This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
has been reproduced from the microfilm master, U M S films
the text directly from the original or wpy submitted. Thus, some thesis and
dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from any type of computer printer.
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the
copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations
and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adversely affect reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted.
Also, if unauthorized
copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate t h e deletion. Oversize materials (e-g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand comer and continuing
from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps.
Photographs included in the original manuscript have been reproduced xerographically in this copy. Higher quality 6" x 9" black and white photographic prints are available for any photographs or illustrations appearing in this copy for an additional charge. Contact UMI directfy to order.
Bell & Howell Information and Learning 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346 USA
ZBNHAJAR A L - L ~ ~ ~ ON ~~ TAJRIE K N iAND T OF WITH TRANSMITTEM. A STUDY OF HIS T A H D AGTABDH~B ~ ~
Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Arts
The Institute of Islamic Studies Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research McGill University Montreal, June 1999
OAndi Muhammad Ali Amiruddin 1999
, " f o
Bibliotheque nationale du Canada
Acquisitions and Bibliographic Services
395 Wellington Street Ottawa ON K I A O N 4
Acquisitions et services bibliographiques
395. rue Wellington Ottawa ON K I A ON4
The author has granted a nonexclusive licence allowing the National Library of Canada to reproduce, loan, distribute or sell copies of this thesis in microform7 paper or electronic formats.
L'auteur a accorde m e licence non exclusive pertnettant a la Bibliotheque nationale du Canada de reproduire, prster, distribuer ou vendre des copies de cette these sous la forme de microfiche/fiIm, de reproduction sur papier ou sur format electronique. L'auteur conserve la propriete du droit d'auteur qui protege cette these. Ni la these ni des extraits substantiels de celle-ci ne doivent &re imprimes ou autrement reproduits sans son autorisation.
The author retains ownership of the copyright in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts fiom it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's permission.
An& Muhammad Ah Amiruddin Ibn Hajar d-'AsqalGii on Tajn? and Ta'dil of Hadah Transmitters: A Study of his Tahdhib al-Tahdhib Deparhnent: Institute of Islamic Studies Degree: Master of Arts
Many works present solid biographical data on had5h transmitters, offering rajn? and
ra'dil with respect to both personal and social background. These works have different
ways of organizing their entries. Some show various classes CtabaqiZ) of hndsh transmitters, e . g . , TabaqaT of Ibn Sa'd. Others use alphabetical order. The outcome is a difference not only in structure but in contents. Some works are based on transmitters, such as those of the six canonical books of Sunnl hadrfh;others are based specifically on the disput2ble qualities of the transmitters. The purpose of this thesis is to present Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZG7s Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, which comes as a summation of its kind and is to a large degree comprehensive. By focusing on some biographies of hads?z transmitters included in Tahdhz'b al-Tahdhr'b which are based on the transmission chains of four selected hadrrhs, we hope to show Tahdhib al-Tahdhib as a independent source for assessing the validity of had2h transmission chains. Moreover, by comparing the assessment of a ha& transmitter found in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib to that of other works -
such as Kira3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta 'd2 b y Ibn Abi HZtim al-REiil and MGak al-l'tidal by alDhahab? - we hope to appraise the position of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqals within Igzdiih
Auteur: Titre: Dkparternent: Dipl6me:
Andi Muhammad Ali Amiruddin Le Tajn7-1et Ta'dil des transmetteurs des wths selon Ibn Hajar al'AsqalZd: Une ktude de son Tahdhib d-7'-3. Institut des etudes Islamiques, Universitk McGill Mattrise &sArts
Plusieurs ouvrages prbentent de I'information biographique solide sur Ie Tajni et le Ta'dtl des transmetteurs des w i qui tiennent compte des enviromements personel
e t social. Ces travaux ont diffkrentes mani6res de compiler leurs informations. Certains prhentent des classes (tabaqat)variies des transmetteurs des
w i h s ,comme par exemple
le Tabaqat d'Ibn Sa'd. Par conue, d'autres exkgetes udliseront l'ordre alphabktique. Ce qui aura pour rQultant une d%irence non seulement dans la structure mais aussi dans son contenu. De plus, certains ouvrages se fondent sur les transmetteurs eux-rnEmes, tels
Z h s alors que d'autres sont bndts sur les qualitks que les six lines canoniques des W
contestkes des transmetteurs. Le but de ce memoire est de prksenter le M i b al-TaMhr'b
d' Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalGii qui, selon Juynboll, est une synthese du genre et son "Cdifce."
En portant une attention particulikre sur quelques biographies des transmetteurs des inclus dam le TaMhib al-TaMhib et.qui se fondent sur les chaines de nansmission
de quatre lpdiilu st5lectiomt5s, nous tenterons de montrer le TaMhrTb al-TaMhrIb, en c a n t
que source indtpendante et ce, en tvaluant la validid des chafnes de transmission des
whs.Enfin, en comparant 1'6valuation d'un transmetteurs des @dr'hs i n c h dam le
TaMhr'b al-TaMhib zvec d'autres issus d'autres auvrages, tels que le K i d al-Jmk wa al-
Tat& de Ibn Abi HZtim al-EGii et le Mkin al-I'dddl de al-Dhahabi, nous tenterons
d'kvaluer la position d' Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliirii au sein de la critique des wih.
In preparation and completion of this work, I have received valuable guidance, assistance
and support from several individuals. f would hereby like to acknowledge my sincere
thanks to all of t h e m .First of all, I would Like to express my gratitude and indebtedness to Prof. Eric Onnsby, who has been my supervisor since my first year in the Institute of Islamic Studies. 1 am indebted to him for his indispensable guidance and stimulating feedback.
I am also t h e 1 to a l l my professors, the staff at the Institute of Islamic Studies
and the staff of the library of the Institute of Islamic Studies for their assistance during
my two years of study at lMcGill University - in particular, Salwa Ferahian and Wayne
St, Thomas, who have been very helpful and always friendly.
My thanks to the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) for the scholarship which enables me to study at McGill University; and to Wendy Allen (Director of the Indonesian-Canada Higher Education Project), Joanna Gacek, Lori Novak, Susy RicciardeIli, Phil William and Any Yoesoef of the Indonesian Project in both Montreal and Jakarta, for their helpful assistance, Thank also to the Rector of the State Institute of Islamic Studies (DUN) Alauddin in Ujungpandang, Indonesia and the Dean of Ushuluddin Faculty of IMN Alauddin in Ujungpandang, who gave me a Ieave of absence from work to allow me to pursue my studies at McGill University. I have received the assistance of many persons in Montreal and for various ends. I
would like to express my deep thanks to Asaad F. Shaker, who has helped me in editing
this thesis. The same appreciation goes to a l l my fiiends, who have offered their warm
and kindly friendships during my stay in Montreal, especially lsmatu Ropi, Ahmad Nur
Fuad, Hasnul Arifin Melayu and Muhammad Agus Nuryatno.
Finally, I wish to express my deepest gratitude and appreciation to all my family
in Sulawesi, particularly my parents, brother and sisters, whose support never wavers.
Montreal, June, I999
Andi Muhammad Ali Arniruddin
The Arabic transliteradon in this thesis follows the system used by the Institute of Islamic
Studies at McGilI University.The table of t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n is as follows:
a = 1,
Ti~~uzhijah will be transliterated as "hnfor example, thiqah = ~ and i as "t" when in a
construct phrase, such as Muqaddzinut Ibn al-Su@=
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ....-..... -.................. ...-.. ,--.............................................. --....-. ..
Rhn-116 .....-..-.-...-.-.... , . , . . . . . , . .
.. . . . . .
. , .- . . . ... . .......... . .
Aknowledgements ....-. ....-. .-.. .....-. ...--.. ....--. .......................... . ...
. . . . .. .
Transliteration .............-......---.----.-------.-..-.--.---.... . ....... v
Tabte of Contents .... .....-. .,...-. ..-. -...........................,...- ...........-.........- -.. vi
....-. ................-.. -. .-. .....-. ........ . ...
