. E is just wrong (the claim is not “dismissed”). so B is out.Role of Statement: June 2007. and D. In addition. C is the correct answer. so A.

but the statement clearly disproves the premise that a person is only truly happy when doing something. #17 • B and D are very similar. LSAT Course Workbook www. Does the statement disprove Graham's premise or conclusion? The conclusion could still be true. So B is correct.CaseBriefs.Role of Statement: September 2007.com . Sec III.

So D is correct. strictly speaking. LSAT Course Workbook www. so it is not.Role of Statement: December 2007.com . And the main point is the claim about governmental control.CaseBriefs. not a silly analogy about a toaster that the argument clearly rejects. #14 • The phrase in question is deﬁnitely not a main conclusion . a premise. It is an intermediate conclusion. But it is supported by what follows. Knowing this gets us to B and D. Sec I.it is introduced by the word "since" so it clearly supports the preceding point that "some governmental control in needed".

Sec I. D is correct. the main idea. so B is wrong.CaseBriefs.com . When an argument tells us what “should” be done. C is a highly critical answer choice. And the claim does not “illustrate. #11 • The claim about private corporations supports the claim. that claim is usually the main point. whereas the claim is a general one that supports the conclusion. LSAT Course Workbook www. So A is wrong. that public funds should support pure research. It doesn’t deﬁne “pure research”. yet all the question types covered in this lesson are attached to good arguments.Role of Statement: December 2007. so we want to avoid critical answer choices for these types.” An “illustration” is an example.

Sec III. #10 • The question asks about the statement that begins with “some art collectors claim…” Almost always. B is therefore correct.Role of Statement: December 2007. such a phrase introduces an idea that the argument will reject. LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .

com . because the claim describes a situation in which more choices does not equal more freedom. because we have to decide whether the argument provided an “example” (in A) or an “analogy” (in C). Sec III. D describes a ﬂaw that we shall discuss in Lesson 10. It is actually an example. Do not be critical unless asked to criticize! LSAT Course Workbook www.Method of Reasoning: December 2007. but the LSAT generally uses good arguments for Role of Statement questions. #24 • This question is really di!cult.CaseBriefs.

CaseBriefs. using her own analogy (“ﬁction is like a sitcom”). She limits the scope of Helen’s claim. LSAT Course Workbook www. so B is correct.Method of Reasoning: June 2008. And Randi provides her own analogy. Sec II. She doesn’t dispute Helen’s evidence (it is debatable whether we can even call such an analogy “evidence”). #10 • Randi only partially agrees with Helen. so D is out. Randi does not question Helen’s reasoning. so we can eliminate A and E easily. not an analogy to Helen’s example (to investments in one’s future).com . so C is out.

Role of Statement: June 2008.com . it is direct evidence for a more general claim.” But this claim is more than just an example. • B and C say that the claim is an “illustration. #17 • A. And the claim doesn’t illustrate that criteria for legal responsibility “includes” that for moral responsibility (in B) or that one can be found “morally responsible” for something even if one is not legally responsible (in C) LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. Sec II. “Solely” is too extreme.

That is actually an intermediate conclusion that supports the main idea that moral and legal responsibility are di"erent). so E is out. but the claim does not support a claim about moral responsibility. ! (In the video I said that that main point was the claim described in D.Role of Statement: June 2008. #17 • D and E are more promising.com . D is correct.CaseBriefs. Sec II. LSAT Course Workbook www.

Lesson Four Review • Main point – look for keywords that identify conclusions (“thus. so”) and premises (“since.com . because”) • Look out for intermediate conclusions • Pay attention to arguments that use analogies • Don’t chose critical answer choices on Role of Statement or Method of Reasoning questions. therefore.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www.

com .Lesson Five: Inference and Disagreement Questions LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.

” the question demands an answer that must be true.Inference Questions • Recall the problem we did in Lesson Two. The question asked for a statement that “follows logically” from the statements above. LSAT Course Workbook www. #22. #5.” or a “valid conclusion. June 2007. Section I.” a “deduction. Let’s start with Prep Test 52. This phrasing is one of the many ways the LSAT asks for an answer choice that must be true. Try this one on your own. Let’s take a look some more Must be true questions from your book of ten prep tests.com .CaseBriefs. If a question asks you an “inference. Section III.

• B) This choice is correct. Let’s take a look at the choices: • A) We don’t know if there are few. when only adults are allowed to swim. when children under six are not permitted. so A is out.CaseBriefs. If there is a child under 6 in the neighborhood. so we can conclude that the pool is open before noon. Prep Test 52. He or she cannot swim between 12 and 5. So this kid must be allowed to swim before noon. or any children under 6. then that child must be able to swim in Barton pool. there are no chains that can be built. or after 5. so diagramming doesn’t really reward you here. and more importantly. • As you can see in the video the sentences come out rather awkward. many.Must Be True Questions: September 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

it falls short of deﬁnitely being true.com . We don’t really know if children will swim there. • E ) This choice is way o!. Improper comparisons are often found in wrong answers. if there are younger children. • D) We know that everyone is permitted to swim at some time during the day. the pool must be open before noon. LSAT Course Workbook www. Prep Test 52. While D seems very likely to be true. • C) We have no idea whether the pool is more or less crowded before or after 5. children 6 and above can swim. and as we learned in B.CaseBriefs. 12-5.Must Be True Questions: September 2007. After 5 only adults can swim.

• E ) This choice is way o!. Prep Test 52. LSAT Course Workbook www. While D seems very likely to be true. After 5 only adults can swim. • C) We have no idea whether the pool is more or less crowded before or after 5. if there are younger children. it falls short of deﬁnitely being true.CaseBriefs. We don’t really know if children will swim there. the pool must be open before noon. children 6 and above can swim. Improper comparisons are often found in wrong answers.Must Be True Questions: September 2007. • D) We know that everyone is permitted to swim at some time during the day.com . 12-5. and as we learned in B.

there must be a J. is not su!cient to kick out L. on its own.com .Must Be True Questions: September 2007. We can’t make a typical chain like K!J!~L. because J. • Here a little diagramming might help. If there is K. LSAT Course Workbook www. Prep Test 53. and J are the only real conditions here. because we cannot have all three. But be careful.CaseBriefs. There’s a very clear “if…then” clause at the end. and because L. the K!J might be interesting. and therefore L will be out. K.

but only A must be true. B. Prep Test 53.CaseBriefs. D.Must Be True Questions: September 2007. • But we can create two diagrams that start with K: • K!J. C. LSAT Course Workbook www. and E all could be true.com . and • K!~L • The contrapositive of the second (L!~K) brings us right to answer choice A.

Must Be True Questions: September 2007. but using our knowledge of su!cient and necessary conditions.com . we can simplify the passage to its core logical components: • Second sentence has an “unless. put that in the necessary condition.” Remember. • The passage has di!cult language. Negate the other condition for the su!cient condition: • EF!CA148 (Economically feasible ! conduct above ~148 degrees) LSAT Course Workbook www. Prep Test 53. take what the unless refers to.CaseBriefs.

Prep Test 53.com . but the stimulus contains strong language that fully supports A.Must Be True Questions: September 2007. The answer is A. So the necessary condition above cannot be met. we learn that these substances cannot do so. It’s a strongly worded answer choice. so superconductors will never be economically feasible. LSAT Course Workbook www. but in the last sentence. • We then learn that only two substances could possibly conduct at such temperatures.CaseBriefs.

Must Be True Questions: September 2007. • The language is this question is di!cult: there are technical terms.com . • A note about di!cult and scientiﬁc language. and weird substances. usually the underlying logic will be simple. the passage gives us enough information to answer this question.CaseBriefs. It presents a question: will superconductors ever be economically feasible? Without explicitly stating so. When the language is simple. “No!” When the language is di!cult. Prep Test 53. But at its core. LSAT Course Workbook www. the logic will usually be more complex. the passage is very simple. crazy temperatures.

Prep Test 54. Section II.CaseBriefs. • Some = at least one. Most = 50% plus one ! • DC Some GH " Most WC are GH " GH ! HMF + CKP ____________________ " DC Some HMF + CKP " Most WC are HMF + CKP LSAT Course Workbook www.Must Be True Questions: June 2008.com .

” • If we can make diagramming chains.Quantiﬁers • If we are going to link a quantity term to a su!cient/necessary statement. " • EL! GH. that term must be in the su!cient condition of a su!cient/necessary statement. the correct answer will be one of those chains.com . LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. we can’t say that “Some elephants are domestic cats.

CaseBriefs.Quantiﬁers: Some/Most • ! ! ! • ! ! ! Most EL are N N!B ______ Most EL are B Most EL are N EL!S _______ N Some S LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

CaseBriefs.Quantiﬁers: Some/Most • ! ! ! • ! ! ! Most A are LP Most A are LC ______ LP Some LC Most RM are A Most A are LCM _______ No conclusion can be drawn here LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

Quantiﬁers: Some/Most • ! ! ! • ! ! ! Most A are LP Most A are LC ______ LP Some LC Most RM are A Most A are LCM _______ No conclusion can be drawn here LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs.

• “Some” is reversible • “Some…not” is not reversible • “Some…not” = “Not all” • “Some men are not poets” = “Not all poets are men.Quantiﬁers: Some/Most • “Some men are not poets” does not equal “Some poets are not men”. because it is possible that all poets are men.” LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .

” Instead of looking for an answer choice that is 100% true. but such instruction is logically incorrect and can also hurt a student’s LSAT score. tell their students that both question types require an answer choice that is 100% true. Sec II. Most LSAT courses out there fail to make this distinction. They group both must be true questions and these “most supports” questions under the same inference category.Most Strongly Supported Questions: June 2007. Their motive is to give students a more simplistic view of the test.CaseBriefs.com . this question asks for a statement that the stimulus “most supports. you are here looking for the best answer choice. LSAT Course Workbook www. #18 • Instead of asking for a statement that must be true.

#18 • Let’s look at the correct answer to ﬁnd out why: • B) This answer would not be correct on a must be true question. however. that lessen these motives. While it is true that the second sentence of the passage. because it is extremely di!cult to prove conclusively one’s “motives. And B is it. most probable choice.Most Strongly Supported Questions: June 2007. You just need to choose the best.com .CaseBriefs. With a “most strongly supported” question. “Nothing brings more recognition” strongly suggests that “most researchers have substantial motive…” there are perhaps other factors. like scientiﬁc facts themselves.” In fact. you don’t need to worry about proving your choice perfectly. Let’s look at the wrong answers. it is a common LSAT ﬂaw to infer a person’s motive from their actual behavior. Sec II. LSAT Course Workbook www.

We only know that very few ﬁnd evidence to support their case.com . Sec II. but it is far from conclusive.” • E) “Primarily driven” just because a motive exists does not mean it the main cause of a certain behavior. The current evidence available supports the global warming hypothesis.Most Strongly Supported Questions: June 2007.CaseBriefs. we just don’t know. To make this claim is make a major cause and e!ect ﬂaw. skepticism is always a virtue. They might have o!ered alternative hypothesis. and we shall see plenty of these on the LSAT LSAT Course Workbook www. • C) Is too strong. Be very cautious of strong language like “not o!ered any. • D) Is also too critical of the global warming deniers. #18 • A) We really can’t say whether the climate change deniers are providing faulty evidence. as on the LSAT. In science.

or what we should do. Let’s keep it for now. Sec II. #22 • There is a causal relationship here: the isolation of local politicians causes a reduced chance of resident participation eliciting a positive response. if you remember from Lesson Two. There is no such language in the stimulus. we need language that tells us what is good.CaseBriefs. or right.com . is the kind of word we ﬁnd in moral claims. Let’s take a look at the answer choices: • A) seems quite plausible.Most Strongly Supported Questions: June 2007. To support a moral claim. • B) “Should”. LSAT Course Workbook www. so we “should” (if you’ll forgive the pun) probably look elsewhere. which discourages resident participation in local politics.

but you should be very skeptical of superlatives in this question type. Eliminate it. • D) This answer choice looks good too. unless the stimulus contains a superlative. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . Let’s hold onto it for now. #22 • C) “Most important”: perhaps the factor is important. Sec II. • E) This answer choice reverses the cause and e!ect relationship.Most Strongly Supported Questions: June 2007.CaseBriefs.

which of these two has weaker. Not as strong as the superlative in C. #22 • Now let’s compare A and D. Not remove but reduce. LSAT Course Workbook www. we have to ask ourselves. but still problematic.CaseBriefs. language? In this case the answer is D. Sec II. A tells us that “particular acts” would be “likely to elicit a positive response.” D tells us that more coverage would reduce “at least one source” of encouragement.Most Strongly Supported Questions: June 2007. or easier to prove.com . If we are debating between two choices that both seem supported by the stimulus. “Likely” is a di!cult word to prove.

CaseBriefs. always go for the answer choice that has weaker language.Inference Questions and Strong vs. It’s much easier to prove “Some men are poets” than “all men are poets. LSAT Course Workbook www.” And even if we know that “all men are poets” it is still true that some men are. and two answer choices seem very similar.com . A strongly worded statement implies the truth of a more weakly worded statement. Weak Language • When doing either kind of inference question (“must be true” or “most strongly supported”).

