RUNNING HEAD: FOOD PRODUCTION

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American Food Production Alyssa Krafsur University of Texas at El Paso 10/25/13

Abstract

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T is !a!er aims to find out t e !ros and cons of !rocessin" foods# $t also as%s t e &uestion ' y foods are !rocessed# Processed foods are "reat for a &uic% snac%( and t ey can last a lon" time of t e s elf( savin" a lot of money for com!anies and for consumers) o'ever( some !roduction met ods for ma%in" !rocessed foods are &uestiona*le# Are foods !roduction met ods today safe and relia*le+

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Processed foods can *e defined as made for more commercial use( avin" "one t rou" !rocesses so t ey may *e !reserved lon"er so !rofits are not to *e lost# T is !rocess can *e considered "reat *ecause food can *e made &uic%ly( convenient for consumers( safe( and i" &uality ,- io University( 2003.# Processed foods can *e considered "ood *ecause t ey are easy and &uic% to !re!are( and t ey ave a lon"er s elf life ,/ein"arten( 2012.# T e !rocesses under ' ic t ese foods are !re!ared aim to eliminate !otentially dan"erous micro*es and !revent t em from re0"ro'in" ,- io University( 2003.# 1ome of t e !rocesses t at sto! microor"anisms from "ro'in" are !asteuri2ation( refri"eration( sterili2ation( dryin"( free2in"( and 'ater cleansin" ,- io University 2003.# Accordin" to 1 ereen 3e"tvi"4s article What are Processed Foods?, 5!rocessed foods ave *een altered from t eir natural state( eit er for safety reasons or for convenience# T e met ods used include cannin"( free2in"( refri"eration( de ydration and ase!tic !rocessin"#6 T rou" ( t is article does state t at some !rocessed foods are *ad for t e *ody# An exam!le "iven is !rocessed meats( ' ic 5may increase your ris% of colorectal( %idney and stomac cancer6 ,3e"tvi"( 2013.# T is includes deli meats( *acon( am( and ot do"s (A$78( 2013.# $n t e article Red and Processed Meats: The Cancer Connection, created *y t e American 7ancer $nstitute( states t at ne' 5researc s o's t at any amount of !rocessed meat is lin%ed to increased ris% of colorectal cancer9com!ounds used as !reservatives may c an"e into cancer0causin" com!ounds in t e *ody#6 :any ot er food *orne illnesses ave also *een s o'n to come from !rocessed meats( suc as 7am!ylo*acter( E# coli( 1almonella( and ;isteria ,Frontline( 2013.#

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Fi"ure one s o's o' cases of food *orne illness( and it can *e seen cases ave mostly "one do'n over t e years# T ou" ( t ere are food *orne illnesses t at seem to *e fluctuatin" on fi"ure one# T ese food *orne illnesses are 1almonella and E# coli !oisonin"#

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E# coli is one of t e most common *acteria( most forms of it are armless( *ut a ne' strain as a!!eared and it is in t e intestinal tracts of cattle ,P<1( 2013.# T is ne' strain can *e deadly# $n many co' raisin" factories( t e co's stand %nee dee! in t eir o'n feces ' ic can cause t e deadly E# coli *acteria to easily s!read from co' to co' ,Kenner( 200=.# 1ince t e co's are raised in !iles of fecal matter it is ca%ed onto t e co's ides( and if slau" tered im!ro!erly t e infected fecal matter on t e ide can very 'ell "o into t e meat ,P<1( 2013.# E# coli !oisonin" can also come from !eo!le consumin" ve"eta*les and fruits t at ave come into contact 'it tainted 'ater or meat( and if !eo!le eat t ese foods( t ey can fall seriously ill and die ,P<1( 2013.#
Figure 2

1almonella infection is a *acterial disease of t e intestinal tract t at mostly comes from
“contaminated 'ater or foods( es!ecially meat( !oultry and e""s6 and can cause 5ty! oid fever(

food !oisonin"( "astroenteritis( enteric fever and ot er illnesses6,:edical >e's( 200?.# ;oo%in"