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..
Chapter I: IBN W A RA V A S Q A L ~ HIS : LIFE AND WORKS ON
W ~ T HTRANSMITTJBS ..........................................................
A. A Biographical Sketch .................................................
B. His Works on I-jadrTthTransmitters ......................... ................... ... 14
Chapter 1 1 : IBN WfAR AVASQA.L&I%
T w H D 3 AL-T-HIB
. . . .- .....
A. Motivation............................................................................. 33
B. The Sources of TaMhz'b al-TaMhib ................................- -. ...- .. 36
C. The Structure of TaMhib d-TaMhib ....-. .....-. ........................- .. 44
D .Ibn Hajar's Method of TaMhr'b aGTahdhib .......................-. .....-.- 54
E. Ibn Hajar's System of Codes ........................................... ... 56
F. Printing History of the Text .............. ........... . .......... . . ........... 58
Chapter III: IBN =JAR
A C L A S Q: T ~
AND T A ~ OF E&Wr?' Fl
TRANSMITTERS ................................................................ 63
A- Ibn m j a r al-‘AsqalS's Formulation
.................... . ........................
B. Assessing the Validity of Some H d h based on Ibn Hajar's T & %
aZ-Thdhib ................................ . . .
............................................................113 Bibliography ..................... . . .
Ibn Hajar al-'~s~a1-~'(773-852/1372-1449) was a judge, historian and h d t h scholar. His life work was in the science of hud2h, where he became the greatest and, at the same time, a typical representative of Muslim religious scholarship2 He was a prolifc writer
and left many important writings in historiography, rijal al-&dah ("biographies of
transmitters"), usul al-hadfi ("principles of prophetic tradition"), naqd al-hadah ("criticism of prophetic tradition"). He also produced works in sharh ("commentaries")
and ikhti~ui ~'summaries").
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalE's erudition has been widely admired. Sabri Walid Kawash
wrote a doctoral dissertation on al-' AsqalTuii entitled fin Ifajar al- 'AsqaIa'ni(1372-1#9
A.D.): A Study of the Background. Education and Career of a 'Alim in Egypt. ShTlkir
M G d 'Abd al-Munch studied his works and method with special reference to al-
@Zbah fi TamyTz al-Sazbah; and Muhammad K a m a al-Dh 'hz al-D?n7sh qajar alcAsqala%r'Mu'arriWuuzfocused on Ibn Hajar's career as an historian, Other students of
al-'AsqalZ6's historical approach have considered Ibn Hajar amrr al-mu'minh jr al-
bdr'th ("The Commander of the Faithful in the study of tradition"). However, no work,
as far as I know, specifically focuses on his contribution to the t a j n i ("discrediting") and
H i s complete proper name was A l p a d b. 'Ali b. Maammad b. Mulpmrnad b. 'AIi b. Akpad, Shihib alDin, AbC al-Fa@al-JCinZ aLLAsqaI%xii.He was born in old Cairo on 22 Sha*b&773/28 February 1372 and died in the same city, on 28 Dhi aI-Hi.& 852/22 February 1449. Sabri Khalid Kawash, "Ibn Hajar d'AsqaITni: A Study of the Background. Education and Career of a ' f i m in Egyptv* (Ph.D diss.. Princeton University, 1969) 11.
F. Rosenthal, "Ibn fladjar al-'AskalGii' in Encyclopaedia o f Ishm. vo1.3 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960) 776.
taCdr2("justification") of hadt'th transmitters. The present study examines lbn Hajar's
important contribution to this field, with special reference to his TuMhib al-~uhdhib.~
Ibn Hajar proposed six levels of ta'dil. Compared to other scholars like Ibn Abi
@tim al-REi (d. 327f937): Ibn SaI* a l - S h a h r e (d. 643/124315 and Shams al-Dk
al-Dhahabi (d. 748/1348),6 Ibn uajar offered a more detailed and precise scheme. For example, he put thiqait ("reliable") at the third level, while other scholars placed it at the second or even the first. Similarly, in rajn'h Ibn Hajar put kadhdha'b ("liar") at the second level, whereas others put it at the first, the first level being reserved for aMhab nl-naS ("the gravest liar"). This suggests that Ibn Hajar employed technical expressions rather differently in his tajn? and ta'dil of the hadr'th transmitters. When scholars pass judgment on the
i k e rawassut qualities or defects of hndih transmitters, they use these expressions l
("averageness") and tasalul ("Iaxity"). In his TaMh3 al-Tahdhl'b, he used various terms
to distinguish transmitters. We wish to find out if Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal-56 had accepted
weak (du ' 8 hadr'ths, weak due to the defectiveness of their transmitters.
The aim of this research, then, is to determine Ibn Hajar al-'Asqakii's notions of i t h that of Ibn Abi mtim the tajn? and ta'dil of &zdr'th transmitters, and to compare it w
al-RZi, Ibn Sal* al-ShahrazZ and Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi. We w i l l discuss how Ibn
It was pubIished in 12 vols. (Eiyderabad: Majlis DZ'irat al-Ma'kif al-'UthrnZniyyah, 1325-1327 AH.)
His formulation may be found in his Kita3 a[-larh wa ol-Ta'dil (Ayderabad: Majlis DFirat al-Ma'W,
Ab3 'Amr 'UthmZn b. 'Abd al-Ralpan Ibn Sal* a l S a h r a z Z , 'Uluk al-Had& ed. Nir al-Din ' I t r (Madinah: al-Maktabah al-'Ilmiyyah, 1972). See Carl Brockelmann, GAL, SI, 610 f f .
Abii 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. m a d Shams &Din al-Dhahab?, M i % % aL-Igridalfi-Naqd al-Rval, ed. 'MMuhammad al-BijW, (Cairo: %Z al-Bib al-edabi, 1963). See GAL II, 57 ff: SII, 45 ff.
Hajar al-'Asqaliirii applied his categorization, which may have led him to be either
moderate or even quite loose in his own acceptance of hadr'ths and their transmitters.
The study will consist of three chapters. The first is a brief biographical sketch of
Ibn @ajar al-'AsqalX and an introduction to his works on badr'th transmitters. The
i l l discuss Ibn Hajar's motivations, sources, structure, method and the second chapter w
coding system of Tahdhib al-Tuhdhib. It will also examhe some parts of his TaMhib ab
Tuhdhr'b and compare them with similar parts in other works. The third chapter will focus
on Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalikii's notions of the tajri and ta'dil of &dr"th transmitters, comparing them to those of Ibn Abi HZtim al-RZ, Ibn Sd* al-ShahraziE and Shams
aLDh al-Dhahabi. The last part of this chapter will assess the validity of some hadr'ths based on Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal-&ii's ta'd2 of W
TuMhib al-TaMhib. Ibn Hajar's records of tajri? and
h transmitters may provide evidence that these notions had affected his
Finally, in the conclusion, we will see whether or not Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal-ii's
categorization into tawassuf and tasa7tul in the tajn? and ta'drZ of hadah transmitters iduenced his attitude towards weak hadrfhs and their transmitters.
CHAPTER ONE IBN W A R A L ' A s Q A L K ~ : HIS LIFE AND WORKS ON @WITH TRANSMITTERS
A. A Biographical Sketch
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZrC' was a judge, historian and hadih scholar. His life work was in the science of hadiih, where he became the greatest but, at the same time, typical representative
of Muslim religious scholarship.' H e was a prolific writer and left many important writings
in historiography, rijal al-@d2h ("'biographies of transmitters"), u ~ u al-had2h l ('principles
of the prophetic tradition"), and naqd
("criticism of the prophetic tradition"); he
also produced works in sha* ("commentaries") and ikhti~a?("summaries") of other works.
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaiZ was born in old Cairo on 22 ShaCb% 773/28 February 1372
and died in the same city on 28 DhG al-ljijjah 852/22 February 144ga3 He is known simply
as Ibn Hajar,'' a name whose origin he himself did not know.' In his Raf a [ - & - 'an Qudcr?
