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Page 1 of 21

FIRE RESISTANCE OF STEEL STRUCTURES

(BASED ON EN1993 PART 1-2 “DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES – STRUCTURAL FIRE DESIGN) JAN 2006








Abstract:
This tool provides a first estimation of the ISO fire resistance of steel beams and columns, both
protected and unprotected. The approach is based on EN 1993-1-2, the European Research project
“Buckling curves of hot rolled H sections submitted to fire” as well as the former Nomogram of the
ECCS document N°89. The method used for beams is based on the definition of the degree of
utilisation and provides the critical temperature. The method for columns is a new simplified
approach based on the European research project that provides as well the critical steel temperature.
For unprotected members a new section factor, including the shadow affect was defined and
according to the required fire resistance class, a steel temperature is obtained that should remain
below the critical one. For protected members, a set of protection materials is given with their fire
properties. In combination with the section factor this allows one by the same to calculate the
maximum steel temperature.













HALLER Mike
CAJOT Louis-Guy
Arcelor LCS Research Centre

Page 2 of 21

Table of contents

1. Introduction...................................................................................................................3
2. Principles of calculation ................................................................................................3
2.1 Steel temperature .............................................................................................................3
2.2 Mechanical properties of steel at elevated temperatures....................................................4
3. Calculation procedure for beams and members in tension..............................................4
3.1 Temperature distribution..................................................................................................4
3.2 General assumptions ........................................................................................................5
3.3 Calculation procedure ......................................................................................................6
4. Calculation procedure for columns ................................................................................7
4.1 Introduction of simplified method ....................................................................................7
4.2 Design procedure .............................................................................................................7
4.3 Design tables for S235, S355 and S460 steel grades .........................................................8
5. Nomogram for unprotected members........................................................................... 11
5.1 Section factor for unprotected steel members .................................................................11
5.1.1 Section factor including shadow effect

for European sections .................................12
5.1.2 Section factor including shadow effect for British sections .....................................13
5.2 Nomogram for unprotected steel members .....................................................................14
6. Nomogram for protected members .............................................................................. 15
6.1 Section factor for protected steel members .....................................................................15
6.1.1 Section factor for European sections.......................................................................17
6.1.2 Section factor for British sections ...........................................................................18
6.2 Properties of fire protection material ..............................................................................19
6.3 Nomogram for protected steel members .........................................................................20
7. References................................................................................................................... 21



Page 3 of 21
1. Introduction
The required fire resistance of steel structures – in terms of fire resistance classes R30/R60/R90 etc.
– is given by national regulations. These requirements depend on the number of floors, the use and
the type of building and, in some countries, on the fire load, the number of people and the
favourable effect of active measures, such as sprinklers.
The assessment of the fire resistance of structural elements is based either on standard fire tests in
furnaces or on calculation. This Technical Note describes calculation methods for unprotected and
protected internal steelwork based on the European standard EN 1993-1-2 [1]. Hence, partially
encased sections as well as integrated and slim floor beams are not covered by this approach.

2. Principles of calculation
2.1 Steel temperature
The increase in steel temperature is influenced by the following factors:
The section factor: i.e. the relation between the surface area exposed to the heat flux and the volume
of the member per unit length. Calculation methods and values of section factors for common
sections are given in section 5 and 6. In case of unprotected steel profiles, a section factor including
the shadow effect, with (A
m
/V)
sh
= 0.9·(A
m
/V)
b
or (A
m
/V)
sh
= 1.0·(A
m
/V)
b
, is to be considered. In
case of protected members the section factor A
p
/V is multiplied by a factor, staying for the thermal
conductivity of the protection material, divided by its thickness λ
p
/d
p
.
The thermal properties of a fire protection material: i.e. thermal conductivity λ
p
, its specific heat c
p

and its thickness d
p
. Thermal properties for various types of protection materials are given in section
6.2. Product specifications can also be obtained in each country from approved testing laboratories,
or other expert institutes on condition that they are based on officially approved tests. Herein it is
important to consider that in reality, the thermal properties with the temperature, in order that the
use of values at room temperatures are not acceptable. Consequently, the thermal characteristics,
given in 6.2 are only valid for a first approach. The final design should take into account the tables
established by tests for the selected protection product.
In case that no data are available the procedures given in EN 13381 part 1 to 4 [2], has to be used.
Test series have to be conducted that aim in proving the stickability of the protection material to the
steel support, under maximum deflection and temperature.
For fire protection material containing water, the evaporation of the water causes a delay of the
temperature increase of the steel when the temperature of the steel reaches 100°C.

Page 4 of 21
2.2 Mechanical properties of steel at elevated temperatures
Steel properties change with temperature (Figure 2-1). For a member at a nearly uniform
temperature, the critical steel temperature θ
a,cr
, in defined as the temperature for which, the load
bearing capacity becomes equal to the effect of the applied loads. Failure will then occur.

0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
k
θ

Figure 2-1 : Reduction factors for steel strength and stiffness at elevated temperatures

3. Calculation procedure for beams and members in
tension
3.1 Temperature distribution
For the fire design of beam, adaptation factors κ
1
and κ
2
may be introduced to take account of a
non-uniform temperature distribution over the height and alongside the steel section near statically
indeterminate support. The value of the adaptation factors κ
1
and κ
2
should be taken as follows,
whereas the product of both is to be used with κ=κ
1
· κ
2
:
• κ
1
for a non-uniform temperature distribution across a cross-section :
o for a beam exposed on all four sides : κ
1
=1.0
o for an unprotected beam exposed on three sides, with a composite or concrete slab
on side four : κ
1
=0.70
temperature [°C]
Effective yield strength
k
y,θ
= f
y,θ
/ f
y

Proportional limit
k
p,θ
= f
p,θ
/ f
y

Slope of linear
elastic range
k
E,θ
= E
a,θ
/ E
a


Page 5 of 21
o for a protected beam exposed on three sides, with a composite or concrete slab on
side four : κ
1
=0.85
• κ
2
for a non-uniform temperature along a beam:
o at the supports of a statically indeterminate beam : κ
2
=0.85
o in all other cases : κ
2
=1.0

3.2 General assumptions
The critical temperature is determined by the level of the applied load (action), expressed as the
degree of utilisation in fire, given by:

t d fi
d fi
R
E
, ,
,
0
= µ
E
fi,d
: the design effect of actions in fire
R
fi,d,t
: the design resistance in fire, for time t=0 (i.e. room temperature and with γ
M,fi
= 1.0)

