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Alternating Current

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a region of space where a magnetic monopole a force. 2 .Magnetism and Magnetic Fields magnetic field: north experiences definition on the north magnet. The direction of the field is by the direction of the force end of a The figure shows the lines of magnetic fields from a bar magnet form closed lines. By convention. the field direction is taken to be outward from the North pole and in to the South pole of the magnet.

3 . The axis of this fictitious bar magnet does not coincide with the earth’s rotational axis: the two axes are currently about 11.The earth behaves magnetically almost as if a bar magnet were located near its center.5 0 apart.

For a negative use your left hand.Magnetic Field of Current The magnetic field lines around a long wire which carries an electric current form concentric circles around the wire. the pa points in the direction of the force on the particle. Use your right hand to determine the direction of for on a moving positively charged particle a magnetic field. and the thumb pointing in the direction of the velocity of the particle. The direction of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wire and is in the direction the fingers of your right hand would curl if you wrapped them around theMagnetic Field thumb in the direction Charges in a wire with your of the current. With the fingers from so to north (the same direction as the field). 4 .

Electromagnetic Induction MAGNETIC FLUX Magnetic flux may be thought of as an amount of magnetic field passing through an area. The following diagram depicts a magnetic field directed away from the observer. A particular area of the field has been enclosed in a rectangle. 5 .

Or. another is to use a stronger field: 6 . One way is to use a larger rectangle.There are several ways of increasing magnet flux.

Also. B. The greatest amount of magnetic flux is when A and B are perpendicular. magnetic flux depends on the angle between B and A.Magnetic flux therefore depends on field strength. Twice as much of either one gives you twice as much magnetic flux. and on area. A. 7 .

Therefore the magnitude of magne ux. SI Unit of Magnetic Field: newton-second/coulomb-me = 1 Tesla (T) 8 .Reducing the angle between A and B reduces the amount of f assing through the area. ƒ. 1 where f is the magnitude of the magnetic fo a positive test charge q0 B is magnitude of the magnetic field at any point in space v is the velocity of the charge and makes a an angle θ (0 < θ < 1800) with the direction of the magnetic field. is ƒ = Bq0vsinθ Eqn.

a tribute to this great man. N.S. Austria-Hungary Croatia] died Jan. 1856. discovered and patented the rotating magnetic field. He also developed the three-phase system of electric power transmission. He emigrated to the United States in 1884 and sold the patent rights to his system of alternating-current dynamos. Smiljan. New York City. 1943. an induction coil widely used in radio. the basis field of most alternating current machinery.Nikola Tesla. 9 . 7.. Serbian-American inventor and engineer.Y. The unit of magnetic field strength is the N/(C-m). transformers. and motors to George Westinghouse. In 1891 he invented the Tesla coil. U. born July 9/10. called a tesla.

Because a coulomb per second is an ampere.One tesla is the strength of the magnetic field in which a unit test charge. the tesla is often written as: 1 Tesla = N/(A-m) Another convenient unit to use is the Gauss: 1 gauss = 10-4 tesla 10 . experiences a force of one newton. travelling perpendicular to the magnetic field with a speed of one meter per second.

Charged particles from the sun are captured by the earth’s magnetic field. When the particles collide with the gas molecules in the upper atmosphere. curtains of colorful light are often formed. 11 .The magnetic field is defined in terms of the magnetic force and a moving test charge. The photo shows an aurora borealis (“northern lights”) display over silhouetted trees.

The following two conditions must be met for a charge to experience a magnetic force when placed in a magnetic field. The charge must be moving. for no magnetic force acts on a stationary charge. 1. The velocity of a moving charge must have a component that is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. 2. 12 .

In either case. 13 . we must take into account the fact that the masses of the proton and the electron are different. The proton encounters a magnetic field whose magnitude is 0. because the charges have opposite signs. In using the second law. Magnetic Forces on Charged Particles A proton in a particle accelerator has a speed of 5. the acceleration is given by Newton’s second law.40 T and whose direction makes an angle of θ = 30. Find (a) the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on the proton and (b) the acceleration of the proton.Example 1.0 x 106 m/s. the magnitude of the magnetic force are given by equation 1 but have opposite directions. (c) What would be the force and acceleration if the particle were an electron instead of a proton? Reasoning For both the proton and the electron. which applies to the magnetic force just as it does to any force.00 with respect to the proton’s velocity.

the direction of the force on the electron is opposite to that on the proton.6 x 1013 m/s2 Ans (c) The magnitude of the magnetic force on the electron is the same as that on the proton.60 x 10-19 C. However.6 x 10-13 N)/(9. or downward.6 x 10-13 N)/1.60 x 10-19 C)(5.60 x 10-13N Ans. a = f/mE = (1.Solution (c)The positive charge on a proton is 1.0 x 106 m/s)(0.9 x 1017 m/s2 Ans 14 . it is the net force.40 T)(sin 300) = 1. since both have the same speed and charge magnitude. Thus… a = f/mP = (1. Since the only force acting on the proton is the magnetic force f. The magnitude of the magnetic force is given by f = q0vBsin θ: f = (1.) (b) The proton’s acceleration follows directly from Newton’s second law.11 x 10-31 kg = 1.67 x 10-27 kg = 9.

EXAMPLE 2. moves into a magnetic field directed toward the observer.0 x 105 m/s enters a magnetic field of 0. 15 . assuming it eventually leaves the field. An electron traveling to the left. the palm points south.28 x 10-14 N [S].An alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons) traveling east at 2.6 x 10-19 C)(2. Trace the path of the particle. Example 3. and the thumb pointing east.20 T)sin90º = 1. . F = qvBsinø = (2 x 1. What is the force acting on the alpha particle? Solution With the fingers of the right hand pointing straight up.20 T pointing straight up.0 x 105 m/s)(0.

16 .Solution The moment the electron enters the field. The electron follows a circular path until it leaves the field. it experiences a force perpendicular to its velocity.

When the particle reaches point 2. 17 .To understand why the path is circular consider two points on the circumference labeled 1 and 2. the magnetic force still remains perpendicular to the velocity but is now directed to the left in the drawing. When the positively charged particle is at point 1. The magnetic force always remains perpendicular to the velocity and is directed toward the center of the circular path. the magnetic force f is perpendicular to the velocity v and points directly upward.

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