His complete proper name was Mmad b. 'AG b . Muhammad b. Mulyimrnad b- 'Ali b . Ahmad, ShihZb al-Din, Abii al-Fadl al-Kinan? aLbAsqalk7.This name consists of laqab, kunyah, shuhrdz and nisbahs, which have been studied by Sabri Khalid Kawash, Ibn Ifajar al-'Asqai&E A Study of the Background, Education and Career of a ' f i m in Egypr (Ph.D diss., Princeton University, 1969). 11. Ibn Hajar himsetf has provided his brief autobiography in his Raf al-Mizr 'an Qu&? Mhr, ed. 'Ali Muhammad 'Umar (Cairo: Maktabat d-Khanfi, 1998), 62-64; also Brockelmann, GAL, IT: 80-84 and Supplement, E 72-76.
F. Rosenthal, "Ibn Hadjar al-'AskalZin.." El 2 ,(Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1971), IIk 776.
Sabri Khalid Kawash, Ibn Hajar al- 'Asqalchl';11 .
" Ibn Hajar is well known by this part of his name, even though at that time most names consisted of several
parts. See Richard W. Bulliet, " A Quantitative Approach to Medieval Muslim Biographical Dictionaries," Journal of the Economic and Social Hisrory of the Orient MII ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,t 98. An extensive discussion on the origin of his family name may be found in Sabri Khalid Kawash, Ibn @ajaral'Asqala%E A Study of rhe Background, Educazion a d Career of a '~Tirn in Egypt, 1 1-15.
Mip-, Ibn Hajar mentions 'AsqalZn from where his family came, he himself was born and
brought up i n Cairo, Egypt! His f d y was well known and displayed a predilection for knowledge and Literature.' His father Niir al-Dk 'AIi (died Rajab 777)' was a noted scholar, whose legal advice was highly valued. The uncle of his father, Fakhr a l D m'UthmZn b.
Muhammad b. 'AIi (d. 714),was also a famous scholar. As a ShZcite legal authority, he
drew people who needed fatwaS.
It is reported that Ibn Hajar lost his parents at a very young age. He was brought up
by ZaE d-DinAbii Bakr b. NGr al-Db 'AIi al-Kharribi, one of his guardians and a famous
trader of Egypt in his time. In 784, al-KharrGbi took the then eleven-year-old Ibn Hajar on a
pilgrimage to Mecca where the latter continued his education by studying some parts of alBukhz's Sah3
- under Musnid
al-@Gar, 'Afif al-Dim 'Abd All&
an-Nashawirig and the
'Umdat al-Ahkam of 'Abd al-Gharii al-Maqdisi." Upon their return to Egypt, Ibn Hajar
remained under the care of al-Khanfib? until the latter's death (M&mam 787), when Ibn
Hajar was fourteen years old. Since Ibn Hajar was still considered under age, he was taken
care of by his second guardian, Shams al-D'in b. al-QagZn, until he reached majority."
Ibn Hajar aLbAsqalGni,Raf al-Iqr 'an Quda't Mip-, 62. On his compIete name, see note #I.
' Shams aI-Din Muhammad
b. 'Abd al-Rahrnan al-SakhZG, '61ntroduction:' al-JawaXir wa al-Durar fi rajamar al-Shaykh al-lslak Ibn qajccr (al-'Asqalini) (Cairo: al-Majlis aI-A'lZ li al-Shu'iin al-Islamiyyah, 1986). ha.
Ibn Hajar aI-'Asqalani, Raf al-I;r 'an Qudo'r MQr,62. Ibid.
'O The obscure transmitters of hadrfh found in this book are studied later by Ibn Hajar and included in one book, Tasmiyyah man 'Urzfamimnt~n Abhumafi al-'Umdah. See its brief explication in part B of this chapter-
" Sabri KhaIid Kawash, Ibn Hajar al- 'Asqa&C
Despite being an orphan, Ibn Hajar managed to obtain a good education and to become one of the leading scholars of his time. His education may be divided into two distinct stages with only a brief break." The f u s t stage started when he entered school at
about five years old.I3 He learned the entire Qur5.n by heart at the age of nine with three
successive teachers: Mulpmnad b. al-'AUZ, Shams al-D'in al-A*@iish and Muhammad alSafafi.14 A year-and-a-half later -customary for someone seeking to keep the Qur'Sn in memory- Ibn Hajar spent his time repeating his memorization until he departed for Mecca with his frrst guardian, ZaEi aI-D'm al-Kharriibi. After returning from Mecca, Ibn Hajar began studying the art of writing and calligraphy, successively, with two well-known calligraphers, 'Ali al-BadmZjT and Muhammad al-zaftii~i.'~ In addition to calligraphy, Ibn Hajar also studiedfiqh, methodology of jurisprudence and grammar, committing to memory short books on these subjects. At the
same time, he kept hearing Soh$ al-Bukhaxat the house of his guardian ZaE &Din
Kharriibi which was performed by Shams d-Din Muhammad b. 'Umar al-Salaw? al-
When Ibn Ifajar was fourteen years old, he obtained an Uizah, by which a teacher certified that the student had achieved a satisfactory level of training. Ibn Hajar however did
Szbn KhaIid Kawash, Ibn Ifajar al-'AsqalLnC 72.
l3 Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, 'Introduction." Rar at-Isr 'an Qudar Misr, 62; Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. Honoring the Muslim: Refuiningfiom Hamzing and Thinking Evil of Him, trans. by Assad Nimer Busool, Ph.D (Chicago: Kazi Publication, 1982), 12.
Sabri Khdid Kawash, Ibn Ifajar al-'AsqalanC 7 3 . In "lbn Hajar: His Time and His Life," Sayyid Abul Fad names d-Sadr al-SUE,who might be the Muhammad d-Safati mentioned by Sabri Khalid Kawash. See Sayyid Abul Fazl, "Ibn Hajar; His time and his life," Islamic Culrure 32, no. 1 (January 1958), 30.
Sabri Khalid Kawash, ibid., 77,
Ibn @ajar al-'AsqaIZni, Raf a!-lzr 'an Qudtt Misr, 62-63.
not continue his formal education. Instead, he busied himself in reading books on history and literature. Three years later, he decided to attend classes, which marked the beginning of his second stage of study,
If the first stage was elementary, the second was advanced. He received instruction in
various branches of Islamic learning for a lengthy period of time and from many famous scholars of his day. He studied had& and fiqh, for instance, with S 5 j al-D-m al-Bulq7rii (d.
805), Sirsj aLIXrn b. al-Mulaqqin (d. 804), al-BurhZn al-IbnisT (d. 801), 'Izz &Din b.
Jama'ah (d. 819 AH) and al-Shams B m a w i (d. 831;. He learned the various readings (al-
qirzah al-sab 'ah) of the QurYZn with al-Taniikhl Niir al-Dvm al-HaythaxG (d. 8 0 7 ) ; Arabic
language and lexicography with Muwbb al-Din b. Hishim (d. 793), al-Majd al-FkabPdi (d.
817) and aI-GhimE (d. 802).
In 796 AH or the beginning of December 1394, Ibn Hajar chose to devote himself to
the study of bad2h, where he was best known and went on to compose most of his treatises.
For this purpose, like most hadr'th scholars, he made several journeys to Egypt, Syria, the
m j a z and Yemen, which brought him into contact with philologists, literary men" and
several eminent scholars of hadr'th from whom he heard several treatises of hadiWs He then studied hadirh for ten successive years with Z a p &Din al-'IrZql (d. 800
A H ) , who had reintroduced into the teaching of traditions the old method of imZ2
(dictation), and had brought the study of &zdiih back to its former glory." His ten years of
C. Van Arendonk, 4 b n Hadjar al-bAskal&-ii,'' EII (Leiden: E.J.Bril1, 1927). II: 380.
Sabri Khalid Kawash, Ibn Ifajar al- 'Asqahir",108-1 1 1,
l9 Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi, Hadirh Literature: Its origin, development, special feature and criticism (Calcutta: Calcutta University Press, 1961). 18 1.
study with 'Izz al-D-m b. al-JamZbah also greatly benefited him, and marked the beginning of
his scholarly research at the age of rwenty." The majority of his masters granted Ibn Qajar authority both to transmit had8z and to deliver fatwas and religious instruction. These amounted to formal recognition by Ibn Kajar's teachers of his ability to teach and deliver
fatwfi, as well as a sign ofgraduation, upon having completed his formal education."
