Bulletin OZ1000

7/00

Masoneilan Control Valve
Sizing Handbook

Masoneilan
DRESSER

VALVE

DIVISION

Table of Contents

Flow Coefficient ...................................................................
Operating Conditions ..........................................................
Specific Gravity ....................................................................
Pressure Drop Across the Valve ........................................
Flowing Quantity ..................................................................
Liquid Flow Equations .........................................................
Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor .......................................
Combined Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor ....................
Cavitation in Control Valves ...............................................
How to Avoid Cavitation ......................................................
Effect of Pipe Reducers .......................................................
Equations for Nonturbulent Flow .......................................
Gas and Vapor Flow Equations ..........................................
Multistage Valve Gas and Vapor Flow Equations .............
Ratio of Specific Heats Factor ............................................
Expansion Factor .................................................................
Two Phase Flow Equations .................................................
Choked Flow .........................................................................
Supercritical Fluids ..............................................................
Compressibility ....................................................................
Thermodynamic Critical Constants ....................................

3
3
3
4
4
5
6
6
6, 7
7
7
8
9
10
10
10
11
12
12
13-14
15-16

Engineering Data
Liquid Velocity in Steel Pipe ...............................................
Steam or Gas Flow in Steel Pipe ........................................
Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data ................................
Properties of Steam .............................................................
Temperature Conversion Table ..........................................
Masoneilan Control Valve Sizing Formulas .......................
Metric Conversion Tables ...................................................
Useful List of Equivalents ...................................................
References ............................................................................

17
18-19
20-21
22-27
28
29-30
31-32
33
33

Note: Tables for Cv, FL, xT and Kc vs Travel are found in publication
Supplement to Masoneilan Control Valve Sizing Handbook OZ1000.

Particulars contained in this publication are for general information only and Masoneilan reserves the right to modifiy the contents without prior
notice. No warranty either expressed or implied is either given or intended.
© 2000 Dresser Industries, Inc. All rights reserved.

Masoneilan
DRESSER

VALVE

DIVISION

2

Foreword
The principal use of the equations is to aid in the selection
of an appropriate valve size for a specific application. In
this procedure, the numbers in the equations consist of
values for the fluid and flow conditions and known values
for the selected valve at rated opening. With these
factors in the equation, the unknown (or product of the
unknowns, e.g., Fp Cv) can be computed. Although these
computed numbers are often suitable for selecting a
valve from a series of discrete sizes, they do not represent
a true operating condition. Some of the factors are for the
valve at rated travel, while others relating to the operating
conditions are for the partially open valve.

This handbook on control valve sizing is based on the use
of nomenclature and sizing equations from ISA Standard
S75.01 and IEC Standard 534-2. Additional explanations
and supportive information are provided beyond the
content of the standards.
The sizing equations are based on equations for predicting
the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through
control valves. The equations are not intended for use
when dense slurries, dry solids or non-Newtonian liquids
are encountered.
Original equations and methods developed by Masoneilan
are included for two-phase flow, multistage flow, and
supercritical fluids.

Once a valve size has been selected, the remaining
unknowns, such as Fp, can be computed and a judgement
can be made as to whether the valve size is adequate. It
is not usually necessary to carry the calculations further
to predict the exact opening. To do this, all the pertinent
sizing factors must be known at fractional valve openings.
A computer sizing program having this information in a
database can perform this task.

Values of numerical factors are included for commonly
encountered systems of units. These are United States
customary units and metric units for both kilopascal and
bar usage.

Flow Coefficient Cv
The use of the flow coefficient, Cv, first introduced by
Masoneilan in 1944, quickly became accepted as the
universal yardstick of valve capacity. So useful has Cv
become, that practically all discussions of valve design
and characteristics or flow behavior now employ this
coefficient.

through a given flow restriction with a pressure drop of
one psi. For example, a control valve that has a maximum
flow coefficient, Cv, of 12 has an effective port area in the
full open position such that it passes 12 gpm of water with
one psi pressure drop. Basically, it is a capacity index
upon which the engineer can rapidly and accurately
estimate the required size of a restriction in any fluid
system.

By definition, the valve flow coefficient, Cv, is the number
of U. S. gallons per minute of water that will pass

Operating Conditions
There is no substitute for good engineering
judgement. Most errors in sizing are due to incorrect
assumptions as to actual flowing conditions. Generally
speaking, the tendency is to make the valve too large to
be on the "safe" side (commonly referred to as
"oversizing"). A combination of several of these "safety
factors" can result in a valve so greatly oversized it tends
to be troublesome.

The selection of a correct valve size, as determined by
formula, is always premised on the assumption of full
knowledge of the actual flowing conditions. Frequently,
one or more of these conditions is arbitrarily assumed. It
is the evaluation of these arbitrary data that really
determines the final valve size. No formulas, only good
common sense combined with experience, can solve
this problem.

Specific Gravity
In the flow formulas, the specific gravity is a square root
function ; therefore, small differences in gravity have a
minor effect on valve capacity. If the specific gravity is not

know accurately, a reasonable assumption will suffice.
The use of .9 specific gravity, for example, instead of .8
would cause an error of less than 5 % in valve capacity.

Masoneilan
3

DRESSER

VALVE

DIVISION

The required change in valve Cv is the product of the ratio of maximum to minimum flow and the square root of the ratio of maximum to minimum pressure drop.7 to 1. without any factors having been applied. In other words. and the Cv ratio may be much greater than would be suspected. one-third of the total system drop. the percentage of drop across the valve may be somewhat lower.. where the liquid is passing from one vessel at a constant pressure to another vessel at a lower constant pressure. mixing nozzles. On the other hand. As the proportion of the system drop across the valve is reduced.. if the valve is in a pump discharge line. its ability to further increase flow rapidly disappears. On a simple back pressure or pressure reducing application. Masoneilan Engineering assistance is available for analysis of such applications. The normal flow and maximum flow used in size calculations should be based on actual operating conditions. It is determined by the system characteristics rather than by the theoretical assumptions of the engineer.g. piping etc. e. For instance. The control valve must be selected to operate under several different conditions. the pressure drop across the valve will be chosen arbitrarily. If the pressure difference is relatively small. in a large percentage of control applications. but at least 15% (up to 25% where possible) of the system drop should be taken. some allowance may be necessary for line friction. In some cases. the flow increase would only be about 23%. The design drop across the valve is sometimes expressed as a percentage of the friction drop in the system. This is true if the pump discharge line is not extremely long or complicated by large drops through heat exchangers or other equipment. In pump discharge systems. the pressure differential absorbed by the control valve in actual operation will be the difference between the total available head and that required to maintain the desired flow through the valve. The maximum quantity that a valve should be required to pass is 10 to 15 % above the specified maximum flow. including all heat exchangers. The tendency should be to use the higher figure. On more complicated systems. the maximum operating conditions for a valve are 200 gpm at 25 psi There are many systems where the increase in pressure drop for this same change in flow is proportionally much greater than in this case. the head characteristic of the pump becomes a major factor. but if the control valve were completely eliminated from such a system. If. the drop across the valve may be calculated quite accurately. exclusive of the valve. Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 4 . having a discharge pressure of 7 bar (100 psi)..7 bar (10 to 25 psi) may be assumed sufficient. For valves installed in extremely long or high-pressure drop lines. drop. A good working rule is that 50% of this friction drop should be available as drop across the valve. a drop of 0. consideration should be given to both maximum and minimum operating conditions. the Cv ratio is 16 to 1. Any attempt to state a specific numerical rule for such a choice becomes too complex to be practical. not 8 to 1 as it would first seem. the engineer tries to keep the control valve pressure drop as low as possible. Flowing Quantity The selection of a control valve is based on the required flowing quantity of the process. whenever possible.Pressure Drop Across the Valve Remember one important fact. 200 x 100 = 16 1 25 x 25 On many systems. In the interest of economy. for example. This may also be true on a liquid level control installation. This may sound excessive. and the minimum conditions are 25 gpm at 100 psi drop. is assumed to be absorbed by the control valve. a valve can only regulate flow by absorbing and giving up pressure drop to the system. a reduction in flow means an increase in pressure drop. it may be necessary to make an arbitrary choice of the pressure drop across the valve because meager process data are available. However.

865 - 3 m /h bar - - 1. nonvaporizing liquid flow conditions.28 pc FL = liquid pressure recovery factor for a valve FLP = combined pressure recovery and piping geometry factor for a valve with attached fittings Ki = velocity head factors for an inlet fitting.FF p v γ1 mass flow w p1 .0.0 - - - in - 2.Liquid Flow Equations Flow of Non-vaporizing Liquid Choked Flow of Vaporizing Liquid The following equations are used to determine the required capacity of a valve under fully turbulent. With liquid streams.73 kg/h - kPa - kg/m 3 27.FF pv In this case.3 lb/h - psia - lb/ft 3 N 0. choking occurs as a result of vaporization of the liquid when the pressure within the valve falls below the vapor pressure of the liquid.p2 p1 . D γ1 - m 3/h kPa - - 0. Note Fp equals unity for the case of valve size equal to line size.FF pv Cv = N 6 F LP Nomenclature γ1 Numerical Constants for Liquid Flow Equations C v = valve flow coefficient N = numerical constants based on units used (see Table 1) F p = piping geometry factor (reducer correction) pv FF = liquid critical pressure factor = 0. Choked flow is a limiting flow rate.p2 q N 1 F LP Cv = Gf p1 .00214 - - - mm - 890.96 .5˚C p 1 = upstream pressure p v = vapor pressure of liquid at flowing temperature p 2 = downstream pressure w = weight (mass) flow rate γ 1 = specific weight (mass density) upstream conditions Units Used in Equations Constant w q p. the following equations are used. ∆p d.0865 N1 N2 N6 Table 1 Masoneilan 5 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . dimensionless p c = pressure at thermodynamic critical point q = volumetric flow rate G f = specific gravity at flowing temperature (water = 1) @ 60˚F/15. mass flow volumetric flow w Cv = N 6 FP p1 . Liquid flow is choked if volumetric flow Cv = q N 1 Fp ∆p ≥ F L2 Gf p1 .3 kg/h - bar - kg/m 3 63.00 - gpm psia - - 0.

. the vapor bubbles revert back to liquid. Cavitation leads to rapid deterioration of the valve body plug and seat. poses a potential safety hazard. This increases the possibility of cavitation. Mathematically.g. and the subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles downstream. Cavitation in a control valve handling a pure liquid may occur if the static pressure of the flowing liquid decreases to a value less than the fluid vapor pressure.Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor FL The liquid pressure recovery factor is a dimensionless expression of the pressure recovery ratio in a control valve. necessary to understand and to prevent this phenomenon.p vc Combined Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor FLP The following equation may be used to determine FLP.p2 p 1 . The value of FL for the combination is then FLP /Fp where : F LP = Fp F LP = F L K i F L2 C v2 + 1 N2 d4 .p2 p 1 . Since all control valves exhibit some pressure recovery. the more pressure recovery is experienced. continuity of flow is broken by the formation of vapor bubbles. particularly when high pressure drop conditions are encountered. When downstream pressure is higher than vapor pressure of the fluid.1/2 where Ki = K1 + KB1 (inlet loss and Bernoulli coefficients) p1 . the final downstream pressure is generally higher than the orifice throat static pressure. Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 6 . For calculations involving choked flow. p1 . therefore. gains importance in control valves due to higher pressure drops for liquids and increased employment of high capacity valves (e. it is defined as follows: FL = In this expression. most responsible for the rapid wear of valve trim under high pressure drop conditions. These values are determined by laboratory test in accordance with prevailing ISA and IEC standards. a detrimental process long associated with pumps. it is convenient to treat the piping geometry factor Fp and the FL factor for the valve reducer combination as a single factor FLP. the more streamlined a valve is. The pressure recovery in a valve is a function of its particular internal geometry. butterfly and ball valves). At this point. Liquid pressure recovery factors for various valve types at rated travel and at lower valve travel are shown in product bulletins. It also leads to noise and vibration problems and as well. Cavitation. It is.000 psi) and are singly. When a valve is installed with reducers. is the transformation of a portion of liquid into the vapor phase during rapid acceleration of the fluid in the valve orifice. the liquid pressure recovery of the valve reducer combination is not the same as that for the valve alone. This twostage transformation is defined as cavitation. The collapse of vapor bubbles can cause localized pressure up to 7000 bar (100. In general. pvc is the pressure at the vena contracta in the valve.p vc Cavitation in Control Valves Cavitation. briefly.

28 pv pc How to Avoid Cavitation Another solution is to select a valve that has a higher FL factor. The reducers cause an additional pressure drop in the system by acting as contractions and enlargements in series with the valve. dimensionless Masoneilan 7 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . For an extremely high pressure drop. 2 p1 .1/2 d = valve end inside diameter D1 = inside diameter of upstream pipe D2 = inside diameter of downstream pipe Pipe Reducer Equations F p = piping geometry factor. The Piping Geometry Factor. the Bernoulli coefficients cancel out.FF p v . dimensionless Loss Coefficients inlet K 1 = 0.5 outlet K2 = 1 - 1 d D2 d D1 2 2 K 1 = pressure loss coefficient for inlet 2 reducer. ∆p crit . dimensionless 2 K 2 = pressure loss coefficient for outlet reducer. Another possibility is to increase both inlet and outlet pressures by locating a valve at a lower elevation in the piping system : this results in an increase in critical pressure drop.K B 2 When inlet and outlet reducers are the same size.F F p v .0.96 . Summation ΣK = K 1 + K 2 + K B 1 . the critical pressure drop can be defined as follows: where ∆p crit . dimensionless K B1 = pressure change (Bernoulli) coefficient Bernoulli Coefficients d D1 = 1 . = F L2 with reducers Mathematically. = F LP Fp p1 . there is a decrease in actual valve capacity. and if the downstream pressure is greater than fluid vapor pressure. is used to account for this effect.KB2. dimensionless ∑K = K1 + K2 + KB1 . F F = 0. Referring to the relationship for the critical pressure drop. Effect of Pipe Reducers When valves are mounted between pipe reducers.d D2 K B1 = 1 - K B2 for inlet reducer. a Masoneilan anticavitation valve with multiple velocity-headloss trim is recommended. Nomenclature Piping Geometry Factor Fp 2 = C v ΣK + 1 N2 d4 C v = valve flow capacity coefficient . dimensionless 4 K B2 = pressure change (Bernoulli) coefficient 4 for outlet reducer. Fp .The pressure drop in a valve at which cavitation is experienced is termed as critical pressure drop. one remedy for a potential application is to decrease the intended pressure drop across the valve to below critical pressure drop. Full cavitation will exist if actual pressure drop is greater than critical pressure drop.

0865 - m 3/h kPa - - G 0.00 - gpm psia - - 0. dimensionless 0.Equations for Nonturbulent Flow volumetric flow Cv = mass flow q N1 F Cv = N6 F R R Gf p1 .73 N6 - Table 2 Representative Fd Factors Single Port Globe Valves Double Port Globe Valves Camflex Valves Ball Valves Butterfly Valves Fd Fd Fd Fd Fd = = = = = In general.p2 γ1 The valve Reynolds number is defined as follows : Re v dq FL2 Cv2 + 1 = N 4 1F 1 / / ν FL C v N 2 d 4 2 1 VALVE REYNOLDS NUMBERS FACTOR . dimensionless w = weight (mass) flow rate γ = mass density of liquid ν = kinematic viscosity.3 kg/h - bar - kg/m 3 63. The Valve Reynolds Number Factor is used in the equations as follows : /4 Valve Reynolds Number .7 can be used for valves with two flow passages.0 0.FR Laminar or transitional flow may result when the liquid viscosity is high. 1. centistokes N4 890.p2 w p1 .0 76000 17300 - - in - m 3/h - mm - - gpm - in - kg/h - kPa - kg/m 3 27. dimensionless N F L = Liquid pressure recovery factor w q p. an Fd value of 1. or when valve pressure drop or Cv is small. such as double port globe valves and butterfly valves.0 0.0 1.3 lb/h - psia - lb/ft 3 2.0 can be used for valves with one single flow passage.00214 - - - mm - = specific gravity of liquid relative to water N1 ∆p = valve pressure drop q = volumetric flow rate N2 Rev = valve Reynolds number.Rev Figure 1 Reynolds Number Factor 2 Numerical Constants for Liquid Flow Equations Nomenclature C v = valve flow capacity coefficient d = nominal valve size Units Used in Equations Constant F d = valve style modifier.7 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 8 . ∆p d. D γ1 FR = Reynolds number correction factor.7 1. An Fd value of 0.865 - m 3/h bar - - 1.

3 N9 γ1 T1 3 - kg/h - kPa kg/m kg/h - bar kg/m 3 3 - psia lb/ft - m 3/h kPa - 417. upstream conditions weight (mass) flow rate gas specific heat ratio Units Used in Equations Constant w N 2.948 N8 p.8 kg/h - bar - K 19.17 N7 q* K kg/h - kPa - K 94.3 63.0 - 3 m /h bar - K 7320. Ratio of gas density at standard conditions absolute inlet temperature gas molecular weight pressure drop ratio.0 - scfh psia - R 0. ∆p lb/h 4. or cubic meters per hour measured at 101. ∆p/p1 Limit x = Fk xT gas compressibility factor x gas expansion factor.0 - scfh psia - R *q is in cubic feet per hour measured at 14.0 - m 3/h bar - K 1360. dimensionless piping geometry factor (reducer correction) upstream pressure downstream pressure volumetric flow rate numerical constant based on units (see table below) gas specific gravity.3 kPa and 15.73 N6 27.6˚ C.73 psia and 60˚F.3 lb/h - psia - R 22.Gas and Vapor Flow Equations volumetric flow Cv = Gas expansion factor q N 7 Fp p1 Y Gg T1 Z x Y = 1- or Cv = Pressure drop ratio q N 9 Fp p1 Y M T1 Z x ∆p p1 x = * mass flow Ratio of specific heats factor Cv = N6 F p w Y xp 1 γ 1 * Fk = or Cv = x 3 F k xT w N 8 Fp p1 Y T1Z xM k 1.40 The IEC 534-2 equations are identical to the above ISA equations (marked with an *) except for the following symbols : * k (ISA) corresponds to γ (IEC) γ 1 (ISA) corresponds to ρ1 (IEC) Numerical Constants for Gas and Vapor Flow Equations Nomenclature Cv Fk FP p1 p2 q N = = = = = = = Gg = T1 M x Z = = = = Y = xT = γ1 = w k = = valve flow coefficient ratio of specific heats factor.5 - m 3/h kPa - K 2250. Table 3 Masoneilan 9 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .Y = 1 3 Fk x T pressure drop ratio factor (Gamma) specific weight (mass density).

For all practical purposes. and for the change in the area of the vena contracta as the pressure drop is varied. factor Fk accounts for the influence of 4. As in the application of orifice plates for compressible flow measurement. k Reynolds Number Y = 1- Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 10 x 3 Fk x T . x Ratio of specific heats. Fk has a value of 1. Fk may be taken as having a linear relationship to k. 4.40 FM = Multistage Compressible Flow Factor (FM = 0.Multistage Valve Gas and Vapor Flow Equations volumetric flow Cv = Y N 7 Fp p1 Y M x q N 9 Fp p1 Y M M = FM xM 3 Fk x ∆p p1 . a linear relationship of the expansion factor Y to pressure drop ratio x is used as below : Ratio of valve inlet to port area Internal valve geometry Pressure drop ratio. 5. Reynolds Number effects may be disregarded for virtually all process gas and vapor flows. 2. Fk = k 1.0 for air at moderate temperature and pressures. 3. Therefore. 2 and 3. The factor Fk accounts for this effect. The expansion factor accounts for the changes in density of the fluid as it passes through a valve. The flow rate of a compressible fluid through a valve is affected by the ratio of specific heats.40 Expansion Factor Y The factor xT accounts for the influence of 1.74 for multistage valves) w Cv = N 6 Fp Y M x M p1 γ1 or Cv = = 1- Gg T1 Z xM q or Cv = M w N 8 Fp p1 Y M T1 Z xMM Ratio of Specific Heats Factor Fk For valve sizing purposes. where its specific heat ratio is about 1.40. T limit x M = F k x T M T1 Z xM mass flow Fk = k 1. The expansion factor is affected by all of the following influences : 1.

the flow equation reduces to the liquid flow equation for mass flow. dimensionless f g = weight fraction of gas (or vapor) in two phase mixture. This increased capacity models published two phase flow data quite well. dimensionless FF = liquid critical pressure factor = 0.Two-Phase Flow Equations Use the actual pressure drop for ∆pf and ∆pg.96 . and for possible vaporization of the liquid phase. D kg/h - kPa - kg/m 3 27. ∆p d.28 Fk = FL = Fp = p1 = pv = ∆pf = ∆p g = w = xT = Y N q p. dimensionless liquid pressure recovery factor piping geometry factor (reducer correction) upstream pressure vapor pressure of liquid at flowing temperature pressure drop for the liquid phase pressure drop for the gas phase weight (mass) flow rate of two phase mixture pressure drop ratio factor = gas expansion factor.73 pv pc N6 ratio of specific heats factor. Note : Fp equals unity for the case of valve size equal to line size. ∆p g = F k x T p 1 The use of this flow equation results in a required Cv greater than the sum of a separately calculated Cv for the liquid plus a Cv for the gas or vapor phase. ∆p f = F L2 (p 1 .F F p v) The flow equation accounts for expansion of the gas or vapor phase.0. Cv = w N6 Fp For the hypothetical case of all liquid flow ( ff = 1). It utilizes both the gas and liquid limiting sizing pressure drops.3 lb/h - psia - lb/ft 3 w 2. Y = 1 - Units Used in Equations Constant γ1 Table 4 x 3 Fk x T γ f = specific weight (mass density) of the liquid phase at inlet conditions γ g = specific weight (mass density)of the gas or vapor phase at inlet conditions Masoneilan 11 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . The flow equation below applies where the two phase condition exists at the valve inlet.3 kg/h - bar - kg/m 3 63. the flow equation reduces to the gas and vapor flow equation for mass flow. but with the limiting pressure drop for each individually as follows : Two phase flow can exist as a mixture of a liquid with a non-condensable gas or as a mixture of a liquid with its vapor. Nomenclature Numerical Constants for Liquid Flow Equations C v = valve flow coefficient f f = weight fraction of liquid in two phase mixture. fg ff + ∆p f γf ∆p g γg Y 2 For the hypothetical case of all gas or vapor flow (fg = 1). The flow equation for a two phase mixture entering the valve is as follows.

1 bar (742 psia). Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 12 . Supercritical fluid valve applications are not uncommon. It is very important to take this into account through the use of actual specific weight (mass density) from thermodynamic tables (or the compressibility factor Z). and 1000 for d in inches.Choked Flow If all inlet conditions are held constant and pressure drop ratio x is increased by lowering the downstream pressure. These values are determined by laboratory test. In order to size valves handling supercritical fluids. there is no physical distinction between liquid and vapor. Ki = K1 + KB1 (inlet loss and Bernoulli coefficients) xTP = x T Fp2 xT Ki Cv2 + 1 N5d4 -1 . All ethylene applications above this point in both temperature and pressure are supercritical by definition. When a valve is installed with reducers. or the volumetric flow with actual compressibility factor. mass flow will increase to a maximum limit. use a compressible flow sizing equation with the weight (mass) rate of flow with actual specific weight (mass density). the critical point of ethylene is 10˚C (50˚F) and 51. Choked flow occurs when the jet stream at the vena contracta attains its maximum cross-sectional area at sonic velocity. the actual ratio of specific heats should be used. For instance. The fluid behaves as a compressible. some process applications may go unnoticed. Supercritical Fluids Fluids at temperatures and pressures above both critical temperature and critical pressure are denoted as supercritical fluids. but near the critical point great deviations from the perfect gas laws prevail.00241 for d in mm. where The value of N5 is 0. In addition. In this region. In addition to supercritical fluid extraction processes. Flow conditions where the value of x exceeds this limit are known as choked flow. and the actual ratio of specific heats. the pressure ratio factor xTP is different from that of the valve alone xT. The following equation may be used to calculate xTP : Values of xT for various valve types at rated travel and at lower valve travel are shown in product bulletins.