The calculation of the fire resistance is based on the following assumptions:
• the method is only valid when LTB is prevented
• the temperature increase follows the standard fire curve (ISO 834, EN1364-1)
• uniform heating of the steel member. A non-uniform heat distribution is considered by the
factor κ = κ
1
· κ
2
(Section 3.1)
• steel grades according to EN 10025 parts 1 to 6 (S235, S355, S460) [3]
• for non protected members the shadow effect is taken into account through (A
m
/V)
sh
that is
equal to 0.9 · (A
m
/V)
b
for I-sections and 1.0· (A
m
/V)
b
for all other cases, with (A
m
/V)
b
as the
boxed section factor (see section 5.
• for member analysis, the effects of thermal expansion of the member may be neglected
• steel sections of classes at elevated temperatures 1, 2 or 3 (with A
m
/V > 10 m
-1
). For
members of class 4 cross sections other than tension members the steel temperature at all
cross-sections is to be limited to θ
crit
= 350°C if not defined differently in the national
annexes. The cross-sections may be classified at elevated temperature as for ambient
temperature design according to EN 1993-1-1 [5], with a reduced value for factor
y
f / 235 85 . 0 = ε
• temperature increase curves for insulated steel calculated with φ=0 (modification factors for
other values see section 6).


Page 6 of 21
3.3 Calculation procedure
• Choose the appropriate value of the adaptation factor κ = κ
1
· κ
2
(see section 3.1).
• Calculate the degree of utilisation in fire µ
0
.
• Define the critical temperature for the steel beam according to Figure 0-1.
• Determine the section factor including shadow effect (A
m
/V)
sh
for unprotected steel
members (see section 6) and A
p
/V for steel members insulated by fire protection material
with the thermal section factor [(A
p
/V) · (λ
p
/d
p
)] (see section 6).
• Making use of the Nomogram to deduce, from the critical temperature, the fire resistance
time, and to check whether with fulfils the requirement.
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75
κ = 0.6
κ = 0.7
κ = 0.85
κ = 1.0

Figure 0-1 : Critical Temperature in function of the load ratio for different adaptation factors
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
°
C
)

Load ratio µ
0


Page 7 of 21
4. Calculation procedure for columns
4.1 Introduction of simplified method
The design buckling resistance N
b,fi,Rd
of a compression member with a Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3
cross-section with a uniform temperature θ
a
, can be rewritten as follows:
A f f k A N
y
y y fi Rd fi b
⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
'
, ,
, , ,
λ θ
θ
χ
where A is the area of the cross section and
'
, , y
f
λ θ
=
y y fi
f k ⋅ ⋅
θ
χ
,
is the critical compression stress
for a given temperature θ and a given slenderness ratio λ (based on ECSC project [4]).
4.2 Design procedure
• Definition of the critical compression stress, for which the load bearing capacity becomes
equal to the effect of the applied loads.

A
N
f
Rd fi b
y
, , '
, ,
=
λ θ

• Definition of the slenderness ratio:

1 ) 20 (
) 20 (
λ λ
λ
λ

= =
°
°
i
L
fi
C E
C
with
y
f
235
9 . 93
1
⋅ = λ
In the case of a braced frame in which each storey comprises a separate fire compartment
with sufficient fire resistance, in an intermediate storey the buckling length L
fi
of a
continuous column may be taken as L
fi
= 0.5·L and in the top storey the buckling length
may be taken as L
fi
= 0.7·L, where L is the system length in the relevant storey.
• Defining the critical temperature according to the Table 4.1 for S235, Table 4.2 for S355 and
Table 4.3 for S460 steel grades by interpolation.
• Determine the section factor including shadow effect (A
m
/V)
sh
for unprotected steel
members (see section 6) and A
p
/V for steel members insulated by fire protection material
with the thermal section factor [(A
p
/V) · (λ
p
/d
p
)] (see section 6).
• Making use of the Nomogram to deduce, from the critical temperature, the fire resistance
time, and to check whether with fulfils the requirement.



Page 8 of 21
4.3 Design tables for S235, S355 and S460 steel grades

Table 4.1 : Critical compression stress
'
, , y
f
λ θ
for S235 steel
Temperature θ
a
400°C 500°C 600°C 700°C 800°C 900°C
λ(20°C)
'
, , y
f
λ θ
[N/mm²]
0.0 235 183 110 54 26 14
0.1 218 171 102 50 24 13
0.2 202 159 94 46 22 13
0.3 187 147 87 42 21 12
0.4 171 136 80 38 19 11
0.5 156 124 72 34 18 10
0.6 140 113 65 30 16 10
0.7 126 102 58 26 15 9
0.8 112 91 51 23 13 8
0.9 99 81 45 20 12 7
1.0 88 73 40 18 11 7
1.1 78 65 35 16 9 6
1.2 70 58 31 14 8 6
1.3 62 52 28 12 8 5
1.4 56 47 25 11 7 5
1.5 50 42 22 10 6 4
1.6 45 38 20 9 6 4
1.7 41 35 18 8 5 4
1.8 37 31 17 7 5 3
1.9 34 29 15 7 4 3
2.0 31 26 14 6 4 3

Page 9 of 21

Table 4.2 : Critical compression stress
'
, , y
f
λ θ
for S355 steel
Temperature θ
a
400°C 500°C 600°C 700°C 800°C 900°C
λ(20°C)
'
, , y
f
λ θ
[N/mm²]
0.0 355 277 167 82 39 21
0.1 334 261 157 76 37 20
0.2 313 246 147 71 35 19
0.3 293 231 137 66 33 18
0.4 272 215 126 60 31 17
0.5 250 199 116 54 28 16
0.6 227 182 105 49 26 15
0.7 204 165 94 43 24 14
0.8 182 148 83 38 21 13
0.9 161 132 73 33 19 12
1.0 143 118 65 29 17 11
1.1 126 105 57 25 15 10
1.2 112 93 51 22 14 9
1.3 100 83 45 19 12 8
1.4 89 75 40 17 11 8
1.5 80 67 36 15 10 7
1.6 72 61 32 14 9 6
1.7 65 55 29 13 8 6
1.8 59 50 26 11 7 5
1.9 54 46 24 10 7 5
2.0 49 42 22 9 6 4