After his study of hadr'th, Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalEi settled down in Cairo in 806 A.H.
and devoted himself to had5h and connected sciences. At that time, he was recognized as an
authority by fellow traditionists and was appointed as professor of hadr'th in various educational institutions." Besides his scholarly activities. lbn Hajar also held a position as
deputy to his Mend QZ@ al-Qudit l a m a al-Dm al-Bulq?n?. This led him to be appointed as
Chief Qadi in MNarrarn 827. He remained in this office for about 21 years, with brief periods of dismissal."
In order to understand Ibn Hajar A-'Asqal&iibs life and his point of view more
extensively, it will not be out of place to discuss the historical data which deal with political
and social conditions in Egypt and neighboring countries towards the end of the eighth
century and the first half of the ninth century h e - - just when Ibn yajar al-'AsqalT% Iived and wrote.
Ibn EJajarbslifetime coincided with the reign of the Mamlik sultanate in Egypt which
lasted until 922
When Ibn Kajar was born about the end of 8" century h e , Egypt was
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalIni, "Lntroduction."Honoring rhe Muslim, 1 2 .
Sabci Khalid Kawash, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqul&i, 1 1 1-1 13.
" Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi, Hadrh Literature. 182.
C.Van Arendonk, "lbn Qadjar al-'hWSrii,'' 380. Bernard Lewis, The Arabs in History (New York: Harper Torchbooks, l967), 155.
ruled by al-Ashraf Sha'bEn (r. 764-778), the twenty-third ruler in the line of the Balyi
Mamliks." Ibn Hajar saw fourteen Mamliik sultans in all; the last three Bahiis and eleven
Burjls. When he died in 852, the ruler was al-Z&ir Jakmaq of the Bur$ (r. 842-857).
During the Maml& period, Eaypt was the center of political activities and held a
position of leadership in the Middle East. It was due to the power of Mamliik Sultans. Another earlier reason for this eminence was the ruin of Baghdad as the center of Muslim caliphate in 656 as a result of the Mongol HiilZghG's attack. This attack did not stop at Baghdad but went on to Syria and surrounding areas up to the frontier region of Egypt. It was the Mamliiks of Egypt, under al-ZZhir Baybars (658-676), who defeated HSlZghiiYs armies
and freed captured lands? The remaining Frankish states in Syria and Palestine were also
captured and dismantled to prevent the Crusaders from establishing a base there ever agahZ7 At this time, the Muslim caliphate was reestablished with the crowning of a l Mustan~ir bi'llah, an 'Abbisid prince who arrived in Cairo in 659. However, the caliphate itself remained powerless, since a l l power was held by the M a m l k . " The successors of Baybars had still been warring against the remaining strongholds of the Crusaders, until the recapture of Acre in 690. When a l N e i r Muhammad came to the throne (r. 709-741), Egypt was no longer preocctlpied with fighting off external enemies. The last Mongol threat in the
winter of 712 was halted and the power of the Crusaders had been broken along with the
For the table of Mamlik Sul-&s, see P. M. Holt, "MamlGW in H Z (Leiden: EJBrill, 1971) IV: 328-329. The name Bahi refen to the Nile isiand of al-Rawdah, where the barracks of the slave-soldiers (the origin of Mami& sultans) in the service of al-Saif! Ayyiib were located. Egyptians called the Nile B h r , and the slavesoldiers were Bahiis. See .%mad b. 'AIi al-Maqiizi, K i d al-Suh& li Ma'nIfor D u a l al-MuU, ed. Muhammad Muzcafca Ziyadah (Cairo: MatbasatLajnat al-TaYEf w a al-Tarjamah wa al-Nashr, 1956), I: 340.
b . 'Ali al-Maqfiti, ibid. 432434; see Sabri Khalid Kawash, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqnlai-i, 4.
"P.M. Holt, ''MamlGks;" 322,
Frankish states.2gAfterward, it was the M d k who ruled Egypt, including Syria and Palestine. This situation remained stable until the death of al-Neir Muhammad. Kthough three successive generations followed him, their weakness, caused by infancy and inexperience. led to greater mistrust. In 762, an opposition faction led by Yalbugha al-'Umafi
appeared which succeeded in the capture of d-N&ir Hasan; the latter was put to death."
Sixteen years later, Barqiiq b. Anas (r. 784-79 1 and 792-80 1)- a Burjl rnamliik, deposed the last Ba@i and took over the sultanate - marking the beginning of the B e s ' rei,p~.~' For the Burjis, it was military power that counted.32They recognized no principle of hereditary succession and followed no policy of nepotism. The throne belonged to anyone
who could capture it or induce the caliph to elect him.33
During Ibn @ajar's lifetime, Egypt faced no significant threat, except the TurcoMongol forces of Ern&Leng, who expelled Alpad b. 'Uways from Baghdid. In order to respond to this threat, Barqiiq established a common front with the Ottomans and the Golden Horde in order to face Tmk. However, the battle never took place, since Timiir had no intention to invade Egypt and left Daniascus in Shacbh 803." Until Ibn Hajar's death, the power of MamIiik sultanate was still great. But there was social and economic decline for
Holt, "Mamlfiks," 323.
were also bodyguards in origin founded by the Batg7 Marnliik Qalawiin (12791290). If the Baip% were mostly Turks and Mongols, the latter were mostly Circassian slaves quartered at the towers (bug]of the citadel- See Philip K. Hitti, Hisrary o f the Arabs (London: MacMillan &Co. Ltd., 1964). 672.
" Their predecessors. the Burjis,
Sayyid Abul Faid, 'Tbn Hajar al-'AsqalZni: His times and his life," 32. Philip K.Hitti, History of the Arabs, 674.
For more detail, see P-M. Hoit, "Mamlliks,"324.
internal reasons pertaining to sultanate administration? The source of the problems lay in the successions and delegations of power. It was known that the Burjis avoided the principle of hereditary succession; instead, they held power through military and factional means. Intrigue and assassination were invariably associated with every succession. And the situation worsened - many sult%s were just "neacherous and bloodthirsty, some were inefficient or even degenerate, most of them were uncultt~red."~~ The sultanate and factions were cormpt arid "animated solely by the desire of grasping a l l possible wealth and influence." This adversely affected economic and social conditions, which at last brought poverty and famine. In fact, it was the darkest time in the annals of Syro-Egyptian history."
It is said that under the M d & , Egypt was a center of learning. This was due to
' in Syria and in Egypt - the Zangids specific historical reasons. The M a m l k k spredecessors
and the Ayyubids - had encouraged religious studies and established many institutions for
this purpose. Practically speaking, the large number of religious and educational institutions
that appeared created a need for trained people. The government itself needed qualified people for positions in the judicia~y.~' To accommodate these needs, the Mamliiks supported the establishment of new schools and the compilation of new books. There were eight well-known schools during the
Mamlk reign where religious sciences were taught:
(1) Al-Madrasah a l - m y a h al-Qadimah, founded in early 662 by a l w Baybars.
This school offeredfiqh according to the Hanafite and Shaficiteschools, had2h and qirzat.
For detailed accounts, see ibid.
Philip K. Hitti, History of rhe Arabs, 695.
(2) AI-Madrasah al-Mm@riyah, founded in 679 by S t @ %
al-Ma%& Sayf al-Din
Qalawiin where the fi4h of four schooIs, tafsfi (Qur'2n.i~ interpretation), hadrfh, and
medicine, were taught.
