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Chapter 10 Exercise 10A

The answers given on page 261. No solutions


necessary.

Maximum perpendicular height


=

Exercise 10B
Q. 1.

1
(i) sy = u sin a t __g cos b t2 = 0
2
2u sin a
t = 0 OR t =________
g cos b

2u2 __u2
= _______
2g 3
=

(ii) vy = 0 u sin a g cos b t = 0


Q. 3.
Q

__

gt2 3
ut__ _____
1
sy = ut sin 45 __ gt2 cos 30 = ___

4
2
2

__

__

multiply by 4 2

=0
__

4ut gt2 6 = 0
__

t(4u gt 6 ) = 0
4u__
t = ____
t=0
g 6
Point of

substitute into sx

Projection
Time of flight

[ ] [ ]

g 16u2
u__ ____
4u__ __
Range = ___
_____
2 g6 4 6g2

=
Range =

__

2u 3 2u
___________

__

3g

__

gt 3
_____
__

=0

multiply by 2

__

u2 gt 3 = 0
__

t=

u__
2
____
g 3

substitute into sy

2g3
__

__

3
__
___

3 u2

4
cos a = __
5
3
sin a = __
5
12
cos b = ___
13
5
sin b = ___
13
sy = 0

10

( )( )

( )(

( )( )

( )(

( )

3g

Maximum perpendicular height:


sy when vy = 0
u__
___

182 28 143
28
Now, ____ = ___ ____ = ___R
5g
55 2g
55

3 1)
__________
2u2(

3g2

26
4 26
1 5 676
At t = ___, sx = 10 __ ___ __g ___ ____2
5g
5 5g
2 13 25g
208 26 182
= ____ ___ = ____
5g
5g
5g

2
2
4u___
2u2
2u__
2u2
Range = _____
____ = ____
____
3g
g 3 3g
g 12
2

1
10 sin a t __g cos b t2 = 0
2
6
6t ___gt2 = 0
13
13
t = 0 OR t = ___
g = time of flight
13
1
__
2
At t = ___
g , sx = 10 cos a t 2g sin b t
4 13
1 5 169
= 10 __ ___
__g ___ ____
5 g
2 13 g2
143
= ____ = R, the range
2g
26
2
2 13 ___
__
ths of the time of flight = __ ___
g = 5g
5
5

Range: sx when sy = 0
2

u2__
_____

gt
u__ __

vx = u cos 45 gt sin 30 = ___


2 2 __
gt3
u__ _____
vy = u sin 45 gt cos 30 = ___

2
2
gt2
ut__ ___
1
sx = ut cos 45 __ gt2 sin 30 = ___

2
2 4

gt 3
______

= _____
6g

u sin a
1
t = _______ = __ (time of flight)
2
g cos b

ut__
___

[ ] [ ]

2 g3

g 3 ____
2u2
____

u2__ _____
u2__
= ____

g3 2g 3

= time of flight

Q. 2.

__

__

u__
2
u__ ____
___

Q. 4.
Q

1
sy = 10 sin(a 30)t __ cos 30 gt2
2
1
sx = 10 cos(a 30)t __ sin 30 gt2
2
(i) If a = 75,
1
sy = 10 sin 45 t __ cos 30 gt2 = 0
2
__
3
10
___
__ t ___ gt2 = 0
4
2
40
____
t = 0 OR t = ___
6g

40
___ ,
At t = ____
6g

28 ___
21
The ratio t1 : t2 = ___
g : g =4:3

( )( ) ( ) (

1,600
40
1__ ____
1 __
1 ______
___ __
sx = 10 ___
g
22
6g
2 6g

Q. 6.
Q

200
200
___ ____
= ____
3g 3g

5
12
sin a = ___; cos a = ___
13
13
3
4
__
__
sin b = ; cos b =
5
5

__

200( 3 1 )
____________
3g

(ii) If a = 60,
sy = 10 sin 30 t

1
__

gt2

cos 30
=0
2
__
3 gt2 = 0
10
__ t ___
___
4
2
20
____
___
t = 0 OR t =
3g
20
___ ,
At t = ____
3g

__

( )( ) ( ) ( )

3 20
400
1 __
1 ____
___ __
sx = 10 ___ ____
g
2 3g
2 2 3g
10,000 ____
200
100 ____
=
= _______

3g
3g
g2

Q. 5.

1__
2__
tan1 2 = cos1 ___
= sin1 ___
,
5
5
___

u = 7i + 14j

1
sx = u cos b t __g sin a t2
2
3
1 5
= 10 __ t __ g ___ t2
5
2 13
5 2
___
= 6t gt
26
1
sy = u sin b t __g cos a t2
2
4
1 ___
12 2
__
__
= 10 t g
t
5
2 13
6
= 8t ___gt2
13
5
6
sx = 2sy 6t ___gt2 = 2(8t ___gt2)
26
13
19
___gt2 10t = 0
26
260
t = 0 OR t = ____
19 g

()

( )

()

( )

2__
1__
; cos b = ___
Q. 7. sin b = ___
Q
5
5

Taking the horizontal as the x-axis.


