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Dariana Martinez Professor Massey ENC1101 31 October 2013 Annotated Bibliography: Teenage Suicide in the United States Achilles

, Jennifer, Gray, Doug, and Moskos, Michelle A. “Adolescent Suicide Myths in the United States.” Crisis 25.4 (2004): 176-182. PsycARTICLES. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.

The article “Adolescent Suicide Myths in the United States” encompasses myths or common misconceptions often misunderstood by youth suicide. Throughout the article, the author incorporates the misconceptions followed by detailed explanations and counterarguments supported by substantial evidence. For example, it is often believed that current suicide prevention programs are fully functional and produce impressive results. However, studies have shown that such programs have not proven to be effective or have made a significant impact on reducing suicide rates amongst adolescents; therefore, the authors expand further on the myth and provides a recommendation explaining that suicidologists should target direct causes of youth suicide specific to the person and the situation, rather than generalizing them and implicating treatments to attempters and those at risk. Furthermore, the article brings attention to the rapidly growing health crisis in the United States, the misunderstandings behind the truth about youth suicide, and solutions (with their limitations) that should hopefully reduce suicide rates amongst teenagers. Since the purpose of the article was to turn down the myths

Martinez 2 often misunderstood by suicide, it can be coalesced in my paper as a way to emphasize my stance on the issue. Brent, David A., Bridge, Jeffrey A., and Goldstein, Tina R. “Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior.” Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health (2006). Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.

“Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior” depicts the suicidal rates in consequence of gender differences and cultural, racial, and ethnic injustices. The article also explains the multiple different methods which suicide has been completed through. Of the many suicide methods, weaponry, hanging, and poison are the most predominant amongst adolescent individuals. In addition, the article expands on the psychological approach to suicide. The majority of suicidal individuals suffer from bipolarity and mood disorders and depression. Such disorders are key components to suicidal thoughts, actions, and successful attempts. The article, “Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior,” may be included into my paper since it provides plenty of detailed statistics with valid sources, studies on multiple different cases of suicide, prevention and intervention programs, and the various methods that suicidal individuals have chosen to carry their deeds. All these concepts are expanded and elaborated within the article, and can be used to specify points on the importance of bringing youth suicide to awareness. Eckert, Tanya L. and Miller, David N. “Youth Suicidal Behavior: An Introduction and Overview.” School Pychology Review 38.2 (2009): 153-167. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.

Martinez 3 Eckert and Miller conducted demographic studies on the suicidal rates of adolescents within the United States. Statistics show that suicidal rates amongst young females ages 10-19 and males ages 15-19 have drastically increased between 2003 and 2004. These figures demonstrate an alarming issue that is evolving within the country, and will continue to evolve if support and reinforcement is not provided to the individuals undergoing such personality shifts. Eckert and Miller also included in their research on adolescent suicide the different risk factors and warning signs that may predict suicide attempts and/or thoughts. The presences of psychological and mental disorders are large contributors and major risk factors in the identification of suicidal teens. Moreover, Eckert and Miller‟s “Youth Suicidal Behavior: An Introduction and Overview” can be fused into my paper because it provides detailed statistics and figures that explain the alarming rise of suicidal rates amongst youth. Not to mention, Eckert and Miller provide flaws often found within research and the gaps and necessities needed in order to continue improving research and avoid such flaws on youth suicide. Joyner, Kara and Russell, Steven T. “Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study.” American Journal of Public Health 91. 8 (2001): 1276-1281. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.

Russell and Joyner explore the links between suicidal thoughts, attempts, and increased rates of suicide completion as a result of sexual orientation. Their studies have shown that homosexual men were more likely to commit suicide than heterosexual men. Studies on women who identify themselves as homo or bisexual, however, did not show any significant difference in their suicidality rates. In addition, Russell and Joyner noticed

Martinez 4 that those individuals (the females) who identified themselves with the titles of lesbian or bisexual were less likely to commit suicide than those females that refuse to identify themselves and come out publicly. Furthermore, Russell and Joyner‟s studies on the impact of sexual orientation on suicidality has shown that homosexual individuals should get the assistance necessary that is rarely offered in order to decrease the suicide rates amongst this group of people. This study, conducted by Russell and Joyner, would be incorporated into my paper as an alternative study conducted on the effects of sexuality on the increased suicidality rates amongst adolescents. National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Mental Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2013

The National Institute of Mental Health‟s website encompasses different mental disorders and mental abnormalities that may contribute to the causes of suicide, and also, stresses the importance of one‟s mental health and sanity. Such mental disorders include those attributed to anxiety, bipolar disorders, and depression. Aside from elaborating on mental disorders, the National Institute of Mental Health provides different methods for treatment for those who suffer from some kind of mental abnormality, explains the priorities placed upon research and experimentation, has scientific journals and other publications with findings, studies, and statistics, and has recommendations for the reporting of suicides. In addition, the website also promotes suicide prevention with publications of books and posted interviews of researchers, especially amongst the younger population residing in the United States. The elaborations of disorders

Martinez 5 commonly attributing to suicide amongst adolescents could be used in my paper as it explains the biological approach to the common causes of suicide. Raeburn, Paul. “Danger Signs.” The New York Times 4 Dec. 2005. Web.

Raeburn questions all the theories that have been speculated for the causes of the rapidly growing issue of teenage suicide. He includes some of the theories for teenage suicide such as “…blaming working mothers and divorce… blaming the game of Dungeons and Dragons…” these speculated theories led to him to continue researching on the mysterious topic, and, as a result, he eventually came up with a questionnaire for high school students that served as means of checking the mental health of individuals participating in the questionnaire. Some of the questions asked revolved around substance abuse and mental abnormalities that progressively became more specific depending on the response of a strong yes. Furthermore, though the idea of a questionnaire sounded good on paper, it did receive its criticism; TeenScreen (Raeburn‟s questionnaire) was criticized, “TeenScreen challenges „the fundamental right of parents to decide what medical treatment is appropriate for their own children‟”. However, TeenScreen is not meant to question or challenge parents for their parenting, but identify the teens at risk. Moreover, Raeburn‟s research and questionnaire may be incorporated into my paper considering that it is an economic way to identify those teens at risk. Sperekas, Nicole B. Suicide Wise: Taking Steps Against Teen Suicide. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, Inc., 2000. Print.

Martinez 6 Dense information about teenage suicide and its causes, warning signs, prevention, intervention, methods to cope with the stressors and stresses, and different perspectives on suicide are all described and explained in Nicole Sperekas book, Suicide Wise: Taking Steps Against Teen Suicide. The author uses statistics, figures, and charts scattered throughout the book in their corresponding chapters and headings in order to elaborate and explain exactly what suicide is and some of the different methods in which families, friends, and acquaintances may help those around them who have been considering or even thinking about suicide in any way. According to Sperekas, one of the ways one may gently yet effectively offer support is by “listening with care and concern” because this gives the suicidal individual the opportunity to openly express their suicidal thoughts and feelings without the fear of rejection or judgment. Not to mention, Sperekas provides explanations about surviving and survivors and stories about surviving families who have managed to cope and continue their lives even with the death of a loved one. Furthermore, the explanations about some of the survivors and their stories and the coping methods may be included in my essay as it contributes to post-suicide contributions. The Bridge. Dir. Eric Steel. IFC Films, 2006. TV. Koch Lorber Films, 2007. DVD.

“The Bridge” depicts different cases of youth suicide in San Francisco, California. Every year, “an average of 20 people kill themselves by jumping off the Golden Gate Bridge”; these statistics were extremely shocking considering that the majority of those jumping off the bridge were adolescents seeking the welcome escape they thought as suicide. Furthermore, the documentary features interviews of victims‟ relatives where they share

Martinez 7 information on the victims covered and admit never considering intervening or preventing their suicides, or even taking their mental health seriously. One of the cases described in the documentary came directly from a victim who miraculously survived the fall of the bridge; he explains his reasons for suicidality and his consistent urges to go to the bridge and attempt suicide. Moreover, “The Bridge” ends with a powerful quote stating, “More people have chosen to end their lives at the Golden Gate Bridge than anywhere else in the world” in order to convey the seriousness of suicide and to, hopefully, discourage those that have considered suicide. The different reactions and perceptions of the victims‟ suicide featured in the documentary can be incorporated into my paper as it provides different aspects from different people on the issue of suicide.