(3) Al-Madrasah al-NGiriyah, pioneered in 703 by Sultan KatabghZ and completed
by al-N&ir Maammad b. QalaGn. Its curriculum was based on the fiqh of the four schools.
(4) N-Madrasah al-S-biyah
al-BahZ'iyah, founded in 654 by al-Waiir al-S&ib
Baha' &Din 'ffi b. Maammad. It was considered one of the greatest centers of learning in
the world(5) Ai-Madrasah al-MankGtumZyah, in Cairo, established i n 698 by al-An& Sayf aL-
D'h MadGtimUr al-Hasam?.
(6)Al-Madrasah al-Jammz, established i n 730, in Cairo, by al-Axk 'AG' al-Din
MughallatZya al-JammZ, prime minister i n the reign of Sul~Znal-N+ir Muhammad b.
QalawGn. (7) Al-Madrasah al-Zhiriyah al-BarqSqiyah, founded in 788 by al-Z-iir Barqiiq.
(8) Al-Madrasah al-Mdpiidiyah, founded in 797 by al-AnGr J a i l a l - D l MalpnUd
b. ' f i d-Ustadar. 39
Besides these schools, there were other centers of learning at the time located near and attached to mosques." During the M a d & period flourished various religious scholar^.“^
Sabri Khalid &wash, ibn Hqkr al-CAq~%: 190-19 I. 'Abd al-Sattar al-Shaykh, al-fluj'T? Ibn Hajar af-'AsqafckE Amr'r al-Mu 'mink j i af-Hadiih (Damascus: DZr al-Qalam, 1992),21-22. 40 C. Van Arendonk, "Ibn Hadjar aI-'A~al5ni." 380.
Philip K.Hitti, History o f the Arabs, 689. Among other scholars at that t i m e were &mad al-Nuwayfi (1332); Ahmad al-Qalqashandi (1418), whose Sub4 al-A 'sha-intended as a manual for those who hold secretarial offices in the government; Sharaf al-Din Muhammad al-Bushiii(1213-1296), who wrote al-Burdah and Abii alM*%in b. Taghii Birdi who wrote at-Nujum al-&7zirahjiMufulMi$r w a al-Qahirah, a history book of Egypt from the 'Arab conquest until 1453,
Ibn Hajar reportedly taught at many of these institutions. But whereas in Shawwiil 808, he
was appointed as hadr'th teacher in the Shaykhkiyah, built by the high aml'r Shaykh alcUma6,'2in 8 11 Ibn flajar gave his first lecture on hadah in al-Madrasah al-Mankutumuriyah
as a volunteer.43These activities continued until he died.
Ibn Hajar also became librarian at ai-Madrasah a l - M m d i y a h , where he spent most of his time and where he found many rare and important books. He certainly benefited from
this position, but he also contributed by cataloguing the library's collections by order of
authors and subject. He held this position too until he passed away?
In general, Ibn Hajar's commitment to hadrfh study may be divided into two
categories according to the two main branches of hadiih study itself - i.e., methodology of hadrfh ('ilm dirc&at al-hadrfh)arid transmission of had5h ('ilm r i w e a t al-hadrfh).His vast knowledge is reflected in his numerous works, which cover both branches. His Nukhbat alF i b is typical of the first. A number of his works on hadrfh transmitters, to be briefly
discussed below, exemplify the second.
B. Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZni's works on ljad2h transmitters
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalz was a prolific writer. The probable reason is that books, especially those relating to the study of had2h, were in high demand among his students. Beside being a primary source of Islamic legislation, hadch is vital to religious learning; hence the popularity of hadah with all its ancillary branches. This partly explains why Ibn Hajar and
many scholars of his time wrote such a great number of books on had5h, although Ibn Hajar
Sabri -Xhalid Kawash, Ibn eajar al- 'AsqalinC 120.
certaidy excelled in this field far more than most other scholars in his time, at least measured
by the number of compilations to his name.
Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi states that Ibn mjar aL'AsqalZ6 left about 150 of both
h i s number is similar to what Sabri Khalid Kawash incomplete and complete works? T
In his 'lbn @ajar al- 'Asqalciinf A Study of the Background Education and Career of
a 'Alim in Egypt,"47 Sabri Khalid Kawash divides Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZrii's works into four
main categories: had%, history,fiqh and poetry. Since hadiih is a broad religious discipline,
Kawash specifically divides Ibn Hajar's works on this field into seven categories:
1) collections of h d h ;
2) annotations of some works on Aad3h;
6) biographical works;
7) bibliographical works.
However, this categorization does not include a l l !he books written by Ibn %ajar, but a selection of representative ones for each category. With respect to books on rija? ( W a h
M@afnmad Zubayr Siddiqi, Hadith Literature. 182.
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalPni, "Introduction:' Honoring the Musfim.
Sabri Khalid Kawash, ibid.
13: Sabri Khaki Kawash, Ibn Hajar al-
transmitters), for instance, Kawash briefly explains only three works of Ibn Hajar - alI~a3ahfiTamyE al-Saba%ah, Tahdhs al-Tahdhib and L i s e al-MGa%.48 There is also S h a MaQmiid 'Abd al-Mun'im's Ibn Hajar al- 'Asqala>rwa-DiraSar Mupmafazh wa-Mmhajih wa-Mawindih
fT K i t d i h
al-Iqabah.49 Unlike Sabri Khalid
Kawash's categorization, 'Abd al-Mun'im divides Ibn Hajar's treatises into twenty-four
i t h more detail. The groups are: the sciences of the Qur'Zn (7 books); the principles groups, w
(~.$2> of hadr'ih (8 books); commentaries (sharb) on hadah (12 books); the content (matn) of
hadah (16 books); the defects ( V a l ) and criticism of had% (11 books); methods of had&
(41 books); classification (takhn7) of had'th (8 books); the tens (al- 'ashaXya7) (1 1 books);
the forties (al-arbaliniyycZ)(11books); the books of al-afr$(9 books), addition (zaw2id) (7 books), interchange (ibdaa and accordance (al-muwaj'aqci?) (6 books), rearrangement (al-
farrib) (5 books), jurisprudence (fiqh)and its principles (28 books), and theology (6 books);
dictionaries and biographies of the masters (11 books); bibliographies (7 books); books of men (rija7) (22 books); biographies and virtues (7 books); books of history (18 books), literature and language (13 books); collections of poems (dr'w&)(3 compilations); scattered writings ( m ~ t a f a ~ q c i (3 r ) books); answers (ajwibai)(l3 books) and attributed compilations (rnugannafit mmansuiah) (38 books).
As mentioned above, Ibn @ajar al-'Asqaliitii's works number about 282 titles. There
are even more if we consider compilations attributed to him (al-mqannafz al-mansubah).
Sabri Khalid Kawash adds that Ibn Hajar devoted most of his time to the study and writing of
Sabri Khdid Kawash, Ibn qajar al-'Asqala^ni; 193
49 S h i i b M&miid 'Abd al-Mun'im. Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaIaX wa-Diralar Mupmafsih wa-Manhajih waMawaGidihjTKitabih al-I&ah (Baghdiid: DZr d - R i d a h , n . d . ) , 282-687.
Ijadiih, resulting in numerous works covering most branches of this field." The number of
Ibn Hajar's compilations. based on what Sh*
M W G d 'Abd al-Muncim had recorded,
however, is difficult to determine since some were mentioned in several books but without any record of their existence. This might account for the disagreement among scholars
regarding the number of works by Ibn Hajar.