1
vy = 0 14 __gt = 0
2
28
t = ___
g seconds

b
45

= time to reach greatest height above the


horizontal.
Now taking the line of greatest
slope as__ the
_
___

x-axis, u = u cos(b a)i + u sin(b a)j


But, cos(b a) = cos b cos a + sin b sin a
2
2__ ___
1
4
1__ ___
__ + ___
__ = __
= ___
5 5 5 5 5
3
Therefore, sin(b a) = __
5
1
vy = 0 u sin(b a) __g cos a t = 0
2
__
3
1 2__
__
__g ___
t=0
7 5
5
2 5
__
__
21 5
5
_____ ___ gt = 0
5
5
21
___
t = g seconds

()

( )

1
sy = 0 u sin b t __g cos 45 t2 = 0
2
1__ 2
4t ____
gt = 0
__
2 2
8 2
____
t = 0 OR t = g = time of flight
g
__ t
vx = u cos b g sin 45 t = 8 ___
__
__ 2
g ____
8 2
___
__ 8 2
At t = ____
g , vx = 8 2 g
= 8 8 = 0 m/s
g
__ t
vy = u sin b g cos 45 t = 4 ___
__
__ 2
g ____
8 2
___
__ 8 2
At t = ____
g , vy = 4 2 g
= 4 8 = 4 m/s

( )

( )

________

_______

v = vx2 + vy2 = 0 + 16 = 4 m/s

Q. 8.

( )

___
5 2
1
___
(i) sy = 0 26 sin a t __ g ____
t =0
2 26
52 sin a
t = 0 OR t = _______
5g
___
1
1 2
___
(ii) sx = 26 cos a t __ g ____
t
2 26
52 sin a
At t = _______,
5g
___
2,704 sin2 a
52 sin a
1 ___
1 ___________
sx = 26 cos a _______ __g ____
5g
2 26
25g2

( )

___

) ( )(

___

52 26 sin a cos a 52 26 sin2 a


= ________________ ____________
5g
25g

___

52 26 sin a
___________

(5 cos a sin a) = the range


25g
5
1
___
___
(iii) If a = b then sin a = sin b = ____
; cos a = ____
.
26
26

___
1
___
5226 ____
26 ____
25
1
___________
___ ____
___
The range =
25g
26
26

___
48 26
______
=
25g

( )

(iv) If a = 2b, then sin a = sin 2b


= 2 sin b cos b
5
1 ____
___
___
= 2 ____
26 26
5
= ___
13

( )( )

Also, cos a = cos 2b = cos2b sin2b


25
1
= ___ ___
26 26
12
= ___
13
___

( )

5
52 26 __
13 ___
5
60 ___
__________
The range =

25g
13 13

___

44 26
= ______
13g
Q. 9.

vx = u cos a + gt sin b
vy = u sin a gt cos b
1
sx = ut cos a + __ gt2 sin b
2
1 2
__
sy = ut sin a gt cos b
2
Range: sx when sy = 0
sy = 0

1
ut sin a __ gt2 cos b = 0 multiply by 2
2
2ut sin a gt2 cos b = 0
t(2u sin a gt cos b) = 0
t=0

Point of
Projection

2u sin a
t = _______
g cos b
Time of Flight

2u sin a
Range = sx when t = _______
g cos b
2u sin a
1 4u2 sin2a
_______
cos a + __ g ________
sin b
R=u
2 g2 cos2b
g cos b

In this equation, u, g and b are fixed. Only


a, the angle at which the projectile is fired,
can vary.

2u2 sin a cos a 2u sin a sin b


R = _____________ + _____________
g cos b
g cos2b

The maximum value for the above


expression is where sin(2a b) = 1

sin a sin b
2u2 sin a
R = ________ cos a +__________
g cos b
cos b

2a b = 90

[
[

b + 90
a = _______
2
Also, if sin(2a b) = 1, then
u2
Rmax = _______
[1 + sin b]
g cos2 b

sin a cos a cos b + sin a sin b


R = _________ _____________________
g cos b
cos b
cos A cos B + sin A sin B = cos(A B)
2u2

2u2
R = _______
[sin a cos(a b)]
g cos2 b

u2
Rmax = __________
[1 + sin b]
g(1 sin2 b)

2 sin A cos B = sin(A + B) + sin(A B)