Page 10 of 21

Table 4.3 : Critical compression stress
'
, , y
f
λ θ
for S460 steel
Temperature θ
a
400°C 500°C 600°C 700°C 800°C 900°C
λ(20°C)
'
, , y
f
λ θ
[N/mm²]
0.0 460 359 216 106 51 28
0.1 435 341 204 100 48 26
0.2 412 323 193 93 46 25
0.3 388 305 181 87 43 24
0.4 362 286 169 80 41 23
0.5 335 266 155 73 38 22
0.6 305 245 141 66 35 21
0.7 276 222 127 58 32 19
0.8 246 200 112 51 29 18
0.9 218 179 99 44 26 16
1.0 193 159 87 39 23 15
1.1 170 142 77 34 21 14
1.2 151 126 68 30 19 12
1.3 134 112 60 26 17 11
1.4 119 100 54 23 15 10
1.5 107 90 48 21 13 9
1.6 96 81 43 18 12 8
1.7 87 73 39 17 11 8
1.8 79 67 35 15 10 7
1.9 72 61 32 14 9 6
2.0 66 56 29 12 8 6



Page 11 of 21
5. Nomogram for unprotected members
5.1 Section factor for unprotected steel members
Section factor including shadow effect for I-sections:
sh
m
V
A
(
¸
(

¸

= 0.9 ·
b
m
V
A
(
¸
(

¸

with
b
m
V
A
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

length unit per member the of volume
length unit per area surface box


Figure 5-1 : Section factor for I-sections


For any sections else then I-sections, the section factor is to be taken as
sh
m
V
A
(
¸
(

¸

= 1.0 ·
b
m
V
A
(
¸
(

¸

Figure 5-2 : Approximated section factor for different shapes
Description [A
m
/V]
sh

Flat bar
b
t


exposed to fire on all sides : ≈ 2/t
exposed to fire on one sides : ≈ 1/t
Open section with uniform thickness
t

t


exposed to fire on all sides : ≈ 2/t
(the calculation of the boxed value would
give more accurate value)
Hollow section with uniform thickness
t

t


exposed to fire from outside : ≈ 1/ t
(for width >> t and the assumption of no
radiation between the internal surfaces)
Solid section
d