Ibn Hajar's first recorded work was not on b d i r h at all, but on prosody. He wrote it
in 795 A. H. T h i s marked the beginning of his writing career. His first book on hadiih,
entitled Nayn al-la'ali bi'l-M7uh al-Awa?; and completed towards the end of 796/1394,
was considered the starting point in his scholarly recognition. This book is a collection of a
hundred hadr'ths completed with their chains of transmission, which he transmitted from his teacher BurhZn &Din ai-Tan&~G.~' His scholarly reputation then became established in his early thirties when, in 804. he completed the draft of a work on asanrd - Tacliqal-Ta'll'q where Ibn Hajar traced the missing links to some hadirhr i n the Sah3 of Bukhari? His most famous work is a commentary on the Sah8 of al-Bukhihi
- Fath al-BakFSharhSah*
BuWtaX He completed the introduction to it in 813, and the commentary evolved from
lectures he gave starting in 8 17/1414; the latter was completed on 1 Rajab 842/18 December
1438? Only part of this writing pertaining to &d&
should probably be taken into
consideration and, more specifically, those books which are concerned to hadrfh transmitters.
"Sabri Khalid Kawash. Ibn Wajaral- 'Asqalci3itl;192.
bid., 118-1 19.
Ibn uajar al-'Asqal5ni. b"Introduction:' Honoring the Muslim. 1 3.
In ljad5h studies, works on h&h
transmitters are grouped as followsY: first, the
books on knowledge of the Companions (;ahabah). Second, books on fabaqat (classes or generations). Third, books on al-jarh wa a[-ta 'di2 (deceiving and qualifving). Fourth, books on knowing the names, kunyah (agnomens) and laqab (titles), al-mu 'ralaf(concordance), alrnuWrfalaf (disputed), a[-muttafaq (agreed), al-rnufraraq (scattered) and al-murashabih
i f t h ,books on al-wafayat (obituaries). Sixth, books on the biography of local (ambiguous). F
transmitters. Almost all groups of books were taken into account by Ibn Hajar aLbAsqal% ?." The ones which Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalGii wrote in his lifetime will be briefly discussed
in the following section. They may be considered Ibn Hajar's contribution to the study of
hadr'th transmitters. The order is based on Sh& Hajar al- 'Asqala'n-i. M;ihmiid 'Abd al-Mun'im's list in his Z b n
(Accuracy in Distinguishing the Companions). Al-Isa-bah fiTarnvG ~l-Saiaha3ah~~ This book deals with the Companions around the Prophet (saha3ah). Ibn mjar asserts that several works of this kind had been extant before him, perhaps originating in the work of Abii 'Abd AU& al-BukhZKn Other works proliferated afterwards, including AbG 'Umar b.
Shllkir Mahmiid 'Abd al-Mun'im, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqulini; 505. See also Mulprnrnad 'Abd al-'A& Khawfi, Tarikh Fun& at-Hadr'rh, 197.
''Shikir M&miid 'Abd ai-Mun'im, ibid., 505.
Cad Brockelmann, GAL, 1 1 : 8 1 ; Supplement, I I :73.
'Abd al-Barfs al-lstrf'a-bfrMa'ntaral-A&ai8 and Abii a1-Hasa.n 'AIib. Mulpumad ' I ual-
Dh b. a l - A W s Usd al-Gha%ah?'
Ibn Hajar was dissatisfied with these works, criticizing their authors' claims about
their contents- Against Ibn 'Abd
al-Barr's claim that his book al-lstr"a3 dealt
comprehensively with matters relating to the companions (gahahh3' Ibn Hajar contended
that if it was true, then why have scholars composed the supplementary works to his al-
k6'a3?M He also criticized the compilation of Usd al-Ghaaah of Ibn al-A&,
found merely repeated the data about sahaaah, which had been recorded in preceding
works,6'such as Ibn 'Abd al-Barr's al-lsti'a3, with little change. As a result, this book is not
free of mistakes in addressing certain men as ~aha3ah, who indeed are not.62
To eliminate errors, Ibn Hajar composed his book, in which he included the results of
all his predecessors's works in this field, while restructuring them, and inserting comments i n
some cases by adding his own opinions. Ibn Hajar divided this book into four main parts63:
The fxst part deals with persons whose companionship is cleariy mentioned in any
tradition -- sound, good or weak, directly or indirectly.
" See Abii 'Umar Yiisuf b. 'Abd All& Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Barr (d. 463). a[-Ist~a3jiMa'rifnt al-Sa&2mh. e d . 'Ali Muhammad al-BijZvZ (Cairo: Ma~ba'ah Nahdah, 1 9 6 0 ) .
' I ual-Dh b. al-Afir Abii a l - m a n 'Ali
b. Mu~amrnad al-JaZaii (d. 630), LIsd al-Ghdahfi Ma'ntt nled. Muhammad b. I b a i m al-Banns and Muhammad a m a d 'Ashur (Cairo: DG al-Shacb, 1970)-
* For examples, the supplementary works wrinen by Abi Bakr b. FatI$in and AbG MCsZ al-Madini;for details see Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, al-IqihahfiTamyii al-Sak-bah, 2.
See Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Gh3ahfiMa ' r i f a raL$z@iah, I: 10.
63 Ibn Hajar aLCkqal&ini, ''IntroJuction," al-l,aaahfi T i & oi-Si$&di, 3-5; see Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi, 1 6 7 1~ g * m aL-'Asqam Sky& al-Is& (Beirut: Ha&ir/l Likratcae, 182; G m i l Muhammad Muhammad 'Uwaydah, 1 Diir ai-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah, 1995), 67-72; Mahmud Shakir 'Abd al-Mun'im, h HaJmal-'Arqakmi, 506-5 13.
The second part deals with persons who were still too young when the Prophet passed
away, but who were born in his Lifetime into a family of Companions, which led to the
presupposition that they were one of them? The third part deals with persons who were known to have lived both before and after the advent of Islam, but who were never with the Prophet. These persons have never been known as the Companions of the Prophet, but were mentioned in some of the works on the life of Companions because they had lived in the same period.
The fourth part deals with the biographies of those who are wrongly mentioned as
Companions in some of the biographical dictionaries.
bi Mara7ib al-Maws<En b b i al-Tadlis (Identification for the people of
veneration of the degrees of those characterized by tadlr's)
This book deals with the classes of those associated with tadlii; a situation where a hadah
transmitter does not clearly mention the name of his master from whom he transmits the
hadZh and uses obscure terms of transmissions such as 'an and qa7uP5 dividing tad12 itself
into two: tadlr's al-isnid and tadG al-shuyu7ch. Tad15 a l - i s n d bas to do with those who claimed to have transmitted from their contemporaries, yet have not heard it from the latter.
Tadlr's al-shuyulh is addressed to those who name their masters with unknown titles or
Mamiid ShZkir 'Abd al-Mun'im simply states that the second part of this book deals with those who only witnessed the prophet See Mamiid ShZkir 'Abd al-Mun'im, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqa&r'l509.
Employing such a term in hadch transmission is nor convincing since it does not fully indicate a truly meeting between the master and the student, See Ibn Hajar al-'Asqdhi, Nuzhat al-Nazr shurh Nukhbat a/Fikar (Cairo: Ma~ba'at al-Istiqbah, 1368 A.H.), 28-29.
In this book, Ibn Hajar classifies those who are called mudallisin into five groups:
first, those who have barely committed tad's; those whom some hadI'th scholars consider
mudallis, but others scholars do not, due to their ama3ah; those mostly inclined to be mudallis, whose transmissions are preferrably left unconsulted; those who are mudallis and whose transmissions are abandoned; lastly, those who not only committed tadlr's but are considered weak from other?
Tarn% Tabaui? al-Huffa? lil-Dhahabi %la-Hu r<f al-Mu 'jam (Arrangement of the classes of
the huffui of al-Dhahabi based on alphabetical order).
As its title indicates, this book restructures Tabaqgt al-fluffat of Shams al-Din Mulpmmad
al-Dhahabi (d. 748). However, as Abd al-Mun'h states, Ibn Uajar felt it insufficient simply
to restructure the book and went on to give additional information."
Lisin a l - M T z ! 8(Spokesman of the Mkak)
Lis& al-Miz& is basically a summary of Mean al-l'tidal of al-Dhahabi.6gIn it Ibn Hajar
extracted the biographies of had*
transmitters who are not found in Tahdhb d-Tahdhr'b.