” were not true.com .CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www. But “some” means “at least one. After all. Weak Language • This concept can be di!cult to grasp at ﬁrst. if we know that “All men are poets” we might feel that it is incorrect to say that “some men are poets”.” It covers all the possibilities from one to all.Inference Questions and Strong vs. that would mean that no man is a poet. If “some men are poets.

You can and you must.CaseBriefs. When you master this skill and reﬁne your own intuitive reasoning. LSAT Course Workbook www. you can really start to rock this exam.Inference Questions and Strong vs.com . that you can trust your common sense on the LSAT. But you also must learn to reﬁne your thinking and to understand the precise meaning of certain key words. Weak Language • Some of you might feel that I am contradicting what I said in Lesson Two.

The two sentences might sound like they have di!erent meanings.com . Words like “could” or “might. one could be a poet” are. The weakest kinds of words are those that describe what is possible.CaseBriefs. and thus are logically equivalent.” Also the word “some” is one of those words: “Some men are poets” and “If one is a man. for the purposes of LSAT logic. completely equivalent. let’s talk about what makes language stronger or weaker. LSAT Course Workbook www. Weak Language • Before we move any further. but they both imply possibility.Inference Questions and Strong vs.

words that describe what must be true. Weak Language • Even though there is an “if” in the second sentence. • Between these two extremes are words that describe probability: “likely” “usually” “most. we would not diagram it: we save “arrow” diagramming to describe those relationships that are modiﬁed by the strongest kinds of words.Inference Questions and Strong vs. than those words that merely describe possibility. “All” “every” “must”: the words that describe su!cient/ necessary relationships are much stronger.com .CaseBriefs. and thus more di!cult to prove.” LSAT Course Workbook www.

always) • Words of probability (most. we can construct what I like to call “the hierarchy of strength” ! • Words of necessity (all. the opposite of most) • Possibility (Some…not. must. a minority – i. None) • Probability (Unlikely. might. Never.com . Weak Language • Putting these together. not all.e..Inference Questions and Strong vs. could be false) LSAT Course Workbook www. Cannot. every. likely) • Words of possibility (could. usually. some) ! • We can do the same for words that tell us what is false: • Necessity (Impossible.CaseBriefs.

we prefer language that is weaker. so in practice this technique is usually more useful on “most strongly supported” questions. Weak Language • With both kinds of inference questions. LSAT Course Workbook www.Inference Questions and Strong vs. As we have seen.CaseBriefs.com . many correct answers for must be true questions contain strong language that is correct because it is fully supported by the passage.

LSAT Course Workbook www. many correct answers for must be true questions contain strong language that is correct because it is fully supported by the passage. so in practice this technique is usually more useful on “most strongly supported” questions.Most strongly supported – Sapin Whorf • With both kinds of inference questions. we prefer language that is weaker. As we have seen.CaseBriefs.com .

Most strongly supported – Sapin Whorf • A: There is a big di!erence between an unveriﬁable hypothesis and a false hypothesis. If this question were a Must Be True. one that we would not see on a Must Be True question. I doubt we would have an non-measureable concept like “know” in a correct answer.CaseBriefs. It’s entirely reasonable to say that because something is unveriﬁable we cannot know whether it is true.com . But it is still a slight logical leap. • B: Extreme language • C: Extreme language and an unsupported moral claim (“should”) • D: Correct. • E: Extreme language and an unsupported moral claim should LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs. In the following question.” which is equivalent to “must be false. The opposite of “could be true” is “cannot be true.com .Must Be False Questions • In order to determine what must be false. and then ﬁnd an answer choice that violates what must be true. we must ﬁrst determine what must be true. “each of the following could be true EXCEPT:”. we are asked.” LSAT Course Workbook www.

The study demonstrated that the non-smoker had superior short-term memory skills.Must Be False: September 2007. to a non-smoker.CaseBriefs. #18 • The study in the passage compared a smoker. Sec I.com . who just had a cigarette. LSAT Course Workbook www. Prep Test 52. who might or might not have had a cigarette.

Wrong comparison. This choice violates the study in the passage. Prep Test 52. #18 • A) compares non-smokers who just smoked to nonsmokers who did not just smoke. and is therefore correct.com . • C) compares a non-smoker to a smoker who hasn’t had a cigarette. Another wrong comparison. which is not found at all in the passage. Wrong comparison. Sec I. It cannot be true. • B) states that the non-smoker who just smoked has short-term memory skills superior to those of a smoker who just smoked. • E) compares smokers who just smoked to smokers who smoked ﬁve hours ago.CaseBriefs.Must Be False: September 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. • D) mentions a period of heavy smoking.

the other must say “No”.Disagreement Questions • The last topic we shall look at in this lesson is Disagreement Questions. These questions are often not discussed until the very end of an LSAT course. or if you are not sure what they would think. and I think it’s better to begin with the tough stu". One must say “Yes” to the answer choice.com . If there is a chance they could both say yes.CaseBriefs. These questions ask you for a claim with which one speaker would agree and with which the other speaker would disagree. But they are a special kind of inference question. or both say no. because they are newer question type and are quite di!cult. then that choice would be incorrect. LSAT Course Workbook www.

because they are newer question type and are quite di!cult. LSAT Course Workbook www.Disagreement Questions • The last topic we shall look at in this lesson is Disagreement Questions.CaseBriefs. These questions ask you for a claim with which one speaker would agree and with which the other speaker would disagree. and I think it’s better to begin with the tough stu". or both say no. the other must say “No”. But they are a special kind of inference question. If there is a chance they could both say yes. These questions are often not discussed until the very end of an LSAT course.com . One must say “Yes” to the answer choice. or if you are not sure what they would think. then that choice would be incorrect.

com . LSAT Course Workbook www. we have no idea whether he would agree with E. Sec II. We can see now that D is correct. would say “no” to it.CaseBriefs. while Sandra would say “yes. and C .Disagreement Questions: June 2007. that “all mathematically precise claims” are suspect. On that basis alone we could eliminate A. B. note that Sandra completely drops the issue of non-verbal communication.” While Taylor seems to be generally antiscience. She is more interested in attacking Taylor’s bolder claim. that Taylor would disagree with it. #16 • First o!.We have no idea what she would say to the claim that 61 percent of communication is through nonverbal signals.

where his argument is boldest and thus hardest to defend. LSAT Course Workbook www.Disagreement Questions: June 2007.CaseBriefs. She also provides insight into how the LSAT thinks: generally. such as in math or the physical science. or “soft” sciences.com . Sec II. but believe that precision is possible elsewhere. the arguments on the LSAT are skeptical of bold claims in the social. #16 • We can learn a great deal from Sandra’s argument. As I’ve said earlier. we will not only be discussing question types and correct answers . She attacks Taylor where he is weakest. but how the LSAT authors view the world.

we will not only be discussing question types and correct answers . the arguments on the LSAT are skeptical of bold claims in the social. LSAT Course Workbook www.Disagreement Questions: June 2007. She attacks Taylor where he is weakest. such as in math or the physical science. She also provides insight into how the LSAT thinks: generally. but how the LSAT authors view the world. #16 • Sandra is actually a great teacher of argumentation. Sec II.CaseBriefs.com . but believe that precision is possible elsewhere. or “soft” sciences. As I’ve said earlier. where his argument is boldest and thus hardest to defend.

Samuel: computer replaces intimacy. • D: They could both could agree wwith D • E: Correct. • B: Too extreme for Samuel • C: Tova could agree with A.Disagreement Questions: • A: Tova could agree with A. The argument is not about general trends but more about computers in general.CaseBriefs.com . Tova: there may not have been real social bonds for these people before they began to use computers. LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs.Lesson Five Review • Inference Questions: “Must be true” correct answers are 100% true.com . “Most Strongly Supported” correct answers are the best choice among the ﬁve. a part of the “some” or “most” statement must be the su!cient condition of the su!cient/necessary statement LSAT Course Workbook www. • “Some” = “at least one” • “Most” = “50% plus one” • To combine a “some” or “most” statement with a su!cient/necessary statement.

com .CaseBriefs.Lesson Five Review • You can combine two “most” statements if the ﬁrst part in each “most” statement is the same: • Most A are B ! Most A are C _______________ ! B Some C LSAT Course Workbook www.

Lesson Five Review • Must Be False Questions: the correct answer must violate what must be true.CaseBriefs. • Disagreement Questions: one speaker must agree with the correct answer. the other will say “No. One will say “Yes”. and the other speaker must disagree with it.com .” LSAT Course Workbook www.

strictly speaking.com .CaseBriefs. “passive” questions. or have language that is stronger than that in the stimulus. so they are not. But they are close. because we must know precisely what the passage implies before we can choose an answer that contradicts the passage.Lesson Five Review • All the question types we have done thus far are “Passive” questions: the correct answer cannot do anything new to the stimulus. LSAT Course Workbook www. • Must Be False and Disagreement questions need to contradict the stimulus. and the language must be strong enough to violate the stimulus.

Lesson Six: Strengthening.com .CaseBriefs. and Paradox Questions LSAT Course Workbook www. Weakening.

Passive vs. Active Questions
• Last time we went over Inference questions remember that both Must Be True and Most Strongly Supported questions fall under the Inference category - I said at the end of class that these question types, as well as Main Point, Method of Reasoning, and Role of Statement questions, were "Passive" questions, meaning that the correct answer is supported by the passage. The correct answer should easy to prove, and while strong language is appropriate if the stimulus contains language that is similarly strong, the language in the correct answer can NEVER be stronger than that in stimulus.
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Passive vs. Active Questions
• Let's look at two di!erent question stems: " • Which of the following is most supported by the information above? " • Which of the following, if true, most supports the conclusion drawn above? • " • They sound quite similar, but the ﬁrst is a Most Strongly Supported question, and I ﬁrst came with the label Passive because of the passive verb in the question. With a passive verb, the subject - like the correct answer for this question - isn't doing anything. The second sentence has an active verb, and it is therefore a very di!erent kind of question.

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Passive vs. Active Questions
• It is a strengthening question, and the three question types we shall do in this lesson - Strengthening, Weakening, and Paradox - are all Active questions because the correct answer must DO something to the stimulus. While strong or extreme language was a liability with Passive questions, it is an asset with Active questions.
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Strengthening Questions: June 2007, Sec IV, #19
• If you didn’t choose A because you thought it was too strong, you were not thinking correctly for this question type. Anytime the question stem has the phrase, “which of the following, if true…” we want an answer choice that is as strong as possible. The argument’s evidence is that politicians promise to o!er governmental assistance, and that such assistance, because it involves taxation, is a form of governmental intrusion. If it were true that these promises are a good indicator of actual behavior, then this becomes a much better argument.
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Strengthening Questions: June 2007, Sec IV, #19
• Of course, it’s not just about strong language, but about strengthening, or in other cases weakening, the author’s argument. A helps the argument because it makes the evidence more likely to lead to the conclusion – A tells us that the politicians’ promises will actually lead to action. When reading an argument, always look for gaps in the reasoning – and there is a big gap here between what a politician seeking political o!ce promises and what a politician actually does. A helps ﬁll that gap and thus strengthens the argument.
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Strengthening Questions: June 2007, Sec IV, #19
• There is another major gap in the argument as well. The argument states as evidence that taxes “can be considered a form of government intrusion.” But there are certainly other forms of government intrusion, such as government involvement in other areas of economy and criminalizing certain behaviors – it is certainly possible for taxes to be raised and to reduce these other forms of intrusion, thereby producing the net reduction in intrusion that the argument denies will happen.
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Strengthening Questions: June 2007, Sec IV, #19
• It just so happened that the correct answer helped ﬁll the gap between the ﬁrst premise and the conclusion. But the correct answer could also have ﬁlled in the gap between the premise about taxes and the conclusion. The point here is that, while it’s ideal to analyze the argument in depth and think about the multiple gaps in reasoning, you can spend way too much time analyzing. Sometimes your analysis can lead you in the wrong direction, and lead you predict a correct answer that simply isn’t there.
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CaseBriefs. And sometimes.Strengthening Questions: June 2007. trying to predict what a correct answer could look like. LSAT Course Workbook www. you just won’t see what the gap or gaps of reasoning are. Sec IV. and actually deciding among the answer choices. If that occurs (and it will happen to all of us from time to time) simply move to the answer choices and see which one seems best. You will achieve this balance through lots of practice. #19 • You have to ﬁnd the proper balance between picking apart the argument.com .

LSAT Course Workbook www. #1 • C does not strengthen. But it’s not that distinction that makes C correct.” That consumers actually have a cynical attitude doesn’t really help. Sec I.com . Consider this argument: The United States should invade Greenland. because it doesn’t give us a reason why they should have such an attitude.Strengthening Questions: December 2007. It’s a poor argument. because the US is invading Greenland.CaseBriefs. We could also argue about whether “skepticism” and “cynicism” are the same – I think we can safely say that cynicism is a stronger form of skepticism. it merely states that they do. because the conclusion is “consumers should have a skeptical attitude. Just because something is true doesn’t mean that it is right.

CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www. It doesn’t strengthen as much as other correct answers for strengthening questions. • A gives us another reason why Moral Vacuum is similar to The Cruel Herd. Prep Test 53.com .Strengthening Questions: December 2007. so it must be correct. but it the only answer choice that strengthens at all.

Sec II. so it might seem like a weakener. #24 • A tells us the high quality diets will yield much more milk and meet – so these diets could lead to fewer cows needed and even less methane produced.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .Strengthening Questions: June 2008. but actually it leaves the argument una!ected. • B suggests there is no di!erence between di!erent kinds of cow food.

Strengthening Questions: June 2008. but rather whether the su!cient condition would have that necessary result.CaseBriefs. But the conclusion is a conditional one. an “if…. • C is tempting – certainly it seems relevant that farmers be willing to use high-quality food.then” statement. So we are not so concerned with the likelihood of the su!cient. Prep Test 54. but because the argument is about giving all cows a better diet. • D points out a di"erence between milk cows and meat cows. Sec II. LSAT Course Workbook www. this choice neither strengthens nor weakens.com .

Prep Test 54. so an answer choice that broadens the issue too much will be incorrect.com . because it makes methane seem more relevant to global warming than carbon dioxide. and thus makes the advantages of reducing methane production that much greater. Sec II.CaseBriefs. but about reducing methane speciﬁcally. • E is also tempting. But the argument is not about reducing global warming in general.Strengthening Questions: June 2008. LSAT Course Workbook www. We are trying to strengthen the speciﬁc conclusion here.

That is a classic way to strengthen a cause and e!ect relationship. and this argument is deﬁnitely a cause and e!ect argument.Strengthening Questions: June 2007.CaseBriefs. #19 • A is tricky. in the preceding elections when there was no cause (“no addressing of distressed rural and semi-rural groups”) there was no e!ect (“national electoral victory”). LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II.com . because if we changed the language from “distressed urban groups” to “distressed rural and semi-rural groups” we would have a good strengthener. because A would be telling us that.

com . #19 • There are actually two causes here: ! 1) the Land Party’s focus on rural and semi-rural groups and ! 2) the economic distress these groups faced. • D helps explain why the Land Party was successful in semirural areas.CaseBriefs. of these two causes. • B supports the ﬁrst cause – the focus – and C and E support the second – the distress. answer choices all strengthen one. LSAT Course Workbook www. and wrong. Sec II. or both.Strengthening Questions: June 2007. The remaining.

Weakening Questions: December 2007. • Note that the correct answer – B – did not doubt the evidence that humans and cats have so much genetic information in common – it simply doubted that the genetic similarities had anything to do with the similar diseases. Prep Test 53. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs.

LSAT Course Workbook www.Weakening Questions: December 2007.CaseBriefs. Prep Test 53.com . • Note that the correct answer – B – did not doubt the evidence that humans and cats have so much genetic information in common – it simply doubted that the genetic similarities had anything to do with the similar diseases.

com . Sec I. • In some cases. D most weakens the conclusion that lenders should not make loans to worked-owned businesses. Thus. LSAT Course Workbook www.Weakening Questions: September 2007.CaseBriefs. making them seem like a better investment. D provides an advantage for worked-owned businesses. Prep Test 52. a conclusion can be countered by providing an unacknowledged advantage to a rejected course of action.

LSAT Course Workbook www. I like to call this hidden cause the “uber-cause”. minivans cause drivers to drive more safely. Therefore. In this case.Weakening Questions: Alternative causes and the “Uber• There is a correlation between minivans and safe-driving. maybe it’s a certain kind of person who chooses to buy a minivan AND who chooses to drive safely. • Maybe not! Maybe there is some hidden cause that causes both the supposed cause (the minivan) and the supposed e!ect (safe-driving).CaseBriefs.com .

because fewer police patrols might mean less compliance with the new law. Prep Test 54. suggesting that no one obeyed the new speed limit.Weakening Questions: June 2008. #14 • The conclusion says that the speed limit reduction caused the decrease in serious accidents. But of course. On its own. • B might strengthen the argument. the number of tickets issued could have remained constant yet still the average speed decreased. so it is incorrect. if drivers got tickets for going 75 from 1981 to 1986 and for going 70 from 1986 to 1990.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II. • A is tempting. it has an uncertain impact on the argument.com .

Prep Test 54. LSAT Course Workbook www. has an uncertain impact: I don’t know anything about what constitutes a serious accident after 1986. Sec II. over time. a decrease in serious accidents.Weakening Questions: June 2008. like B. #14 • C suggests that the steady decrease in tra!c could be responsible for.CaseBriefs. • D tells us about accidents that do not appear to be serious.com . • E. It is the correct answer. so it is incorrect. so I cannot tell if this choice strengthens or weakens.

#5 • B tells us that most of the e!ect (the warming) happened before most of the cause (the buildup of gasses). This is a version of a classic way to weaken a cause and e!ect argument: e!ect without the cause. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II.CaseBriefs.Weakening Questions: June 2007.com .

• E provides information that shows how heat could actually be responsible.Weakening Questions: June 2007.com . so it is correct. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II. I think it’s easier to think of this situation as one in which you have to strengthen the original cause and e!ect relationship.CaseBriefs. #14 • This weakening question is attached to an argument that itself weakens a cause and e!ect relationship – that heat kills the lysozyme – by proposing an alternative cause of microwaves.

Weakening Questions: June 2007. • E provides information that shows how heat could actually be responsible. #9 • This weakening question is attached to an argument that itself weakens a cause and e!ect relationship – that heat kills the lysozyme – by proposing an alternative cause of microwaves.CaseBriefs. Sec II. so it is correct.com . I think it’s easier to think of this situation as one in which you have to strengthen the original cause and e!ect relationship. LSAT Course Workbook www.

E does just that and so it is correct. LSAT Course Workbook www. a good weakener is one that suggests that the future will be di!erent in some relevant way. • Whenever an argument makes such as assumption. Sec II.CaseBriefs.com . #9 • The argument assumes that something that occurred in the past (13 to 16 year olds purchased the vast majority of video games) will continue to occur.Weakening Questions: June 2007.

#15 • The argument assumes that two groups (one that has been in therapy for awhile and another that just started therapy) are similar enough for a legitimate comparison. LSAT Course Workbook www. that those who have been in treatment for awhile might have.com . felt that they were improving. C points out a major di!erence between the two groups. C is therefore correct.Weakening Questions: June 2007. all along. Sec III.CaseBriefs.

Strengthening/Weakening Questions: June 2008. D is therefore correct. thus supporting the claim that the regulations are not likely to save thousands of lives.com . LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec IV. but it does point out that emissions are not the main source of PAHs in the environment. #10 • D certainly does not destroy Erin’s argument.CaseBriefs.

D never mentions focusing on that which is under the patient’s conscious control. just “helping them”. Sec III.CaseBriefs. The conclusion is about a therapy that “focuses” on changing conscious beliefs.Two really hard questions : June 2007. #12 • B and D are so similar. but B makes any therapy that “focuses” on conscious control superior to one that does not.com . LSAT Course Workbook www. It took me years to ﬁnally ﬁgure this one out. D certainly suggests that unconscious therapy needs to do more. So B is the answer.

because I thought that it attacked the relevance of the evidence’s claim that the poems lack consistency. But I was wrong for two reasons.” But that does not imply that they lack internal consistency as much as the two di!erent poems do. LSAT Course Workbook www. #21 • I picked D. we are trying to weaken the claim that the poems are not by the same author. One is that it says that the poems internally are not “completely consistent. A possibility with D (as is probably the case historically) is that the individual poems are the work of multiple authors. Also.CaseBriefs. That actually does not weaken the conclusion. Sec I.Two really hard questions : September 2007.com .

You live and you learn.Two really hard questions : September 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. #21 • I rejected C because I didn’t like the use of modern authors to make inferences about an ancient author. But it has that key part of the conclusion – a single author doing roughly the same thing as the author of The Iliad and The Odyssey – that makes it a much stronger choice than D.CaseBriefs.com . Sec I.

com . ! • Paradox questions are often introduced much later in an LSAT course. Yet the facts will seem contradictory. they are Active questions that very often involve cause and e"ect reasoning.Paradox Questions • Like most inference questions. like Strengthening and Weakening questions. Your job is to resolve a paradox or explain a discrepancy – the greater explanatory power an answer choice has. but to a set of facts. Your job is to ﬁnd an answer choice that explains why these two seemingly contrary facts can coexist. paradox questions are not attached to arguments. but I put them here because.CaseBriefs. the better it is. LSAT Course Workbook www.

Sec • A is too weak.Paradox Questions: September 2007. C is therefore correct. Remember some means “at least one”. by refocusing our attention from the students globally to individual students in each course. so it’s not really strong enough to explain why the researchers would stick to their hypothesis. LSAT Course Workbook www. Prep Test 52. • C. If the heavy studiers scored better than “some students”.com . that is not that telling.CaseBriefs. gives us a better picture of why the researchers would have that strange ﬁnding yet still stay with their hypothesis that studying improves a student’s grades.

Sec IV. LSAT Course Workbook www.Paradox Questions: June 2008. Prep Test 54. such extreme weather is in fact caused by high mountains. #13 • A tells us that even though wind and precipitation erode high mountains.CaseBriefs. A is therefore correct. so this correlation is not so strange or surprising.com .

It is therefore not about the paradox we are trying to resolve. it is correct because it does nothing.CaseBriefs. Prep Test 53. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . Sec • The paradox is that those who CAN distinguish red from green do not seem to be able to distinguish between di!erent kinds of red. • D tells us about those who CANNOT distinguish red from green. For this reason.Paradox Questions (EXCEPT): December 2007.

CaseBriefs.Review Active vs. Passive questions Strengthening Weakening Causal Reasoning and the Ways to Weaken or Strengthen a Cause and E!ect Argument • Paradox Questions • • • • LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

Lesson Seven: An Introduction to Reading Comprehension LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .

Reading Comprehension • This section is studied the least. how best to read them. but you ignore it at your peril – there are always 27-28 questions in an RC section. serious improvement is possible.com . LSAT Course Workbook www. While students often do not see the dramatic improvements that they can achieve in Logic Games. and how best to handle the questions. If we learn about the kinds of passages there are. the greatest number of questions in any of the three section types.CaseBriefs. serious improvement is possible.

CaseBriefs.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities • Humanities passages are very common on the LSAT. While in the past it was common to see passages about Homer. and for the last ﬁve years or so. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . or some other dead white writer. nearly every humanities passage has featured an artist from a minority or oppressed group. these days the passages that have to do with the arts tend to feature an artist that represents some historically disadvantaged group. Byron.

authors will often return to a familiar debate: form vs. Is it a novel. or a sculpture? Of course. or is it an abstract work? The content of a work of art is the art's subject matter: a novel about war.com . form is more complicated than that: is it a realistic painting. romance. domestic life. content.CaseBriefs. etc.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities • When discussing the value of a work of art. or a painting. The form of a work of art is simply the work itself. LSAT Course Workbook www.

The minority artists that are the subjects of LSAT passages are almost always praised. and they are praised both as innovators with regards to their art's form.CaseBriefs. if we are going to praise or criticize a work of art. LSAT Course Workbook www.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities • So. we have to consider both its form and content. and as representatives of groups that formerly did not receive a great deal of attention in the ﬁne arts.com .

What is most interesting for the author is how the poet confronts a general American tendency to insist on strict divisions with regards to literary genres. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . her ethnicity and gender to not play a large role in the passage's analysis of her work.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities • In this ﬁrst passage. we learn about the poet Rita Dove. Unlike many RC passages about artists.CaseBriefs. Let's take a closer look at the passage.

June 2007: First Passage – Humanities • Before we get started. or highlighting. You don't want to take so many notes you have no time for the questions.com . or just doing the analysis in your head. I don't insist on one approach as far as taking notes. but you also want to read actively and take from the passage its most interesting points. I'll be pointing out what you need to take from the passage to answer the questions most e!ectively LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.

or in this case. will confront.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities • A good approach to get started is to is to note key parts of the passage with some abbreviations: “MP” for main point.com .CaseBriefs. “WR” for the wrong arguments that the author. “C/E” for any cause and e!ect relationships. Rita Dove. and “DIS” for any major distinctions LSAT Course Workbook www.

and even if the author does not criticize it directly.com . Unless the author speciﬁcally endorses an idea.CaseBriefs. it's pretty obvious the author is not a big fan." LSAT Course Workbook www. The detached tone is a good indication that the author doesn't like this "rift" or "separation" between ﬁction and poetry. "Conventional wisdom" is another phrase that suggests the author doesn't like this "separation.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities First Paragraph • As we have seen with many Logical Reasoning questions. the author will usually come out against it. an author will often introduce an idea or argument.

a dilettante is someone who participates in many ﬁelds but is not particularly good at any one of them.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities Second Paragraph • More of the same. though the author does try to explain this situation: US culture. So we have our ﬁrst cause/e!ect relationship .the e!ect is this “rift” and the cause is a American mistrust of accomplishment in multiple ﬁelds. which casts a "suspicious eye" on the generalist. LSAT Course Workbook www. In case you are wondering.CaseBriefs.com .

she does it "gently" so Dove is cool. Note how the author's tone has gotten much more positive: this "bias" is "diminishing". Rita Dove. LSAT Course Workbook www. One important note is that Dove is not alone ." Even as she criticizes. and we must understand that fully in order to succeed on the questions.com . The author likes her. Dove is "highly acclaimed.CaseBriefs.she is part of a "recent trend. we have the example of German literary culture." Also.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities Third Paragraph • Third paragraph: we meet our hero. which isn't as specialized and restrictive as that in America.

it's easy to get lost in the details.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities Fourth Paragraph • We ﬁnally have some details about her work . "Here is where the writing is actually described. just note the basic contents of the paragraph so in this case we would say. particularly if you are not familiar with literary terminology.we learn that her poetry features "lyrical narrative" .com . If you notice that you are ever getting lost in the details." LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.the narrative part is the ﬁction element .and her ﬁction is lyrical . In a paragraph like this.and therefore poetic .because it has "poetic rhythms" and "elliptical expressions".

B. and C.CaseBriefs. but E is more complete because it includes the fact the Rita is part of a larger trend. So we are left with D and E." We don't want too speciﬁc choices that have lots of detail. That gets rid of A. E is correct.com .June 2007: First Passage – Humanities Question #1 • Main Point: we should have a pretty good idea of what the main point is before looking at the choice: it should say something like "Rita is good because she blends genres. Both are true. LSAT Course Workbook www.

we can ﬁnd evidence for it in the ﬁrst paragraph. but has optimism that it is being overcome. • 3. or ambivalent. so we got to the ﬁrst two paragraphs. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . It is therefore correct.it is always separate. but it's not that poetry is excluded . E is correct. Author's perspective: seldom are they "perplexed.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities Questions #2. C is tricky here. A is the best choice. astonished. D is the only choice that contains blending of genres. Here we are describing the wrong view." the author clearly doesn't like the rift.! • 4. 3. 4 • 2.CaseBriefs.

6. When in doubt keep it simple. On RC. Maybe E is true. D is tricky here. but the genres are clear. D would be an easy pick. keep it simple. the questions are primarily passive. 7. LSAT Course Workbook www. As with 6.June 2007: First Passage – Humanities Questions #5. 8 • 5. and opt for weakness over strength. The author is pretty clear that the ﬁction is ﬁction and the poetry is poetry. but it's just too much. If we made note of it. Here we ﬁnd support in the last paragraph for A. but A is much less bold. • 8. • 6. and that should take you to B.com . This question involves the cause and e!ect relationship I called attention to earlier. they each combine elements of the other.CaseBriefs." • 7.

CaseBriefs. Whenever you spot disagreements between the passages think about your studying of disagreement questions . and here it is: the dual passage. The other is reducing the di!cultly of the Logic Games and increasing the di!cultly of RC in June 2004 in the last 20 years. LSAT Course Workbook www. It was one of two major changes to the scored portion of the LSAT in the last 20 years." • I like them. which was introduced in June 2007.com . other than that it's free.you can be almost certain that a question will focus on that di#erence. A dual-passage breaks up the monotony of reading four long passages.June 2007: Second Passage – Dual Passage • There's a good reason to start with June 2007.

com .CaseBriefs. • Third paragraph: states the thesis that “music has little adaptive value. • Second paragraph: makes a major distinction between music and language.” LSAT Course Workbook www.June 2007: Second Passage – Dual Passage (Passage A) • First paragraph: states a question which we can be certain will be answered.

Author B tells us quite clearly that he believes that music played a large roll in evolution. so we have a clear di!erence between the passages. Luckily.June 2007: Second Passage – Dual Passage (Passage B) • First paragraph: Darwin is obviously a major ﬁgure in the history of evolution. LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. • Second paragraph: Like Passage A. but blind allegiance to authority is always suspect in science and on the LSAT. The author focuses on primitive mother-infant interactions which he/she says have "musical elements". Passage B has a more technical second paragraph which details some speciﬁc research.com .

June 2007: Second Passage – Dual Passage (Passage B) • Third paragraph: highlights a common theme in human evolution . LSAT Course Workbook www. which would have "conferred considerable evolutionary advantage" another way of saying that the musical and emotional interactions could help a child have greater success in survival and reproduction.the increased time in maternal care. During this period of maternal bonding. musical interactions could strengthen emotional bonds.CaseBriefs.com .

LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. Answer choice D states clearly the two authors’ fundamental disagreement. 14. They both mention choice B. B (“all“) C. so E is correct. Questions • • • • • • 9.com . Both passages disagree and use di!erent evidence. Only Passage B mentions choices A and D. Passage B says it's vital part of human evolution. We need them to agree here: they both mention brain size in each ﬁnal paragraph.June 2007: Second Passage – Dual Passage. 10. Both look at modern-day humans. D ("essence“). Only choice A says that clearly. but both passages try to answer the question in answer choice C. Only Passage A mentions choices C and E. 11. so answer choice B is correct. Note the strong language in the wrong answers A ("must“). 12. 13. (“IS evidence”). Note that C is quite measured "at least partly" – we prefer a weaker choice if we need both authors to agree. What do the passages both try to answer? Passage A says music says is an accident of evolution.

Where these two passages di!er is music's importance in evolution . like most that are about science.CaseBriefs. and independently of language. and many other. LSAT Course Workbook www. distinctions • At some fundamental level. a by-product of the development of language. to our species survival. LSAT passages often try to explain essential human behaviors through evolution – that evolution can explain musical ability is actually a shared assumption of both these. LSAT passages. the second passage.was it.com .Reading Comprehension: Cause and e!ect vs. or did it contribute signiﬁcantly. was about cause and e!ect: what is the cause of human beings' ability to produce music? As is common today in the wider intellectual culture. as was argued by passage B. as was the case in Passage A.

the distinction between poetry and ﬁction.Reading Comprehension: Cause and e!ect vs.CaseBriefs. and the tradition of specialization. LSAT Course Workbook www. the humanities passage.S. While there was one major cause and e!ect relationship the cause of the rift between poetry and ﬁction in the U.com . . between poetic and ﬁctional elements in Dove's work. distinctions • The ﬁrst passage we covered today.the passage was primarily built around major distinctions . a trend exempliﬁed by Dove. was more about distinctions than cause and e!ect. between European and American literary culture. and between a newer trend toward mixing genres.

It's a timely topic. or grounds for a civil lawsuit? Answering such questions is what makes up the bulk of legal argument.com . it reﬂects our wider intellectual culture. But. too. after all.Reading Comprehension: Legal Passages • Legal passages. Yes. and LSAT legal passages are no di!erent. as it is written by academics and other people who make a living thinking and writing. Kim Kardashian. so chances are you won't hear about Charlie Sheen.CaseBriefs. the LSAT cannot help but reﬂect the wider intellectual culture. (You should begin to start seeing that the LSAT is not some strange document concocted by logical aliens. • The third passage from June 2007 is about applying a legal category to a certain internet practice.) LSAT Course Workbook www. loves. or unconstitutional. one the LSAT. all about putting actions into categories: was an act illegal. but actually reﬂects our wider culture. and the wider contemporary culture. or Michelle Bachman on the LSAT. are more about distinctions than cause and e!ect relationships. Legal arguments are.

com . interactive medium") when describing the web users’ argument. Which argument to you think the author will side with? • Remember. that the "some people think" introduction is usually a prelude to a rejection on the LSAT. And note the language had a much more positive tone ("open.. So..June 2007: Third Passage Legal Passage • First paragraph: if you honed in on "Some of these owners of intellectual property claim. But it deﬁnitely seems like the passage is going to side with the web users. LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.. Of course. my bet is that the passage will endorse the web users." you're doing great. so there will surely be some acknowledgement of the need to protect content owner's interests. The LSAT authors are not Pirate Bay/ Anonymous internet-anarchist collectivist types. we have the counter argument of the Web users immediately after.

• C is true. But because the bulk of the passage. LSAT Course Workbook www. but a smaller point limited to the third paragraph. But it is easy to be tempted by this one.CaseBriefs.! • B gives us a necessary condition for changing the law. because it involves the other big idea in the passage. and the analogy that lay at the heart of the argument. The main point.June 2007: Third Passage Legal Passage – Question #15 • A deals with the fundamental question posed by the passage and gives us the answer to that question. but too wishy-washy for a main point. • D is also probably true.com . so it is the main point. that the linking is not infringement. does seem to support this other claim that the law should not be changed. concerned the question of whether or not linking was infringement. • E is tempting. the main point will never go on to support another point. we have to say that A is the main point. but the author never advocated changing the law. But RC is more complicated. that the law should not be changed. On LR.

• 17.June 2007: Third Passage Legal Passage – Questions #16-18 • 16.CaseBriefs. • B . To “strengthen” copyright law is to make it more restrictive. • 18. Choose a proper analogy: • B reminds me of prohibition. • C is too strong: "impossible. and the author is against that. A is correct. So C is correct! LSAT Course Workbook www. I'm not sure that it would be signiﬁcant." • E is correct.com .too strong. A and D involve changing the law. but it’s still wrong • C Relying on personal responsibility as opposed to government intrusion and greater legal restriction. While protection might limit the Web's potential.

The purpose of analogy is not to broaden the scope of the argument. and involve other kinds of media or bring up new legal debates. D Correct! E: "should be changed“ is completely wrong! • • • • • LSAT Course Workbook www. but to provide a similar situation that favors the author's intended conclusion.com . but the authors who control a document. which it does.June 2007: Third Passage Legal Passage – Questions #19-22 • • • • • • • • 19. E is correct. A "no"? B Correct! C "privacy"? D "primary control" E "must be physical"? 20.! 22 A is crazy B It’s not the linkers. It basically says that the analogy leads the author to his conclusion. so it’s not in the scope of the passage. 21. C Nothing here about proﬁt.CaseBriefs. “Most strongly supported” question – strong language can kill an answer choice. D is correct.

June 2007: Fourth Passage History Passage • Many of the LSAT history passages. Some recent LSAT passages.com . like this one here. a creative historian might look at oral histories. or minutes from union meetings. but more show the potential of a new kind of source). History and hard science blend in this passage. involve accessing non-traditional sources for historical research. have focused on using nature itself as a source to learn about changes in agricultural practices. (History passages usually deal more with cause and e!ect . LSAT Course Workbook www.but not so much here.CaseBriefs. letters from nonelites. like this one here. because the passage isn't trying to explain historical change. Instead of reading the memoirs of kings or generals.

com .June 2007: Fourth Passage History Passage • First paragraph – the limits of traditional history. especially when dealing with agricultural societies! • Second paragraph – pollen as a document to learn about changes in human activity and natural events • Third paragraph – cereal pollen suggests successful cultivation prior to seventh century • Fourth paragraph – ﬂax pollen corrects a mistake historians have made • Fifth paragraph – the limits of pollen analysis LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.

com . This choice is correct. • E: "severely limited" too strong LSAT Course Workbook www.June 2007: Fourth Passage History Passage: Questions • 23 A: the potential of pollen. • B: There is no new work with documents • C: Pollen analysis cannot distinguish species • D: Pollen analysis proves that ﬂax was not cultivated until recently.CaseBriefs.

D. C. 27: The The The The answer answer answer answer is is is is B. E.com .June 2007: Fourth Passage History Passage: Questions • • • • 24: 25: 26.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs. • Science passages feature cause and e!ect relationships.com . • Legal passages: pay attention to distinctions and arguments by analogy. • History passages often feature new kinds of historical sources. LSAT Course Workbook www.Review • Humanities passages usually feature a minority artists going against the grain. and evolution is a very common LSAT topic. • Dual passages: look for similarities and di!erences between the passages.

CaseBriefs.com .Review • Most Reading Comp questions are “Passive” questions • Read for tone! • Start to learn how the typical LSAT author “thinks”. LSAT Course Workbook www.

Lesson Eight: Grouping Games LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .

(In/Out Game) Men: F G H J ! ~L L! ~J ~L! J ~J! L Women: ~F! ~J J! F J J or K or L ! G K ~G ! ~J + ~K L + ~L H= Random If J is on the stage: S: J. G ~S: L If L is on the stage: S: L. G ~S: J LSAT Course Workbook www.com . Game 1. F.June 2008.CaseBriefs. Prep Test 54.

June 2008. 5. C D E.CaseBriefs.com . C. 4. LSAT Course Workbook www. 3. C. Prep Test 54. Game 1 Questions • • • • • 1. 2.

June 2007.CaseBriefs.. Game 4 (Three-Group Game) G N P W! N ~N!~W C2 ! C1 ~C1 ! ~C2 P! ~G G!~P P=1 ….com . C1 ___ ___ T W …… ~P C2 ___ ___ …… C3 ___ ___ T= Random LSAT Course Workbook www.

21. 22. 23.June 2007. B D C D B A LSAT Course Workbook www.com . 20.CaseBriefs. Game 4 Questions • • • • • • 18. 19.

Game 1 (Three-Group Game) T W X Y Z Z <--> Y Ts ! Ws ~Ws ! ~Ts ~Y F _X_ …… P ___ …… S ___ …… No Random LSAT Course Workbook www.com .December 2007.CaseBriefs.

December 2007. 3. Prep Test 53.CaseBriefs. A B B A E LSAT Course Workbook www. 2. 4. Game 1 • • • • • 1. 5.com .

Game 2 J K L S T V Jm!Lp ~Lp!~Jm ~Km!Vo ~Vo! Km ~JK ~LS ~TV O ___ ___ ~T P ___ ___ M ___ ___ No Random LSAT Course Workbook www.com . Prep Test 52.September 2007.CaseBriefs.

C LSAT Course Workbook www.September 2007. D 12. A 11. B 9.CaseBriefs. Game 2 • • • • • 8. E 10. Prep Test 52.com .

LSAT Course Workbook www.Review • In/Out • Two groups • Three groups (when one of the groups is ﬁlled. one can create dual-options for characters that cannot go together).CaseBriefs.com .

com .CaseBriefs.Lesson Nine: Assumption Questions LSAT Course Workbook www.

.Necessary Assumptions • Here are some examples of necessary assumption question stems.CaseBriefs.” • All of these questions are asking you to ﬁnd an answer choice that contains a required assumption of the argument. ! • “The commentator’s argument relies on which of the following assumptions?” • “The o"cial’s conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions?” • “Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?” • "The author assumes.com .. LSAT Course Workbook www..

• Let’s consider the following argument: • Joe is a Canadian.CaseBriefs. Joe probably likes jazz. While it certainly isn’t e!cient to negate every answer choice.Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • The denial test allows you to conﬁrm that you’ve chosen the right answer choice.com . LSAT Course Workbook www. The negation of the correct answer must weaken the argument. the denial test can be extremely useful when debating between two tempting answer choices. Therefore. The test is very simple: just negate the answer choice you’ve chosen.

”) !But only one of them is a necessary condition.CaseBriefs.com . i. We can use the denial test to evaluate the following two competing assumptions: • a) Some Canadians like Jazz. • b) All Canadians like jazz.Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • Let’s say we want to ﬁnd an assumption of this argument. an assumption. LSAT Course Workbook www.e. of the conclusion. • Both of these choices connect the evidence (“Joe is a Canadian”) to the conclusion (“Joe probably likes jazz..

so the negation of Statement A should actually be. then it is deﬁnitely ﬂawed to conclude that Joe probably does. Looks like this Statement A is our answer — but let’s check Statement B with the Denial Test just to be sure. If not a single Canadian likes jazz. the two statements are compatible.” This negation clearly destroys the argument. “No Canadian likes jazz.CaseBriefs. The statement “Some Canadians do NOT like jazz” does not contradict the statement “Some Canadians like jazz.” In fact. Negations must contradict the original statement.Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • Let’s negate statement A ﬁrst. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . The negation of “some” is “none”. Be careful: “Some Canadians do NOT like jazz” is NOT an actual negation of the original statement.

” Clearly.” These statements do not destroy the argument. Therefore. So the negation of “All” is “Not all Canadians like jazz” or “Some Canadians do not like jazz. “none” contradicts “all”.com . statement B isn’t a correct assumption. we want the weakest possible statement that contradicts the original.Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • Be careful: the negation of “all” is NOT “none. I would not need to learn about the musical tastes of every Canadian. and I would have proved the claim false.CaseBriefs. If I wanted to disprove the second statement. but when doing negations. LSAT Course Workbook www. because they still allow for the possibility that a majority of Americans like country music and that the conclusion about Joe is a reasonable one. All I would need would be one Canadian who did not like jazz.

Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • You should learn common logical negations: • Some vs.. 1/2 or less (a minority) • Your negation should always a!ect the main verb (or quantity word if the subject is modiﬁed by such a word) in a sentence. None • All vs.CaseBriefs. Cannot • Must be true vs. LSAT Course Workbook www. Any subordinate clause should remain untouched.com .. Not Necessarily True • Most vs. Not all (or Some..not) • Could vs.

" say to yourself. "Rebecca shall soon rule the world. but it does mean that she will not be ruling the world anytime soon.CaseBriefs. Does it mean that she shall never rule the world? No.Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • A good approach is to simply say to yourself that the sentence to be negated is not true." You then must think about what that means. "The statement ' Rebecca shall soon rule the world' is untrue.com . So if the original sentence was. LSAT Course Workbook www.

If we negate the assumption. that she must also like The Stooges. solely on the basis that Rose likes MC5. Why? Because the argument concludes.CaseBriefs." the argument falls apart. Therefore Rose must like the rock band The Stooges. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . and claim that "SOME of those who like MC5 do NOT like The Stooges. extreme language is permissible (and will probably be) in the correct answer. Consider this argument: • Rose likes the rock band MC5.Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • Two points more points: • While it's true that the test writers often use extreme language to make answer choices wrong. sometimes extreme language is justiﬁed. • "All those who like MC5 also like the Stooges" is an assumption of this argument. If the conclusion has extreme language. • Do not just automatically eliminate an answer choice because it has extreme language.

but it clearly destroys the argument above.CaseBriefs." This negation contains extreme language. Because weaker statements yield stronger negations (and vice versa). you get a strong one. • So NEVER consider extreme language a dealbreaker in the negation of an answer choice. • The negation is "No one who likes MC5 also likes the Stooges. Consider this statement: • Some of those who like MC5 also like The Stooges. extreme language in a negation is actually quite awesome.Necessary Assumptions: The Negation/Denial Test • When you negate a weak statement.com . and so the original statement would also be an assumption of the argument above. LSAT Course Workbook www.

allows the author's conclusion to be properly drawn. the truth of the answer is implied by the conclusion.Su!cient Assumptions • Here are some examples of su!cient assumption questions: • "Which of the following. if true.as long as it does the job and makes the conclusion perfect. In su!cient assumption questions. we've got our answer." • "The author's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed to be true?" • We would never see the words "if true" in a necessary assumption question.com .CaseBriefs. the answer can me much stronger than the conclusion . because in a necessary assumption question. LSAT Course Workbook www.

and which are necessary assumption question stems.Distinguishing Necessary and Su!cient Assumption Questions • Let's look some questions’ wordings and see if you can tell which ones are su!cient assumption question stems.com .CaseBriefs." • "The author's conclusion follows logically only if which one of the following is assumed to be true? • "The author's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed to be true? • Which one of the following assumptions is required for the author's conclusion to be valid?" • Which one of the following assumptions requires that the author's conclusion to be valid?" LSAT Course Workbook www.

. because it's pretty di!cult to make a perfect argument unless it has clear "if.Su!cient Assumptions • Su!cient assumption questions often involve conditional diagramming.then" statements or some mathematical logic to it.. and sometimes even almost math-like quantity problems. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs.

or ~C!~A " A!C LSAT Course Workbook www.com ."A " ____ :Correct Answer is A!B. or ~B!~A " B II.CaseBriefs." A!B " ____ :Correct answer is A!C.Su!cient Assumptions and Conditional Reasoning I.

or ~C!~B " ____ " A!D LSAT Course Workbook www.A!B " _____ :Correct answer is C!A.CaseBriefs.Su!cient Assumptions and Conditional Reasoning: Four Common Formulas III. or ~A!~C " C!B IV.com . A!B " " C!D : Correct answer is B!C.

CaseBriefs.com ." • "The author's conclusion follows logically only if which one of the following is assumed to be true? • "The author's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed to be true? • Which one of the following assumptions is required for the author's conclusion to be valid?” • Which one of the following assumptions requires that the author's conclusion to be valid?” LSAT Course Workbook www. and which are necessary assumption question stems.Distinguishing Necessary and Su!cient Assumption Questions • Let's look some questions’ wordings and see if you can tell which ones are su!cient assumption question stems.

Distinguishing Necessary and Su!cient Assumption Questions • Let's look some questions’ wordings and see if you can tell which ones are su!cient assumption question stems. and which are necessary assumption question stems.CaseBriefs.com ." • "The author's conclusion follows logically only if which one of the following is assumed to be true? (Necessary) • "The author's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed to be true? (Su!cient) • Which one of the following assumptions is required for the author's conclusion to be valid?“ (Necessary) • Which one of the following assumptions requires that the author's conclusion to be valid?“ (Su!cient) LSAT Course Workbook www.

Assumption Questions: June 2007. • Sec II. • D only has information about L. #13 (Su!cient): Quantity Problem.CaseBriefs. " LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II • Sec II. and so is not relevant to the conclusion. • Answer is C. C seems good. but because the conclusion mentions a new vaccine “each year”. and about what L was made from. no Necessary Assumption Questions in this lesson. we need “each” or “every” year in the correct answer. • Strange. the only choice that gives any sort of quantity information about (“all”) L and M. #15 (Su!cient) • Answer is D.com .

CaseBriefs. Answer is D. #5 (Su!cient) Evidence: Dumping Site Conclusion: Not bringing food Assumption: Dumping Site ! Not bringing food Sec III.Assumption Questions: June 2007. the argument falls apart. the argument falls apart. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec III. #9 (Necessary) If the tiger DID move away.com . #11 (Necessary) If the process to preserve birds DID substantially decrease the mercury levels in birds. Sec III • " " " " " • " Sec III. Answer is E.

CaseBriefs. #17 (Necessary) ! Evidence: Healthy Back !Balanced Muscle Development ! Conclusion: Healthy Back !Exercise opposing sides equally ! Negation of B says that there is no reliable connection between balanced muscle development and exercising the opposing sides of one’s back equally.com .Assumption Questions: June 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec III • Sec III. So this negation destroys the argument and therefore B is correct.

so A is correct. LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.Assumption Questions: September 2007. Sec I • Sec I.com ! ! .”) destroys the argument. or E. Prep Test. #17 (Su"cient) ! AP!R ! _____ ! AP!~P Answer is R!~P. Sec I. #10 (Necessary) ! Negation of A (“The plan will NOT be implemented before the end of next year.

The conclusion is about the inﬂuence these brain regions have one each other.CaseBriefs. E is correct. Sec I • Sec I. #20 (Su!cient) • The evidence is about how some neurons connecting brain regions are less well developed than others.Assumption Questions: September 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. so C does not succeed in connecting evidence to the conclusion. Prep Test.” But C mentions the brain region with the “most highly developed" connections.com . Only C and E connect “neural development” to “inﬂuence. But the evidence is comparative.

C is correct. #9 (Necessary) • Evidence is about listening to di!erent kinds of recordings pre-surgery. and the conclusion is about how reducing stress lessens a person's sensitivity to pain. This missing element must be in the correct answer. and probably expect. C connects music to reducing stress.“) We can allow. If it were not true. Prep Test.Assumption Questions: September 2007. But there is nothing about "stress" in the evidence.CaseBriefs. • A) Only answer that mentions "speech acquisition" and its strong language is allowed because we have strong language in the conclusion. how those who listened to music required less help to reduce the pain of surgery. Sec • Sec III. this argument falls apart. LSAT Course Workbook www. • Sec III. a strongly worded answer choice.com . #7 (Necessary) • Conclusion is about "speech acquisition" and is very strong ("only.

but the negation of C does not destroy the argument. • LSAT Course Workbook www. and their taxes would increase government revenues. Prep Test. Typical prephrase might be that trauma centers are expensive. and the argument falls apart. Note that the negation of D attacks the relationship between the premise that treatment centers would save lives and the intermediate conclusion). there will be no net increase in employment: those that have died will be replaced on the job. ! This prediction would lead us to C. and the cost in treating would be greater than the revenues earned by those whose lives are saved. and still it could be better for the economy overall.com . even if citizens of X get specialized treatment. The negation of D simply tells us that.CaseBriefs. Treatment in trauma centers could me more expensive than treatment elsewhere.Assumption Questions: September 2007. Sec • • • • Conclusion: First sentence ("should“ often indicates a conclusion) Intermediate conclusion: earnings of those whose lives are saved would increase GNP. because there will be no overall increase in revenue.

or D.CaseBriefs.com .” Repeating terms. so diagram! RER = rapid emergence from a recession NI = new investment CEP = conﬁdence in economic policies CBI =collective before individual goals RER ! NI NI ! CEP _________ CBI !~RER You can solve this as I did in the video. LSAT Course Workbook www. or take the contrapositive of combined evidence: ~CEP ! ~RER Answer CBI !~CEP.Assumption Questions: September 2007. Prep Test. Sec • • • • • • • " " • • • • Su!cient The negation of “rapid emergence” equals “cannot emerge quickly.

LSAT Course Workbook www. The conclusion is about the entire population of leatherback turtles. and A is the contrapositive this statement. “No change ! No e!ect” would complete the argument.Assumption Questions December 2007. the correct answer is both necessary and su"cient. • • • • • • • • • #9 (Necessary) The evidence is about nesting female leatherback turtles. For the argument to be a good one. So the answer is A. #13 (Necessary) The evidence states the drug caused no signiﬁcant change in a three month trial.com . Note that in 9 & 13. Prep Test 53.CaseBriefs. The conclusion states that the drug has no e!ect. nesting female leatherback turtles must be representative of leatherback turtles generally. We can stay that they are necessary because they contain no language than is stronger than that in the conclusion.

• Necessary • B) If crushed limestone did NOT stay in the soil long enough to neutralize some of the top layer's acidity. then crushed limestone would not make the soil less acidic. but "limestone would make the soil more attractive to earthworms. and so it is correct. • C) Limestone might be good for other reasons. and would therefore not make the soil more attractve to earthworms. but the conclusion is about earthworms."! LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs. We always must consider the speciﬁc conclusion. The conclusion isn't just a general "Limestone is good". Prep Test 53. The negation of B destroys the argument.Assumption Questions December 2007.

but "limestone would make the soil more attractive to earthworms. We always must consider the speciﬁc conclusion. • C) Limestone might be good for other reasons.CaseBriefs. then crushed limestone would not make the soil less acidic.Assumption Questions December 2007. but the conclusion is about earthworms. The conclusion isn't just a general "Limestone is good". and would therefore not make the soil more attractive to earthworms. • Necessary • B) If crushed limestone did NOT stay in the soil long enough to neutralize some of the top layer's acidity. The negation of B destroys the argument. Prep Test 53. and so it is correct.com ."! LSAT Course Workbook www.

LSAT Course Workbook www. then the evidence is true. • D is a common kind of wrong answer for Su!cient Assumption questions. “If the conclusion is true. so C is correct. • Su!cient • Argument by analogy: lions and tigers have same skeletons.com . C does that. # • We need an answer choice that connects what we know about lions and tigers to dinosaurs. we cannot infer that certain dinosaurs with same skeletons had same hunting behavior. Prep Test 53. It says.CaseBriefs. or to animals in general. but di"erent hunting behavior.Assumption Questions December 2007. Therefore. so D does nothing to help the argument.” But we already know the evidence is true.

• Necessary • Evidence is about “robust crops” withstanding insect attacks.CaseBriefs.Assumption Questions December 2007. • Correct answer will connect “robust crops” to “good soil.” LSAT Course Workbook www. Note that the language strength of the assumption – “tend to.” ! • D is correct: “Crops grown in good soil tend to be robust crops.” leads to good crops.” matches the strength of the conclusion: “a better way. ! • Conclusion is about “good soil” preventing insect attacks. Prep Test 53.com .

and therefore the argument is destroyed. and the negation ("measures cannot be taken") strengthens is.” Sure. • C) This choice is tempting. • B) This choice can be diagrammed: Damage health ! Toxic Vapors + Human Exposure. so this choice is clearly wrong. LSAT Course Workbook www.” • D) Weakens the argument. health could be damaged by a faulty sea-saw. not necessarily “toxic vapors. so the negation of B does not destroy the argument and is not wrong.Assumption Questions December 2007. • E) "Any landﬁll" is too broad. Prep Test 53. • 8: A) If there are NO bacteria in these landﬁlls converted to public parks. The negation is that “health could be damaged without toxic vapors and human exposure.CaseBriefs. but its negation does not destroy the argument. A is correct. because the choice is about “vapors”. then the evidence is completely irrelevant to human health.com .

20 (Necessary) Conclusion: ability of mammals to control their internal body temperature is a factor in the development of their brains and intelligence. But the argument is about the development of intelligence.com .Assumption Questions December 2007..” The negation makes the injustices cited impossible and the conclusion completely useless. The negation of E: “If retirement age ceases to be 65.CaseBriefs. and so D is correct. not the support of the intelligence. This looks like is might weaken the argument. Evidence: last clause! The negation of C is “The brain COULD support intelligence…“. The negation of D: “The development of intelligence in mammals IS INDEPENDENT. NO one will work past 65.”. • • 15 (Necessary) The correct answer is E. Prep Test 53. • • • • • LSAT Course Workbook www. This negation destroys the argument..

Assumption Questions June 2008.” • 13 (Su!cient): • ~OPC!EGB " __________ " ~BQ+~LP!EGB Correct answer is ~BQ+~LP!~OPC. • 9 (Necessary): correct answer is A. The negation of A: “ALL of the museum’s employees are paid signiﬁcantly more than the minimum wage. LSAT Course Workbook www. or answer choice B. • 6 (Necessary): correct answer is C. Sec II • 2 (Necessary): correct answer is E. Prep Test 54.com .CaseBriefs.

Assumption Questions June 2008. D. Sec II • 26 (Su!cient): • GOB!PDO leads us to the correct answer.com .CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www. Prep Test 54.

The conclusion of the argument is “If a studio’s goal is to maximize proﬁts….CaseBriefs. is justiﬁed. • 24 : (Necessary). so the “any” in the correct answer. If answer choice E were not true. or more than 60.Assumption Questions June 2008. and not covered in video): The conclusion has a strong word (“any”). Prep Test 54. C.com .” E is incorrect because the argument is not about what a studio’s goal should be. the argument falls apart. is the only one that connects “mass audiences” to “maximizing proﬁts. Sec III • 3 (Necessary. and almost 60.” • 22: (Su!cient): Answer is B. " LSAT Course Workbook www. • 7: (Necessary): The correct answer is D. new buildings were built. A. • 18: (Necessary): The evidence is all about the "mass audiences" and the correct answer.

Review • Necessary Assumptions: Passive Questions • Use the negation test! • Su!cient Assumptions: Active Questions • Plug the answer into the argument.CaseBriefs. and learn the diagramming formulas.com . LSAT Course Workbook www.

Lesson Ten: Flawed Reasoning LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs.

we have been strengthening and weakening and ﬁnding assumptions of bad arguments. Here is where the LSAT gets the most philosophical.com . we come to the heart of LSAT logic . in my opinion. the most fun.CaseBriefs. and. LSAT Course Workbook www.Flawed Reasoning Questions • With ﬂawed reasoning questions. Now we're going to talk about reasoning in the abstract.

it is a poor argument.June 2007.com . or has been wrong in the past. Sec II.CaseBriefs. The LSAT is a reality-based test. but with the source of the argument. • The argument probably does do what is stated in E. where one does not engage with the argument's evidence. This ﬂaw falls under the category of source arguments. and contains no other evidence. • The answer is A. but it not su!cient evidence that the claim made by a biased source is false. and making incredibly obvious assumptions is not considered ﬂawed reasoning. but I don't think it's ﬂawed to assume that a PR department would not approve a negative report. If an argument claims that its opponent is biased. LSAT Course Workbook www. #4 • Bias is worth noting. or immoral.

• #21: Cause and e!ect ﬂaw! Refer to Lessons Two and Seven.com .CaseBriefs.June 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II • #17: Expert ﬂaw! Refer to Lesson Two.

posters will not make them more productive. The argument is about corporations that have already begun to use these posters. E is the answer LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. ! • Flawed assumption: Because they are already productive. • A is incorrect.com . because it is about corporations currently NOT using these posters. Sec III. • Evidence: employees are already productive.June 2007. #4 • Conclusion: posters will not boost productivity.

• You might notice at this point that some of these ﬂaw questions have abstract language in their answer choices. "Infers a cause from a mere correlation" or confuses su!cient and necessary conditions" would be abstract language. Elsewhere, as in the last question, the answer choices began with phrases like "fails to consider the possibility that" or "takes for granted that". In these questions, the ﬂaw is speciﬁc to the question and not an abstract ﬂaw category.

Two kinds of ﬂawed reasoning questions

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• We can think of these questions as Necessary Assumption/Weakener hybrids, because any answer choice that begins with "fails to consider" or "fails to exclude the possibility that" is really giving you a claim that, if the answer choice is correct, would weaken the argument. Any answer choice that begins with "presumes" or "takes for granted that" is really giving you a claim that, if the answer choice is correct, is a necessary assumption of the argument.
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Two kinds of ﬂawed reasoning questions

June 2007, Sec III, #8
• This is actually a Weakening Question. Even though the question has the phrase "most vulnerable to criticism", it also has the phrase "fails to consider the possibility that." The correct answer will weaken the argument by giving us a speciﬁc claim relating to the content of the argument, not some abstract ﬂaw. • E is correct. • One note: The correct answers here will be implied by the argument. They won't be other possibilities drawn from other, analogous situations, as is the case with the Weakeners we have look at thus far. So even though these are weakening questions, when they are introduced with this kind of question stem, I put them in the Passive category. Hence, they are Passive Weakeners.

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June 2007, Sec III
• 18 is unique in that the ﬂaw comes between the premise and the intermediate conclusion. This is rare, but it happens from time to time. • Answer is D. • 23. The ﬂaw is the making the assumption that a selﬁsh motivation implies an unreliable promise • A describes a bad negation (or “half-contrapositive”) of the ﬂawed assumption: a selﬂess motivation implies a reliable promise. D is the answer. • Watch out for Answer Choice A. It’s where the test writers love to put tempting choices. But don’t assume it’s always wrong: it’s still right almost 20% of the time. • 25. We've seen this in Lesson Two: Su!cient/Necessary ﬂaw!

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September 2007, Prep Test 52, Sec I
! • 2: This argument has a cause and e"ect ﬂaw. It might not be the napping causing the insomnia, but the insomnia, or lack of sleep, causing the napping. Answer is D. • 6: The argument has a ﬂawed assumption: “consistency implies accuracy.” Answer is E. • 23: Just because Megan’s reading reduces the time she spends with other children doesn’t mean that her reading “detracts from her social development.” D clearly describes the ﬂawed manner in which the application applied the principle.
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September 2007, Prep Test 52, Sec III, #4
• This argument has a ﬂawed assumption that popular magazines do not ﬁnd articles that contain valid research. • B is correct. • C is too speciﬁc an assumption. • D would strengthen the argument. • What are A and E?
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September 2007, Prep Test 52, Sec III, #4: Straw Man
• Answer choice A would be correct if the argument distorted an opponents argument and presented a counter-argument that actually did not attack the original. This ﬂawed strategy is generally called a "straw man" argument. • Consider this argument: “My opponent wants to withdraw from the war in Greenland. Therefore, he supports the terrorists in Greenland. “ • This argument is what we call a “straw man” argument. There may be other reasons to withdraw from a war in Greenland. Maybe the country is losing the war, maybe ﬁghting a war there is counter-productive, maybe it’s creating more terrorists than it stops. Whatever the case may be, the conclusion drawn above is clearly ﬂawed, as it distorts the opponents position and makes it easier to attack.

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• I'm the best LSAT teacher. Circular reasoning is the one kind of technically valid reasoning which is considered ﬂawed. because it is not an argument. and is therefore ﬂawed. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec III. Consider this argument. Any decent argument has the potential to be falsiﬁed. It assumes what it seeks to prove. so is the conclusion.com . because I'm the best LSAT teacher. • It might seem logically valid.September 2007. Prep Test 52. #4: Circular Reasoning • E describes a ﬂaw called circular reasoning.CaseBriefs. But there is no way to challenge my argument. because if the premise is true.

#4: Circular Reasoning • • • " " " " • Circular reasoning can appear in a slightly more tricky form: ! My student all do well on the LSAT. Those students who did not do well. This argument is another example of circular reasoning. LSAT Course Workbook www.September 2007.com . because there is no way to disprove it. The LSAT might describe this form of circular reasoning thus: "The argument precludes the possibility of disconﬁrming evidence." This argument is also unfair. because those students who did not do well were not actually my true students. are disqualiﬁed from being real evidence. Prep Test 52. Sec III.CaseBriefs. potential counterexamples to my claim. We could diagram it thus: ! ~DW ---> ~MS ! ____________ MS ----> DW ! Here we have the contrapositive as evidence for a logically equivalent conclusion.

CaseBriefs. • Straw Man • Source Arguments • Circular Reasoning LSAT Course Workbook www. Let’s look at the ﬂaws we’ve seen so far:! • Su"cient/Necessary • Cause and E#ect • Improper appeal to experts.com .List of ﬂaws • A and E were incorrect here. but other arguments in other questions might contain those ﬂaws.

#8 • The argument in 8 contained this ﬂawed assumption: “government did not do what was to everyone's advantage. Remember that moral claims must be supported by other moral claims for an argument to be completely valid.com . therefore it acted immorally.September 2007.CaseBriefs.” (I'm paying more attention to the immoral rather than the ine!cient claim. Prep Test 52. Sec III. because that it the more serious logical leap. LSAT Course Workbook www.) A is correct.

So the correct answer should point out a major di!erence.September 2007. Sec III • 12: There will probably still be biases among historians even if historians make the proposed shift in emphasis • Answer is D • 16: Argument assumes that the hospitals are similar in many respects.CaseBriefs. so it cannot be correct.com . • B describes a su"cient/necessary ﬂaw. • C is correct. Prep Test 52. but there is no su"cient/necessary language. LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs.September 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. but there is a more serious ﬂaw in this argument. Prep Test 52. It's a reasonable consideration. so E is correct. Sec III. Maybe they parachuted ten times for a reason. No argument can consider every piece of evidence in the world. so it's a pretty weak kind of objection. and E gives it to us.those who fear and those who do not . and those who feared after one time will never get over their fear.are roughly equivalent. perhaps particularly fearless people. #21 • The argument assumes that the two groups . • B: Of course it would be good to consider all kinds of parachuters. But maybe those who parachuted ten times are a di!erent kind of person.com .

CaseBriefs.or pair of arguments . Prep Test 53.” The word equivocate .. to “equivocate” is not good. It does not mean. Melinda meant that insurance lessened the risk because if a disastrous event occurs. • When a word or concept is used twice in an argument . #12 and “Equivocal • This question doesn't look like a ﬂaw question. equal. to seek equality for an oppressed group. i.means to make two things that are unequal. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . we call this "ambiguous word usage.e. But Jack thought she was talking about the actual risk of the event itself. and it appears on the LSAT to describe ambiguous word usage." The LSAT sometimes uses the phrase "equivocal language" or states that the argument "equivocates with respect to a central term or concept.in two very di!erent ways. To equivocate is always a logical ﬂaw. Sec I.you can see the root "equal" . however. one need not experience ﬁnancial disaster. But it's clear Jack committed a ﬂaw and misunderstood what Melinda meant. C is correct.December 2007.

LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. Prep Test 53. then if we can show that one does not need three years to get a strong client base.December 2007.com . we need to show that success is possible without three years in the business. B does the job. #18 • ! ! • Suc ! CB 3yrs ! CB __________ Suc ! 3yrs • To weaken. Sec I. we weakened this argument. If a client base is necessary for success.

December 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. • Answer choice B describes the ﬂaw of equivocation. Prep Test 53. Sec I. so it’s not a ﬂaw in the argument.CaseBriefs.com . #18 • The evidence is comparitive: it discusses what is “healthier.” E is correct. • Answer choice C is too broad. It discusses what is su!cient to be “healthy. • Answer choice D describes a su!cient/necessary ﬂaw. • Answer choice A doubts the evidence. but the meaning of “healthy” never changes. but such language appears only in the conclusion.” The conclusion is absolute.

LSAT Course Workbook www.December 2007. • E: It’s not a circular argument. The argument presumes that because each piece of evidence works together. C • 6. • A: This choice describes that ﬂawed assumption. You can use negation technique to prove its correctness. Prep Test 53. Each strand works together. they are equally important. • D: While it's true that an argument by analogy can be suspect. the strength of the case is relatively una!ected. so if one breaks. Sec III • 2. D. • C: I think lawyer would agree with this.CaseBriefs.com . the lawyer did o!er some support for the analogy. • B: The argument never made that assumption. • 17.

they may possess such a capacity . Prep Test 54. E is correct.even if they don't always show it. • 19.June 2008. D is correct. Sec II • 5: Su!cient/necessary ﬂaw. The ﬂaw is simply to assume that the past equals the future.CaseBriefs. B is correct. E is correct.com . " • 15. • 22: Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. LSAT Course Workbook www. Humans may be rational . Computer is a distraction.

com . D is correct.CaseBriefs. The answer is D. # ! The answer is A. • 14: Su"cient/Necessary Flaw. Prep Test 54. Sec II • 4: Events can have multiple causes. LSAT Course Workbook www. ! Not the circular reasoning in E. • 16: Evidence: there will be incentive ! Conclusion: It's going to happen.June 2008.

com . assuming that a certain e"ect only has one cause • Ambiguous word usage (equivocal language) • Circular reasoning • Illegitimate appeal to experts • Assuming that a ﬂawed argument proves the opposite conclusion is true (“absence of evidence is evidence of absence”) • Source arguments (ad hominem) • “Straw Man” arguments LSAT Course Workbook www.Review of ﬂaws • Su!cient/Necessary reversals • Cause and e"ect: ignoring potential alternate causes.CaseBriefs.

Lesson Eleven Reading Comprehension II LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .

A LSAT Course Workbook www. C 6.CaseBriefs. A 4. E 3.September 2007.com . Prep Test 52. D 5. E 2. Passage 1 (Humanities) • • • • • • 1.

Passage 2 (Dual Passage) • • • • • • 7. Prep Test 52. A 10. D LSAT Course Workbook www. B 9.CaseBriefs.September 2007.com . D 8. C 11. B 12.

E 15.CaseBriefs. Prep Test 52. B 19. A LSAT Course Workbook www.September 2007.com . C 14. D 17. Passage 3 (Science) • • • • • • • 13. E 18. Question Removed 16.

B 13. A LSAT Course Workbook www.December 2007.CaseBriefs.com . D 8. Prep Test 53. Passage 2 (Legal) • • • • • • • • 7. A 9. D 12. E 11. C 10. B 14.

Lesson Twelve: Advanced Sequencing and Hybrid Games And a brief discussion about skipping games LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.com .

com . Prep Test 53: ! ! Game III setup S T V W X Y Z W—S X Z– V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sus Y/Z T W C/~C S ~C C C ~C ! ! LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.December 2007.

B E A E A D LSAT Course Workbook www. 14. 15. 17. 13.com . 16.CaseBriefs.December 2007. Prep Test 53 Game III Questions • • • • • • 12.

com . Prep Test 54: Game IV setup H J K R S T Acc = K/R. 2/3 H– J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 ! ! J S T 1 2 3 4 5 6 R/S J! LSAT Course Workbook www.! June 2008.CaseBriefs.

23.June 2008. 22. Game IV Questions • • • • • • 18.CaseBriefs. Prep Test 54. 19.com . B A B D C A LSAT Course Workbook www. 21. 20.

Prep Test 54. H I N Q R S H N 4 3 ~Q 2 ~Q 1 I H/R S = Random LSAT Course Workbook www.June 2008.com .CaseBriefs.

com . E 10. 12. E. D 9. • • • • • • • 6. D 11. Prep Test 54. A 8.June 2008.CaseBriefs. A 7. B LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs. Game IV M P S P I N High Student 1 ___ ___ ___ T 2 ___ ___ ___ 3 ___ ! ___ ___ ! Student G M N O P S T LSAT Course Workbook www.com .High G F I G H H December 2007. Prep Test 53.

20.com . 21. 22. Prep Test 53. E A B C D B LSAT Course Workbook www. 23.CaseBriefs. 19. Game IV • • • • • • 18.December 2007.

LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.Skipping Games • Almost always.com . but also consider the number of questions. skip the third or fourth game • Decide which game is easier.

com .Lesson Thirteen: Parallel Reasoning and Principle Questions LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.

the black hole.com . While there are only 2. there is still tremendous value is studying them to learn more what the LSAT considers good. and they are usually the best problems to skip if you have to. maybe 3 per section.Parallel Reasoning • Parallel Reasoning questions are the nightmare. the bete noire of the Logical Reasoning section. and parallel reasoning.CaseBriefs. bad. LSAT Course Workbook www.

June 2007. the question stem did not necessarily indicate whether the argument was good or bad. But that’s been the case for the last 20 years. so if you are simply asked to parallel the reasoning. then it’s a good argument.CaseBriefs. #2 • We learn in the question stem that this is a ﬂawed argument. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . so the right answer must be similarly ﬂawed. The LSAT always tells you when they think it’s a ﬂawed argument. • (In some pre-91 tests. Sec II. and I don’t expect it to change).

com . to what kind of grades she gets. but in a di"erent way from that in the stimulus. It’s a ﬂaw to think that a cross-bread. so they are both wrong. or any kind of combination. The “somewhat” doesn’t necessarily carry over from how hard she studies. But it’s not the same kind of ﬂaw. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II.CaseBriefs. this argument would be a good one. ! • The argument in A is ﬂawed.June 2007. will simply average out the qualities of originals. #2 • So what’s the ﬂaw? Rosa combines two extreme kinds of dogs. in which extremes are combined to create an average. It’s ﬂawed. and the conclusion is that her dogs will be moderate barkers. • E: If we knew that the dresses in the closet were all Keisha’s or Connies’s. • B is correct. • C and D contain good arguments.

which states that two obligations cannot always be met – the obligation to keep a promise and the obligation to answer all questions truthfully. The content in A is similar – but if the argument is about moral principles. • • • LSAT Course Workbook www.com . but we need a “cannot be true”. The strength of the conclusion in the correct answer must match that in the conclusion of the stimulus. C. D. B has a “some” in the conclusion.” Some of you who have taken other LSAT courses might have been scared by A. It’s true that sometimes the test tries to trick you by including in wrong answers content similar to that in the stimulus – though the test writers don’t use this trick very often any longer.CaseBriefs. but the original argument dealt with general principles. a parallel argument will also be about moral principles. And none of these choices have the “two actions cannot be done. so A is correct. because the content seems so similar. A is the only one that does this. Sec II.June 2007. Look for an answer choice that tells us that two actions cannot both be done. #12 • This one is much harder. Pay attention to the conclusion. and E all deal in speciﬁcs.

com . LSAT Course Workbook www. their argument must be wrong. It’s attack on the people in the local historical society. #20 • What’s the ﬂaw here? It’s a “source” argument. not their argument. C contains a similar ﬂaw.CaseBriefs.June 2007. so C is correct. Sec III. The argument concludes that because certain people might have di!erent economic interests than us.

It doesn’t really matter what people believe in a question of scientiﬁc logic. but reverses su"cient and necessary. the entity that was proven not to exist in the evidence. Sec I.September 2007.” Maybe all those who believe in ET believe in UFOs. E is close. In the stimulus. and so do not discuss what actually exists. But here the su"cient condition is shown to not exist. one that applies contrapositive logic. B and C mention what “you” believe.CaseBriefs. • • LSAT Course Workbook www.com . the UFOs. in the necessary condition of the ﬁrst claim. but the non-existence of UFOs does not imply the non-existence of ETs. The correct answer must be ﬂawed in a similar way. #16 • • ! ! ! • It might seem like a good argument. ET ! UFO ~UFO _________ ~ET But that diagram ignores the idea of “belief.

however. or an “absence of evidence.) LSAT Course Workbook www. (Apologies to all those who believe that UFOs. and centaurs exist. That distinction is enough to make A much more similar to the argument in this stimulus than is D. we have “unicorns do not exist.” doesn’t mean we have reason to believe that it is false. When in doubt. #16 • That leaves us with A and D. The stimulus’ conclusion says that the “belief is false. Extra-Terrestrials. A is correct. Sec I. distinction – just because we have no reason to believe something.” In A. Here we have a classic LSAT. unicorns. which are very similar.September 2007. D. always focus on the conclusion. and logical. says that a belief is unjustiﬁed. you probably shouldn’t be taking the LSAT. But if think that there is any hard evidence to support these beliefs.” These are of similar strength.CaseBriefs.com .

Sec III.). probably. bad negation. The correct answer is C.CaseBriefs.September 2007. LSAT Course Workbook www. not usually. Just be careful that the strength of the conclusion in the answer choice matches the strength of the conclusion in the stimulus. it should be a probabilistic word (unlikely. etc.com . #24 • ! ! ! ! ! • It’s almost like a half-CP. Just as we have in the stimulus’ conclusion. UF ! EB ~UF ________ ~EB.

But let’s look at the other choices. #21 • " • " " " " • • " " " " • Su!cient/Necessary words in the stimulus. pick A and move on. Sec I. Diagram! # AR > 5 ! TBM AR > 5 ! RF ~RF __________ ~TBM # Let’s diagram A: GP ! SF GP ! PBS (so far. LSAT Course Workbook www. On test day.December 2007.CaseBriefs.com . so good!) ~PBS ______________ ~SF Exactly the same.

CaseBriefs. D is wrong. but not as close as A. #21 B: • " " " " • • • " " " • • ! B2M ! JOT JOT ! LI B2M ________ LI Good argument.December 2007. E is wrong. C is wrong. LSAT Course Workbook www. C: Good argument.com . MO ! ~EF FPD ! EF _________ ~FPD ! ~MO Bad argument with a similar ﬂaw. B is wrong. E: Good argument. Sec I.

#23 • Species can survive. LSAT Course Workbook www. but the concentration of poor students in certain schools. So threat is not from cutting down trees. as long as change is not too rapid. Sec III.December 2007.com . but the rate. Here’s a similar argument: public education is terrible! Look at all the problems with urban schools!! • It’s not public education itself. ! • This is a cause and e"ect argument that weakens a purported cause (the cutting of trees in general) by arguing that it’s some aspect of the that purported cause (the rate) which is actually to blame. • D is correct.CaseBriefs.

we can conclude a “some” statement. • If the ﬁrst two parts of the “most” statement line up. Even if one of the statements was an “all” statement (“All dogs bite. some things are cuddly also bite. #21 • ! ! ! Most dogs are cuddly.CaseBriefs.com .”) LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II.June 2008. Most dogs bite. ___________________ Therefore.