d


exposed to fire on all sides : = 4/d

box surface are
cross-section area of steel profile

Page 12 of 21
5.1.1 Section factor including shadow effect

for European sections
HE 700 A 58 68
HE 700 B 50 59
HE 700 M 41 48
HE 700 x 352 35 41
HE 100 AA 163 221 HE 700 x 418 31 36
HE 100 A 124 167 HE 800 AA 76 88
HE 100 B 104 139 HE 800 A 59 68
HE 100 M 59 77 HE 800 B 51 59
HE 120 AA 164 222 HE 800 M 43 50
HE 120 A 123 167 HE 800 x 373 37 43
HE 120 B 95 127 HE 800 x 444 32 37
HE 120 M 55 72 HE 900 AA 73 84
IPE 80 A 285 350 HP 200 x 43 101 135 HE 140 AA 155 210 HE 900 A 59 67
IPE 80 243 297 HP 200 x 53 81 109 HE 140 A 116 157 HE 900 B 51 59
IPE A 100 257 314 HP 220 x 57 79 107 HE 140 B 88 117 HE 900 M 45 51
IPE 100 222 270 HP 260 x 75 72 97 HE 140 M 52 68 HE 900 x 391 39 44
IPE A 120 244 296 HP 260 x 87 63 85 HE 160 AA 135 183 HE 900 x 466 33 38
IPE 120 207 251 HP 305 x 79 82 109 HE 160 A 108 145 HE 1000 AA 71 81
IPE A 140 234 283 HP 305 x 88 73 98 HE 160 B 79 106 HE 1000 x 249 64 73
IPE 140 194 233 HP 305 x 95 68 91 HE 160 M 49 64 HE 1000 A 59 67
IPE A 160 221 266 HP 305 x 110 59 79 HE 180 AA 127 171 HE 1000 B 51 59
IPE 160 180 217 HP 305 x 126 52 70 HE 180 A 104 140 HE 1000 M 47 53
IPE A 180 204 247 HP 305 x 149 45 60 HE 180 B 75 99 HE 1000 x 393 42 48
IPE 180 169 203 HP 305 x 180 38 50 HE 180 M 47 61 HE 1000 x 415 40 45
IPE O 180 151 182 HP 305 x 186 37 50 HE 200 AA 117 158 HE 1000 x 438 38 43
IPE A 200 189 228 HP 305 x 223 32 42 HE 200 A 97 131 HE 1000 x 494 34 39
IPE 200 158 190 HP 320 x 88 73 97 HE 200 B 69 92 HE 1000 x 584 30 33
IPE O 200 142 171 HP 320 x 103 63 85 HE 200 M 44 59 HL 920 x 345 47 56
IPE A 220 174 208 HP 320 x 117 56 75 HE 220 AA 110 149 HL 920 x 368 44 52
IPE 220 149 178 HP 320 x 147 46 61 HE 220 A 89 121 HL 920 x 390 41 50
IPE O 220 134 161 HP 320 x 184 38 50 HE 220 B 65 87 HL 920 x 420 39 46
IPE A 240 160 193 HP 360 x 84 88 119 HE 220 M 42 56 HL 920 x 449 37 43
IPE 240 138 166 HP 360 x 109 69 93 HE 240 AA 103 139 HL 920 x 491 33 40
IPE O 240 125 150 HP 360 x 133 58 77 HE 240 A 82 110 HL 920 x 537 32 37
IPE A 270 154 185 HP 360 x 152 50 68 HE 240 B 61 82 HL 920 x 588 29 33
IPE 270 132 158 HP 360 x 174 45 60 HE 240 M 35 47 HL 920 x 656 26 31
IPE O 270 114 137 HP 360 x 180 43 59 HE 260 AA 97 131 HL 920 x 725 23 28
IPE A 300 144 173 HP 400 x 122 63 86 HE 260 A 79 105 HL 920 x 787 23 26
IPE 300 125 150 HP 400 x 140 55 75 HE 260 B 59 79 HL 920 x 970 18 22
IPE O 300 109 131 HP 400 x 158 50 67 HE 260 M 35 46 HL 1000 AA 57 66
IPE A 330 134 160 HP 400 x 176 45 60 HE 280 AA 94 125 HL 1000 A 52 61
IPE 330 118 141 HP 400 x 194 41 56 HE 280 A 76 102 HL 1000 B 46 53
IPE O 330 103 123 HP 400 x 213 38 51 HE 280 B 58 77 HL 1000 M 41 49
IPE A 360 124 149 HP 400 x 231 35 48 HE 280 M 34 45 HL 1000 x 443 39 45
IPE 360 110 131 HE 300 AA 87 118 HL 1000 x 483 36 41
IPE O 360 96 114 HE 300 A 70 95 HL 1000 x 539 32 38
IPE A 400 120 142 HE 300 B 54 72 HL 1000 x 554 32 37
IPE 400 104 123 HE 300 M 30 39 HL 1000 x 591 30 35
IPE O 400 93 110 HE 320 AA 86 114 HL 1000 x 642 28 32
IPE A 450 114 134 HE 320 A 67 88 HL 1000 x 748 24 28
IPE 450 99 117 HE 320 B 52 69 HL 1000 x 883 21 24
IPE O 450 85 99 HD 260 x 54,1 97 131 HE 320 M 30 39 HL 1100 A 53 61
IPE A 500 106 124 HD 260 x 68,2 79 105 HE 340 AA 85 111 HL 1100 B 47 54
IPE 500 94 109 HD 260 x 93,0 59 79 HE 340 A 65 85 HL 1100 M 42 50
IPE O 500 80 94 HD 260 x 114 50 66 HE 340 B 51 68 HL 1100 R 38 43
IPE A 550 100 116 HD 260 x 142 41 54 HE 340 M 31 39
IPE 550 87 102 HD 260 x 172 35 46 HE 360 AA 83 108
IPE O 550 77 88 HD 320 x 74,2 86 114 HE 360 A 63 82
IPE A 600 93 107 HD 320 x 97,6 67 88 HE 360 B 50 66
IPE 600 82 95 HD 320 x 127 52 69 HE 360 M 31 40
IPE O 600 66 77 HD 320 x 158 43 57 HE 400 AA 81 104
750 x 137 91 104 HD 320 x 198 35 46 HE 400 A 61 78
750 x 147 85 98 HD 320 x 245 30 39 HE 400 B 50 64
750 x 173 73 84 HD 320 x 300 25 32 HE 400 M 32 41
750 x 196 65 75 HD 360 x 134 57 77 HE 450 AA 82 103
HD 360 x 147 52 70 HE 450 A 59 75
HD 360 x 162 48 64 HE 450 B 50 62
HD 360 x 179 44 59 HE 450 M 34 42
HD 360 x 196 41 54 HE 500 AA 82 102
HD 400 x 187 42 58 HE 500 A 59 72
HD 400 x 216 38 50 HE 500 B 49 60
HD 400 x 237 34 47 HE 500 M 35 43
HD 400 x 262 32 42 HE 550 AA 79 97
UPN 80 186 227 HD 400 x 287 29 39 HE 550 A 59 71
UPN 100 185 222 HD 400 x 314 27 36 HE 550 B 50 60
UPN 120 174 206 HD 400 x 347 25 33 HE 550 M 37 45 UPE 80 209 258
UPN 140 167 196 HD 400 x 382 23 31 HE 600 AA 79 95 UPE 100 204 248
UPN 160 160 188 HD 400 x 421 21 28 HE 600 A 59 71 UPE 120 195 233
UPN 180 154 179 HD 400 x 463 20 26 HE 600 B 50 60 UPE 140 187 223
UPN 200 148 171 HD 400 x 509 18 24 HE 600 M 38 46 UPE 160 180 212
UPN 220 139 160 HD 400 x 551 17 23 HE 600 x 337 33 40 UPE 180 173 203
UPN 240 134 154 HD 400 x 592 16 21 HE 600 x 399 29 34 UPE 200 165 193
UPN 260 126 145 HD 400 x 634 15 20 HE 650 AA 79 95 UPE 220 155 180
UPN 280 123 141 HD 400 x 677 14 19 HE 650 A 59 70 UPE 240 148 171
UPN 300 119 136 HD 400 x 744 14 18 HE 650 B 50 59 UPE 270 142 163
UPN 320 98 111 HD 400 x 818 13 16 HE 650 M 40 47 UPE 300 124 141
UPN 350 103 116 HD 400 x 900 12 15 HE 650 x 343 34 41 UPE 330 113 128
UPN 380 107 120 HD 400 x 990 11 14 HE 650 x 407 30 35 UPE 360 107 121
UPN 400 99 111 HD 400 x 1086 10 14 HE 700 AA 77 92 UPE 400 100 112
HE
UPE
IPE HP
UPN
HD

Table 5.1 Section factors for unprotected steel members - European sections
[A
m
/V]
sh
[m
-1
]