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at fi"ure t'o( it can *e seen t at t e main food *orne illness is 1almonella# Accordin" to accordin" to t e 7enters for @isease 7ontrol and Prevention( over one million Americans are infected 'it salmonellosis eac year( of ' ic a*out five0 undred die# Even 'it ne' !rocessin" tec ni&ues salmonalla !oisonin" still exists and is in t e food su!!ly (7@7( 2013.# $n fi"ure one salmonella !oisonin" 'as at an all time i" in 2001# T is is t e most recent estimate on fi"ure one( s o'in" t at !rocessin" foods does not al'ays lead to safer food !re!eration# :ost times contamination occurs durin" t e slau" terin" !rocess( for exam!le arvestin"

seafoods in contaminated 'aters can lead to t is infection ,:edical >e's( 200?.# -f course( sometimes it is u! to t e consumer to !ractice "ood food andlin" tec ni&ues( and it is u! to t e consumer to !re!are t e food in a 'ay t at can *e safer to eat# -ne exam!le of t is comes from Medical News Today, and t is article states t at 5if t e !erson !re!arin" t e food andles ra' meat and t en touc es t e fruit 'it out 'as in" is/ er ands6 t at !erson can *ecome infected 'it salmonella# T e article also states t at lac% of y"iene can *e anot er route to'ards t is infection) 5%itc en surfaces t at are not %e!t clean( lac% of and'as in" !rocedures durin" food !re!aration( and lac% of and'as in" after "oin" to t e toilet or c an"in" a *a*yAs dia!ers( are common routes for contamination and infection#6 $t seems t at not all food contamination is caused *y t e manufacturer t at !rocesses t e foods( sometimes it is t e consumer t at causes t e conamination to occur# Accordin" to an article on t e 'e*site Fooducate( !rocessed foods are "ood *ecause t ey ave a lon" s elf life and t ey do not "o *ad &uic%ly as com!ared to fres foods suc as fruits and ve"eta*les# T e only reason t ese !rocessed foods could *e considered *ad is *ecause t ey do not contain as many vitamins and nutrients (/ein"arten( 2012.# Processed foods are "reat for

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a life on t e "o( and for a !erson ' o does not ave time to !re!are a meal# -f course( natural foods are al'ays t e *est and contain t e most vitamins and minerals ,/ein"arten( 2012.# Tec nically s!ea%in"( food as *een !rocessed *y umans for many "enerations# 7oo%in" is a 'ay of !rocessin" foods( and it el!s to %ill !otentially armful *acteria (Fallon( 2001.# Processin" foods can ma%e foods safer to eat) o'ever( t e 'ays foods are !rocessed ave c an"ed in recent years ,Fallon( 2001.# Accordin" to 7onsumer Bealt 8e!orts( ne' !rocessin" tec ni&ues are ta%in" t e nutrients out of foods# $n t eir researc article t ey s!o%e of a test done 'it rats *y a cereal com!any# $n one "rou!( t e rats t at 'ere "iven all t e vitamins( 'ater( and !uffed u! ' eat t ey 'anted died 'it in a mere t'o 'ee%s# T ese rats died *efore anot er control "rou! t at received no food at all( only 'ater# T is article "oes on to state t at t e reason t is cereal ad t is effect is *ecause it 'as treated 'it suc intensity t at many nutrients vital for life 'ere ta%en out of t is cereal# Every "rain of t e cereal is treated 'it suc !ressure t at many of t e nutrients in t e "rain are destroyed# 8eaders @i"est created an article called t e Four Most Harmful In redients in Pac!a ed Foods( ' ic listed common un ealt y !rocessed food in"redients# T ese in"redients t is article listed are refined "rains( salt( corn syru!( and trans0fats# T ese in"redients a!!ear in many !rocessed foods# 8efined "rains( suc as ' ite *read( *ecome !ure su"ar ' en di"ested in t e *ody ,@i"est( 2013.# / ite *read can c an"e insulin levels and lead to dia*etes( can raise in *lood !ressure( and it can even cause a eart attac% (/ ite( 2012.# 1alt raises *lood !ressure and i" fructose corn syru! encoura"es overeatin" due to its c emical structure ,@i"est( 2013.# T is can lead to a *uildu! in trans0fats( ' ic can lead to a eart attac% ,@i"est( 2013.# i" eat and