1
sin A cos B = __[sin(A + B) + sin(A B)]
2
2
2u
1
__
[sin(2a b) + sin b]
R = _______
g cos2 b 2

u2
Rmax = __________________ [1 + sin b]
g(1 sin b)(1 + sin b)

u2
Rmax = __________
g(1 sin b)
20 + 90
(i) b = 20 a = _________ = 55
2
0 + 90
(ii) b = 0 a = ________ = 45
2

u2
R = _______
[sin(2a b) + sin b]
g cos2 b
as required
Q. 10.

vx = u cos q gt sin a
vy = u sin q gt cos a
1
sx = ut cos q __ gt2 sin a
2
1 2
__
sy = ut sin q gt cos a
2
(i) For time of flight, let sy = 0
1
ut sin q __ gt2 cos a = 0
2
2ut sin q gt2 cos a = 0
t(2u sin q gt cos a) = 0
2u sin q
t=0
t = _______
g cos a
Point of
Projection

Time of Flight

2u sin q
(ii) Range: sx when t = _______
g cos a

2u sin q
4u2 sin2q
1 ________
__
Range = u _______
cos
q

g
sin a
g cos a
2 g2 cos2a
2u2 sin q cos q _____________
2u2 sin2q sin a
Range = _____________

g cos a
g cos2a
2u2 sin q cos q cos a 2u2 sin2q sin a
Range = ________________________________
g cos2a
2u2 sin q[cos q cos a sin q sin a]
Range = _____________________________
g cos2a
2u2 sin q[cos(q + a)]
Range = __________________
g cos2a

u2[sin (2q + a) + sin(a)]


Range = ______________________
g cos2a
u2[sin(2q + a) sin a]
Range = ___________________
g cos2a
Everything is fixed except q. Therefore, maximum range occurs when sin(2q + a) = 1
p
2q + a = __
2
p
2q = __ a
2
1 p
q = __ __ a
2 2

__

Exercise 10C
Q. 1.

Q. 2.

u 3 gt
vx = u cos 30 gt sin 30 = ____ __
2
2

__

1
sy = 0 u sin(a b)t __g cos b t2 = 0
2
t = 0 OR

t=

2u sin(a b)
____________
g cos b

u gt3
vy = u cos 30 gt cos 30 = __ _____
2
2
sx = ut cos 30

__

1
__

gt2

1
__

gt2

sin 30 =

ut3
_____
2

ut
__

gt2
___
4

Now, vx = u cos(a b) g sin b t

sy = ut sin 30

2u sin(a b)
But vx = 0 at t = ____________
g cos b

For landing angle, need vx and vy when

u cos(a b) g sin b

2u sin(a b)
____________
g cos b

Divide by u cos(a b).


= 1 2 tan(a b)tan b = 0
2 tan(a b) tan b = 1
p
If (a b) =__, then tan (a b) = 1
4
and hence 2 tan b = 1
1
__
tan b =
2
1__
2__
sin b = ___
and cos b = ___
5
5
2u sin (a b)
In this case t = ____________
g cos b
t=

( ) = ____
5 u

1__
2u ___
2__
_______

g(2/ 5 )

__

__

2 g

1
__

sx = u cos(a b)t g sin b t2.


3
__

5
__u,
At t = ____
2g __
5
1__ ____
1 ___
1 5u2
__u __
sx = u ___
g __ ____2
2 5 2g
2 2g

( )(

) ( )( )

__

=0

sy = 0
ut
__

__

gt 3
_____
2

cos 30 =

__

gt 3
_____

=0
4
2
__
2ut gt2 3 = 0

multiply by 4

__

t( 2u gt3 ) = 0
2u__
t = ____
t=0
g3
Point of
Projection

__

u3
____

Time of Flight

[ ]

g ____
2u__
__

__

u 3
____

u__
___
3
3u __2u
= _______
2 3
u
__
= ____
2 3
__
u
u
u g 3 2u__
vy = __ ____ ____
= __ u = __
2
2 g 3
2
2
vx =

2 g 3

[ ]

Let landing angle = q


__

vy
__
u 2 3
tan q = __ = __ ____
= 3
u
vx 2
__

q = tan1 3 = 60

__

5 u 2 5 u2
= _____ _____
4g
2g
__

5 u
_____
4g

= Range

Q. 3.

1
sy = 0 u sin (a 45)t __ g cos 45 t2 = 0
2
1__ 2
____
u sin(a 45)t
gt =0
2 2
__
2 2 u sin(a 45)
________________
t = 0 OR t =
g
= time of flight
g
__ t
vy = u sin(a 45) ___
2
At time of flight,
__
g _________________
2 2 u sin(a 45)
__
vy = u sin(a 45)
g
2
= u sin(a 45)
g
__ t
vx = u cos(a 45) ___
2
At time of flight,
__
g ________________
2
2 u sin(a 45

