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Unit 1 Topic 2 Motion in One Dimension
Average speed = ___Distance ___ Elapsed time Example 1 How far does a jogger run in 1.22 m/s x 5400 s = 11. 2.988 m Answer 2 .22 m/s? Solution: Distance = Average speed x Elapsed time = 2.5 hrs (5400 s) if his average speed is 2. Displacement The displacement is a vector that points from an object’s initial position to its final position and has a magnitude that equals the shortest distance between the two positions. Speed and Velocity AVERAGE SPEED The distance traveled divided by the time required to cover the distance.1.
the car travels the same distance in 4.7 m/s 3 Note: The magnitudes of the velocities are 339.5 and 342.695 s. to nullify wind effects.609 meters in a time of 4.740 sec. In the reverse direction. The car first travels from left to right and covers a distance of 1.1 m/s .5 m/s v = ∆x /∆t = -1.695 s = -342.740 s = 339. Average velocity = _Displacement__ Elapsed time v = _ x – x0_ = _ ∆x__ t – t0 ∆t Example 2. Solution: Run 1 Run 2 v = ∆x/∆t = 1. The average is 341. one in each direction. A driver runs a jet-engine car through a course in two runs.7 m/s.609 m / 4.609 m / 4. Determine the average velocity for each run.AVERAGE VELOCITY Average velocity is displacement (∆x) divided by elapsed time (∆t).
(b) Calculate the boat’s average speed.+ 2. A straight track is 1600 m in length. (a) Draw a vector scale diagram of the boat’s motion.5 km [W] before discovering a large school of fish on the sonar screen at 06:30 AM. until she reaches the river.5 m/s in a straight line. A runner begins at the starting line.A fishing boat leaves port at 04:30 AM in search of the day’s catch. What is the runner’s average velocity. The dog is unleashed and runs back and forth at 4. runs due east for the full length of the track.0 km away. The boat travels 4. The woman runs at 2.Solve: 3. The time for this run is five minutes. A woman and her dog are out for a morning run for the river 4.5 km [S] and finally 1. What is the total distance run by the dog? 4 . and what is his average speed? 3. and runs halfway back. (c) Determine the boat’s average velocity.5 m/s between his owner and the river. then 2.5 km [E]. turns around.
i.. ā = _v2 – v1_ = _∆v_ t2 – t1 = ∆t 5 .e. and. it is the number (with units) indicated by the speedometer.e.. Acceleration Acceleration Average Acceleration (ā) the rate at which the velocity of a particle changes with time. in the limit that ∆t becomes infinitesimally small. v = lim (∆x /∆t) ∆t 0 3. the instantaneous velocity and the average velocity become equal. the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity. i. change of velocity divided by the corresponding time interval. In a moving car. The instantaneous velocity is approximately equal to (≈) average velocity for sufficiently small ∆t.INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY Instantaneous Velocity Instantaneous Speed indicates how fast a particle moves and the direction of the motion at each instant of time.
15/3 m/s2 t – t0 12 – 9 = . (d) In the same interval. and the driver deploys a parachute and applies the brakes to slow down. the velocity of the first car changes by a greater amount than the velocity of the second car does. What is the average acceleration of the dragster? Given: Solution: t0 = 9. Which one of the following is true? (a) the velocity of the first car is always greater than the velocity of the second car.0 s and the car’s velocity is v0 = 28 m/s.5 m/s2 CYU 2: Two cars are moving on straight sections of a highway. The driver begins slowing down when t0 = 9. and both accelerations have the same direction. A drag racer crosses the finish line.0 s. When t = 12 s. v = +13 m/s . t = ā = _v – v0_ = _13 – (+28)_ = . v0 = 28 m/s. (c) In the same interval. the velocity of the second car changes by a greater amount than the velocity of the first car does. (b) the velocity of the second car is always greater than the velocity of the first car. [c] 7 . the velocity has been reduced to v = + 13 m/s.Example 5. The acceleration of the first car is greater than the second car .