Compressibility Factor Z Following conventional flow measurement practice. The value of Z does not differ materially for different gases when correlated as a function of the reduced temperature. Z can usually be ignored below 7 bar (100 psi) for common gases. Obert. C. the perfect gas laws are not satisfactory for flow measurement accuracy and therefore correction factors must be used. Tr . F. helium. Figure 2 is an enlargement of a portion of Figure 3. Reduced Pressure. For hydrogen. Masoneilan 13 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . Northwestern Technological Institute) The compressibility factor Z obtained from the Nelson-Obert charts is generally accurate within 3 to 5 percent. To obtain the value of Z for a pure substance. found from Figures 2 and 3. pr Figure 2 Compressibility Factors for Gases with Reduced Pressures from 0 to 6 (Data from the charts of L. Values taken from these figures are accurate to approximately plus or minus two percent. Nelson and E. the compressibility factor Z. the reduced pressure and reduced temperature are calculated as the ratio of the actual absolute gas pressure and its corresponding critical absolute pressure and absolute temperature and its absolute critical temperature. certain restrictions apply. pr .Compressibility Factor Z For many real gases subjected to commonly encountered temperatures and pressures. Please refer to specialized literature. in the equation PV = ZRT. neon and argon. will be used. and reduced pressure.

C.40 See Page 15 for critical pressures and temperatures (Reproduced from the charts of L.Reduced Pressure pr Compressibility Compressibility Factor Z pr = inlet pressure (absolute) critical pressure (absolute) Tr = inlet temperatuare(absolute) inlet temperature (absolute) critical temperature (absolute) Figure 3 Compressibility Factors for Gases with Reduced Pressures from 0 . Northwestern Technological Institute) Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 14 . Obert. Nelson and E. F.

3 786 419 - Phosgene. CO 514 35.36 Ethane. CHClF2 713 49.15 Refrigerant 12.6 464 240 1. O2 Pentane.0 612 322 1.0 291 144 1. Cl2 661 45. Inorganic and Organic Compounds Element or Compound Critical Pressure . N2O Octane.6 198 92 1.2 207 97 1. NH3 Argon.41 Isobutane. CCl2F2 582 40. CCl4 Chlorine.22 - Ethyl Alcohol.2 2.32 Nitrogen. CH3-CHOH-CH3 Methane.29 Water. CH2=CH-CH3 661 45.1 234 112 1. CO2 1072 74. CH4 779 53.30 Carbon Monoxide.7 455 235 - 673 46.15 Acetone.4 552 289 1.5 -218 -139 1.13 Table 5 Masoneilan 15 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .8 315 157 1.0 88 31 1.9 97 36 1.5 387 197 1.67 Benzene.26 547 37.6 541 283 - 1118 77.10 Isopropyl Alcohol.40 Carbon Tetrachloride.6 -188 -122 1.7 360 182 - 617 42. F2 Helium.pc psia Critical Temperature . CH3-CO-CH3 691 47. H2 Hydrogen Chloride. C3H8 823 56. HCl 188 13.05 Oxygen. C2H5-O-C2H5 522 36.0 -400 -240 1. (CH3) CH-CH3 544 37. He 367 25. COCl2 Propane.40 Ammonia. C6H5OH 889 61. C2H2 Air.40 1054 72. C4H10 529 36.5 90 32 1.6 455 235 Acetylene.33 705 48.0 705 374 1.8 -222 -141 1.Thermodynamic Critical Constants and Density of Elements.13 Ethylene. CH2=CH2 742 51.14 Refrigerant 22. SO2 1142 78.5 273 134 1.30 362 25. N2 Nitrous Oxide.40 485 33.41 1199 82.3 -247 -155 1. H-CH2OH 33.Tc bar (abs) ˚F ˚C k * Cp / Cv Acetic Acid.26 Ethyl Ether. A 1638 113.0 565 296 1. O2+N2 911 62. C7H16 394 27.12 Butane.18 Sulfur Dioxide. C2H6 717 49.4 -117 -83 1.5 307 153 1.0 383 195 Fluorine. CH3-CO-OH 841 58. C6H6 701 48.2 50 10 1.0 469 243 1.6 207 97 Propylene.6 124 51 1.31 1156 79.07 Phenol.0 270 132 1. H2O 3206 221.09 Carbon Dioxide.36 -450 -268 1.7 99 37 1.20 Methyl Alcohol. C2H5OH 927 64. CH3-(CH2)6-CH3 * Standard Conditions 1. C5H12 730 50.4 -182 -119 1.2 513 267 Hydrogen.29 - - 492 34.0 -233 -147 1.66 Heptane.

13 120. C2H2 0.6 0.4 66. C5H12 38.1 Phosgene.02 28.47 58.28 30.0 Air.074 46.154 2.87 44.87 701.0 72. C3H8 0.5 1593. H2 Hydrogen Chloride.0 114.0 Argon.1 49.4 38.105 1. C7H16 153.228 3.lb/ft3 14.069 1. (CH3)2 CH-CH3 Isopropyl Alcohol.55 0.1 32.3 58. CH2=CH2 49. N2O 43.6 78. COCl2 Propane.0 4.9 Refrigerant 22. CH3-(CH2)6-CH3 Oxygen.9 Phenol. NH3 0.074 1. O2+N2 Ammonia. CH3-CO-CH3 Density . He Heptane.34 998.0 1.8 0.67 0.04 70.72 17.1 0.5 Nitrous Oxide.097 1.7 1052. CH2=CH-CH3 Refrigerant 12. CCl2F2 0.084 16.6 874.0 0.111 1.52 Ethyl Ether.2 1. C2H5-O-C2H5 Fluorine.6 28.9 3.5 Isobutane.Thermodynamic Critical Constants and Density of Elements.011 0.074 2.18 42.6 0.08 0. O2 60.9 Benzene.1 0.1 0.005 0.080 1.00 100.9 Chlorine.5 Sulfur Dioxide.8 Pentane.154 2.0 44. CO 0.223 29. Cl2 Ethane. C6H6 54.kg/m3 1013 mbar & 15.097 1.0 .2 Hydrogen.1 Butane.73 98.3 0.65 86.1 62.0 0.19 0.042 49.3 94.320 5. HCl 0.0 Carbon Tetrachloride. CH3-CO-OH Acetone. F2 44.87 44.6˚C Liquid Gas Mol Wt 65.66 795. C6H5OH 66. C2H6 Ethyl Alcohol.190 74.77 64.68 39.1 Methane.9 0.6 Table 5 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 16 18. H-CH2OH Nitrogen.1 793. CH4 Methyl Alcohol.0 32.1 Acetylene.1 Carbon Dioxide.9 0.19 719.19 28. C4H10 0.7 psia & 60˚F Gas Liquid Density .35 623.1 1. Inorganic and Organic Compounds Element or Compound Acetic Acid.47 58. C2H5OH Ethylene.0764 1. H2O 0. N2 49. SO2 Water.108 1.23 788.4 791.3 Helium.2 1065.117 1. CHClF2 0. CH3-CHOH-CH3 0.78 42.173 2. A 0.045 0.5 1.117 Octane. CO2 Carbon Monoxide. CCl4 99.1 682.55 36.11 26.1 Propylene.117 1.

Liquid Velocity in Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe The velocity of a flowing liquid may be determined by the following expressions : Metric Units v = 278 q v q A = = = velocity. Steam or Gas Flow in Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Steam or Gas (mass basis) Gas (volume basis) To determine the velocity of a flowing compressible fluid use the following expressions : To find the velocity of a flowing compressible fluid with flow in volume units. ft3/hr at flowing conditions* cross sectional area. bar T = temperature absolute. psia T = temperature absolute. v Where = 278 F A v = fluid velocity. lb/hr specific volume. kg/hr specific volume. If flow is at standard conditions. meters3/hr cross sectional area. meters/sec flow. Customary and Metric Units. meters3/hr at flowing conditions* A = cross sectional area.7 x F = std A p hr fluid velocity. sq in Figure 4 gives the solution to these equations for pipes 1" through 12" over a wide flow range on both U.04 WV v W V A = = = = fluid velocity. gpm cross sectional area.013 x T F = stdstd hr Where p 288 p = pressure absolute. use the following formulas : US Customary Units Where v = . ft/sec flow. m3/kg cross sectional area. mm2 Where T 520 p = pressure absolute. convert as follows : Metric Units v . convert as follows : cumeters meters3 x 1. meters/sec fluid flow. ft/sec fluid flow. ft/sec gas flow.321 q A velocity. meters/sec F = gas flow. S. K Masoneilan 17 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . sq in *Note that gas flow must be at flowing conditions. If flow is at standard conditions. sq in US Customary Units v A Where = v = F = A = Where = 278 WV v W V A = = = = A fluid velocity. sq mm *Note that gas flow must be at flowing conditions. cu ft/lb cross sectional area.04 F stdcuft3ft x 14. R Metric Units Figure 5 is a plot of steam flow versus static pressure with reasonable velocity for Schedule 40 pipes 1" through 12" in US Customary and Metric Units. sq mm A US Customary Units v Where = v = q = A = Where .

Flow – gpm Velocity – meters/second Velocity .feet/second (Schedule 40 Pipe) Figure 4 US Customary Units Liquid Velocity vs Flow Rate Metric Units Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 18 .

psig Figure 5 Saturated Steam Flow vs Pressure for 1" to 12" Schedule 40 Pipe US Customary Units Metric Units Velocity -. or kg.130 to 170 feet per second --./hr./hr. Pressure – bars Pressure .Flow – lblb.50 to 60 meters per second -- Masoneilan 19 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .

0 6.53 0.0 30.375 0.5 117.13 10. sq in 13.3 12.07 4.53 9.88 3.500 0.11 8.50 4.35 6.70 14.0 1 0.280 0.3 29.35 6.66 1.250 0.687 0.250 0.824 1.113 0.70 14.80 8.4 92200 121900 155500 192900 280000 437400 143 189 241 299 434 678 0.D.0 16.05 1.375 0.0 18. 12" size data follows.92 9.63 10.31 11.87 3.8 14.250 0.562 0.5 17.50 6.91 5.0 24.0 18.07 2.406 0.154 0.5 29.9 13.9 50.625 8.1 19.5 15.307 0.4 19.312 8.49 6.1 12.61 2.13 12.53 9.35 6.35 7.02 11.90 2.8 33000 52000 74200 89000 118000 148400 183200 265100 418700 51.322 0.92 0.312 0.63 10.27 15.622 0.9 112 135 177 224 278 402 inches inches 6.0 18.533 0.04 7.8 14.133 0.216 0.8 14.365 0.7 28.38 9.4 17.03 6.0 78.27 10.375 0.88 0.9 18.45 0.84 1.68 3.6 190 340 550 970 1300 2150 3100 4700 8200 18600 32200 50900 72200 87100 114200 144500 179300 259300 0.27 15.53 12.70 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 8.0 33500 53200 76000 90900 120000 152900 187700 274200 426400 51.1 13.864 1.18 9.3 15.8 12.9 141 186 237 291 425 661 7.203 0.D.3 17.7 115 138 183 230 284 411 649 2.38 3.250 0.8 12.250 0.375 0.04 3.312 0.53 11.8 22.438 0.8 9.39 12.34 4.63 10.63 8.109 0.35 6.02 7.47 3.8 12.0 16.77 2.438 0.07 7.5 23.593 0.304 0.10) Nominal Pipe Size inches 350 400 450 500 600 750 14 16 18 20 24 30 14 16 18 20 24 30 Schedule 20 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 750 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 Schedule 30 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 750 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 Schedule 10 mm Schedule 40* O.1 15.16 5.92 7. 300 12 12.0 /2 /4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Flow Area mm2 mm 3 inches Wall Thickness *Standard wall pipe same as Schedule 40 through 10" size.0 20.9 82.79 7.0 16.0 24.32 1.250 0.2 80.250 0.562 0.98 10.9 28.92 7.00 72900 113 .145 0. I.35 6.38 1.250 0.237 0.4 15.312 0.0 20.07 10.375 Table 6 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 20 12.500 8.35 6.0 24.3 23.330 0.0 22.56 3.35 7.0 30.06 17.277 0.0 16.140 0.13 12.0 20.05 1.38 2.500 0.Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data (ANSI B36.3 13.50 2.5 19.

