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The Three Schools of 'Aqidah

The Three Schools of 'Aqidah

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Beliefs of Mainstream Muslims
Beliefs of Mainstream Muslims

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The Three Schools of 'Aqidah
Posted by admin on Jun 1st, 2007 in Aqeedah (Creed) | 10 comments A brother expressed to me his sentiment that he had always thought that there was only one school of ‘Aqidah amongst Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah. So I shared with him what a friend had given me. (73

Al-’Allaamah Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Safaareeni Al-Hanbali stated in Lawaami’ Al-Anwaar Al-Bahiyyah (page 73), “Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jama’ah is composed of three groups: Al-Athariyyah (those who ascribe themselves to the texts), and their Imam is Ahmad ibn Hanbal Rahimahullahu Ta’alaa. The Asha’riyyah, their Imam being Abul-Hasan Al-Ash’ari rahimahullah Ta’alaa. The Maaturidiyyah, their Imam being Abu Mansoor Al-Maaturidiy.”

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The Three Schools of 'Aqidah | Seeking Ilm.com

The Hanbali opponents of the Asha’ris and Maaturidis despise this quote. They will attempt to explain it away by every means they can. The fact is, Imaam As-Safaareeni said what he said, and meant it.

10 Responses to “The Three Schools of 'Aqidah”
1.

Mustafa says: June 1, 2007 at 3:27 pm
as salaamu alaykum, Dear brother abul layth, was the ashari, maturidi, athari aqidah preached by the Messenger of Allaah salalahu alayhi wa salam and the Sahabah radiallahu anhum? The reason i ask akhi is because if we dwell into kalam that is not beneficial for us we will start to decrease in our imaan. I wouldnt mind having a nice dialogue with you akhi with good adab, as it is better for our hearts. wasalaam -brother mustafa Reply

2.

Abul Layth says: June 1, 2007 at 3:40 pm
Bro Mustafaa, Did our Nabi write books dividing Salaah into Arkaan, Shuroot, Sunan, Makruhaat, etc? The fact is there are many things the Nabi did not NEED to do, such as codify the Qur’aan – adding tashkeel etc – that the later Muslims did do. One of the issues the Muslims had to employ, in order to refute the deviant ideologies that invaded the Muslim world, was Kalaam. My advice, don’t bash it unless you’ve studied it. Reply

3.

Mustafa says: June 4, 2007 at 4:45 am
as salaamu alaykum, Maybe you should Upload Aqaaidul Islam By Moulana Idris Kaandhlawi rahimullah (Ad-Deoband). i have been skimming over it recently i have it in my library. it has some interesting views and arguments concerning aqidah. Ofcourse from a maturidi viewpoint. shaykh husayn adam hafidullah is fond of it aswell. wasalaam Reply

4.

Mustafa says: August 18, 2007 at 9:33 pm
as salaamu alaykum,

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The Three Schools of 'Aqidah | Seeking Ilm.com

May Allah guide you and us, What you have said is a slander and a lie. You are my brother so i shall make excuses for you perhaps your ill informed about the matter. So inshaallah ill inform you now here is a link to Shaykhunna Husayn Adams site he is deobandi and this link is actually to a work called ‘Differences in the Ummah and the Straight path by Maulana muhammad yusuf ludhianvi’ The link is to a section concerning Tawassul , Grave worship (which is not tawasul), making vows at graves etc… http://jaamiahamidia.wordpress.com/?s=grave Reply 5.

musa al-Hanafi says: October 23, 2007 at 9:28 am
erm… excuse me? maybe i missed something here! what is a slander and a lie??? i am confused about what your last post says, mustafa… maybe you would like to explain further inshaa’llaah! i don’t see any slander or lie here! or maybe you have completely misunderstood something said!? it is also possible that i have overlooked something here due my extreme tiredness! i will read again, but would still like you to explain yourself inshaa’llaah! Reply

6.

Ibn Saad says: December 17, 2007 at 3:27 am
Clip from SunniPath Answers Live event. This answer addresses the issue of Ashari vs. the Maturidi tenets of belief. Answered by Shaykh Hamza Karamali

Reply 7.

mustafa says: December 19, 2007 at 12:55 am

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The Three Schools of 'Aqidah | Seeking Ilm.com

as salaamu alaykum ibn saad, Jazakallah khayr that helped and was easily understood. Reply 8.