4) and (2. the average velicity is midway between the initial and final velocities: vave = ½(v0 + v) (constant acceleration) The displacement at time t is now determined as: x = vavet = ½(v0 + v)t (constant acceleration) (2.4) The displacement x at time t. is: vave = x – x0_ = x_ or x = vavet t –t0 t Because the acceleration is constant.7) Note that there are five kinematic variables in equations (2. the final velocity is found by: ā = a = v – v0 _ or v = v0 + at t (constant acceleration) (2.4. Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration For an object with initial velocity of v0 at t0 = 0 and moves for a time t with a constant acceleration a. the average velocity increases at a constant rate. x = displacement 4. Thus.7): 1. assuming that x0 = 0 m at t0 = 0 s. v0 = initial velocity at t0 = 0 8 .
Example: 1.7) contains four of these variables.7). from eq. (2. t = 8 s.7) to yield an equation that allows solving for x in a single step: x = ½[v0 + (v0 + at)]t = ½(2v0t + at2) x = v0t + ½at2 (2.Each of equations (2. (2.4) and (2.0 m/s2 .0 m/s2 .0 m/s. Solution: Given: a = +2.0 m/s + 2. find its displacement after 8 seconds. If the initial velocity of the boat is +6. so if three of them are known.0 m/s.0 m/s + 22 m/s) 8 s = 112 m ≈ 110 m (correct to 2 dec places) Note: Equation (2.0 m/s2 (8 s) = 22 m/s x = ½(6. v0 = +6.8) 9 . From eq. the fourth can always be found. A speed boat has a constant acceleration of +2.4): x = ½ (v0 + v)t v = v0 + at v = 6.4) may be substituted into equation (2.
)/a] and then substituting into Equation 2.9) 10 . x=? Notice that solving Equation 2. a = +31 m/s2. the jet is catapulted with a constant acceleration of +31 m/s2 along a straight line and reaches a velocity of 62 m/s.2.4 for the time [ t = (v – v0. t = (v – v0)_ = 62 m/s – 0_ a 31 m/s2 t = 2 sec Subst in (1) : x = ½ ( 31 m/s2)(2 s)2 = 62 m Ans (1) v0 = 0. A jet is taking off the deck of an aircraft carrier. and solving for v2 yields: v2 = v02 + 2ax (2. Given: Solution: x = v0t + ½ at2 from equation (a): v = v0 + at.7. v = 62 m/s. Find the displacement of the jet. Starting from rest.
Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration No. 2.9 Equation v = v0 + at x = ½ (v0 + v)t x = v0 t + ½ at2 V2 = v02 + 2ax Variables x √ √ √ a √ √ √ v √ √ √ v0 √ √ √ √ t √ √ √ - Deceleration Versus Negative Acceleration Deceleration: means only that the acceleration vector points opposite to the velocity vector and indicates that the moving object is slowing down. A decelerating object does not necessarily have a negative acceleration. its instantaneous speed decreases.7 2. 11 .8 2. When a moving object slows down.4 2.
it slows down with an acceleration of -1. the object could be travelling to the left.6m/s2 . Phase 2: x = (v02 – v2)/2a = [(12)2 + (25)2)]/2(-1. What is the total displacement of the motorcycle? Solution: Phase 1: v2 = v02 + 2ax . However. has an acceleration of +2. so the acceleration a would have a positive value. v2 = 0 + 2(2.6m/s2)(120m) = 624 (m/s)2 v = 25 m/s this is the initial velocity for phase 2.5 m/s2) = 160 m Total displacement = 120 + 160 = 280 m 12 . in the positive direction. the value of the acceleration would indeed be negative. Here.5 m/s2 until its velocity is +12m/s.When a moving object slows down. starting from rest. Example. its instantaneous speed (the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity) decreases. A motorcycle. The term “decelerating” implies that the acceleration vector points opposite. After the motorcycle travelled a distance of 120 m. One possibility is that the velocity vector of the object points to the right. or to the left. which is the negative direction. in which case the acceleration vector would point opposite or to the right.
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