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-f course( not all !rocessed foods contain t ese in"redients# Accordin" to t e :oore Family 7enter <lo" t ere are t ree "rou!s of !rocessed foodsC minimally !rocessed foods( su*stances extracted from ' ole foods( a!" #ltra0!rocessed foods# :inimally !rocessed foods can *e descri*ed as un!rocessed foods t at are cleaned and removed of anyt in" inedi*le# T ey are often refri"erated( fro2en( !asteuri2ed( !re0coo%ed( *ottled or !ac%a"ed# 1ome of t ese foods are 5fro2en and canned ve"eta*les and fruits) mil%) intact ' ole "rains suc as *arley( oats and crac%ed ' eat) dried *eans) and s elled nuts6 (:oore( 2013( 3une 1.# T ese ty!es of !rocessed foods are "ood *ecause t ey can *e safely !reserved for a lon" time( ensurin" t at t e foods do not "o *ad &uic%ly ,T e Dood 1ide of Processin" Foods( 2013.# T is ty!e of !rocessin" only sli" tly decreases nutrient content ,:oore( 2013( 3une 1.# Exam!les of su*stances extracted from ' ole foods are 5oils( flours( s'eeteners( starc es and fats6 ,:oore( 2013( 3une 1.# T ey are usually used as in"redients( and are not eaten *y t emselves ,:oore( 2013( 3une 1.# T ese su*stances are usually used in ot er !rocessed foods as 5added flavorin" t at mas%s t e ori"inal taste of t e in"redients(6 meanin" t at manufacturers can "et a'ay 'it lessenin" t e &uality of t e foods (7ranston( 2013.# Accordin" to 7ranston4s article( t e Pros and Cons of Processed Foods( 5' en you eat a !rocessed *ur"er9or meats in a canned meal you 'onAt *e "ettin" "ood cuts of meat *ut 'ill rat er *e eatin" "ristle and even AleftoversA#6 1ome su*stances extracted from ' ole foods are used as flavor en ancers( and t ey ide t e true taste of !oor &uality food ,7ranston( 2013.# / en a !erson t in%s of !rocessed foods( t ey tend to t in% of ' at t e :oore Family 7enter <lo" calls ultra0!rocessed foods# Exam!les include 5coo%ies( ice cream( soda( fro2en dinners( ot do"s and su"ary *rea%fast cereals6 ,:oore( 2013( 3une 1.# T ese ty!es of !rocessed foods ty!ically do ave ' at 8eaders @i"est calls t e Four :ost Barmful $n"redients in Pac%a"ed

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Foods# Bo'ever( t ese ty!es of foods do not s!oil as easily( el! maintain a "ood food *ud"et *y avoidin" 'astin"( and t ey increase t e availa*ility of food ,:oore( 2013( 3une 1.# T e !ros of !rocessin" foods are increase of food availa*ility( avoidance of 'astin" food( less s!oila"e( and t e savin" of money ,:oore( 2013( 3une 1.# A maEor con of !rocessed foods seems to *e less nutritional value and more added su"ars and fats ,Fallon( 2001.# Anot er con is t at many manufacturers t at !rocess foods cut corners ' ic can lead to lesser &uality foods and *acterial out*rea%s suc as e# coli and salmonella in foods# -verall( it is u! to t e consumer to decide ' et er or not to eat !rocessed foods# T e consumer can decide if t e food as *een !rocessed ade&uately enou" for t eir nutritional needs# As said in t e documentary Food $nc#( t e consumer votes on o' food is !re!ared *y ' at t ey *uy at t e su!ermar%et# $t is u! to t e consumer to %no' t e !ros and cons of !rocessed foods# $t is u! to t e consumer to %no' ' ic food 'ould *e *est for t em in terms of t eir lifestyle( *ud"et( and ' at t ey consider to *e nutritional for t eir *ody#