____
vx = u cos(a 45) __
g
2

= u cos(a 45) 2u sin(a 45)


vy
tan b = ____
vx
u sin(a 45)
____________________________
=
u cos(a 45) 2u sin(a 45)
tan(a 45)
= _________________
1 2 tan(a 45)
tan a tan45
But tan (a 45) = _______________
1 + tan a tan 45
tan a 1
= _________
1 + tan a
_______
tan a 1

tan b = ______________
tan a 1
1 2 ________
1 + tan a

tan a 1
= _____________________
1 + tan a 2 tan a + 2
tan a 1
= _________
3 tan a
(i) If it lands horizontally, then b = 45
tan a 1
1 = _________
3 tan a
3 tan a = tan a 1
tan a = 2
(ii) If it lands vertically, then b = 90
tan a 1
_________ = undefined
3 tan a
3 tan a = 0
tan a = 3
tan a 1 __
1
_________
(iii)
=
3 tan a 3
3 tan a 3 = 3 tan a

4 tan a = 6
6 3
tan a = __ = __
4 2

u
a
a

__

2
__
___

1__
and sin a = ___
2
3
3
__
gt
u__2 ___
vx = u cos a gt sin a = ____
__
3 3
tan a =

1 + tan a

Q. 4.
Q

1__
___

cos a =

__

vy = u sin a gt cos a =

u__
___

gt 2
_____
__

__

gt2
ut__2 ____
1
__
sx = ut cos a __gt2 sin a = _____
2
3 23
__

gt2 2
ut__ _____
1
__
sy = ut sin a __gt2 cos a = ___

2
3 2 3

(i) Lands at right angles if vx = 0 when


sy = 0

__

gt 2
ut__ _____
__ = 0
___
2

2 3

__

2ut gt2 2 = 0
__

t( 2u gt2 ) = 0
t=0

t=

Point of
Projection

2u__
____
g 2

__

u 2
____

= g

Time of Flight

__

vx =

u__2
____

__

[ ]

g ____
___
__ u 2

3__ 3 __ g
u__2 ____
u 2
vx = ____
__ = 0
3
3

Strikes plane at right angles


__

u 2
____

(ii) Range: Find sx when t = g


__

Range =

__

[ ]

u__2 ____
u 2
____

[ ]

2
g ____
__ 2u
____
2 3 g2

2
2u__
u2__ ____
u2
Range = ____
____
= __
g3 g 3
g 3

1
(iii) Total Energy in the beginning = __mu2
2
Total Energy at point of landing
1
= __ mv2 + mgh
2
where h = height above take-off
position

2 u sin b
t = 0 OR t = ________
g cos a = time of flight

2 u sin b
At this time, vx = u cos b g sin a ________
g cos a

u2
g 3

h
a

= u cos b 2u tan a sin b

( )
( )
g 3
____

__

g 3

1__
___

=h

3gh =

u2

__

g 3
____

u sin b
= ____________________
u cos b 2u tan a sin b
tan b
= ______________
1 2 tan a tan b

u2

u2

u2
h = ___
3g

__

__

v=

__

[ ]

g_ 2 __
u___
____
_
_2
__ ____

u__
___

2u
___
__

(u cos b)

1
1
__
__
2
2
__________
_____
=2
=
=
3
3 __
__
1
__

u 2
____

Velocity at landing is vy when t = g


since vx = 0 at landing
u__
___

2 u sin b
vy = u sin b g cos a ________
g cos a = u sin b
vy
tan q = __
vx

__

h
sin a = ___
=h
___
u2

(4) (2)

12

Q. 6.
Q

QED.

u__
___

=
Total Energy at landing

[ ]

[ ]

u 2
u2
1
__
___
___
= 2m __ + mgg 3g
3
Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

mu2 mu2 1
= ____ + ____ = __mu2
3
2
6

2__
1__
1
and sin a = ___
tan a = __ cos a = ___
2
5
5
vx = u cos q gt sin a

Q. 5.
3
tan b =
4

u
b

3
1
tan a = __, tan b = __,
4
2
To prove: tan q = 2
ux = u cos b
uy = u sin b
ax = g sin a
ay = g cos a
vx = u cos b g sin a t
vy = u sin b g cos a t
1
sx = u cos b t __ g sin a t2
2
1
__
sy = u sin b t g cos a t2
2
It lands when sy = 0
1
u sin b t __ g cos a t2 = 0
2

gt
__
= u cos q ___
5
vy = u sin q gt cos a
2gt
__
= u sin q ___
5
1
sx = ut cos q __gt2 sin a
2
gt2
__
= ut cos q ____
25
1
sy = ut sin q __gt2 cos a
2
gt2
__
= ut sin q ___
5
For time of flight, let sy = 0
__
gt2
__ = 0 ... multiply by 5
ut sin q ___
5
__

ut 5 sin q gt2 = 0
__

t(u 5 sin q gt) = 0

__

t=

Point of Projection

h
4g 2

__

u 5 sin q
_________
g

__

__

g _________
__ u 5 sin q
vx = u cos q ____
g
5
= u(cos q sin q)
vy = u sin q

2 g _________
____
__ u 5 sin q

(a) vx = u cos a gt sin q

( )