Tahrir al- -M&a%(Editing the M&)
This book is a n additional version of M k a n al-I'tidal of al-Dhahabi in which Ibn Hajar tries
to reconcile the doubtful issues of the original book and adds some missing biographies."
"' Ibi'd, 517-518.
'Abd al-Mun'im. Ibn flajar at-'A.yala?zc 5 16.
Brockeimann, GAL, 1 1 : 81.
Taawh al-Lisa> (Correcting the Lisan)
This work was completed in 847 AH. In it, Ibn Hajar provides information about the flaws of
certain transmitters which aL-Dhahabi failed to mention in his Meax al-l'tidal?'
Dhavl a[-MEan (Supplement to the MrZan)
This book is another edition of MizaX al-I'tida? containing about two thousand more
Tahdhib al-Tahdh%73 (Revision of the revision)
This book will be extensively discussed in the following chapters."
T a w 3 al-Tahdhib7' (Approximation of the revision)
This book is initially a summary form of his Tahdhib al-Tahdhib. In this book, Ibn Hajar included all the contents of Tahdhib al-Tahdhz'b in shorter form, with no additional
& D i n Muhammad al-Dhahabi died on 3 DhG al-Qa'idah 748/4 February 1348. See ibid 57-59. Sh%r Memiid 'Abd al-Mun*im. Ibn Hajar a['Asqafo?t<522-523.
Brockelmann, GAL,I I : 8 1.
See Chapter two.
Ibn Kajar al-'AsqalZni, Taqrrb Tahdhib. ed. .Abd al-Wahhab 'Abd. LaGf (Medina: al-Makrabah al-'Ilmiyyah. 1 9 6 0 ) . 'Abd aI-WahhZb 'Abd al-LaGf states at the end page that b n Hajar ended his editorial work into two volumes during the month of Ramadan, 1380 AH; Brockelmann, GAL, II: 8 1.
inf~rmation?~ In his introduction. Ibn Hajar states his aim was to respond to his contemporaries' request for a version of Tahdhs aZ-Tahdhib which includes only the names
of transmitters." Ibn Hajar offers an alphabetical arrangement of these names and includes in
their biographies only the most accurate statement about them ( q a h h rna-qiZafl), the most
appropriate attribute ( a 'dal ma- wwifa lah) expressed concisely in no more than a single line? In dealing with the usual length of Muslim scholars' names, Ibn Hajar recorded the transmitters' names along with their fathers' and grandfathers', limiting himself to their famous nasab, k~mnyahand laqab. The note about each transmitter is ended with their
rabaqah ("generation")" and death date."
Compared to the original book, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, this book more clearly
represents Ibn Hajar's position on each transmitter. This book presents the T'&%s authoritative entries.
Thiqa? al-Riia7 mimman l a m v u d h k a f i Tahdh5 al-Kamai2 (Trustworthiness of the men
who are not mentioned in Tahdhr'b aZ-KamaZ).
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Ta 'j2 al-manfa'ah bi zawaqid rija7 a l - a ' i m h al-arba'ah (Beirut: DZr al-Kitib al'Arabi, n-d,), 3.
n Ibn Hajar al-' AsqalZni, Taqn?, al-Tahdhr'b, ed. 'Abd aI-Wahhab 'Abd al-LaGf (Medi na: al-Maktabah a l 'Ilmiyyah, 1960), 3.
''In the introduction to his T a q d al-Tahdhib, Ibn Hajar divides the transmitters into twelve manabahs, which
will be dealt with in the next chapter.
In his introduction to Taqrr?, al-Tahdhib, Ibn Hajar Iisted twelve tabaqahs, starting with sa&%ah (Companion) and ending with the juniors (sigh? al-akhidhl'n),who learned from the followers of the followers. See Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZni, Taqra al-Tahdhih, 5-6-
Various versions of this title book were mentioned in M i t h works. In 'Unwanal-Zaman, it is Thiqa? al-Rijal jT mimman hysa JTTahdhr'b al-TaMhib. In Nayn al-'I4ya'iz of a I-Suyui, it is Ithba7 al-Rija1 rnirrrnUIrrmUIZaysa Tahdhl'b al-Tahdhr'b. See Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, 'Introduction," Tagrib al-Tahdhib, waw; Shakir Mahmud 'Abd
On this edition, hadiih scholars have varying opinions. Al-BiqaCi says that the compilation consists of thxee volumes and was never bound? Shams &Din Mdpmmad b. 'Abd al-
Ralpnan al-SakhZwT (d. 1427-1497), Ibn Hajar's former student and his later biographer, in
another opinion, holds that it consists of three of what should be five volumes. He even
argues that if the work was compIeted it would take ten v01umes.~
Fawayid ai-ihtifa? bi-bavak ahwal al-riia15(The benefits of elucidating the status of ihe men
This work is also known as a[-?'la% bi-man Dhukirn j i al-BukhaXrnin aMcZa-mS6 which deals with the hadrfh transmitters mentioned in Sa@ al-Bukh6n; but not listed in Tahdhr'b
ai-Kama? of al-MiuTS7This consists of a single large volume; although it is unclear if this
work has been published or not.
Ta'iil al-Manfa'ah bi-rcia7 al-a'imrnuh al-arba'ah" (Accelerating the benefit in dealing with
the men of the four leading (bad2h)scholars)
al-Mun'im, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalanc 530-53 1; JaIa al-Din ai-suyiifi, N a ~ m ai- 'Iqyak fr A 'yCn ai-A 'y& ed. Philip K. Hitti (New York: Matba'at al-Siiriyyah d-Amrikiyyah, 1 9 2 7 ) .4683
Shakir Mamiid 'Abd al-Mun'irn.
[bn Ffujar al-'Asqal&nF,
JalPuddin alduyiifi mentions this book as al-IhrifnlfrBayck Ahwa7 ai-Rijnl. See JaIZluddii al-Suyi*, Nagn al- 'lqyiinF A 'ya3 al-A ' y & , ed. Philip K-Hitti (New York: MatbadataI-Sikiyyah a l - h k i y y a h , l927), 46.
ShZkir Mahmiid 'Abd al-Mun'im. Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalditiI 531-2.
Ibn Hajar al-.Asqalini. "Introduc~ion." Taqrib al-Tahdhib, ja.
1 : 8 1. Brockelmann, GAL, I
The smcture of this book is based on al-Tadhkirah bi-Rija7 al-'hharah written by Abii 'Abd AU& MQmmad b. 'Mi b. If!amzah al-Ifusayrii al-DimashqL As its title indicates, alHusaydi presents the transmitters of ten ha&h books, including al-Muwu,rf$ of M
Mumads of al-Shafi'r', the Musnad of A m a d and a Mumad the content of which consists of
had5h from AbG Hariifah, collected by al-Husayn b. Muhammad b. Khasr."
Ibn eajar narrows down the ten hadah books in al-Husaydi's al-Tadhkirah bi-Rijal
al-'Asharah to the four mentioned above, which he calls T a w al-Manfa'uh bi-Zawaid Rija? al-A'immah a[-Arba'ah. The purpose of this book is to give personal accounts for each transmitter based on jarh and ta'dr? among had'rh critics?
In doing so, Ibn Hajar initially takes al-Husayrii's book as the basis and consults the
books of and about the transmitters of the four above-mentioned scholars. He manges the entries in alphabetical order and gives more explanation whenever he thinks it is beneficial. Whenever he finds that such an entry has been recorded in al-Tahdht3, he only mentions the
name and puts a note of the record.g1 This book consists of at least 1732 entries in different
degree of record.
i ma 'rifat rmva? al-Ehai (Preference in knowledge of the transmitters of the Gha?) ~ z - f i h ib rb
As its title indicates, this compilation is a collection of the transmitters of the Kitab al-~Tha?
of Muhammad b. Hasan al-ShaybZrii (d. 1 8 9 ) . 9 '
Ibn Hajar al-AsqaIZni, T a p al-Manfa'ah bi Z a w a Rcj-a1al-A'immah a!-Arba'ah (Bairut: 'Arabi, n.d.), 2.