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8eferences A$78# ,2013.# American institute for cancer researc ,A$78. 0 8ed and !rocessed meatsC t e cancer connection# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//!reventcancer#aicr#or"/site/Pa"e1erver+!a"enameFelementsGredG!rocessedGmeat 7@7 ,2013.# 7enters for disease control and !revention# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//'''#cdc#"ov/salmonella/out*rea%s# tm 7ranston ,2013.# Pros and cons of !rocessed foods# Pros and Cons of Processed Foods" 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//'''# ealt "uidance#or"/entry/15=53/1/Pros0 and07ons0of0Processed0Foods# tml

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@i"est# ,2013.# H :ost armful in"redients in !ac%a"ed foods I 8eaderAs @i"est# Bealt ti!s( Food and reci#es,$ Reader%s &i est" 8etrieved -cto*er =( 2013( from tt!C//'''#rd#com/ ealt /diet0 'ei" t0loss/H0most0 armful0in"redients0in0 !ac%a"ed0 foods/ Fallon ,2001.# 7onsumer ealt articlesC dirty secrets of t e food !rocessin" industry# Consumer Health# 8etrieved -cto*er 10( 2013( from tt!C//'''#consumer ealt #or"/articles/dis!lay#cfm+$@F20011005222JH= Freedman( @# ,2013.# Bo' Eun% food can end o*esity" The 'tlantic( 3( 103# Buff( E# ,2013.# >ine reasons to never eat !rocessed foods a"ain# Natural health news" 8etrieved -cto*er =( 2013( from tt!C//'''#naturalne's#com/03?KH3G!rocessedGfoods Geatin"Greasons# tm 3e"tvi"( 1# ,2013( 1e!tem*er 2=.# / at are !rocessed foods+ '(out"com Nutrition# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//nutrition#a*out#com/od/as%yournutritionist/f/!rocessedfoods# tm

Kenner( 8# ,@irector.# ,200?.# Food( inc L@ocumentaryM# United 1tatesC Ma nolia home entertainment# :edical >e's# ,200?.# / at is salmonella# Medical News Today# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//'''#medicalne'stoday#com/articles/1J0?H2#! !

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:oore# ,2013( 3une 1.# :oore family center *lo"# Moore Family Center )lo " 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//*lo"s#ore"onstate#edu/moore/2013/0J/ o'0"ood0or0*ad0is0food0 !rocessin"/ ><7>e's# ,200K.# 8is%s of tainted food rise as ins!ections dro! salmonella ! oto"ra! # msn(c"com# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//'''#n*cne's#com/id/1K3H?H2K/N#Um&TOnGa;T= - io University# ,2003.# Elements of food !rocessin"# Home Pa e# 8etrieved -cto*er =( 2013( from tt!C//class#fst#o io0state#edu/fstH01/$nformation/Elements0Food0Processin"# tml P<1# ,2013.# $s your meat safe+ $ncidence of food *orne illness "ra! # P<1# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//'''#!*s#or"/'"* /!a"es/frontline/s o's/meat/safe/food*orne# tml T e Dood 1ide -f Processed Food# ,2013.# T e "ood side of !rocessed food# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//'''#streetdirectory#com/foodGeditorials/meals/food/t eG"oodGsideGofG!rocessedG food# t /ein"arten( B# ,2012.# Food !rocessin" P / y do 'e need it+ Fooducate * +at a )it )etter# 8etrieved -cto*er =( 2013( from !rocessin"0' y0do0'e0need0it/ / ite# ,2012.# / y ' ite *read is *ad for you" Hu(Pa es# 8etrieved -cto*er 2?( 2013( from tt!C//Eanice' ite# u*!a"es#com/ u*/' y0' ite0*read0is0*ad0for0you tt!C//*lo"#fooducate#com/2012/03/20/food0

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