Ibn Saad says: December 19, 2007 at 1:19 am
Waiyakum Br. Mustafa, I found another interesting video, on the Aqeedah of Salahuddin al-Ayoubbiy. The description and the video are below: This is “al-Aqeedah as-Salahiyah”. This Poem was given as a gift to Salahuddeen, he loved it so much and ordered that it would be taught even for kids and announced on the minarets. This creed pertains the belief that: God has the power over all, and that (God) Allah exists without a place he does not need any of the creations, and all creations are in need of Allah. Everything happens by the will of Allah, the most merciful. The one who claims God is contained in places blasphemes, or claims that God needs to sit or reside in places, or claims that God has organs or image; God is clear from all of that, his Istiwa’ means subjugation to the throne (controlling it) and not sitting, for God has the perfect attributes and is clear from all imperfection. Among what he mentioned in it: 1. The Creator of this world is not contained in a direction 2. Allah is above being likened to the creations 3. Allah existed eternally and there was no place 4. And the judgment about His existence now is that He is as He was, i.e., without a place 5. He is clear of any imperfection and clear of being in a place 6. And He is above being bound by changes of time.. Salahuddeen was popular for his might and great victories, God granted him this power because of his strong aqeedah (creed) and his faithfulness. Imam Muhammad Ibn Hibah al-Makkiyy, in his book Hada’iq al-Fusul wa Jawahir al-^Uqul,–also called Al-^Aqidat-as-Salahiyyah because he gave it as a gift to Sultan Salah-ad-Din al-Ayyubiyy who ordered that this book be taught to the children in schools and broadcast from the top of minarets– said: which means: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place, and the judgment about His existence now is that He is as He was, i.e., without a place.”

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The Three Schools of 'Aqidah | Seeking Ilm.com

Reply 9.

Abul Layth says: December 19, 2007 at 11:29 am
You should make this an actual post ibn sa’ad. It is incredibly beneficial. Reply

10.

salafee_ says: April 25, 2009 at 7:16 am
Ash’aris Believe Quran is Created and Ibn Qudama’s Refutation The Ash’aris believe that Allah’s Speech subsists in His Essence and is without sound or letters, and therefore, Allah could not have said Alif-Laam-Meem. The Mu’tazilah believed that the Quran is Allah’s Speech; and Allah’s Speech is created. The Ash’aris believed that the Quran is not Allah’s Speech, so while Allah’s Speech is uncreated, the Quran remains created. al-Bayjuri the Ash’ari theologian says in his Sharh Jawharat al-Tawheed: “it is still only permitted to say “The Qur’an is emergent (or created)” in a classroom setting” Ibn al-Jawzi says in al-Muntadham of al-Ash’ari: “The people never differed that this audible Qur’an is Allah’s Speech, and that Gabriel descended with it upon the Prophet – Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him. The reliable imams declared that the Quran is eternal, while the Mu’tazila claimed that it is created. Al-Ash’ari then agreed with the Mu’tazila that the Quran is created and said: ‘This is not Allah’s Speech. Rather, Allah’s Speech is an Attribute subsisting in Allah’s Essence. It did not descend on the Prophet, nor is it audible.’ “ Ibn al-Jawzi would often say on the pulpit: “The heretics (the Ash’aris) claim; i) there is none in the Heavens, ii) neither is there Qur’an in the Mushaf, and iii) nor is there a Prophet in the grave; ‘your three shameful facets’” (al-Dhayl) Ibn al-Jawzi writes, while complaining about certain Ash’arites indoctrinating the masses with the Ash’arite dogma: “A group of Persian (a’ajim) heretics arrived in Baghdad and mounted the pulpits to sermon the masses. They would claim, in most of their gatherings: There is no ‘Speech of Allah’ on this earth, and is the mushaf anything but paper, galls and vitriol? Allah is not in the Heavens, and the slave-girl to whom the Prophet said: ‘Where is Allah?’ was dumb and therefore pointed towards the sky, meaning: He is not from the idols worshipped on this earth. They then said: ‘Where are the ‘letterists’, who claim that the Quran is composed of letters and sound? Rather, the Quran is only an expression of Jibril!’ They continued in this vein, until the sacredness of the Quran diminished from the hearts of many.” He then mentions at length, the arguments for the orthodox approach towards the Quran, and commends Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal for his rigid stance on the issue, which united the Muslims on one belief: the Quran, which is contained in the Mushaf, is the uncreated Speech of Allah. He then