Page 13 of 21
5.1.2 Section factor including shadow effect for British sections
UB 127 x 76 x 13 180 221 UC 152 x 152 x 23 140 187
UB 152 x 89 x 16 175 213 UC 152 x 152 x 30 110 146
UB 178 x 102 x 19 169 207 UC 152 x 152 x 37 91 121
UB 203 x 102 x 23 156 186 UC 203 x 203 x 46 94 125
UB 203 x 133 x 25 152 189 UC 203 x 203 x 52 84 112
UB 203 x 133 x 30 129 160 UC 203 x 203 x 60 74 98
UB 254 x 102 x 22 196 229 UC 203 x 203 x 71 64 84
UB 254 x 102 x 25 173 202 UC 203 x 203 x 86 54 71
UB 254 x 102 x 28 156 181 UC 254 x 254 x 73 74 98
UB 254 x 146 x 31 148 180 UC 254 x 254 x 89 62 82
UB 254 x 146 x 37 126 154 UC 254 x 254 x 107 52 69
UB 254 x 146 x 43 110 134 UC 254 x 254 x 132 43 58
UB 305 x 102 x 25 203 231 UC 254 x 254 x 167 36 47
UB 305 x 102 x 28 180 206 UC 305 x 305 x 97 68 89
UB 305 x 102 x 33 157 178 UC 305 x 305 x 118 56 75
UB 305 x 127 x 37 140 163 UC 305 x 305 x 137 49 65
UB 305 x 127 x 42 124 146 UC 305 x 305 x 158 43 57
UB 305 x 127 x 48 110 129 UC 305 x 305 x 198 35 47
UB 305 x 165 x 40 135 165 UC 305 x 305 x 240 30 40
UB 305 x 165 x 46 120 145 UC 305 x 305 x 283 26 34
UB 305 x 165 x 54 104 125 UC 356 x 368 x 129 59 79
UB 356 x 127 x 33 176 203 UC 356 x 368 x 153 50 68
UB 356 x 127 x 39 150 174 UC 356 x 368 x 177 44 59
UB 356 x 171 x 45 137 164 UC 356 x 368 x 202 40 52
UB 356 x 171 x 51 122 146 UC 356 x 406 x 235 35 47
UB 356 x 171 x 57 110 131 UC 356 x 406 x 287 29 39
UB 356 x 171 x 67 95 113 UC 356 x 406 x 340 25 33
UB 406 x 140 x 39 170 195 UC 356 x 406 x 393 23 30
UB 406 x 140 x 46 146 167 UC 356 x 406 x 467 20 26
UB 406 x 178 x 54 129 151 UC 356 x 406 x 551 17 23
UB 406 x 178 x 60 116 138 UC 356 x 406 x 634 15 20
UB 406 x 178 x 67 105 124
UB 406 x 178 x 74 95 113
UB 457 x 152 x 52 142 163
UB 457 x 152 x 60 125 143
UB 457 x 152 x 67 113 129
UB 457 x 152 x 74 103 117
UB 457 x 152 x 82 94 107
UB 457 x 191 x 67 115 135
UB 457 x 191 x 74 105 123
UB 457 x 191 x 82 95 113
UB 457 x 191 x 89 88 104
UB 457 x 191 x 98 81 95
UB 533 x 210 x 82 109 127
UB 533 x 210 x 92 98 113
UB 533 x 210 x 101 90 104
UB 533 x 210 x 109 84 97
UB 533 x 210 x 122 76 87
UB 610 x 229 x 101 100 116
UB 610 x 229 x 113 90 104
UB 610 x 229 x 125 82 95
UB 610 x 229 x 140 74 86
UB 610 x 305 x 149 72 87
UB 610 x 305 x 179 61 73
UB 610 x 305 x 238 47 56
UB 686 x 254 x 125 91 105
UB 686 x 254 x 140 82 95
UB 686 x 254 x 152 76 87
UB 686 x 254 x 170 68 79
UB 762 x 267 x 147 86 98
UB 762 x 267 x 173 73 84
UB 762 x 267 x 197 65 75
UB 838 x 292 x 176 79 91
UB 838 x 292 x 194 72 83
UB 838 x 292 x 226 62 71
UB 914 x 305 x 201 74 85
UB 914 x 305 x 224 67 77
UB 914 x 305 x 253 59 68
UB 914 x 305 x 289 53 60
UB 914 x 419 x 343 46 55
UB 914 x 419 x 388 41 49
UB 1016 x 305 x 222 71 81
UB 1016 x 305 x 249 64 73
UB 1016 x 305 x 272 59 67
UB 1016 x 305 x 314 52 59
UB 1016 x 305 x 349 47 53
UB 1016 x 305 x 393 42 48
UB 1016 x 305 x 415 40 45
UB 1016 x 305 x 438 38 43
UB 1016 x 305 x 494 34 39
UB 1016 x 305 x 584 30 33
UB UC

Table 5.2 Section factors for unprotected steel members - British sections
[A
m
/V]
sh
[m
-1
]


Page 14 of 21
5.2 Nomogram for unprotected steel members

0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
0
1
5
3
0
4
5
6
0
7
5
9
0
1
0
5
1
2
0

10
15
20
30
40
50
75
125
200
350
[A
m
/V]
sh
F
i
r
e

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

[
m
i
n
]

Critical Steel temperature [°C]


Page 15 of 21
6. Nomogram for protected members
6.1 Section factor for protected steel members
Section factor :
V
A
p
=
area tion sec cross steel
encasement of contour inner


d
p
b

h
c
1
d
p
c
2


Description A
p
/V
Contour encasement of
uniform thickness

b


Hollow encasement
1)

of uniform thickness

h
c
1
c
2
b


Contour encasement :

steel perimeter
steel cross-section area


Hollow encasement
1)
:

2(b+h)
steel cross-section area

Contour encasement of uniform
thickness, exposed to fire on three
sides
b


Hollow encasement
1)
of uniform
thickness, exposed to fire on
three sides
c
2
b
h
c
1


Contour encasement
1)
:

steel perimeter - b
steel cross-section area


Hollow encasement :

(2h+b)
steel cross-section area

1)
The clearance dimensions c
1
and c
2
should normally not exceed h/4
Legend : insulation (with thickness d
p
)
steel cross-section
inner contour A
p

inner contour of encasement
1)

cross-section area of steel profile

Page 16 of 21
For any sections else then I-sections, the section factor could be estimated as shown in Figure 6-1.

Figure 6-1 : Approximated section factor for different shapes

Description A
p
/V
Flat bar
b
t


exposed to fire on all sides : ≈ 2/t
exposed to fire on one sides : ≈ 1/t
Open section with uniform thickness
t

t


exposed to fire on all sides : ≈ 2/t

Hollow section with uniform thickness
t

t


exposed to fire from outside : ≈ 1/ t
(for width >> t and the assumption of no
radiation between the internal surfaces)
Solid section
d

d


exposed to fire on all sides : = 4/d


Page 17 of 21
6.1.1 Section factor for European sections
HE 700 A 85 96 64 76
HE 700 B 72 82 55 65
HE 700 M 59 67 45 53
HE 700 x 352 51 58 39 46
HE 100 AA 290 355 181 245 HE 700 x 418 44 50 34 40
HE 100 A 217 264 138 185 HE 800 AA 108 122 84 98
HE 100 B 180 218 115 154 HE 800 A 84 94 66 76
HE 100 M 96 116 65 85 HE 800 B 72 81 57 66
HE 120 AA 296 361 182 247 HE 800 M 60 68 48 55
HE 120 A 220 267 137 185 HE 800 x 373 52 59 41 48
HE 120 B 167 202 106 141 HE 800 x 444 44 50 35 41
HE 120 M 92 111 61 80 HE 900 AA 101 113 81 93
IPE 80 A 437 509 317 389 HP 200 x 43 181 219 112 150 HE 140 AA 281 342 172 233 HE 900 A 81 90 65 74
IPE 80 369 429 270 330 HP 200 x 53 145 176 90 121 HE 140 A 208 253 129 174 HE 900 B 70 78 57 65
IPE A 100 389 452 286 349 HP 220 x 57 143 174 88 119 HE 140 B 155 187 98 130 HE 900 M 62 69 50 57
IPE 100 334 387 247 300 HP 260 x 75 129 156 80 108 HE 140 M 88 106 58 76 HE 900 x 391 54 60 43 49
IPE A 120 370 428 271 329 HP 260 x 87 111 135 70 94 HE 160 AA 244 297 150 203 HE 900 x 466 45 51 37 42
IPE 120 311 360 230 279 HP 305 x 79 147 178 91 121 HE 160 A 192 234 120 161 HE 1000 AA 98 108 79 90
IPE A 140 354 409 260 314 HP 305 x 88 132 159 81 109 HE 160 B 140 169 88 118 HE 1000 x 249 88 97 71 81
IPE 140 291 335 215 259 HP 305 x 95 122 148 76 101 HE 160 M 83 100 54 71 HE 1000 A 81 89 66 74
IPE A 160 332 382 245 295 HP 305 x 110 106 129 66 88 HE 180 AA 229 279 141 190 HE 1000 B 70 78 57 65
IPE 160 269 310 200 241 HP 305 x 126 94 113 58 78 HE 180 A 187 226 115 155 HE 1000 M 64 70 52 59
IPE A 180 308 354 227 274 HP 305 x 149 80 97 50 67 HE 180 B 131 159 83 110 HE 1000 x 393 57 63 47 53
IPE 180 253 291 188 226 HP 305 x 180 67 81 42 56 HE 180 M 80 96 52 68 HE 1000 x 415 54 60 44 50
IPE O 180 226 260 168 202 HP 305 x 186 65 79 41 55 HE 200 AA 211 256 130 175 HE 1000 x 438 51 57 42 48
IPE A 200 283 326 210 253 HP 305 x 223 55 67 35 47 HE 200 A 174 211 108 145 HE 1000 x 494 46 51 38 43
IPE 200 235 270 176 211 HP 320 x 88 128 155 81 108 HE 200 B 122 147 77 102 HE 1000 x 584 39 44 33 37
IPE O 200 212 244 158 190 HP 320 x 103 111 135 70 94 HE 200 M 76 92 49 65 HL 920 x 345 69 79 52 62
IPE A 220 260 298 193 231 HP 320 x 117 98 119 62 83 HE 220 AA 200 242 122 165 HL 920 x 368 65 74 49 58
IPE 220 221 254 165 198 HP 320 x 147 80 96 51 68 HE 220 A 161 195 99 134 HL 920 x 390 62 70 46 55
IPE O 220 200 230 149 179 HP 320 x 184 65 78 42 55 HE 220 B 115 140 72 97 HL 920 x 420 58 66 43 51
IPE A 240 240 276 178 214 HP 360 x 84 162 196 98 132 HE 220 M 73 88 47 62 HL 920 x 449 54 61 41 48
IPE 240 205 236 153 184 HP 360 x 109 126 153 77 103 HE 240 AA 185 225 114 154 HL 920 x 491 50 56 37 44
IPE O 240 185 213 139 167 HP 360 x 133 104 126 64 86 HE 240 A 147 178 91 122 HL 920 x 537 46 52 35 41
IPE A 270 230 265 171 205 HP 360 x 152 92 111 56 76 HE 240 B 108 131 68 91 HL 920 x 588 42 48 32 37
IPE 270 197 227 147 176 HP 360 x 174 81 98 50 67 HE 240 M 61 73 39 52 HL 920 x 656 38 43 29 34
IPE O 270 170 195 127 152 HP 360 x 180 78 95 48 65 HE 260 AA 176 214 108 146 HL 920 x 725 35 39 26 31
IPE A 300 216 248 160 192 HP 400 x 122 116 141 70 95 HE 260 A 141 171 88 117 HL 920 x 787 32 37 25 29
IPE 300 188 216 139 167 HP 400 x 140 102 124 61 83 HE 260 B 105 127 66 88 HL 920 x 970 27 30 20 24
IPE O 300 163 187 121 145 HP 400 x 158 91 111 55 74 HE 260 M 59 72 39 51 HL 1000 AA 82 92 63 73
IPE A 330 199 228 149 178 HP 400 x 176 82 100 50 67 HE 280 AA 168 204 104 139 HL 1000 A 76 85 58 68
IPE 330 175 200 131 157 HP 400 x 194 75 91 46 62 HE 280 A 136 165 84 113 HL 1000 B 66 74 51 59
IPE O 330 152 175 114 137 HP 400 x 213 69 84 42 57 HE 280 B 102 123 64 85 HL 1000 M 60 67 46 54