We know that the landing angle is a where


1
tan a = __
2
vy
We also know that tan a = ____
vx
vy
1
____ = __
2
vx
u sin q
1
______________ = __
u(cos q sin q) 2
2 sin q = cos q sin q
3 sin q = cos q ... divide by cos q
3 tan q = 1
1
tan q = __ ... as required
3
__
u 5 sin q
_________
Range: Find sx when t =
g
gt2
__
Range = ut cos q ____
2 5
3
1
1
___
___
... tan q = __ cos q = _____
and sin q = ____
3
10
10

__

[ ( ) ][ ]

( )]

2 1
g ____
__ 5u ___
____
2
2 5 g 10
10

u 5 ____
1
____
___

3
____
___

10

Range =

__

3u 5
______

u2__
_____
10g
4g 5

30u2

5u2

__
Range = __________
20g 5

vy = u sin a gt cos q

( )

__
1
___
gt cos q
= 4g2 ____
10
4g
__ gt cos q
= ___
5

1
sx = ut cos a __gt2 sin q
2
__
3
1
___
= 4g2 t ____
__gt2 sin q
2
10
12gt
1 2
__ __
= ____
gt sin q
2
5

( )

1
sy = ut sin a __gt2 cos q
2
__
1
1 2
___ __
= 4g2 ____
gt cos q
2
10
4gt __
__ 1 gt2 cos q
= ___
5 2

( )

For landing angle, need vx and vy


when sy = 0

__

u25
= _____
4g

1
__gt2 cos q = 0
__
2
multiply by 2 5
__

8gt gt25 cos q = 0


divide by g
__

8t t25 cos q = 0
__

t(8 t5 cos q) = 0
t=0

__ 8
t = ________
5 cos q

5u2__
= _____
4g 5

25u2__
= ______
20g 5

__
3
___
= 4g 2 ____
gt sin q
10
12g
__ gt sin q
= ____
5

4gt
___
__

Range
g

3
1
1
___
___
and sin a = ____
tan a = __ cos a = ____
3
10
10

= u sin q 2u sin q = u sin q

=u

Q
q

Time of Flight

For landing angle, find vx and vy


when t =

Q. 7.
Q

t=0

u 5 sin q
_________

Point of
Projection

Time of
Flight

12g
__ g _______
__ 8
vx = ____
sin q
5
5 cos q
12g _______
8g tan q
__
__
= ____
5
5

40g
__
= ____
5 __
= 8g 5

4g(3 2 tan q)
__
= _____________
5
4g
__ g _______
__ 8
cos q
vy = ___
5
5 cos q

4g
___
__

h
sin q = ______
Range

8g
___
__

h __
1__ = _____
___
5 8g5

4g
__
= ___
5
vy
tan q = __
vx

h = 8g
Total Energy at Q

__

4g
5
__ _____________
= ___
5 4g(3 2 tan q)
1
tan q = ___________
3 2 tan q
3 tan q 2 tan2 q = 1

1
= __m( 4g )2+ mg(8g)
2
= 8mg2 + 8mg2
= 16mg2

2 tan2 q 3 tan q + 1 = 0
( 2 tan q 1 )( tan q 1 ) = 0
1
tan q = __ OR tan q = 1
2
1 OR q = 45
q = tan1 __
2

()

(b) (i) Let tan q = 0.5


8g
4g
__
__
vx = ___
and
vy = ___
5 ______________ 5
8g 2
4g 2
__ + ___
__
| v | = ___
5
5
___________
64g2 16g2
= ____ + ____
5
5

( ) ( )

_____

80g2
= ____
5
____
=

16g2

= 4g m/s
1
(ii) Total Energy at P = __mu2
2
__
1
__
= m( 4g2 )2
2
1
__
= m( 32g2 )
2
= 16mg2
1
Total Energy at Q = __mv2 + mgh
2
In order to find h, must firstly find
range.
__ 8
i.e. find sx when t = ________
5 cos q
8
= _______
=4
__
2__
5 ___
5
12g(4)
1
1__
__ __
g(16) ___
Range = ______
2
5
5
48g ___
8g
__ __
= ____
5
5

( )
( )

This is the same as the total energy at P.