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denigrates al-Ash’ari, saying: “Then, people did not differ in this issue, until there appeared ‘Ali b. Isma’il al-Ash’ari, who at first, held the beliefs of the Mu’tazilites. It then occurred to him, as he claimed, that Allah’s Speech subsists in the Divine Essence (sifah qa’imah bil-that). His claim, therefore, necessitated that the Quran we have is created.” Ibn Qudama says in his refutation of the Ash’aris on the topic of Quran: * “Some of our [Hanbali] companions often ask us about the debate that took place between me and some of the heretics (i.e. Ash’aris)” * Ash’aris claim that the Speech of Allah – the Quran – is one whole entity which is indivisible, for anything eternal must be indivisible, as they claim. Ibn Qudamah responds to this saying, that their belief implies, that the Torah, the Bible and the Quran are all the same, and the one who memorises a verse has memorised the whole Quran, and that Allah’s prohibitions are the same as what he permits, etc. * Ash’aris say that if Allah speaks with sound and letters, it implies that Allah has a tongue, a throat and lungs, since this is the only way one may speak. Ibn Qudamah says, the stones and trees of Makkah would say Salam to the Prophet – SallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam without any of that, and likewise ones hands will bear witness against him on the day of judgement, without the need of any tongue or throat etc. Moreover, by the same token, they should also deny that Allah is all hearing and seeing, as one cannot hear except through air waves hitting the air-drums, nor can one see except through lights hitting the retina. * Ibn Qudamah says that Ash’aris belief implies that for one to recite the Quran in his Salah, in fact renders his Salah null and void, because the Quran is actually the speech of Jibril, as they claim. * He says: “There is no dispute amongst all the Muslims that anyone who rejects a verse from the Quran, or a word, which is agreed upon, or even a letter which is agreed upon, is a Kafir… Whereas al-Ash’ari rejects the entire Quran and says: none of that is the Quran, rather it is the speech of Jibril” * He says: “What is amazing is that they are not bold enough to manifest their belief in public, nor do they explicitly state it except when they are alone. Even if they were the rulers, or governors of countries, and you were to attribute this belief to them, they would detest it and condemn it, and become obstinate. They would only pretend to honor the Quran respect the Mushaf, and stand up upon seeing it, whereas when they are alone they say: There is nothing in it but paper and ink, what else is there in it? And this is from the actions of Zanadiqah” * One of them said to Ibn Qudamah: I affirm that this Mushaf is actually the Quran, but it is not the eternal Quran, to which Ibn Qudamah replied: ‘So, do we have two Qurans?! … Some of our [Hanbali] companions said: ‘You (the Ash’aris) are the rulers and the governors over Islamic countries, so what prevents you from making your belief manifest to the common folk? * He said: ‘We do not know of a sect from the heretics who hide their beliefs, and who are not bold enough to manifest them, except the Zanadiqah and the Ash’aris.’ * He said: ‘His belief (i.e. al-Ash’ari’s) is similar to that of the Mu’tazilah without doubt, except that alAsh’ari wants to deceive. So he states his belief which appears to be agreeing with the beliefs of the people of truth. He then gives an explanation to his belief with a Mu’tazili twist. * He says: ‘The reality of the Ash’ari doctrine is that there is no God in the heavens, nor is there a Quran on this earth, and nor is Muhammad a messenger of God’. Ibn Fuwarrak was killed by the great ruler Ibn Subuktakin for claiming that the Prophet SallAllahu ‘alaihi wa-sallam was only a messenger when he was alive, and he isn’t a messenger anymore after his death. * He says: ‘What is amazing is that their leader (i.e. Abul-Hasan al-Ash’ari) who established their beliefs was a man not known for his religion or piety, nor was he known for any of the Sacred

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sciences. In fact, he belongs to no science except the science of blameworthy Kalam. All the while they acknowledge that he spent 40 years adhering to Mu’tazili doctrine, and then pretended to have retracted from it, however, nothing could be seen from him after his repentance except this Bid’ah.’ al-Saffarini al-Hanbali says in his Sharh of his own Athari creed: “In conclusion, the Mu’tazilites are in agreement with the Ash’arites, while the Ash’arites are in agreement with the Mu’tazilites, that this Quran contained within the two covers of the Mushaf is created and anew. The only difference between the two factions is that the Mu’tazila did not affirm any other Speech for Allah except this (the Quran, which they thought was created), whereas the Ash’arites affirmed al-Kalam al-Nafsi (self-speech/talking to oneself/inner-speech) subsisting in Allah’s essence. Whereas the Mu’tazilites say, the Speech of Allah is created (and not subsisting in Allah). The Ash’aris do not consider it (the Quran) the Speech of Allah. Yes, they call it ‘the Speech of Allah’, but only metaphorically, and that is the belief of the majority of their predecessors.” Conclusion: 1) the Ash’aris believe that the Quran that we have which is contained in the Mushaf is in fact created, because Allah Speaks without sound or letters. 2) This is how the Hanbalis have viewed the Ash’aris for centuries. Ibn al-Jawzi’s quotes can be found in his al-Muntadham, in his notice on Abul-Hasan al-Ash’ari; as well as his Sayd al-Khatir Ibn Qudama is being quoted from his Munadhara ma’a Ahl al-Bid’a (debate with heretics), which is his discourse with his contemporary Ash’rites. al-Saffarini is being quoted from his own Sharh to his own Athari creed called Lawami’. Reply

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