434 0.76 7.815 1.147 0.050 0.45 19.1 36.5 56.35 6.234 0.13 13.6 150 280 460 820 1140 1900 2700 4200 7400 16800 29500 46300 65800 79300 103800 131600 163200 235400 0.88 3.30 3.32 2.1 11.0 18.04 59.50 6.31 1.8 14.0 3.4 12.Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data (ANSI B36.171 0.84 1.63 7.54 7.8 12.63 8.05 1.50 1.90 2.70 10.82 9.50 6.3 110 190 340 680 900 1450 2300 3500 6000 13600 23500 36600 51900 63400 83200 105800 130900 189000 0.63 8.522 1.3 16.62 3.94 2.957 1.2 12.400 0.44 0.687 0.191 0.66 1.7 71.59 1.38 2.32 1.864 0.24 23.719 1.843 0.438 0.742 0.296 0.9 21.10) (continued) Nominal Pipe Size inches Flow Area I.95 4.05 1.90 6.50 4.281 0.0 16.0 20.27 35.56 10.16 30.276 0.32 1.83 5.500 0.22 0.8 14.34 1.8 12.7 108 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .88 3.61 11.38 2.552 0.63 10.77 2.34 0.66 1.300 0.28 1.252 0.600 0.0 4.13 2.41 1.81 8.50 4.1 19.750 0.14 8.07 14.718 0.06 17.75 5.78 1.85 5.D.28 1.70 33.06 1.937 1.01 28.0 16.81 40.35 7.47 7.3 129 164 203 293 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 1 0.218 0.49 18.70 15.28 21.282 0.10 1.70 12.500 9.0 24.218 0.8 102 123 161 204 253 365 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 1 /2 /4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 0.53 11.46 4.69 2.358 0.05 1.8 48200 69700 74.8 14.896 1.906 1.0 18.63 9.432 0.630 0.71 9.179 0.1 45.05 21.950 1. mm inches inches mm2 sq in /2 /4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 0.41 9.80 26.84 1.436 0.90 2.41 2.21 50.294 0.5 98.50 10.73 3.38 2.89 3.16 11.13 1.614 0.02 15.03 1.94 22.44 5.88 30 90 180 400 610 1140 1600 2700 5000 12100 23900 0.91 4.8 80.250 0.55 5.50 4.90 2. 3 3 /2 /4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 3 *Extra strong pipe same as Schedule 80 through 8" size.16 7. 250 300 10 12 10.09 9.0 24.8 12.8 37.337 0.19 6.63 10.466 0.01 7.593 0.343 0.12 21.148 0.433 0.500 0.5 14.84 1.54 6.375 0.1 17.5 26.70 Table 6 21 0.62 8.77 2.154 0.200 0.382 0.531 0.250 0.0 20.674 0.66 1.41 23.308 0.80 18.97 12. 10" & 12" size data follows.24 17.50 6.90 3.97 2.546 0.599 0.39 45.1 Schedule 80* 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 Schedule 160 1 inches Wall Thickness Double Extra Strong mm O.16 1.56 11.22 0.08 5.24 6.63 8.4 16.8 12.187 0.77 2.32 1.24 3.55 4.15 4.D.875 0.99 0.50 1.75 11.

7569 1.380 1476.3 363.196 9.448 ---------.6 1242.68 36.6 1213.442 2.352 3.327 3.3 8.1 ---------- 1217.147 2.1 1470.065 10.084 6.8 1531.3 327.5 1527.849 hg 1195.5 1423.5 1232.9 V 6.4 ---------.0 45.---------- 1222.667 3.6 ---------- 1202.1 1254.863 8.95 28.663 4.532 13.125 2.3 2.4 1221.2 1283.0 1237.1 37.1 1243.383 hg 1180.8 1523.9 1332.792 1374.0 265.6 1237.3 1207.136 7.322 10.1 1215.3 1234.352 hg 1174.603 1479.462 5.6 1269.8 3.9562 2.1 1245.015 5.006 2.8 1530.683 1478.662 11.4 1421.5 1480.96 38.---------- 1.5 1228. Btu per pound DRESSER 480 22 .---------- 1208.21 25.1 V 2.8 1268.518 hg 1203.6 1248.834 ---------- 3.7 1481.7 V 1.3 227.452 14.0 125.5 Masoneilan VALVE 600 V Table 7 DIVISION 500 hg * V = specific volume.3 4.427 11.044 3.5 2.0 7.1 4.3 302.˚F Saturated Abs.7 1426.9 1257.6472 1.110 4.631 5.0 75.5 1531.0 105.3 423.94 800 900 1000 51.---------- 1.32 37.066 1369.584 1371.8 1528.1 1380.47 hg 1156.9 1236.726 3.0 V 13.0 1276.9 1322.307 4.8 6.6 2.8 1472.---------- 1.247 13.772 hg 1199.2 1432.400 2.1 1286.649 2.---------- 1212.4 700 46.376 hg 1204.244 1477.5 1525.8 1526.364 ---------.81 120.744 14.005 hg 1202.652 2.71 70.8 1311.7 1230.47 1482.03 90.301 5.813 2.0 305.1 1325.696 0.6 1240.796 10.206 6.920 hg 1185.4 1532.6 ---------- 1206.452 4.062 11.3 417.062 2.081 4.3 341.403 10.218 hg 1187.6 1334.8 V 20.0 1323.411 hg 1196.0 145.087 ---------- 2.918 ---------- 1.4 1422.020 7.1 1330.636 5.688 17.0 225.220 3.152 17.8 V 4.3 ---------.432 4.472 5.524 12.8 1277.1 V 3.4 1266.860 3.827 3.0 15.7 1216.7 8.9 1430.1 1381.13 1383.532 ---------- 2. 14.8 2.227 1472.9 1428.544 6.79 220.762 7.515 9.0 1471.0 V 2.7 1425.1 1250.797 hg 1183.70 hg 1169.00 55.96 V 8.2 5.2 1258.45 43.7 9.0 345.7165 1.738 6.6090 1.896 5.7675 2.862 7.3 353.78 42.0 3.927 8.623 1379.3 411.357 8.9 1481.5 1381.7 1275.527 4.8 ---------.714 18.449 13.845 3.9 1429.175 7.2 1277.2 1529.0 35.86 28.913 1372.2 1526.8 1270.1 1281.678 hg 1203.628 13.8431 2.25 140.764 1476.42 280.0 1264.001 12.083 V 1.3 250.29 340.3 1310.2 1327.5 1262.562 1480.1 1239.6 V 5.634 3.4 1430.728 3.543 ---------.702 20.799 6.4 4.008 3.392 1473.2 1205.656 2.6 1262.01 60.693 4.508 5.---------- 1.2 V 1.5 V 4.08 24.289 ---------.2 1282.6 1211.924 9.072 16.8 1253.53 180.1 1209.46 40.2 V 1.1 1334.07 59.9 1255.25 50.5 1273.4 ---------- 1210.1 1532.0 1331.6 1424.9276 2.1 5.0 5.063 2.9 1258.861 1478.468 3.8 1380.6 1287.0 1197.8 1525.187 3.0 55.0 25.025 2.6 3.7 V 3.557 10.207 1377.702 7.835 1479.3 1481.4464 1.5 1524.2 1285.969 3.5 V 2.3 1257.330 hg 1201.3 1420.3 292.Properties of Steam US Customary Units Superheated: Total Temperature .8 1532.0 1279.8734 2.6 1366.187 2.582 1474. cubic feet per pound hg = total heat of steam.7 1320.---------- 1215.0 245.7 4.7 1229.0 1266.4941 1.1 1533.2 1235.1 V 1.06 200.33 320.6 1255.774 ---------.3 7.309 1373.172 1376.483 2.0 325.3 1272. Temp.0 65.6 1253.0 1316.9 1277.2 1326.0 185.202 2.5 ---------.359 3.27 100.156 hg 1202.9047 2.220 6.2 1283.9 1252.2 1313.4 22.4 1430.44 1382.6 1224.05 300.1 1524.02 160.513 2.20 21.454 hg 1177.4 1246.651 ---------.---------- 1225.00 20.859 1368.621 2.4 1431.7 ---------.4 1247.0 165.5 1255.3 281.86 240.3 312.165 hg 1190.309 12.7388 1.2 1284.888 6.052 8.413 hg 1193.8882 2.3 1264.3 267.502 7.168 15. P' Gauge P Sat.92 80.4 1429.3041 1.7 V 10.95 hg 1164.2 2.80 33.396 1375.9 1260.8 1260.862 14.2 1528.3 1533.589 6.267 2.6 1314.3 320.5 1319.7 1250.---------- 1.03 34.897 17.3 1482.258 3.3 1221.1 1280.0 3.3 397.4 1201.498 12.4950 1.1 V 7.2 1419.1 1329.1 1419.0 1418.1 1365.3 434.46 31.1 1271.95 24.0 212.1 1218.3 404.441 12.9 6.6533 1.8512 1.002 4.1 1249.060 hg 1198.804 1474.43 26.3 389.0 285.950 16.7 1227.844 4.3 428.8 1428.334 2.5985 1.067 3.7 1333.9 1432.9 1431.---------- 1.202 5.86 1150.195 6.5410 1.3 2.4012 1.1 1252.6 3.2 1367.656 1378.5 1231.779 9.631 2.3 1317.1 34.952 9.6 1424.066 1475.285 2.288 ---------- 2.8 1427.225 6.9 2.933 20.2 1271.9 1275.937 5.567 11.247 2.465 2.1 1480.4 1233.1 1531.3 1239.0 205.746 16.8 1333.068 3.279 8.0 1331.0 85.5 1529.208 5.96 26.4 1237.9 ---------- 1214.3 1220.2 V 1.5 3.96 30.97 360.---------- 1219.305 1370.954 4.7 2.7 V 1.041 8.33 40.1 1329.9 1257.8 1382.198 18.7 1274.1 ---------.3 381.4 V 2.4 1273.8 1531.830 1379.446 8.40 * Sat 360 400 440 26.1 1239.5 1530.37 260.077 10.7 1251.533 hg 1200.3 373.65 27.443 3.528 18.3941 1.