Q. 8.
Q

vx = u cos q gt sin a
vy = u cos q gt cos a
1
sx = ut cos q __gt2 sin a
2
1 2
__
sy = ut sin q gt cos a
2
For landing angle, need vx and vy
when sy = 0
1
ut sin q __ gt2 cos a = 0
2
2ut sin q gt2 cos a = 0
t(2u sin q gt cos a) = 0
2u sin q
t=0
t = _______
g cos a
Point of
Projection

Time of Flight

2u sin q
vx = u cos q g _______
g cos a sin a
= u cos q 2u sin q tan a
= u(cos q 2sin q tan a)

2u sin q
vy = u sin q g _______
g cos a cos a
= u sin q 2u sin q
= u sin q
Lands horizontally
Landing angle = a
vy
tan a = ____
vx
u sin q
= ____________________
u(cos q 2 sin q tan a)

sin q
tan a = _________________
cos q 2 sin q tan a

u2 sin2 q
2u2 sin2 q ________

H = _________
g
g

sin q = tan a cos q 2 sin q tan2 a


... divide by cos q

u2 sin2 q
H = ________
g

tan q = tan a 2 tan q tan2 a


tan q (1 + 2 tan2 a) = tan a

For the second part of the question, we let


sy = H sin2 q

tan a
tan q = ___________
1 + 2 tan2 a

gt2
ut sin q ___
4

sin a
_____
cos a
____________
tan q =
2 sin2 a
_______

u2 sin2 q
sin2 q ... multiply by 4g
= ________
g
4gut sin q g2t2 = 4u2 sin4 q

1+

cos2 a

g2t2 4gut sin q + 4u2 sin4 q = 0

... multiply top and bottom by cos2 a


tan q =
tan q =

_________________________

cos2 a + 2 sin2 a

t=

sin a cos a
____________________

_________________

t=

Note: q is
the angle
between the
projection
and the
plane.

__

gt 3
= u cos q _____
2
vy = u sin q gt cos 60
gt
= u sin(q 60) __
2
1
sx = ut cos q __gt2 sin 60
2

2g2

4gu sin q 4gu sin q cos q


t = _______________________
2g2
... divide top and bottom by 2g
2u sin q 2u sin q cos q
t = _____________________
g
2u sin q + 2u sin q cos q
t1 = _____________________
g
2u sin q(1 + cos q)
= ________________
g

2u sin q(1 + cos q)


t1 t2 = ________________
g

Maximum Perpendicular Height: Find sy


when vy = 0
gt
u sin q __ = 0
2

2u sin q(1 cos q)


________________
g
2u sin q
= _______
g [1 + cos q (1 cos q)]
2u sin q
= _______
g (2 cos q)

2u sin q gt = 0

2u[2 sin q cos q]


= ______________
g

2u sin q
_______
g

g 4u2 sin2 q
2u sin q
H = u _______
sin q __ _________
g
4
g2

10

2 2

2u sin q(1 cos q)


= ________________
g

1
sy = ut sin q __gt2 cos 60
2
gt2
= ut sin q ___
4

4gu sin q 16g u sin q cos q


_____________________________

2u sin q 2u sin q cos q


and t2 = _____________________
g

__

gt2 3
= ut cos q _____
4

t=

2g2

4gu sin q 16g2u2 sin2 q(1 sin2 q)


t = ________________________________
2g2

cos2 a + 2(1 cos2 a )

vx = u cos q gt sin 60

4gu sin q 16g2u2 sin2 q 16g2u2 sin4 q


____________________________________
____________________

sin a cos a
tan q = __________
2 cos2 a

This is a quadratic equation in t

sin a cos a
_______________

sin a cos a
tan q = ___________________
cos2 a + 2 2 cos2 a

Q. 9.

_____
2u sin 2q
g

... 2 sin q cos q = sin 2q

NEW
_____

Exercise 10D
Q. 1.

= e
OLD
p
2
____ = ___
3
12

(i) Speed at impact:

v2 = u2 + 2as

p=8

v2

New initial speed = 16i + 8j

02

+ 2gh

____

v = 2gh

3
Speed after impact = __ 2gh
4
New Height:

sy = 0

v2 = u2 + 2as
9
02 = ___(2gh) + 2(g)s
16
9
s = ___h
16
9
(ii) Each new height = ___ths of the
16
previous height
9
___
16

(2h)

( )

9 2
+ ___ (2h) + ...
16
= s of a G.P. with
9
a = 2h, r = ___
16
32h
2h
= ______ = ____
7
9
___
1
16
Q. 2.

Find length of hop means find sx when


sy = 0

____

Total distance = 2h +

( )

1 3
8t __ ___ t2 = 0
2 5g
80
t = ___
3g

t = 0 OR
80
At t = ___,
3g

( )

1 4
sx = 16t + __ ___ t2
2 5g

( ) ( )(

80
1 4 6,400
= 16 ___ + __ ___ ______
3g
2 5g 9g2

6,400
= ______ metres
9g
80
(ii) At t = ___,
3g
4
vx = 16 + __gt
5

( )

4 80
112
= 16 + __g ___ = ____
5 3g
3

(i)
A

80
At t = ___,
3g
3
vy = 8 __gt
5
3 80
= 8 __g ___
5 3g
= 8

Gravity

( )

Resolved
3g
A
5

vy
If L is the landing angle, tan L = ____
vx

A
4g
5
__

___

u = u sin Ai u cos Aj
_

()

()

3
4
= 20 __ i 20 __ j = 16i 12j
5
5

Before
_

16i 12j

(Mass)

After

16i + pj

tan L = 0.2143

8
= ____
112
____
3
3
___
=
14

L = 12 6 = 12 (to nearest degree)

11

Q. 3.

Before

After

u sin Ai u cos Aj
NEW
_____
OLD

u
At t = ___
8g

u sin Ai + pj

3
1
sx = __u sin A t + __g sin At2
2
2

= e

3
u
u2
1
= __ u sin A ___ + __g sin A ____2
2
8g
2
64g

1
p = __u cos A
4
_
_
1
Initial Speed = u sin Ai + __ u cos Aj
4
sy = 0

25u2 sin A
= _________
128g
Q
Q. 4.

1
1
__ u cos At __g cos At2 = 0
4
2
u
t = 0 OR t = ___
2g
u
At t = ___,
2g
1
sx = u sin At + __g sin At2
2

( )

( )

12 1
sx = 13ut ___ __ gt2 sin 45
13 2

( )

( )

u2

5u2 sin A
= ________
8g

At the first hop when t =

u
___
2g

( )

12
vx = 13u ___ gt sin 45
13
gt
__
= 12u ___
2
5
vy = 13u ___ gt cos 45
13
gt
__
= 5u ___
2

u
1
= u sin A ___ + __g sin A ___2
2g
2
4g

gt2
__
= 12ut ____
2 2

( )

5
1
sy = 13ut ___ __ gt2 cos 45
13 2

),

gt2
__
= 5ut ____
22

vx = u sin A + g sin At

( )

u
= u sin A + g sin A ___
2g
3
= __u sin A
2
1
__
vy = u cos A g cos At
4
u
1
= __u cos A g cos A ___
4
2g

Need to find landing velocity, i.e. need to


find vx and vy when sy = 0
gt2
__ = 0
5ut ____
2 2
__

10ut 2 gt2 = 0

( )

__

t(10u 2 gt) = 0 __
10u2
t=0
t = ______
g
Point of

1
= __u cos A
4

Projection

After the first hop,

3
1 1
vx = __u sin A and vy = __ __u cos A
4 4
2
=
Second hop:

vx = 12u

16

= 2u

u cos A

sy = 0
1
1
___ u cos At __g cos At2 = 0
2
16
t = 0 OR

u
t = ___
8g

Time of Flight

__

g ______
___
__ 10u 2

= 12u 10u

1
___

__

g ______
__ 10u 2
vy = 5u ___
g
2
= 5u 10u

3
1
Initial speed = __ u sin Ai + ___ u cos Aj
2
16

12

( )

( )

p
1
________ = ___
4
u cos A

= 5u

]
__

__

Velocity at landing = 2ui 5uj


__

j -velocity after impact = 5(e)

()

2
= 5e = 5 __
5
=2

__

__

Velocity after impact = 2ui + 2uj

Particle rebounds at an angle of 45 to


the inclined plane. Given that the plane
is inclined at 45 to the horizontal,
the particle rises vertically (at 90 to
horizontal) from P.
Q. 5.

(i) vx = u cos 60 + gt sin 30


u gt
= __ + __
2
2
vy = u sin 60 gt cos 30
__

__

u 3
____
2

gt 3
_____
2

sx = ut cos 60 +
2
ut gt
= __ ___
4
2

1
__
2

gt2

sin 30

1
sy = ut sin 60 __gt2 cos 30
2
__
__
gt2 3
ut 3 _____
_____

=
4
2
Range: sx when sy = 0
__

ut 3
_____

=0

t(2u gt) = 0
2u
t = ___
g

Point of
Projection

Time of Flight

Range =

[ ]

u ___
2u
__

[ ]

g ____
4u2
__

+
4 g2
2 g

u2 __
u2 ____
2u2
= __
g + g = g

[ ]

__

[ ]

______

e2 + 3

Let q be the angle at which the particle


leaves the slope
__

tan q =

eu 3
_____
2

sin q =

2
___
3u

e
________
______

e2 + 3

__

e 3
____

e__
= ___
3

and cos q =

__

3
________
______

e2 + 3

Projectile equations are:


__

vx =

u 3
____

vy =

u3
____

______

+3
2
+ gt sin 30
3u gt
= ___ + __
2
2
e2

__

______

e2 + 3

] [

__

3
________
______
e2 + 3

] [

e
________
______
e2 + 3

gt cos 30

__

__

eu 3
_____
2

__

u 3
____

gt 3
_____
2

______

][

__

3
________
______

+ 3 [t] 2
2
e + 3
1 2
__
+ gt sin 30
2
2
3ut gt
= ___ + ___
2 __ 4
______
u 3
e
______
sy = ____ e2 + 3 [t] ________
2
2
e + 3
1 2
__
gt cos 30
2
e2

][

]
]

__

__

2
eut 3 gt 3
= ______ _____
4
2

(ii) Need to firstly find landing velocity, i.e.


2u
vx and vy when t = ___
g
g
3u
u
2u
u
= __ + u = ___
vx = __ + __ ___
2 2 g
2
2
__

__

u 3
____

sx =

4
2
2ut gt2 = 0

t=0

9u2 3e2u2
Magnitude = ____ + _____
4
4

__

3
_____
gt2

___________

__

__
u 3 g 3 2u
u 3
____
vy = ____ ____ ___
=

u
3

g
2 __ 2
2
u 3
= ____
2
xvelocity is unchanged__ after impact
eu 3
New yvelocity = _____
2
velocity at start
of
2nd hop
__
_
_
eu 3
3u
= ___i + _____ j
2
2

Range: sx when sy = 0
__

__

gt2 3
eut 3 _____
______

=0
4
2
2eut gt2 = 0
t(2eu gt) = 0
2eu
t=0
t = ____
g
Point of
Projection

Time of Flight

[ ]

[ ]

g _____
3u 2eu
4e2u2
__
Range = ___ ____
+
4 g2
2 g
2
2
2
3eu
eu
____
= _____
g + g
eu2
= ___
g [3 + e]

13

Projectile equations are:

Range for 2nd hop = 2[Range for


1st hop]
eu2
___

g [3 + e] = 2

____

[ ]

vx =

2u2
____
g

0e1

sx =

____

sy =

____

___

2gh gh
= 2gh cos 60 = _____ = ____
2
2
y-component of velocity at impact
____

( )
____

1
y-component after impact = __
2

3gh
____
2

Magnitude of velocity after impact


__________

gh 3gh
4gh + 3gh
= ___ + ____ = __________
2
8
8

] [ ]

2__
1
[t] ___
+ __ gt2 sin 30
2
7

] [ ]
__

[t]

3gh
____
8

___

1 3gh
2
tan q = __ ____ ___
2 __ 2
gh
3
= ___
2 __
3
__
2__
sin q = ___
and cos q = ___
7
7

3
__
___

__

1
__ gt2 cos 30
2

gt 3
_____
2

3gh
____

__

gt 3
_____
2

___

4tgh
___

__

=0

multiply by

__

8 = 0

gt2

__

4tgh 2gt22 = 0
___

__

2tgh gt2 2 = 0
____

t2gh gt2 = 0
____

t( 2gh gt ) = 0

____

t=

2gh
_____

t=0

Point of
Projection

Let q be the angle at which the particle


leaves the plane

14

____

____

__

x-component is unchanged during impact

____

__

Range: sx when sy = 0

3gh
3
= 2gh sin 60 = 2gh ___ = ____
2
2

7gh
= ____
8

7gh
____

=t

x-component of velocity at impact

____

gt cos 30

____

Strikes the plane at a speed of 2gh

7gh
____

____

____

____

][ ]
__

3
__
___

gh
gt2
= t ___ + ___
4
2

v = u2 + 2as = 2gh

____

___

u = 0, a = g, s = h

7gh
____

____

Q. 6. Fall from height h:

_________

3gh gt 3
= ____ _____
8
2

(e + 4)(e 1) = 0

________

+ gt sin 30

___

____

e2 + 3e 4 = 0

e = 4 e = 1

2__
___

____

vy =

3e + e2 = 4

7gh
____

7
gh
gt
= ___ + __
2
2

g
multiply by __2
u

e(3 + e) = 4

[ ] [ ]

2h
= ___
g

Time of Flight

___

Range =

___

[ ]
2h
___
g

___

gh
___

2
h
__
Range = h +
2
3h
___
=
2

[ ]

g 2h
+ __ ___
4 g

4__8
____