IPE A 360 185 211 138 165 HP 400 x 231 64 77 39 53 HE 280 M 59 71 38 50 HL 1000 x 443 55 63 43 50
IPE 360 163 186 122 146 HE 300 AA 158 192 97 131 HL 1000 x 483 51 58 40 46
IPE O 360 142 162 107 127 HE 300 A 126 153 78 105 HL 1000 x 539 46 52 36 42
IPE A 400 176 200 133 158 HE 300 B 96 116 60 80 HL 1000 x 554 45 51 35 41
IPE 400 152 174 116 137 HE 300 M 50 60 33 43 HL 1000 x 591 42 48 33 39
IPE O 400 135 154 103 122 HE 320 AA 152 184 95 127 HL 1000 x 642 39 44 31 36
IPE A 450 165 187 127 149 HE 320 A 117 141 74 98 HL 1000 x 748 34 38 27 31
IPE 450 143 162 110 130 HE 320 B 91 110 58 77 HL 1000 x 883 29 33 23 27
IPE O 450 122 138 94 110 HD 260 x 54,1 176 214 108 146 HE 320 M 50 60 33 43 HL 1100 A 76 85 59 68
IPE A 500 152 172 118 138 HD 260 x 68,2 141 171 88 117 HE 340 AA 147 177 94 123 HL 1100 B 67 75 52 60
IPE 500 134 151 104 121 HD 260 x 93,0 105 127 66 88 HE 340 A 112 134 72 94 HL 1100 M 61 68 47 55
IPE O 500 114 129 89 104 HD 260 x 114 86 104 55 73 HE 340 B 88 106 57 75 HL 1100 R 53 59 42 48
IPE A 550 142 160 111 129 HD 260 x 142 71 86 46 60 HE 340 M 50 60 34 43
IPE 550 124 140 97 113 HD 260 x 172 59 72 39 51 HE 360 AA 142 170 92 120
IPE O 550 108 121 85 98 HD 320 x 74,2 152 184 95 127 HE 360 A 107 128 70 91
IPE A 600 131 147 103 119 HD 320 x 97,6 117 141 74 98 HE 360 B 86 102 56 73
IPE 600 115 129 91 105 HD 320 x 127 91 110 58 77 HE 360 M 51 61 34 44
IPE O 600 93 104 73 85 HD 320 x 158 74 89 48 63 HE 400 AA 135 161 90 115
750 x 137 128 144 101 116 HD 320 x 198 60 72 39 51 HE 400 A 101 120 68 87
750 x 147 120 134 94 109 HD 320 x 245 50 60 33 43 HE 400 B 82 97 56 71
750 x 173 102 114 81 93 HD 320 x 300 42 50 28 36 HE 400 M 52 62 36 45
750 x 196 91 102 72 83 HD 360 x 134 104 125 63 85 HE 450 AA 133 156 91 114
HD 360 x 147 95 114 58 78 HE 450 A 96 113 66 83
HD 360 x 162 87 105 53 71 HE 450 B 79 93 55 69
HD 360 x 179 79 95 49 65 HE 450 M 53 62 38 47
HD 360 x 196 72 87 45 60 HE 500 AA 130 152 91 113
HD 400 x 187 78 94 47 64 HE 500 A 92 107 65 80
HD 400 x 216 68 82 42 56 HE 500 B 76 89 54 67
HD 400 x 237 63 76 38 52 HE 500 M 55 63 39 48
HD 400 x 262 57 69 35 47 HE 550 AA 123 142 88 108
UPN 80 250 291 186 227 HD 400 x 287 52 63 32 43 HE 550 A 90 104 65 79
UPN 100 239 276 185 222 HD 400 x 314 48 58 30 40 HE 550 B 76 88 55 67
UPN 120 223 255 174 206 HD 400 x 347 44 53 28 37 HE 550 M 56 64 41 50 UPE 80 291 341 209 258
UPN 140 210 240 167 196 HD 400 x 382 40 49 25 34 HE 600 AA 120 138 88 106 UPE 100 278 322 204 248
UPN 160 200 228 160 188 HD 400 x 421 37 45 23 31 HE 600 A 89 102 65 79 UPE 120 259 298 195 233
UPN 180 193 218 154 179 HD 400 x 463 34 41 22 29 HE 600 B 75 86 56 67 UPE 140 247 282 187 223
UPN 200 182 205 148 171 HD 400 x 509 31 38 20 27 HE 600 M 57 65 42 51 UPE 160 235 267 180 212
UPN 220 171 192 139 160 HD 400 x 551 29 35 19 25 HE 600 x 337 49 56 37 44 UPE 180 225 254 173 203
UPN 240 163 183 134 154 HD 400 x 592 28 33 18 23 HE 600 x 399 42 48 32 38 UPE 200 213 240 165 193
UPN 260 154 173 126 145 HD 400 x 634 26 31 17 22 HE 650 AA 118 135 88 105 UPE 220 198 223 155 180
UPN 280 149 167 123 141 HD 400 x 677 25 30 16 21 HE 650 A 87 100 65 78 UPE 240 188 211 148 171
UPN 300 145 162 119 136 HD 400 x 744 23 27 15 20 HE 650 B 74 85 56 66 UPE 270 178 199 142 163
UPN 320 116 130 98 111 HD 400 x 818 21 25 14 18 HE 650 M 58 66 44 52 UPE 300 153 171 124 141
UPN 350 123 135 103 116 HD 400 x 900 19 23 13 17 HE 650 x 343 50 57 38 45 UPE 330 138 153 113 128
UPN 380 125 138 107 120 HD 400 x 990 18 22 12 16 HE 650 x 407 43 49 33 39 UPE 360 130 144 107 121
UPN 400 117 129 99 111 HD 400 x 1086 17 20 11 15 HE 700 AA 114 129 86 102 UPE 400 120 133 100 112
IPE HP
UPN
HD
HE
UPE