0 500.8 1362.5 1516.9 V 0.0627 1.2060 1.8205 0.4 1318.0 1264.7 1273.6294 0.7778 0.10 510.7223 0.1 1408.98 538.3 V 0.3327 1.0470 hg 1198.7 1354.2331 1.4 1360.9 1373.5 1354.7934 0.655 ---------- 0.471 ---------- 0.5 1268.5 V 0.7 1316.1 ---------- 1212.5 1288.1619 1.3 1339.6 1348.4 1260.9 1457.7319 0.891 0.0310 1.5489 0.2 1380.5031 1.4096 hg 1203.7 1384.0 540.697 0.7 1265.3616 1.8 1366.58 499.6 1371.9368 V 1.1041 1.7996 0.3596 1.6 1237.9 1305.1591 1.0 1407.60 400.8294 hg 1191.1 1205.6301 0.8 ---------.7 1299.9262 hg 1195.2577 1.2158 1.2778 hg 1202.8506 0.249 hg 1204.0 1298.2 1215.9299 0.857 0.9 V 0.0 1335.9473 1.4514 1.5 1219.7 1296.1 1308.8 1281.8 1461.4 1295.6 ---------- 1220.6 1363.8 1404.4 1469.009 1.4 1396.0 520.7 1303.8 1378.2024 hg 1201.9733 1.5901 0.9391 1.0821 1.8 1385.9830 1.5 1295.8272 0.0646 1.0241 1.797 0.58 486.21 496.0 1342.0 750.9830 hg 1197.3044 1.1207 1.59 420.7 1391.3 1417.3 1247.7 1346.5480 1.7 1389.4 1301.6779 0.0 425.5 1254.5684 1.6084 0.0 ---------- 1227.3 545.6732 0.8795 0.8639 0.0459 1.0 700.5 1316.6878 0.8802 2.568 ---------- 0.2 1319.4 1520.8411 0.8813 0.3 935.0119 1.0 1349.3644 1.4 1511.1526 1.5711 1.6 1326.5 1468.9498 1.7419 1.3 685.39 440.2 1459.5873 0.4444 1.7925 hg 1204.4 ---------- 1204.0224 1.1423 1.8 1467.2282 1.6 V 0.7716 0.8 1266.3978 1.7 1201.---------- 0.1082 1.6390 1.6707 1.0 365.1115 1.3 525.6 1383.0 1335.0 1400.4 1284.3 585.3 1416.6508 1.8291 0.7 1514.0 405.0 580.9 1.7134 0.7 1282.3 1257.9077 0.3 465.3 1345.0948 1.7 V 0.7320 0.9149 2.0 640.6 V 0.6 1322.5605 1. Btu per pound Table 7 Masoneilan 23 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .0 1280.5 1234.2390 hg 1201.5 1245.2122 1.6491 0.9 1466.9 1329.9 1338.0 1225.7 1403.3291 1.2511 1.0 1363.2794 1.4 1370.8 1508.1899 1.7685 0.6 1358.106 1.1 V 0.2 1517.9 1359.6996 hg 1204.1 1321.7275 0.4 1245.0 1325.5827 1.1 1271.9767 2.61 * Sat 500 540 600 640 660 700 740 800 900 1000 V 1.7962 0.6793 0.6413 0.4 1351.3334 1.9800 1.7267 1.7624 0.5140 0.1211 1.5 1393.8922 0.9 1321.055 1.1 * V = specific volume.9880 1.1962 1.6 1307.8031 0.4740 0.23 525.2 1398.6 1463.031 hg 1204.5 V 0.6 1509.2737 1.7604 0.4 1240.4 1382.7 1331.4 1336.0 V 0.3826 1.8508 hg 1204.222 1.0 1379.5 1361.7 ---------- 1195.0417 1.5124 0.88 503.2 1309.4250 1.7 1303.9369 0.7032 0.9330 1.3 449.3 1260.3 1412.0 1243.2168 1.0 1513.3 665.083 2.2 1228.1485 1.5 1209.0 950.0 560. 458.0008 1.2 1505.6 1377.8602 0.0 1368.0 V 0.675 0.0 1325.9633 1.0108 1.3 Sat.744 0.3 645.6 1518.8659 0.2 1347.2698 1.7 V 0.1784 1.3 605.8 1405.8118 1.5030 1.1101 1.3045 1.7319 0.9 1275.9222 0.1681 1.7 1462.1131 1.8209 0.1 1290.4306 1.0 620.7 1521.5546 0.86 518.1558 1.8763 0.6 1286.5715 1.8985 0.9 1338.5 1270.9 1517.0 V 1.2 1369.0 445.0732 1.6092 0.4 V 0.5 V 0.˚F Saturated Abs.1 1357.0 V 0.5546 0.0166 1.6540 0.3 985.01 471.3 505.1196 hg 1200.826 0.3 885.0 1250.3 1300.6324 1.0358 1.4 1231.8954 0.8 1237.3 1255.769 0.7395 0.01 478.4770 1.2 1330.9118 0.9 1461.8414 0.2 1410.609 ---------- 0.3 1413.6453 0.42 544.5 1376.2 1262.2 1253.7833 0.3984 1.2851 1.4 1515.9 1355.3 1415.3 835.6 1323.1685 1.3 454.9541 1.0 850.5 1331.3479 1.9 1315.0775 1.1 1332.6 1239.532 ---------- 0.9037 0.1 1313.3 1381.6 V 0.07 475.4 V 1.0 800.4 1310.5 1309.2 1411.0 660.0633 1.3 1412.3 1519.3 1375.85 482.6 1242.0 1286.134 hg 1204.7 1328.75 493.1 1289.9 1297.2 1312.0 600.8 1516.2478 1.4014 1.161 1.1 1332.7215 0.5132 hg 1203.0 385.9 1212.1 1374.3622 1.02 460.5091 1.7 1468.3 565.4 1522. Temp.3 1470.9679 1.6 1450.6934 0.3038 1.2017 1.9 1405.6 1334.0 1306.0 900.2 1324.8 1222.5549 1.7 1520.0 680.7947 0.7 1326.6863 0.0368 1.3 1351.4405 1.7 1248.0 1000.3 785.3628 hg 1202.4842 1.9052 0.4 1463.1 1523.4934 1.719 0.5707 hg 1204.5733 0.9 1305.6 1340.8 1352.9633 0.0 1519.4193 1.6 1341.6326 hg 1204.3 625.2 1360.5 1291.0 1506.1 1409.3 444.3013 1.7670 0.Properties of Steam (continued) US Customary Units Superheated : Total Temperature .3190 hg 1202.2 1512.8215 0.8491 0.3 1328.7124 1.6454 1.3 1414.21 489.8161 1.8690 0.2 1357.26 531.3 V 1.9927 1.1138 1.2 1448.0424 1.5 1320.6345 1.1 1328. cubic feet per pound hg = total heat of steam.1 1459.3 485.3 1453.1 1521.927 0. P' Gauge P 380.6759 0.0 1406.---------- 1248.0 1460.3 439.0 480.2 V 0.9988 1.2188 1.7177 1.82 467.2535 1.0759 1.2 ---------- 1235.9 1451.6 1455.2 V 0.8753 hg 1193.3652 1.0 1293.6015 0.3 735.5 1302.2 1353.7720 hg 1204.50 462.1 1466.4596 hg 1203.1 1515.9463 0.3 1464.2 1465.2935 1.4697 1.445 ---------.2 1327.7433 0.500 ---------- 0.3 1324.4 1312.1494 1.967 1.

1 ---------- 1191.5 1425.5484 0.4062 0.0 2700.2685 0.1220 0.9 1371.2254 0.3 1585.7 1569.2863 0.6 1261.3 1448.3727 0.3 1345.2 1433.4556 0.2835 0.2 1329.23 604.1 1493.4 1123.5 1515.2682 0.2 1461.7 1286.5 1387.11 705.4023 hg 1110.4668 hg 1135.7 1538.10 596.8 1217.8 1458.0 1374.7 1363.3103 0.4 1315.2890 0.6 V 0.6866 0.1754 0.1 1318.4 1265.1589 0.3619 0.2014 0.2 1250.4 1405.1 1213.1926 0.3678 hg 1091.2848 0.1 V 0.5281 0.---------.2 1596.0 2500.0 1282.1369 0.5906 hg 1162.0 1335.2059 0.5542 hg 1155.3 1485.15 621.3985 0.3 1294.2362 0.9 1335.2688 0.4001 0.2221 0.2997 0.7 1229.2 1551.2972 0.3 2985.1307 ---------- 0.7 1341.1 ---------- 1176.3 1600.1 V 0.1 1234.6 1282.2 1366.13 673.9 1395.5 V 0.4874 0.4311 0.3801 0.3921 0.4433 hg 1127.0 1335.1035 ---------- 0.1363 0.0 1224.6 1227.3532 0.3 1270.2806 Masoneilan VALVE 800 V Table 7 DIVISION 780 hg * V = specific volume.5 1437.9 1358.5728 0.6 1593.6 1301.4352 0. 1085.3 2185.8 1510.0 1543.5617 0.7 1180.2563 0.4 1572.3 V 0.8 ---------- 1121.7 1305.3989 0.5445 0.1 1548.8 V 0.2557 0.5 1331.0 1574.0 1421.3719 0.2382 0.2926 0.---------.82 642.9 V 0.5474 0.1480 0.1746 0.2555 0.8 1283.3 1361.6 1353.2 V 0.58 635.2748 0.2288 0.3534 0.2 1585.2 1558.8 1602.1973 0.---------.2 1267.3395 0.4 1319.2356 0.8 1242.2 1147.7 1365.2597 0.3 1685.1166.7412 0.9 1256.90 613.2489 0.2 1303.0 1471.5755 0.3277 0.46 587.1 1184.1 1378.2135 0.2 1259.1213 ---------- 0.7 1346.˚F Saturated Abs.3074 0.3 1885.8 1288. cubic feet per pound hg = total heat of steam.8 1413.3410 0.7 1278.1 1274.3112 0.0 Gauge P Sat.2431 0.9 1451.0 3200.3 3185.3 2785.2907 0.3 3191.7 1445.1672 0.2161 0.1456 0.8 1269.3986 0.4706 0.0 1441.0 2900.2 1531.9 1352.94 679.3 1305.3 556.8 1343.5 1216.2090 0.1745 0.3018 hg 1020.6843 0.6 1308.4 1316.1981 0.3293 0.2 567.8 1322.1123 ---------- 0.4 1323.3682 0.2 1556.8 1541.1416 0.3012 0. Btu per pound DRESSER 760 24 .3 1252.1853 0.0 1580.1660 0.---------.6191 0.0 1400.9 1249.1575 0.2306 0.3 1285.5 1318.2425 0.0 3000.0753 ---------.1 1408.7 1313.3 1785.4 1333.8 1615.3804 0.4165 0.4089 0.5 1326.9 1366.0 2000.3166 0.2811 hg 934.8 1351.0.8 1598.1962 0.1838 0.2354 0.4893 0.0 3100.4353 0.4034 0.2021 0.9 1504.3703 0.6789 hg 1173.1878 0.2159 0.4 1369.5862 0.3379 0.2789 0.4 1480.6601 0.3159 0.2757 0.3 1355.4235 0.2 1390.3529 0.0 2300.0 1274.1 1591.4468 0. P' 1100.1 1360.0 1800.7333 hg 1178.4 V 0.2765 0.0 V 0.4 V 0.1226 0.4593 0.2548 0.5904 0.4 1523.3526 hg 1080.0 1300.3 1412.31 705.4 1298.3753 0.9 1587.5805 0.77 649.2621 0.1143 0.3236 0.1854 0.1853 0.2315 0.0 3206.1768 0.9 1275.Properties of Steam (continued) US Customary Units Superheated : Total Temperature .4586 0.0 2200.3 V 0.0 2600.2710 0.3148 0.2801 0.8 1468.2293 0.2911 hg 993.8 V 0.0984 0.2514 0.5132 0.0 1600.12 668.5 1376.8 1237.3 1487.2 ---------- 1160.1732 0.1513 0.4 1399.4 1290.2371 0.8 1267.9 1606.3385 hg 1068.1849 0.3 1490.1 V 0.3 1438.8 1287.36 700.1281 0.3 2585.4218 hg 1119.3 2485.3 1324.3 3085.1644 0.5061 0.4421 0.9 1611.2172 0.1960 0.8 1358.4139 0.6816 0.5206 0.2105 0.1 V 0.40 * Sat 660 700 740 860 900 1000 1100 1200 0.3568 0.6 1392.5218 hg 1149.1 1512.3167 0.8117 0.4 1613.3207 0. Temp.8 1444.3 1329.3 2385.2179 0.7 V 0.2994 0.0 1900.9 1289.0858 ---------- 0.2947 0.1686 0.5 1385.9 1193.03 628.1967 0.4 1341.2842 0.2 1409.26 695.9 V 0.1 1191.2 1349.3747 0.4 1578.4714 0.3 1251.91 662.3 1477.6284 0.0 1496.4909 0.6003 0.3 1371.3 2685.46 655.3 1337.2 1291.7 1576.4 1340.3063 0.0 1339.4 1608.6 1311.4 1455.2 V 0.4 1205.1151.0 1312.5347 0.8716 1187.0503 ---------.1 ---------.55 684.0580 ---------.4553 0.6 1356.8 1347.5004 0.1760 0.99 690.3337 0.2208 0.3 2885.3 ---------- 1142.2 1202.4253 0.1 1520.3061 0.3 1298.5110 0.4338 0.1548 0.4061 0.7 1440.2476 0.2074 0.3887 0.2400 0.2108 0.7967 hg 1183.8 1518.2327 0.6 1583.7 1384.6 1396.1953 0.8 1204.1415 0.3365 0.6250 0.3 2285.3 1355.5 1381.3358 0.0.3 1985.2864 0.0 1500.3 1361.4929 hg 1142.9 1240.7503 0.1978 0.4 1383.2657 0.4 1279.0947 ---------- 0.2468 0.2 1320.9 1429.2689 0.2567 0.7 1525.3132 hg 1039.8 1296.7 1278.2070 0.22 577.6 1270.2196 0.4 1167.0 2100.2567 0.1622 0.6318 hg 1167.5027 0.5 1247.3 1347.2 1553.5 1502.4 1379.31 1185.9 V 0.1486 0.8 1374.5131 0.0 2400.1320 0.4739 0.1 1310.3254 hg 1054.3 1369.4 1507.2466 0.8 ---------- 1060.0 1259.3417 0.4 1484.---------.4454 0.1828 0.6049 0.1407 ---------- 0.4 1214.4 ---------.1583 0.2577 0.4684 0.3502 0.4 1260.4 1604.4 1533.1549 0.0 1546.3 1420.4828 0.4 1223.2584 0.7 1499.0 1700.2979 0.5 1464.0 1328.1625 0.1571 0.3538 0.4 1417.1 1238.2721 0.6 1303.3843 hg 1101.2247 0.0 ---------- 1095.9 1528.5390 0.5 1536.3173 0.3 1385.0 1200.4 1200.0.5 1434.6 V 0.1843 0.3 1295.3643 0.6 1325.8 1403.0 2800.1986 0.3 1416.5 1251.5 1243.0 1260.5 1400.2 1474.5 1589.9 1226.9 1233.1517 0.5 V 0.4114 0.3 2085.3753 0.9 V 0.2294 0.3413 0.6305 0.5496 0.3284 0.

