You are on page 1of 3

Honors Chemistry

Name _________________________________ Period ___ Date ______/______/______


U n i t 3 : C h e m i c a l R e a c t i o n s

Single Replacement Reactions Lab


Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to determine which metals are most reactive and to create an order from most reactive to least reactive. Part I: Reactions with Aqueous Solutions Materials: Metals: Copper Lead Zinc Magnesium Silver Calcium

Solutions: Copper (II) sulfate Silver nitrate Lead (II) nitrate Zinc sulfate Magnesium nitrate

Procedures 1. Using a well plate and the chemical given, determine which reactions will occur between the metals and the solutions. 2. Add to each of the wells a small piece of the appropriate metal which has first been cleaned with sand paper. Note: Your teacher will provide the calcium when you are ready for it. 3. Create a data table to record your observations of before and after reactions. 4. Observe and record any evidence of a replacement reaction (i.e. a thin coating appears on the surface of the metal) occurring each of the test tubes. If no change is visible within five minutes, record this as no reaction

Ag(s) + CuSO4(aq) NR This is because silver (Ag) is less reactive than copper (Cu) on the activity series. Mg(s) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + Pb(s) This reaction occurs because magnesium (Mg) is higher on the activity series than lead (Pb) Discussion Questions 1. Write net ionic equations for all the reactions that occurred (highlighting the ones that were supposed to occur that you may not have observed) With copper: Cu(s) + Ag-(aq) Cu2+(aq) + Ag(s) With silver: no reactions With Magnesium: Mg(s) + Ag-(aq) Mg2+(aq) + Ag(s) Mg(s) + Cu2+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + Cu(s) Mg(s) + Pb2+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + Pb(s) Mg(s) + Zn2+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + Zn(s) With lead:

Pb(s) + Ag-(aq) Pb2+(aq) + Ag(s) Pb(s) + Cu2+(aq) Pb2+(aq) + Cu(s) With Zinc: Zn(s) + Ag-(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Ag(s) Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Pb2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Pb(s) 2. For each of the reactions, determine which substances has been oxidized and which one has been reduced as well as which is the oxidizing agent and which is the reducing agent. With copper: Silver; Oxidized: Cu(s); Reduced: Ag-(aq) With silver: no reactions With magnesium: Silver; Oxidized: Mg(s) Reduced: Ag-(aq) Copper; Oxidized: Mg(s) Reduced: Cu2+(aq) Lead; Oxidized: Mg(s) Reduced: Pb2+(aq) Zinc; Oxidized: Mg(s) Reduced: Zn2+(aq) With Lead: Silver; Oxidized: Pb(s) Reduced: Ag-(aq) Copper; Oxidized: Pb(s) Reduced: Cu2+(aq) With zinc: Silver; Oxidized: Zn(s) Reduced: Ag-(aq) Copper; Oxidized: Zn(s) Reduced: Cu2+(aq) Lead; Oxidized: Zn(s) Reduced: Pb2+(aq) 3. A metal was found in the lab that was missing its labeling tape. In order to determine the identity of the metal several reactions were performed. When the metal was placed in hydrochloric acid, it bubbled. No reaction was noticed when placed in a solution of calcium nitrate. A reaction was observed when placed in a solution of zinc chloride. What could the metal possibly be? What further test could you run to determine the identity of the metal? To determine the identity of the metal you would need to make use of the activity series for elements. If the metal reacted with a certain compound, then it means that your metal is higher on the activity series than the cation of the compound. Likewise, if the metal did not react with a certain compound, then it means that your metal is lower on the activity series than the cation of the compound. Since it reacted with hydrochloric acid, then your metal must be higher on the activity series than hydrogen, and for the same reason it must be higher than zinc. However, since no reaction was observed when placed in a solution of calcium nitrate, it must be lower than calcium. That means your metal is between calcium and zinc on the activity series. In other words, your metal is sodium, magnesium, or aluminum. From here, you could methodically check whether your metal reacts with sodium, magnesium, and aluminum by attempting to react it with respective compounds containing sodium, magnesium, and aluminum as the cation. From there you can find two elements that are adjacent on the activity series, and one of which your metal reacts with and one of which your metal doesnt react with. The lowest element that your metal doesn't react with is your mystery metal. Conclusion: A statement about the activity series you discovered. I discovered that when you attempt to react a metal with a compound with the makeup of a cation metal + anion, a reaction will occur if the metal is higher on the activity series than the cation metal, and will not occur if the metal is lower than or in the same spot (means it is the same element) as the cation on the activity series. Picture: