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July 29th 2007 POTD Proof

Problem by: Landen
Created for: #Math on EFNet IRC Network
Author: InfiniteI
10 July 2007

Problem:
Show that the rational number
12m + 1
30m + 2
is in lowest terms for any positive integer m.

Lemma. If 12m + 1 is even then m is not a positive integer.
Proof. Assume that m is a positive integer. We proceed by cases, according to whether m is even or odd.

Case 1. Let m be a positive even integer. Then m = 2a, where a ∈ Z and a > 0. Observe that

12m + 1 = 12(2a) + 1
= 2(12a) + 1.

Since 12a is an integer, 12m + 1 is odd.

Case 2. Let m be a positive odd integer. Then m = 2b + 1, where b ∈ Z and b ≥ 0. Observe that

12m + 1 = 12(2b + 1) + 1
= 24b + 13
= 2(12b + 6) + 1.

Since 12b + 6 is an integer, 12m + 1 is odd.

Proof of Main Result. Assume, to the contrary, that the rational number
12m + 1
30m + 2
is not in lowest terms for any positive integer m. In other words, 12m + 1 is divisible by 30m + 2.

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That is,

30m + 2 | 12m + 1.
Thus,

12m + 1 = n(30m + 2),
where n ∈ Z and n 6= 0. We proceed by cases, according to whether m is a positive even integer or positive odd
integer.

Case 1. Let m be a positive even integer. Then m = 2k, where k ∈ Z and k > 0. It follows that

12m + 1 = n(30m + 2)
= n[30(2k) + 2]
= n(60k + 2)
= 2(30kn + n).

Since 30kn + n is an integer, 12m + 1 is even. By the Lemma, if 12m + 1 is even, then m is not an integer. Therefore,
we have a contradiction.

Case 2. Let m be a positive odd integer. Then m = 2l + 1, where l ∈ Z and l ≥ 0. Observe that

12m + 1 = n(30m + 2)
= n[30(2l + 1) + 2]
= n(60l + 32)
= 2(30ln + 16n).

Since 30ln + 16n is an integer, 12m + 1 is even. By the Lemma, if 12m + 1 is even, then m is not an integer. Therefore,
we have a contradiction.

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