145 3461 3.240 2768 0.136 3242 0.090 2802 0.151 3246 0.85 6 158.258 3814 2.569 3166 0.116 2796 0.187 3576 0.334 3381 2.211 3801 0.870 3174 1.Properties of Steam Metric Units Saturated Pressure Temperature (bar abs.424 3808 0.282 3156 0.594 2963 0.192 2936 0.131 2792 0.146 3138 0.501 3698 0.88 11 184.340 3264 0.371 3058 0.027 3703 2.221 3579 0.249 3691 0.282 3805 0.083 2803 *v = specific volume (m3/kg) h = enthalpy (kJ/kg) Superheated 250˚C 300˚C 350˚C 400˚C 450˚C 500˚C 550˚C 600˚C 650˚C 2.287 3053 0.067 3276 1.213 3045 0.36 10 179.289 3583 0.214 2773 0.155 3573 4.367 3370 0.091 2888 2.208 3578 0.796 3594 2.434 3060 0.838 3814 2.202 3254 0.33 3 133.314 3584 0.63 5 151.353 3477 0.306 3262 0.669 3699 0.191 3800 0.221 3380 1.540 3589 0.140 2790 0.384 3265 0.654 3065 0.316 3071 0.186 3485 0.163 3142 0.178 3251 0.200 3148 0.54 4 143.184 3467 0.06 12 187.219 3362 0.354 3160 0.264 3804 0.522 3063 0.513 3269 0.374 2746 0.710 3482 0.172 3357 0.198 2970 0.30 18 207.165 3685 4.330 3369 0.78 V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h V h 1.418 3813 1.259 2946 0.684 3703 2.234 3152 0.100 2897 0.897 3593 1.875 3068 0.194 2777 0.125 3023 0.333 3695 0.063 3812 0.170 3575 0.439 3267 0.222 3802 0.005 3701 0.364 3695 0.63 11/2 111.41 9 175.148 3031 0.830 3377 0.197 3577 0.163 2928 0.96 8 170.128 3814 1.103 3012 2.307 3694 0.565 3487 2.573 3699 0.099 2800 0.341 3702 1.376 3486 1.471 3809 0.506 3480 0.175 3466 0.181 3687 0.234 3364 0.606 3810 0.419 3587 0.151 2787 0.234 3257 0.472 3588 0.445 3697 0.235 3803 0.031 3274 0.406 2973 1.947 3591 0.37 17 204.141 2921 0.250 3581 0.293 2950 0.256 3154 0.220 3470 0.271 3473 0.11 19 209.323 3055 0.272 2762 0.158 3034 0.37 22 217.549 3275 1.630 3590 0.102 3277 2.235 3691 0.125 3239 3.248 3803 0.196 3042 0.912 3173 1.109 3378 0.133 3917 0.28 16 201.215 3150 0.013 3703 1.125 2913 0.257 3050 0.233 3047 0.138 3135 0.342 3585 0.757 3590 0.321 3476 0.605 2723 0.235 3580 0.885 2704 0.205 3361 0.326 3806 0.135 3350 3. * (˚C) 1 99.299 3368 0.405 3162 0.177 2781 0.96 13 191.159 3247 0.336 2953 0.285 3693 0.152 2925 0.252 3472 0.182 3039 0.186 3146 0.530 3809 0.591 3481 0.169 3037 0.217 3256 0.772 3272 0.210 2939 0.60 14 195.159 3463 0.474 2960 0.278 3261 0.253 3365 0.473 3373 0.104 2799 0.159 2691 0.221 3690 0.638 3073 1.192 3360 0.163 2784 0.84 7 164.385 3807 0.433 3172 0.04 15 198.315 2755 0.474 3164 0.254 3259 0.125 3131 0.889 3483 0.148 3353 0.264 3592 0.462 2736 0.210 3689 0.176 2932 0.649 2673 1.110 2798 0.232 2943 0.617 3270 0.117 2909 0.665 3380 1.195 3468 0.274 3366 0.114 3127 3.353 3807 0.443 3479 0.314 3158 0.393 2957 0.530 3594 1.154 3140 0.189 3252 0.302 3805 0.713 3168 0.757 3072 1.163 3356 0.413 3372 0.37 2 120.268 3582 0.850 3812 0.113 3018 0.111 2905 0.) Sat.266 3692 0.400 3696 0.781 3486 1.123 2794 0.207 3469 0.664 3376 0.294 3475 0.175 3798 Table 7 Masoneilan 25 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .393 3478 0.803 3700 0.601 2972 1.79 20 212.377 3586 0.132 3026 0.708 3811 0.199 3688 0.796 2967 1.174 3144 0.552 3374 0.168 3249 0.181 3358 0.953 3170 0.235 3471 0.140 3029 0.24 24 221.

048 3409 0.050 2941 0.076 3550 0.056 3421 0.073 3212 0.09 58 273.041 3398 0.069 3774 0.133 3569 0.052 3415 0.042 3515 0.078 3664 0.034 3139 0.087 3782 0.035 3017 0.77 56 271.070 2982 0.099 3786 0.060 3312 0.062 2969 0.051 3644 0.067 3545 0.097 3560 0.039 h 2794 V 0.092 3558 0.044 3404 0.077 3778 0.045 h 2799 V 0.106 3232 0.31 40 250.060 2837 0.76 48 261.140 3794 0.090 3783 0.095 3785 0.089 3669 0.083 3554 0.058 2962 0.116 3790 0.096 3448 0.104 3674 0.085 3667 0.98 85 299.36 60 275.068 3432 0.038 3031 0.066 3318 0.051 3069 0.084 3110 0.074 3101 0.037 h 2792 V 0.070 3546 0.033 h 2786 V 0.83 70 285.079 3329 0.058 3309 0.059 3652 0.047 3059 0.Properties of Steam (continued) Metric Units Saturated Pressure (bar abs.053 3188 0.055 h 2804 V 0.116 3565 0.024 2783 ----------------- 0.081 3219 0.087 3222 0.069 3209 0.081 2994 0.38 54 268.097 3199 0.051 3184 0.079 3106 0.041 h 2796 V 0.058 3423 0.056 2826 0.047 h 2801 V 0.04 30 233.100 3339 0.059 3767 0.029 h 2777 V 0.24 * v = specific volume h = enthalpy (kJ/kg) Superheated Sat.069 3320 0.027 2972 0.24 44 256.132 3680 0.065 3543 0.021 h 2749 (m3/kg) 0.103 3561 0.108 3452 0.076 2869 0.087 3000 0.107 3342 0.063 3428 0.052 2949 0.063 3315 0.072 3323 0.056 3306 0.090 3114 0.082 3441 0.071 3775 0.098 3672 0.036 2885 0.116 3455 0.102 3450 0.049 h 2802 V 0.065 3430 0.04 28 230.074 3437 0.053 2813 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.063 3770 0.091 3446 0.084 3331 0.124 3567 0.051 3529 0.081 3666 0.078 3439 0.109 3563 0.047 3177 0.043 3168 0.123 3679 0.56 65 280.080 3552 0.123 3792 0.143 3571 0.051 3760 0.44 34 240.060 3539 0.150 3796 0.052 3301 0. 250˚C 300˚C 350˚C 400˚C 450˚C 500˚C 550˚C 600˚C 650˚C V 0.083 2879 0.073 3548 0.083 3781 0.048 3525 0.099 3229 0.066 2976 0.054 3304 0.032 2862 0.104 3787 0.131 3793 0.88 36 244.92 52 266.80 75 290.042 h 2798 V 0.115 3345 0.042 3044 0.041 2911 0.074 3776 0.036 h 2790 V 0.116 3677 0.057 3078 0.) Temperature * (˚C) 26 226.075 3326 0.049 3064 0.094 3006 0.141 3682 0.092 3226 0.093 3671 0.84 32 237.162 3797 0.05 46 258.034 h 2788 V 0.089 3334 0.071 h 2805 V 0.043 2919 0.076 h 2804 V 0.023 h 2756 V 0.066 h 2805 V 0.072 3661 0.047 3934 0.134 3459 0.066 3205 0.036 3149 0.057 3195 0.026 2812 0.060 3425 0.032 3003 0.025 h 2764 V 0.048 3640 0.075 3663 0.048 3757 Table 7 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 26 .039 2902 0.052 h 2803 V 0.062 h 2805 V 0.038 3272 0.055 3648 0.029 2988 0.38 50 263.044 3287 0.086 3443 0.070 3097 0.071 3434 0.063 3088 0.035 3265 0.124 3348 0.027 h 2771 V 0.069 3659 0.043 3049 0.045 3520 0.055 2956 0.063 3202 0.029 2838 0.040 3279 0.039 3158 0.070 2859 0.077 3216 0.059 3083 0.115 3236 0.065 2848 0.067 3658 0.058 h 2805 V 0.045 3636 0.032 h 2783 V 0.51 80 294.049 3181 0.063 3541 0.054 3073 0.047 3294 0.16 38 247.110 3789 0.088 3556 0.109 3675 0.065 3656 0.153 3683 0.055 3763 0.124 3457 0.045 2926 0.075 2998 0.094 3337 0.055 3191 0.037 2894 0.032 3129 0.060 3198 0.105 3123 0.080 3779 0.056 3534 0.039 3392 0.33 42 253.045 3054 0.066 3092 0.