June 2008. #21 • ! ! ! • Most MSA are PDC _______________ PDC likely MSA " A good conclusion would have been. LSAT Course Workbook www.” But you cannot ﬂip a most statement around to then get a conclusion about probability. who su#ers from migraines as an adult.CaseBriefs. • A is the correct answer. Sec II.com . “therefore Jane. was prone to depression as a child.

A: FDA ! R FPL ! R ________ FDA ! FPL "Bad argument! A is wrong.) LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec II.com . The correct answer must contain a good argument.June 2008. So B is out (though it’s kind of funny that the argument feels the need to tell us that her fridge is in her apartment.CaseBriefs. B: First sentence: R + FIR ! DA Already it’s nothing like the stimulus. #23 • ! ! ! • • • ! ! ! • • • • MSM ! MM MM ! 20% ____________ MSM ! 20% "It’s a good argument in the stimulus.

PLW ! R PLW ! A ________ FA ! FR E contains a bad argument (the conclusion here should be “Some R’s are A’s”. FDA ! R R ! PLW _________ PLW ! FDA "D contains a bad argument (a su#cient/necessary reversal). LSAT Course Workbook www.June 2008. #23 • ! ! ! • • ! ! ! • • ! ! • • FDA ! R R ! PLW _________ FDA ! PLW "C is correct.CaseBriefs. Sec II.com .

Therefore. B: Perhaps this is a good argument. Ex: The Springﬁeld Atoms are the best baseball team in the league. C: This choice contains the same ﬂaw as does the stimulus. Sec IV. C is correct. they have the best shortstop in the league.June 2008. D: It seems likely that the book is good.com . E: This choice contains a good argument. #8 ! • • • • • • • • What’s the ﬂaw? It’s assuming what is true of the whole is true of its parts. ! A: This seems like a good argument. so it’s incorrect. the original argument went the other way.CaseBriefs. a good application of su"cient / necessary logic. and in any case. It’s certainly not as ﬂawed as the stimulus. this argument goes from part to whole. LSAT Course Workbook www.

B must be wrong. ECP ! WL + WK WL or WK ! SBD ___________ SBD ! ~ECP B contains a bad argument. #25 • ! ! ! • • ! ! ! • • ! ! • • FD ! E + S E or S ! FSD ___________ ~FSD ! ~FD" This choice contains perfect contrapositive logic. EP ! UD + SE T6M + ~SE ! UD __________ EP ! T6M" A contains a bad argument. It is therefore wrong. So the correct answer must contain the same.com .June 2008.CaseBriefs. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec IV.

#25 !! • " " " • • • " • • • " " " • • GA ! RH + LA RH or LA ! CGB _____________ ~CGB ! ~GA Same as stimulus.CaseBriefs. choose C and move on! ! DW ! H or OMR H ! MBS On the questionable assumption that the beautiful scenery can only be seen on the way to Weller. On test day. LSAT Course Workbook www. Sec IV. so it’s deﬁnitely wrong. i. a negation without reversal.com .e. But there is no contrapositive logic. ! DIC ! FR + IC IC or FR! CLP ___________ ~DIC ! CLP ! E contains a # contrapositive. D contains a good argument.June 2008..

com . Some principle questions give you a principle in the stimulus and you have to choose an answer choice that best follows that principle. These two principle questions would fall into the Passive question category.CaseBriefs. because they include within them many of the other question types we’ve studied. LSAT Course Workbook www. and they are a great way to end. These are similar to inference questions.Principle Questions • Our last major question type is Principle Questions. These questions are very similar to necessary assumption questions. Others give you an argument in the stimulus and you have to choose an answer choice that describes the principle the argument most likely invoked – usually the question stem here asks you for a principle the argument “conforms to”.

an some older principle questions asked you for a principle that is su!cient for the argument’s conclusion. in the case of the inference type.CaseBriefs.Principle Questions • Other principle questions simply ask you for a principle that strengthens an argument. • What separates Principle questions from the other inference. strengthen. These two question types fall into the Active question category. LSAT Course Workbook www.com . the stimulus – will contain more general statements than the other question types. and assumption questions is that the answer choices – or.

A default would damage the prestige of the nation. however. LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs.” • “United States leaders have a responsibility to work to prevent actions that would damage the nation’s prestige.Principle Questions • Let’s say we had this argument.” • The principle could apply to any wealthy nation. • The United States is a wealthy nation at risk of defaulting on its debt. would be much more broad in scope: • “The leaders of a wealthy nation must do whatever they can to prevent anything that would damage the nation’s prestige. It leaders. but it applies as well to the speciﬁc argument above. therefore must do everything in their power to prevent a default.” • A principle strengthener. • A strengthener could be anything: • “A default would also cause mass unemployment.

com . not self-interest or societal norms. Sec II. Wrong! C: Donna didn’t even do the right thing. this question stem doesn’t contain the word principle. so this question deﬁnitely falls into the principle category. But clearly the ethicist has a principle – and the word principle is used in the stimulus.CaseBriefs. A: Bobby just wants to look generous. Wrong! • • • • LSAT Course Workbook www. So which one of these people is motivated by abstract principles. Wrong! B: Wes just wants his employer to like him. #7 • Principle/Inference • Unlike most principle questions.June 2007. Correct! • E: Leigh acted because she was pressured by her colleagues. Wrong! D: Jadine acted against her own self-interest because of her beliefs.

June 2007, Sec III, #14
• Principle/Conforms • Conclusion: universities should use only open-source software. • Evidence: open-source software, better than proprietary software, matches the values the embodied in academic scholarship, which are central to mission of universities. • Note the “should” in the conclusion. Principle answer choices will often provide the missing link between the descriptive evidence and the moral, or prescriptive, conclusion. Whenever we see the phrase “most closely conforms to” in the question stem, we are dealing with a principle question very similar to a necessary assumption question. Answer choices that are too strong are wrong. While the negation technique doesn’t work 100% of the time of these, in most cases the negation of the correct answer will destroy the argument.

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June 2007, Sec III, #24
• • • Strengthening Principle Here we have an Active Principle question. The correct answer will probably be much broader than the argument itself, but it will apply. This argument contains an assumption that should remind you of a common LSAT ﬂaw. The argument concludes that romantics are wrong, that people are born evil and not made evil by institutions, on the basis of the fact that institutions are just collections of people. So the argument assumes that the parts determine the whole. A relevant objection would be maybe the whole determines the parts, and that people born into institutions are made evil by them. E weakens this objection. On strengthening principle questions, when in doubt, go for the more abstract, broader answer choice. The whole point of principles is that they are wider in scope than the speciﬁc content of the argument.

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September 2007, Sec I, #8,
! • • • • • • 8: Principle/strengthening – C is correct. 19: Principle/strengthening. Inﬂuence is what matters, and in E we have the most direct connection. ! 22: Principle/inference – diagram! WT ! T + ~D ID or WT ! L If you had an answer choice that said that Joe told a true statement with no intention to deceive, and he is therefore wholly truthful, that, though it seems perfect, would be wrong. When just given necessary conditions for a judgement, you can never actually make that judgement. You can only say one or both of the necessary conditions were missing and that therefore the su"cient condition is untrue, in this case, someone is not wholly truthful. When given necessary conditions, take the CP: D or ~T ! ~WT The correct answer is D. Walter intended to deceive and is therefore a liar.

• •

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September 2007, Sec III
! • • • • • • 1: Principle/conforms Correct answer is D. 11: Principle/conforms Correct answer is D. 25: Principle/conforms Correct answer is A.
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December 2007, Sec I, #17
• 17: Principle/conforms • The stimulus describes how correlations do not necessarily imply causal relationships, and how it might be one phenomena causing two e!ects. This stimulus is discussing what I call the uber-cause. Remember the Driver from Lesson Two. He mistook correlation for causation, ignoring what was in fact a very likely uber-cause: that he was simply a reckless driver.
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December 2007, Sec III
12: Principle/strengthening Correct answer is B. 18: Principle/conforms Correct answer is E. 25: Strengthening (It’s not really a principle question, because the answer choices are not principles, and you are not choosing an answer that can be inferred from a principle. But this question is often, I would argue, mistakenly classiﬁed as a principle question. In fact, I made the same mistake when preparing these videos. Sorry!) • The correct answer is C. • • • • •
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June 2008, Sec II & IV
• • • • Sec II, #18: Principle/Conforms Correct answer is C. Sec IV, #9. Principle/Strengthening Correct answer is A.

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The correct answer’s conclusion must match in strength the stimulus’ conclusion.CaseBriefs.com . • Principle Questions: • Inference (Passive): very often can be diagrammed • Conforms (Passive): similar to Necessary Assumption questions • Strengthening (Active): correct answer broader than that of a regular strengthener LSAT Course Workbook www.Review • Parallel Reasoning • Skip if you need to. but study them! (A great way to practice your diagramming skills) • Pay attention to the conclusion.

CaseBriefs.Review of Prep Test 61 LSAT Course Workbook www.com .

A 11.com .Logical Reasoning I • • • • • • • 2. D 15. A 13. E 7.CaseBriefs. B 14. D 10. B LSAT Course Workbook www.

18. 17.CaseBriefs.Logical Reasoning I • • • • 16.com . 19. C A A D LSAT Course Workbook www.

or equal to. you have to decide which one weakens or strengthens the most. C is the correct answer.” If this particular cardiologist was not representative of cardiologists in general. however . This choice. it sounds like most of them are worse.com . #20 • • 20. thus weakening the conclusion that interpreting EKG data “should be left” to a computer. doesn’t make a cardiologist seem better. Probably the hardest question of the test. but D and E are very tempting. E: So tempting. then we would have a better weakener. With Weakening and Strengthening questions. Had this choice said “insu!cient for either computer programs or cardiologists ALONE to make accurate diagnoses”. and it’s a really tough Weakening question.Logical Reasoning I. but we know from the stimulus that the cardiologist was “very experienced and highly skilled. but still not one as good as C. C tell us that the cardiologist has an advantage that the computer lacks. • • LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs. which would strengthen the argument. a computer. D: Sometimes EKG readings are not enough for either a computer or a cardiologist.

com . E • 22.CaseBriefs. C LSAT Course Workbook www.Logical Reasoning I • 21.

A 12. C 8. C LSAT Course Workbook www. A 11.CaseBriefs.com . D 10.Logical Reasoning II • • • • • • • 5. E 9. C 6.

A B C D A E A LSAT Course Workbook www. 15. 19. 17.CaseBriefs. 18. 16.Logical Reasoning II • • • • • • • 13. 20.com .

CaseBriefs. 26. 25.com .Logical Reasoning II • • • • • • 21. 23. 24. C C D E B B LSAT Course Workbook www. 22.

com .. J! F or K ~K + ~F ! ~J Car 2 ___ ___ …… G <--> L LSAT Course Workbook www.CaseBriefs.Logic Games: Game 1 F G H J K L H! F or G D ~F + ~G ! ~H Car 1 ___ ___ ….

A C D LSAT Course Workbook www.com . A E.CaseBriefs. 4.Game 1 Questions • • • • • 1. 5. 3. 2.

Game 2 F H J N P T F J N T H P or P N H N 1 2 3 4 5 6 F/P LSAT Course Workbook www.com .CaseBriefs.

B 11. A 9. A 7. LSAT Course Workbook www. C 10. C 8.Game 2 Questions • • • • • • 6.com .CaseBriefs.

CaseBriefs. C 8. A 9. C 10. A 7. D LSAT Course Workbook www.com . B 11.Game 2 Questions • • • • • • 6.

com . LSAT Course Workbook www. and there cannot be both.CaseBriefs.Game 3 Q R S T U Q! Q T 1 ~S 2 3 ~S 4 ~U!R2 ~R2!U R2!~U U!~R2 There must be an R2 or a U.

com . D D B A E B LSAT Course Workbook www. 13. 15. 14.CaseBriefs. 16. 17.Game 3 Questions • • • • • • 12.

com .CaseBriefs.Game 4 F H __ __ …. G H – F J L– GK K L M–J M ~L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs. 19. 22. 21. 23.Game 4 Questions • • • • • • 18. 20.com . D C D B B A LSAT Course Workbook www.

CaseBriefs. 6.com . 4. 5.Reading Comprehension: Passage 1 • • • • • • 1. D B B D E A LSAT Course Workbook www. 2. 3.

A 9. C 11. E 10.com .CaseBriefs. B LSAT Course Workbook www. B 12. E 13. C 8.Reading Comprehension: Passage 2 • • • • • • • 7.

Reading Comprehension: Passage 3 • • • • • • 14. 17. 16. 18.CaseBriefs.com . 15. B A D D C B LSAT Course Workbook www. 19.

26. 24.CaseBriefs.Reading Comprehension: Passage 4 • • • • • • • • 20. 22. 23. 27. D E A E E B A B LSAT Course Workbook www. 25. 21.com .