Table 6.1 Section factors for protected steel members - European sections
A
p
/V [m
-1
]


Page 18 of 21
6.1.2 Section factor for British sections
UB 127 x 76 x 13 279 325 200 246 UC 152 x 152 x 23 252 304 156 208
UB 152 x 89 x 16 270 314 194 237 UC 152 x 152 x 30 195 235 122 162
UB 178 x 102 x 19 262 304 188 230 UC 152 x 152 x 37 161 194 101 134
UB 203 x 102 x 23 234 269 173 207 UC 203 x 203 x 46 168 202 104 139
UB 203 x 133 x 25 244 286 169 210 UC 203 x 203 x 52 150 180 93 124
UB 203 x 133 x 30 207 242 143 178 UC 203 x 203 x 60 131 158 82 109
UB 254 x 102 x 22 281 318 218 254 UC 203 x 203 x 71 112 135 71 93
UB 254 x 102 x 25 248 280 192 224 UC 203 x 203 x 86 94 113 60 79
UB 254 x 102 x 28 222 251 173 201 UC 254 x 254 x 73 132 160 82 109
UB 254 x 146 x 31 231 268 164 200 UC 254 x 254 x 89 110 133 69 91
UB 254 x 146 x 37 196 227 140 171 UC 254 x 254 x 107 93 112 58 77
UB 254 x 146 x 43 170 197 122 149 UC 254 x 254 x 132 76 92 48 64
UB 305 x 102 x 25 282 314 225 257 UC 254 x 254 x 167 62 74 40 52
UB 305 x 102 x 28 250 279 200 229 UC 305 x 305 x 97 120 145 75 99
UB 305 x 102 x 33 217 241 174 198 UC 305 x 305 x 118 100 120 62 83
UB 305 x 127 x 37 201 227 155 181 UC 305 x 305 x 137 87 105 54 72
UB 305 x 127 x 42 179 202 138 162 UC 305 x 305 x 158 76 91 48 63
UB 305 x 127 x 48 158 178 122 143 UC 305 x 305 x 198 62 74 39 52
UB 305 x 165 x 40 209 242 150 183 UC 305 x 305 x 240 52 62 33 44
UB 305 x 165 x 46 184 212 133 161 UC 305 x 305 x 283 45 54 29 38
UB 305 x 165 x 54 159 183 115 139 UC 356 x 368 x 129 108 130 66 88
UB 356 x 127 x 33 248 278 195 225 UC 356 x 368 x 153 92 111 56 75
UB 356 x 127 x 39 212 237 167 193 UC 356 x 368 x 177 80 96 49 66
UB 356 x 171 x 45 207 236 152 182 UC 356 x 368 x 202 71 85 44 58
UB 356 x 171 x 51 184 210 136 162 UC 356 x 406 x 235 63 76 39 52
UB 356 x 171 x 57 165 189 122 146 UC 356 x 406 x 287 52 63 32 43
UB 356 x 171 x 67 142 162 105 126 UC 356 x 406 x 340 45 54 28 37
UB 406 x 140 x 39 240 268 189 217 UC 356 x 406 x 393 39 48 25 33
UB 406 x 140 x 46 205 229 162 186 UC 356 x 406 x 467 34 41 22 29
UB 406 x 178 x 54 189 215 143 168 UC 356 x 406 x 551 29 35 19 25
UB 406 x 178 x 60 172 195 129 153 UC 356 x 406 x 634 26 31 17 22
UB 406 x 178 x 67 154 175 117 138
UB 406 x 178 x 74 140 159 106 125
UB 457 x 152 x 52 199 222 158 181
UB 457 x 152 x 60 175 195 139 159
UB 457 x 152 x 67 157 175 125 143
UB 457 x 152 x 74 143 159 114 130
UB 457 x 152 x 82 130 145 104 119
UB 457 x 191 x 67 169 191 128 150
UB 457 x 191 x 74 153 173 117 137
UB 457 x 191 x 82 139 158 106 125
UB 457 x 191 x 89 129 146 98 115
UB 457 x 191 x 98 118 133 90 105
UB 533 x 210 x 82 157 177 121 141
UB 533 x 210 x 92 141 159 109 126
UB 533 x 210 x 101 129 145 100 116
UB 533 x 210 x 109 120 135 93 108
UB 533 x 210 x 122 108 122 84 97
UB 610 x 229 x 101 143 161 111 129
UB 610 x 229 x 113 129 145 100 116
UB 610 x 229 x 125 117 131 91 106
UB 610 x 229 x 140 105 118 82 95
UB 610 x 305 x 149 110 126 80 97
UB 610 x 305 x 179 92 106 68 81
UB 610 x 305 x 238 71 81 52 62
UB 686 x 254 x 125 130 145 101 117
UB 686 x 254 x 140 116 131 91 105
UB 686 x 254 x 152 107 121 84 97
UB 686 x 254 x 170 97 109 76 88
UB 762 x 267 x 147 120 134 95 109
UB 762 x 267 x 173 103 115 81 93
UB 762 x 267 x 197 91 102 72 83
UB 838 x 292 x 176 111 124 88 101
UB 838 x 292 x 194 101 113 80 92
UB 838 x 292 x 226 87 98 69 79
UB 914 x 305 x 201 104 116 82 94
UB 914 x 305 x 224 93 104 74 85
UB 914 x 305 x 253 83 93 66 76
UB 914 x 305 x 289 73 82 59 67
UB 914 x 419 x 343 69 78 51 61
UB 914 x 419 x 388 61 70 46 54
UB 1016 x 305 x 222 98 108 79 90
UB 1016 x 305 x 249 88 97 71 81
UB 1016 x 305 x 272 81 89 66 74
UB 1016 x 305 x 314 70 78 58 65
UB 1016 x 305 x 349 64 70 52 59
UB 1016 x 305 x 393 57 63 47 53
UB 1016 x 305 x 415 54 60 44 50
UB 1016 x 305 x 438 51 57 42 48
UB 1016 x 305 x 494 46 51 38 43
UB 1016 x 305 x 584 39 44 33 37
UB UC

Table 6.2 Section factors for protected steel members - British sections
A
p
/V [m
-1
]


Page 19 of 21
6.2 Properties of fire protection material
For a uniform temperature distribution in a cross-section, the temperature increase
t a,
∆Θ of an
insulated steel member during a time interval
t
∆ is given by:
( )
t g t
a a
t a t g
p
p p
t a
e
c d V
A
,
10
, ,
,
1
3 / 1
1
. . ∆Θ ⋅
|
¹
|

\
|
− −
(
¸
(

¸

∆ ⋅

Θ − Θ

+
= ∆Θ
φ
ρ φ
λ
; with
V c
A d c
a a
p p p p
. .
. . .
ρ
ρ
φ =

As simplification φ may be taken equal to 0 (safe-sided approach), which results in a modified
section factor, the thermal section factor:
p
p p
d V
A λ
.
The protection material must be fixed in such a way that it will keep its protective function during
the required fire resistance time, even under huge deformations, see EN13381 [2].
The following material properties may be used as an approximation to calculate the thermal section
factor. Other data may be obtained from national fire tests.
Table 6.1 : General properties for preliminary design.
Material
Unit mass
ρ
p
[kg/m
3
]
Thermal conductivity λ
p

[W/(m.K)]
Specific heat c
p
[J/(kg.K)]

Sprays
- mineral fibre 300 0.12 1200
- vermiculite cement 350 0.12 1200
- perlite 350 0.12 1200
High-density sprays
- vermiculite (or perlite) 550 0.12 1100
and cement
- vermiculite (or perlite) 650 0.12 1100
and gypsum
Boards
- vermiculite (or perlite) 800 0.2 1200
and cement
- fibre-silicate or 600 0.15 1200
fibre calcium-silicate
- fibre-cement 800 0.15 1200
- gypsum board 800 0.20 1700
Compressed fibre boards
- fibre-silicate, mineral-wool 150 0.2 1200
stone-wool
Concrete 2300 1.60 1000
Light weight concrete 1600 0.80 840
Concrete bricks 2200 1.00 1200
Bricks with holes 1000 0.40 1200
Solid bricks 2000 1.20 1200


P
a
g
e

2
0

o
f

2
1

6
.
3

N
o
m
o
g
r
a
m

f
o
r

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
e
d

s
t
e
e
l

m
e
m
b
e
r
s




0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
pp
p
d
VA
λ


Fire Resistance [min]

C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

S
t
e
e
l

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

[
°
C
]

2000 1500
1200
1000
800
700
600
500
400
350
300
250
200
150
100

Page 21 of 21
7. References
[1] EN 1993 part 1-2: “Design of steel structures – Structural fire design”
[2] EN 13381 part 1 to 4:” Test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance
of structural members “
[3] EN 10025 parts 1 to 6: Hot rolled products of structural steels
[4] ECSC project “Buckling curves of hot rolled H sections submitted to fire”; CN° 7210-
SA/316/515/618/931
[5] EN 1993 part 1-1: “Design of steel structures-General rules and rules for buildings”

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