0059 200 365.021 3186 0.032 3374 0.008 2737 0.009 2815 0.015 3114 0.0067 190 361.020 2904 0.029 3481 0.64 h 2530 V 0.031 3250 0.44 h 2468 V 0.024 3583 0.022 2922 0.71 h 2416 V 0.027 3715 0.010 2850 0.0127 130 330.025 2956 0.018 2864 0.029 3362 0.019 95 307.0093 160 347.033 3496 0.024 3705 0.020 3040 0.021 3441 0.014 2946 0.022 3451 0.045 3753 0.0098 155 344.026 3098 0.016 2988 0.019 3169 0.81 h 2663 V 0.012 2722 0.033 3257 0.0121 135 333.017 3410 0.12 h 2610 V 0.024 3087 0.034 3380 0.023 3575 0.022 3694 0.023 3076 0.0050 210 369.028 3235 0.025 3219 0.57 h 2717 V 0.026 3227 0.0135 125 327.018 3670 0.31 Table 7 Masoneilan 27 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .026 3592 0.022 3064 0.023 3332 0.036 3620 0.019 3677 0.017 3002 0.0079 175 354.77 h 2675 V 0.020 3306 0.018 3421 0.033 3732 0.030 3486 0.0114 140 336.023 3203 0.014 2960 0.019 2884 0.018 100 310.0083 170 352.016 3133 0.0088 165 349.022 3194 0.32 h 2581 V 0.017 3142 0.41 h 2624 V 0.021 3567 0.Properties of Steam (continued) Metric Units Saturated Pressure Temperature (bar abs.025 3708 0.017 3280 0.038 3743 0.016 3524 0.024 3211 0.029 3119 0.22 h 2733 V 0.008 2565 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.013 3216 0.015 115 321.64 h 2687 V 0.021 3052 0.019 3426 0.009 2614 0.011 2690 0.021 3319 0.031 3608 0.020 3436 0.027 3596 0.028 3108 0.037 3505 0.021 3691 0.013 2915 0.032 3491 0.037 3739 0.011 3020 0.82 h 2565 V 0.75 h 2596 V 0.63 h 2637 V 0.023 3698 0.014 3245 0.017 105 314.016 2822 0.015 2799 0.0038 220 373.016 3400 0.031 3368 0.021 3563 0.017 3533 0.022 3446 0.010 2654 0.009 2779 0.019 3300 0.038 3624 0.016 3273 0.04 h 2708 V 0.0075 180 356.020 3558 0.012 3064 0.) * (˚C) Superheated Sat.019 3028 0.011 2883 0.034 3616 0.032 3729 0.70 h 2218 * v = specific volume (m3/kg) h = enthalpy (kJ/kg) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.025 3466 0.023 3457 0.019 3431 0.011 3042 0.020 3177 0.018 3287 0.019 3550 0.043 3750 0.014 3104 0.29 h 2547 V 0.036 3386 0.0109 145 339.029 3722 0.014 3378 0.018 3015 0.026 3350 0.030 3604 0.025 3587 0.024 3462 0.025 3344 0.033 3612 0.015 3389 0.035 3736 0.015 3123 0.040 3746 0.024 3701 0.40 h 2698 V 0.76 h 2651 V 0.014 2776 0.022 3325 0.029 3600 0.029 3242 0.018 3160 0.013 3231 0.018 3293 0.024 3338 0.022 3571 0.024 2939 0.013 2749 0.017 2844 0.042 3632 0.031 3725 0.015 2974 0.028 3356 0.020 3313 0.79 h 2344 V 0.020 h 2741 V 0.035 3501 0.028 3719 0.024 3579 0.026 3471 0.018 3542 0.012 2899 0.026 3712 0. 250˚C 300˚C 350˚C 400˚C 450˚C 500˚C 550˚C 600˚C 650˚C V 0.014 120 324.0103 150 342.016 110 318.015 3259 0.020 3684 0.040 3628 0.013 2931 0.039 3510 0.013 3084 0.96 h 2511 V 0.017 3662 90 303.027 3476 0.96 h 2725 V 0.017 3151 0.

1 0 1.6 95 104 113 122 131 140 149 158 167 176 185 194 203 212 221 ˚F 110 115 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 230 239 248 266 284 302 320 338 356 374 392 410 428 446 464 482 572 662 752 842 932 1022 1112 1202 1292 1382 1472 1562 1652 1742 1832 1922 2012 2102 2192 2282 2372 2462 2552 2642 2732 Note : The temperature to be converted is the figure in the red column.8 -40 -37.1 -23.Temperature Conversion Table °C ˚F -273 -268 -240 -212 -184 -157 -129 -101 -73 -45.2 10 12.6 71.2 87. for conversion to ˚F use the right column.4 -6.9 54.4 -31.1 48.6 121 149 177 204 232 260 288 316 343 371 399 427 454 482 510 538 566 593 621 649 677 704 732 762 788 816 -418 -328 -238 -148 -58 -49 -40 -31 -22 -13 -4 5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77 86 89.8 40.3 98.9 26.3 21.8 15.7 -28.9 -1.4 60. Table 8 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 28 .6 18.2 -34.3 46.7 -3.8 -15 -12.4 7.1 23.9 -26.2 35 37.1 76.7 4.6 -17.6 -459.4 32.4 110 115.4 -450 -400 -350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 32 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 ˚C 43. To obtain a reading in ˚C use the left column .7 82.0 65.6 -42.2 -20.8 93.2 -9.9 104.7 29.

16q FC L f Gf ∆Ps mass flow Cv = 500 W G f ∆P Cv = * ∆P s = P1 . U. if Pv < 0.96 .28 W 500 FCLf G f ∆Ps C v = 1. ∆P < F CLf2 ∆Ps volumetric flow Critical Flow cavitation or flashing ∆P ≥ F CLf 2 ∆Ps volumetric flow Gf ∆P Cv = q Cv = q FCLf Gf ∆Ps C v = 1.16q mass flow Gf ∆P C v = 1. 1000 kg per hr Masoneilan 29 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION .28 Pv Cv = 1. psia ∆P = q = W = vapor pressure of liquid at flowing temperature.96 .P2 . bar absolute actual pressure drop P1 . pounds per hour W = actual pressure drop P1 .Pv Where: Where: Pv Cv = valve flow coefficient Cv = valve flow coefficient FL = critical flow factor FL = critical flow factor Gf = specific gravity at flowing temperature Gf = specific gravity at flowing temperature (water = 1 @ 60˚F) (water = 1 @ 15˚C) P1 = Upstream pressure. psia P2 = Downstream pressure.0. ∆P ≥ FCL f 2 ∆Ps Subcritical Flow B.P2 .Pv or for simplicity.0. ∆Ps = P1 .5 P1. The most recent version of Masoneilan's sizing equations for liquid and gas/vapor service are presented here as a reference for those who wish to refer to. bar absolute P2 = Downstream pressure. Pv = Pv = psia bar absolute vapor pressure of liquid at flowing temperature.5 P1.0. gpm q = liquid flow rate. Pc = Pressure at thermodynamic critical point. if Pv < 0.0. Metric Units Subcritical Flow B. m3/h liquid flow rate. bar absolute Pc = Pressure at thermodynamic critical point. bar liquid flow rate. or continue to use these equations. psia P1 = Upstream pressure. ∆Ps = P1 .16 W G f ∆P Pv Pc * ∆P s = P1 .Masoneilan Control Valve Sizing Formulas Masoneilan sizing equations have been used for nearly fifty years to determine the capacity requirement of control valves. psi ∆P = liquid flow rate. For Liquid Service US Customary Units A. S.16 W FCL f G f ∆Ps Pv Pc or for simplicity. ∆P < F CLf2 ∆Ps Critical Flow cavitation or flashing A.

bar absolute ∆P = Q = T = actual pressure drop P1 .0. y .148 y 83.0) G = gas specific gravity (air = 1. bar 30 = flowing temperature.148 y3 257 C mass flow Cv = W Z 2.148 y Cv = 3 mass flow Q GTZ F Lf P 1 y .P2 .148 y3 C for superheated steam W 1 + 0.0.For Gas and Vapor Service US Customary Units Metric Units for gas volumetric flow for gas volumetric flow Q GTZ Cv = 834 C F Lf P 1 y . bar absolute P2 = Downstream pressure. psi Q = flowing temperature.83 F CLf P 1 y .8 F CLf P 1 G f y .0.148 y3 Cv = for superheated steam 1.7 W F Lf P 1 y .0 Where: Where: Cv = valve flow coefficient Cv = valve flow coefficient FL = critical flow factor FL = critical flow factor G = gas specific gravity (air = 1.0.0.0. m3/h T Masoneilan DRESSER actual pressure drop P1 .0. lbs/hr Z compressibility factor = ∆P = gas flow rate at 14.7 1 + 0.7 psia and 60˚F.148 y3 Where: y = 1. R T sh = steam superheat.148 y3 Cv = 3 83. K T sh = steam superheat.40 F C Lf ∆P P1 (for 77000. LO-DB® cartridges and expansion plates and two stage 41000 and 72000) y = 1. scfh VALVE DIVISION gas flow rate at 15˚C & 1013 millibar absolute. 1000 kg/hr Z compressibility factor = .5 W Z C P F Lf 1 G f y . psia P2 = Downstream pressure.0.0007 Tsh Cv = 54.P2 . ˚F W = flow rate.0) Gf = Gf = specific gravity at flowing temperature P1 = specific gravity at flowing temperature = G x 520 T Upstream pressure. ˚C W = flow rate.00126 Tsh W F CLf P 1 y . psia P1 = = G x 288 T Upstream pressure.83 C F Lf P 1 y .0.63 F C Lf ∆P P1 (for all other valves) with a maximum value of y = 1.148 y3 Cv = for saturated steam for saturated steam W Cv = 1.50 at this value.148y3 = 1.

. sq. sq.29 x 104 929 0. meters sq. millimeters sq.29 7.2 6.001 2205 1. inches sq.205 0. feet sqs.9 ft 3/hr m 3 /hr Barrels/day GPM liters/min ft 3/min m 3 /hr GPM liters/min ft 3/min ft 3/hr Barrels/day 60 0.699 256.00155 1. centimeters sq.5 0. e.000446 0.452 0.0929 144 centimeters meters inches feet millimeters meters inches feet millimeters centimeters meters feet millimeters centimeters meters inches cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic feet per second feet per second feet per second feet per second meters per second meters per second meters per second meters per second sq.-6 0. sq.0005 0.0833 304. sq.00694 9.600 2.32 60. inches cubic feet/minute cubic feet/minute 3.40 2. sq. By liters/min ft 3 /min ft 3/hr m 3/hr Barrels/day (42 US gal) GPM liters/minute 0. meters sq.984 1000 short ton long ton kilogram metric ton pounds long ton kilogram metric ton pounds short ton kilogram metric ton pounds short ton long ton metric ton pounds short ton long ton kilogram Some units shown on this page are not recommended by SI. cm Table 9 Masoneilan 31 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . millimeters sq.Metric Conversion Tables Multiply By Multiply To Obtain Length millimeters millimeters millimeters millimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters inches inches inches inches feet feet feet feet 0.016 2. sq.0011 0.133 8. sq. cm should be read as kilogram (force) / sq. feet sq.9 3.001 0.000645 0.0 0.010 0. sq.237 ft/min meters/second km/hr miles/hr ft/sec ft/min km/hr miles/hr Weight (Mass) pounds pounds pounds pounds short ton short ton short ton short ton long ton long ton long ton long ton kilogram kilogram kilogram kilogram metric ton metric ton metric ton metric ton US/minute US/minute US/minute US/minute US/minute feet/minute feet/minute feet/minute feet/hr feet/hr feet/hr feet/hr meters/hr meters/hr meters/hr meters/hr meters/hr Velocity Flow Rates gallons GPM gallons gallons gallons gallons To Obtain Flow Rates Area sq. sq. kilogram/sq. sq.472 0.120 1016 1.280 196.0283 4.0 millimeters millimeters millimeters millimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters inches inches inches inches feet feet feet feet 0.31 150.5886 35.3048 1.0254 0.54 0. centimeters sq.227 34.0328 25.097 0.8 30.8929 907. centimeters sq.785 0.2 0. inches sq. millimeters sq.0 0.039 0.00328 10.10 0.021 0.48 0.481 28. sq. sq.000453 2000.6818 3.403 16.453 0. sq.155 0.010 10.076 x 10-5 100 0.304 12. sq.0001 0.9072 2240 1. meters sq. meters sq.394 0.00098 0. sq.0 1.g. feet sq.67 0.102 0.1247 0.001076 645.01667 0.

45 10.171 51. cm kilogram/sq. e. cm kilogram/sq. cm should be read as kilogram (force) /sq. cm kilogram/sq.07 32.69 1.33 76.0 231.01 750.0 264. cm kilogram/sq.895 2.0 29..53 14.22 0.31 1000.92 14. cm kilogram/sq.9678 98.32 7. cm Table 9 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION 32 .531 x 10-5 10.102 0.785 cubic inches cubic feet cubic meters liters gallons (US) cubic cm cubic inches cubic feet liters gallons cubic cm cubic inches cubic meters liters gallons cubic cm cubic inches cubic feet cubic meters gallons cubic cm cubic inches cubic feet cubic meters liters Pressure & Head pounds/sq.001 psi bar Kg/cm 2 kPa ft of H2O m of H2O cm of Hg torr (mm of Hg) in of Hg psi atmosphere Kg/cm 2 kPa ft of H2O m of H2O cm of Hg torr (mm of Hg) in of Hg psi bar atmosphere kPa ft of H2O (4 DEG C) m of H2O (4 DEG C) cm of Hg torr (mm of Hg) in of Hg psi bar atmosphere kg/cm 2 ft of H2O m of H2O cm of Hg torr (mm of Hg) in of Hg bar Some units shown on this page are not recommended by SI.6 28. inch 0.020 100.145 0.02 0.81 10.71 2.g. cm kiloPascal kiloPascal kiloPascal kiloPascal kiloPascal kiloPascal kiloPascal kiloPascal kiloPascal millibar 14.033 101.0 0.036 To Obtain Pressure & Head Volume & Capacity cubic cm cubic cm cubic cm cubic cm cubic cm cubic meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet liters liters liters liters liters gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons By bar atmosphere kg/cm 2 kPa ft of H2O (4 DEG C) m of H2O (4 DEG C) cm of Hg (0 DEG C) torr (mm of Hg) (0 DEG C) in of Hg (0 DEG C) atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar kilogram/sq. inch pounds/sq. cm kilogram/sq.0001 2. cm kilogram/sq.295 0.501 0.0 0.7501 7.0 61. cm kilogram/sq.01 0.50 0.334 0.03531 0.0 33. inch pounds/sq.00 760.1 29.0 35.0102 0.06102 3.1337 3.9869 1.-6 0. inch pounds/sq.00 73. inch pounds/sq. kilogram/sq.013 1.9807 0.703 5.0703 6.320. inch pounds/sq.Multiply By To Obtain Multiply 0.307 0.96 0.001 0.06804 0.9 10.6 61.0 1728. inch pounds/sq.56 735.264 3785.0283 28.642 x 10-4 10.20 75.023. inch pounds/sq.00986 0. inch pounds/sq.785 x 10-3 3.2 28.3 33.4805 1000.06895 0.

April 1963 “Sizing Control Valves for Flashing Service. Flowmeter Computation Handbook. 1978. ISA Transactions. W.076 lbs @ std cond. Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves. wt k = specific heat + 460) ratio Cp/Cv M scfh = lbs/hr x 13. 9.Useful List of Equivalents (U. 2. 1968 “Effect of Pipe Reducers on Valve Capacity. No.076 G of any gas = molecular wt of gas/29 G of gas at flowing temp = G x 520 T + 460 Universal gas equation Pv = mRTZ Metric Where P = press lbs/sq ft P v = volume in ft3 v m = mass in lbs m R = gas constant R 1545 = M T = temp Rankine T Z = gas compressibility = = = = Pascal m3 kg gas constant 8314 = M = temp Kelvin factor = Z P1 V1 = P2 V2 T1 T2 Gas expansion (perfect gas) Flow conversion of gas scfh = lbs/hr density Velocity of sound C (ft/sec) C = 223 scfh = lbs/hr x 379 M k (T where T = temp DEG F M = mol. 10. 5. W. 1951 “Flow Characteristics for Control Valve Installations. (= density) 1 cubic foot of water = 7.” H. Baumann. F. Vol. Boger. D. 2. C water Note : Within this control valve handbook.013 bar and 0 DEG.S. Instruments and Control Systems. ASME. 1 cubic foot of water = 62. Sizing Equations for Incompressible Flow Under Installed Conditions IEC 534-2-2. 4.013 bar and 15.69 psia & 60 DEG F* G of any gas = density of gas/0. “The Introduction of a Critical Flow Factor for Valve Sizing.1 cubic feet /lb Air molecular weight M = 29 Specific gravity of air G = 1 (reference for gases) Specific gravity of water = 1 (reference for liquids) Standard conditions (US Customary) are at 14. 2. the metric factors are at 1. ASME. Instruments and Control Systems.01. ISA Journal. Boger. Vol. Customary Units) 1 U.33 lbs @ std cond. References 1. C & 4 DEG. 6.” W. 1980. October 1966.2 lbs/hr 500 x G where T = temp DEG C M = mol. Sizing Equations for Compressible Flow Under Installed Conditions Masoneilan 33 DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . 3.” H. 73.” H. W. 8. Trans. Proceedings Texas A&M 23rd Annual Symposium on Instrumentation for the Process Industries. gallon of water = 8.34 lbs @ std cond. 1961 ANSI/ISA S75.” H.48 gallons 1 cubic foot of air = 0. 7. December 1968 “Flow of a Flashing Mixture of Water and Steam through Pipes and Valves.” H. Baumann. Allen. January 1970 “Recent Trends in Sizing Control Valves.1 G Velocity of Sound C (m/sec) Flow conversion of liquid GPM = C = 91.6˚C. wt k = specific heat k (T + 273) ratio Cp/Cv M *Normal conditions (metric) are at 1. Boger. (= air density) Air specific volume = 1/density = 13. D. IEC 534-2-1. S.

Notes .

Notes .

Fulton Fraccionamiento Industrial San Nicolas 54030 Tlalnepantla Estado de Mexico Phone: 52-5-310-9863 Fax: 52-5-310-5584 Valve Division U. #2107 Kuk Dong Building 60-1. 11100 West Airport Blvd. Japan Phone: 81-43-297-9222 Fax: 81-43-299-1115 BRAZIL Dresser Idustria E Comercio Ltda Divisao Masoneilan Rua Senador Vergueiro. Ontario L7L 5R5 Canada Phone: 905-335-3529 Fax: 905-336-7628 MEXICO Dresser Valve de Mexico. Calle Y 08040 Barcelona. 305/306 “Midas” .A. 3-Ka. Capital Mansion 6 Xinyuannan Road Chao Yang district Beijing 100040 Phone: 86-10-6466-1164 Fax: 86-10-6466-0195 FRANCE Dresser Produits Industriels Division Masoneilan 4.K.V. Choongmu-ro Chung-Ku.Bulletin OZ1000 7/00 Sales Office Locations INDIA Dresser Valve India Pvt. 36. Belgium Phone: 32-2-344-0970 Fax: 32-2-344-1123 JAPAN Niigata Masoneilan Company. Mahboula Kuwait Phone: 965-9061157 UNITED KINGDOM Valve Division Dresser U. Box 3568 CH-8021 Zurich. Box 640 NL3190 AN Hoogvliet RT The Netherlands Phone: 31-10-438-4122 Fax: 31-10-438-4443 SINGAPORE Dresser Singapore. Masoneilan Operation Via Cassano. Tuas Avenue 8 Singapore 639231 Phone: 65-861-6100 Fax: 65-861-7172 SOUTH AFRICA Dresser Ltd. 114.K. Inc. Italy Phone: 39-81-7892-111 Fax: 39-81-7892-208 SWITZERLAND Dresser Europe SA Frauntalweg 76 CH-8045 Zurich. Brazil Phone: 55-11-453-5511 Fax: 55-11-453-5565 KOREA Dresser Korea. Wien).Sahar Plaza Mathurdas Vasanji Road J. Kuwait Courier: Flat No. Mihama-Ku Chiba-shi.. Skelmersdale Lancashire WN8 9TU. Ltd. Box 2234. Zona Franca Sector M. Esq. S. Inc. India 400 059 Phone: 91-22-835-4790 Fax: 91-22-835-4791 SPAIN Masoneilan S. 444-58th Avenue S. Southern Sales Office Unit 5. 85 Bodwell Street Avon. Limited Trevithick Works Gillibrands Estate. Nagar . #300. place de Saverne 92400 Courbevoie France Phone: 33-1-49-04-90-00 Fax: 33-1-49-04-90-10 GERMANY Dresser Valves Europe Klein-Kollenburg-Strasse 78-80 47877 Willich. England United Kingdom Phone: 44-1895-454900 Fax: 44-1895-454919 CHINA Dresser Valve Division Suire 2403. Inc.A. Ltd.O. Edenvale 1610 Republic of South Africa Phone: 27-11-452-1550 Fax: 27-11-452-6542 UNITED STATES Northern Region Valve Division Dresser Equipment Group. Ltd. MA 02322-1190 Phone: 508-586-4600 Fax: 508-427-8971 Southern Region Valve Division Dresser Equipment Group.O. Germany Phone: 49-2156-9189-0 Fax: 49-2156-41058 THE NETHERLANDS Dresser Valves Europe Steenhouwerstraat 11 3194 AG Hoogvliet The Netherlands Mailing Address: P.E. Marive East Tower WBG 2-6 Nakase. 16 Edendale Road Eastleigh. 433 09521-320 Sao Caetano Do Sul Sao Paolo. 100705 Phone: 82-2-274-0792 Fax: 82-2-274-0794 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Dresser Valve Division Middle East Operations Post Box 61302 Jebel Ali Free Zone United Arab Emirates Courier: Units Nos. Floor 8 Gaswa Complex. Brook Business Centre Cowley Mill Road.p. de C. 5010 North Service Road Burlington. Box 1208 47860 Willich. Switzerland Phone: 41-1-450 28 91 Fax: 41-1-450 28 95 BELGIUM Dresser Valves Europe 281-283 Chaussee de Bruxelles 281-283 Brusselsesteenweg 1190 Brussels. 77 80020 Casavatore (Naples). 26th Floor.B. Box 242 Safat 13003.O.Andheri East Mumbai. Chiba 261-7120. South Africa Branch Valve Division P. Calgary. Spain Phone: 34-93-223-4175 Fax: 34-93-223-4754 AUSTRIA Dresser Valves Europe Hans Kudlich-Strasse 35 A2100 Korneuburg (b. Stafford. Austria Phone: 43-2262-63689 Fax: 43-2263-68915 ITALY Dresser Italia S. Switzerland Mailing Address: P. JAO1 + JAO2 Roundabout 8 Jebel Ali Free Zone United Arab Emirates Phone: 971-4-838-752 Fax: 971-4-838-038 CANADA Alberta Valve Division Dresser Canada. Germany Mailing Address: P. Soeul.O.A. TX 77477-3014 Phone: 281-568-2211 Toll Free: 800-847-1099 Fax: 281-568-1414 Masoneilan DRESSER VALVE DIVISION . Henry Ford No. Pte. Inc. Alberta T2H 0P4 Canada Phone: 403-299-2565 Fax: 403-299-2575 KUWAIT Dresser Valve Division P. Uxbridge Middlesex UB8 2FX. Valve Division 16. England United Kingdom Phone: 44-1695-52600 Fax: 44-1695-52662 Ontario Valve Division Dresser Canada. Inc.O.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful