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Blouin 1 Megan Blouin Instructor: Malcolm Campbell English 1102 October 22, 2013 Stem Cell Research has a Positive

Side to it Stem cell research is a well-known controversial topic that has many people vocalizing their personal opinions on it every single day. From the supporters to the ones who oppose it, there continues to be a wide range of disagreements among the groups about whether or not stem cell research should be practiced or not. Stem cell research is separated into two main groups: adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells, which is the more controversial topic of the two. Both are engaged in research solely to benefit the human race. People are entitled to their opinions but who says stem cell research is actually a bad thing? Due to its unethical background, certain groups such as the Southern Baptist Convention and anti-abortion groups will oppose stem cell research to be practiced in the medical field. Supporters of these groups believe that stem cell research pushes ethical and moral boundaries since embryos are destroyed during this process. ¾ of Americans however support this research since the process does not involve any type of cruel actions and for the possible benefits of unused cells being able to cure damaged organs (WebExclusives). A stem cell is an unspecialized cell that can produce an endless number of exact copies of itself through cell division (Stem Cell Research). Stem cells make up the formation of our whole body which is why they are important factors in our life (Livestrong). Certain stem cells such as, embryonic cells, can produce specialized cells for a variety of tissues in the human body while adult cells can only generate specific cells such as heart or brain cells. They allow our bodies to

Blouin 2 renew and repair themselves by having stem cells continually divide and multiply in one‟s body. Stem cells act as an internal repair system allowing our bodies to repair itself on its own means.. A stem cell transplant begins with a donor and a patient. Once a patient has been given stem cells from a willing and informed donor, then they will soon begin the process of the transfusion. Besides being put on the wait list waiting for a donor to donate cells, the patient can also donate their own stem cells if they are healthy enough (KidsHealth). Transfusing foreign stem cells or even your own stem cells is a multi-step process. First, doctors must decide whether or not the patients and the donor‟s blood type match. This allows doctors to see if their body will accept or reject the foreign objects. If you are donating your own cells to your body, you first must have your cells harvested from your own bone marrow and then transfused into your bloodstream or into the affected organs. This process is similar to an IV injection, but instead of an IV, blood and cells are being transfused into your body where recovery after the transfusion may take a long period of time. Like any type of transfusion or anything that deals with objects being inserted into one‟s body, there are complications. A risk is a situation where one exposes themselves to danger whether they are informed about it or not. Risks that are involved in these kinds of research includes the process not working for the individual and the possibility of tumors, also known as Teratomas, growing after the cells are transfused in one‟s body. These types of benign tumors can form in one‟s body when a cell divides uncontrollably in one area. These growths can however be removed but the patient can no longer receive stem cells to treat their affected organs since the transfusion process failed and their body rejected the specific cells (Stem Cell Treatments). Stem cell research can be a beneficiary to humans for many reasons. First, it can help find cures and treatments for a numerous amount of diseases and injuries such as Parkinson‟s, heart

Blouin 3 disease, strokes, birth defects, and a variety of organ defects. It also allows researchers to study the development of cells in humans by watching cells multiply and divide in test tubes. This information also provides insight to researchers and scientists on how humans grow from an embryo to an adult. Researchers are only limited to testing the production of stem cells on animals and informed participants of the experiment. In the future they are hoping to test the cells directly in test tubes instead of testing them on animals or humans to prevent possible pain or nuisance (How Stem Cells Work). This will allow researchers to gather their data more quickly and possibly find cures easier. Stem cell research basically gives researchers an insight of human health and sickness which allows them to produce more treatments for various diseases and evaluate the human body. With this, more diseases will have cures which results in less diseases in the human population. For example, years ago, people would acquire the deadly disease of Polio and many succumbed to the sickness. Once researchers find a cure to it through experimentation, they were able to treat people and prevent the disease from spreading. This could be a strong possibility for stem cell research if they continue to experiment. In the near future, heart disease, Cancer, and other genetic diseases may be wiped out from the human population leading to longer life expectancies and a healthier society. There are always two sides to an argument. The people who oppose stem cell research say it is an attempt at playing God since we are curing fatal diseases and allowing people to live longer than they were intended to. There are also people who believe that using embryonic stem cells for research or for the better hope of society is immoral and wrong since they are cells that came from a fetus. Destroying a fetus is morally wrong to a most humans since it is considered as taking someone‟s life. However, the fetus was not grown into a developed human being and the cells are taken within four or five days after the embryo is developed enough. Not only are

Blouin 4 these the two biggest negatives about stem cell research but there are also worries about human cloning and unnaturally long life expectancies (Embryonic Stem Cell Research). Since researchers can find cures and treatments through stem cell research, there is no doubt that they can also find a way to clone people, since they have already tried cloning sheep in the past. There is no possibility of cloning people anytime soon but in the near future that could be a possibility. The real question here is, who would want to actually clone people and what would the advantage be of cloning them? After, much thought and research I realize that both sides (for and against) have strong evidence and claims to back up each point. I personally believe that conducting stem cell research will greatly impact the human race in a positive way due to the fact that stem cell research has more pros to it than cons. Not only will it help find more cures for people but it can also help rejuvenate damage cells and muscles in a person‟s body. Two years ago, my grandma fell down a small flight of stairs and pulled a muscle in her knee leaving her with two options: limited mobility for the rest of her life or replacing her knee and be a patient of stem cell research. This was an easy choice for her since she is a very active 70 year old woman. She went ahead with the treatment and with months of physical therapy, she was back to her old self. The stem cells that they injected into her knee repaired the torn muscle and built a new layer of cells over her damaged knee which allowed her to walk again and give her full access to bending her knee. If she did not receive the treatment, doctors say that she would be more inclined to her bed and unable to do the things she is able to do now. The most controversial of stem cell research is the one with the use of embryonic cells. This type of research is where most of the heated debates come into play and why stem cell research is viewed so negatively. Embryonic stem cells sounds exactly how it is, they are stem

Blouin 5 cells that are derived from embryos. These types of stem cells are not taken from the fertilized eggs in a woman‟s body but are the ones that are donated to research with consent from the donors (Stem Cell Research). After the fertilized eggs are donated, scientists will then encourage the cells to grow in a tube through the process of in-vitro fertilization. Once the cells have fully developed, then scientists may extract the needed cells from the donated eggs. While this particular type of research may cause a stir in debates, embryonic stem cells are the best types of cells to use for someone since they can regenerate themselves in any part of the body. Stem cells are unspecialized to begin with but when they are transfused into someone‟s blood, the cells will adapt to their surroundings and become specialized for that certain type of tissue or muscle. Even though this may be sought out to be immoral and hard to talk about, I think these types of cells are best for repairing damaged tissues and are more suitable for research than the adult cells. Another type of stem cell would be the adult cells. The primary role of these cells are to repair certain areas that are damage but these type of cells are only specific to certain parts of the body. Unlike embryonic cells that can adapt to anything, these cells can only repair organs and tissues that they are assigned to. While these cells can still be transferred into the body, they can only be used for a numerous amount of things. They are just as effective as embryonic cells but they are limited to certain areas of the body causing transfusion to be a more difficult process since these cells can only be gathered from amniotic fluid and other adult cells (Stem Cell Harvest). Gathering these stem cells can be done through the process of a bone marrow transplant from the consent of a willing donor. After the stem cells are gathered then the transfusion process may begin. The transfusion of these cells are more acceptable because they do not involve another fetus or “human being” to be a part of the transfusion process. These cells

Blouin 6 can also repair organs and muscles such as the brain and heart since they were specified to repair those organs if they got damaged. With the two opposing sides separated, one must look at the overall whole of stem cell research. With its benefits of finding cures and treatments and also repairing damaged organs, one can only assume that its benefits weigh out all of the negatives. Even if it is found to be immoral, wouldn‟t finding a cure be more valuable to the human society? What if researchers found a cure to cancer through stem cell research? Wouldn‟t that be something that everyone should want? If we put away the negatives and everyone‟s opinions, there should be a clear line between it being a benefit to the human race and opinions. Overall, I do believe that stem cell research should be conducted simply because of the overwhelming positives that go along with it. From finding cures to helping my grandma gain back mobility in her knee, stem cell research is the push forward that we need in the medical field.

Blouin 7 Reference Page "Embryonic Stem Cell Research – Pros and Cons | Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Embryonic Stem Cell Research – Pros and Cons | Embryonic Stem Cell Research. N.p., 20 Apr. 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. "How Does Stem Cell Treatment Work?" LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., 18 Oct. 2009. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. "How Stem Cells Work." HowStuffWorks. Stephanie Watson, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. "KidsHealth from Nemours." KidsHealth. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. Peng, Li-Hua, Kwok-Pui Fung, Ping-Chung Leung, and Jian-Qing Gao. "Genetically Manipulated Adult Stem Cells for Wound Healing." Drug Discovery Today (2011): n. pag. Print. "Pros And Cons Of Stem Cell Research." AllAboutPopularIssues.org. N.p., 2002. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. "Religious Views on Stem Cell Research." Religion & Ethics. N.p., 01 July 2001. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. “Stem Cell Harvest.” N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. "Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. "Stem Cell Treatments." Top 10 Stem Cell Treatment Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. Vogel, Gretchen. "Cancer Stem Cells Can Fuel Tumor Growth | Science/AAAS | News." Cancer Stem Cells Can Fuel Tumor Growth | Science/AAAS | News. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. "Web-Exclusives." Stem-cell Research and the Catholic Church. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

Blouin 8 Samia Saleh Comments

-I think that this essay is very detailed and informing, especially for a first draft. It wasn‟t diffucult to read and everything about stem cell research was explained carefully and thoroughly. -Another part that I really liked was that both sides, the supporters and those against stem cell research, were brought up in the paper. Embryonic stem cell research was explained to be the main reason why some people are against the idea because it is „unethical‟ but are there any other reasons why the opposers are against it? I think you should explain more about the ones anti-stem cell research. -Most of the essay is fact-based and not opinionated but I think you should state your opinion in the introduction. You want readers to know what you think since you are trying to persuade them. Make your stance on stem cell research clear throughout the essay without being biased, though. You do state your stance in the conclusion but I also think you should do it in the introduction. -You could possibly write about more research that is being done with stem cells today and talk about who funds for the research and if it is ethical or not. What are the main benefits of stem cell research? What part of stem cell research do you feel uncomfortable with or do not agree with? You don‟t want to make it seem as if stem cell research is perfect and that you agree with everything about it.

Blouin 9 -MLA format is good, the paper flows very nicely and smoothly. Great transitioning from paragraph to paragraph. The bibliography had the correct formatting and parenthetical citations were also used correctly throughout the paper. -Overall good essay, might want to re-read and edit a little for any minor grammatical errors.