D& al-Ki6b al-
92 H e is Abu 'Abd All& M u e m a d b . al-Hasan b. Farqad al-Shaybhi, known as the student of al-ImTim Abii HanXah and founder of an Islamic legal schoois. His transmissions from the latter are included in this book
Ibn Hajar provides very brief entries containing the name and status either as fa@,
Companion ( ~ a & z b i or ) successor (ta3i'i)- The entry for JZbir b. 'Abd AU&
b. 'Amr b.
HazzZm, for instance, consists of one line, where Ibn Hajar mentions that the man was a
famous companion in Tahdhib (saha3imashh~7fTTahdh%).~~ In his introduction. fin Hajar mentions that whenever his entry is found also in the Tahdhr'b al-Karnal of al-Mizzi, he indicates at the end of the entry that it has been recorded in the Tahdhib (. ..fiTahd/~%).'~
In its latest publication, Sayyid Kasrawi y a s a n has edited this book complete with
additional biographical information in the footnotes in each entry based on Ibn Hajar's
TaMhib al-Tahdhib. He also lists other biographical sources.
Asmay rtia7 al-kutub aiZarz' 'umila atrgfirha f i irtihif al-maharah (Names of the men of the
books whose sections are made to present the experts)
In this work, b n Hajar gives entries not found in Tahdhib al-Kumd of al-Mizzlc. However,
this book was never completed. Al-Sakhawi, quoted by 'Abd al-Mun'im, claimed that had this work been completed, it would have come to five volumes."
Al-tu 'rr'fal-ajwud bi-uwham man iama 'a min riial al-mumad. (The best introduction to the
obscurities of those who are among the men of al-musnad)
Ibn Hajar d-'AsqalZni, of-Ehfi bi Ma '$at Ruwa? al-~rha~ ed. Say yid Kasraw? w a n (Beirut: DZr al-Kutub al-'Ilrniyyah, 1993). 52.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalini, "lnuoduction."a[-zh& bi Ma 'rvar Ruwu? al-~thai, 35.
ShZkir M@miid 'Abd al-Mun'im. Ibn flujar al-'Asqala>< 537.
According to Sh*
Mamiid 'Abd al-Mun'im, this book is mentioned i n several works,
including al-SakhZwiYs al-Jawalir wa al-Durar and Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZCi7s Tahdhib alTahdhliS, with no further e~planation.~~
Tabsc'r al-munrabah bi-tahn'r al-mushtubah." (Showing the attention by releasing the doubt) This book is basically an edited version of a summary of al-Mushtabih of Abu 'Abd All& aI-
Dhahab?, where Ibn Hajar added more complete information. As he mentions in the preface
to this book, Ibn Hajar states that editing al-Mushtabih of A-Dhahabi uncovered three
shortcoming^.^^ First, the most crucial one, has to do with accuracy. Ibn Hajar remarks that
the effort will not "cure the pain" of the problem which the editing aimed to rectify.99
The second shortcoming is the unfairness (ijbcijj of al-Dhahabi's summary. Whenever al-Dhahabi found more than two obscure names, he referred to the others as fulin wa--lu%
wa-fula7z (such and such a person; the son of such and such, etc.). Ibn Hajar viewed this as
inadequate because it failed to solve the problem, and may even confuse readers. Our mission, Ibn Hajar argued, is to explain, and to minimize the problems which may occur among seekers of k n o ~ l e d g e . ' ~ The third shortcoming is that al-Dhahabi sometimes omitted short biographies found in original texts - like Ibn MZkGlZ' s al-llonalfi Raf al-Irtiya3 'an al-Mu 'talif wa 'I-Mukhtalif
Mahmiid 'Abd al-Munbim.Ibn Hajar al- 'Asqalini;537.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Tabir al-Munmbah bi-Tahrir al-Mushtabah, ed. 'Ali Muhammad al-Bijawi (Cairo: al-Mu'assasah al-Miqiyyah aLb&mmh, n-d.);see Brockelrnann, GAL. I I : 8 1.
lbn Hajar aLCAsqalIni, ibid, 1. Sh%r M&miid 'Abd al-Mun'im, Ibn eajar al-'Asgalhi; 539.
min al-A.sma3 wa'l-Kuna- wa'l-Ansa3 and Ibn Nuqtah's Dhayl Mushtabah al-Asma- wa'l-
In order to complete this edition, Ibn Hajar provided more information. He rearranged this book alphabetically, just as the author of the original book did and included his
additional information. To distinguish this from the original work, Ibn Hajar begins with the
word qultu (I said) and ends with intahci(it ended).'''
Nuzhat al-alba3 Kal-aloab'" (The Delight of minds in laqabs).
In his preface, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqals states that the book is a summary of previous works on
the issue of various inqab, as found in the snnad of many hadiihs. Among these previous
works are Kitna al-Alqdb of Abii Bakr al-SGrZii and Majmac al-AdaajTMu'jam a!-Asrns7
wa 'l-Alqa3 of Abual- Walid al-FardP3
I n this compilation, bn Hajar divides the contents into three parts. First, he records
all the laqabs in the form of names, followed by profession (e-g., al-Baqqal and their
attributes like al-A'mash). Secondly, Ibn yajai records alI the laqabs with respect to the
kunyah; and lastly, he records all the laqubs with respect to attributions, based on the
person's kinship, country of origin, etc?
Talkhr's al-muttafau wa'l-mufrarao li al-Khan% (Summary of the agreed and the scattered of
lo' 'OL I"
Ibn Hajar al-'~sqalani,Tab$r a[-Muntabalz bi-Tahriir al-Mushtabah, 2.
Brockelrnann, G A L Q: 8 1.
ShMr M&miid ' A b d al-Mun'im. Ibn Ifajar al-'Asqola'ni. 543.
This book is a summary or a restructuring of al-Mtnafaq of al-Khajib al-BaghdX (d.
) , I m
famous M u s h historian. Al-Khacb reveals the similarity of m o or more names both in spoken and form. Even their fathers' names are also similar. The difference is apparent when their fathers' names are orally mentioned. While Ibn Kajar summarizes, restructures and adds more information, however, his book was never c~rnpleted.'~
Tasmivah man 'Urifa rnimman Abhama f i al-'Umdah (Naming the person who are considered obscure in al- 'Umdah)
This book provides the name or explains obscure information in 'Umdat al-Ahhim of 'Abd
al-Gharii al-Maqdisi (d. 600 A.H.).'~'b n Hajar includes the obscure part of the book and provides information afterward^.'^ This compilation is still in manuscript form.
Al-Muhmal min s h u v u i al-BukhakF(Theunobserved among the masters of al-BukhE) This book is ascribed to Ibn Hajar in al-Sakhiiwi's al-Jawahir w a al-Durar and JalZI al-Din al-SuyiiG's al-Nam al- 'Iqyin.'"
Tartr'b al-mubharnat 'ala- al-abw& (Arrangement of the unintelligibles based on the categories)
Ibid,, 544. 'OS Jala &Din ai-Suyiig. Nagn al-'IqyaX fiA1ya% al-A6ya%. ed. Philip K. Hitti (New York: al-Ma~ba'at alSiiriyyah al-Arnrikiyyah, 1927), 50; ShZkir Ma&miid 'Abd al-Mun'im, Ibn Hajar a l - ' A ~ q a l ~ 546. i;
'Abd al-Mun'im, Ibn ffajar al-'Asgala>;
H e is Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Ghani b. 'Abd a l - W q d al-Maqdisi al-JarnmZ'iIi al-I-fanbali, died in 600
ShZkir Mamiid 'Abd al-Mun'im. Ibn Hajar al-'~sqahk< 547-548.
This one-volume book consists of entries for transmitters who remained unknown among
hadr'th scholard lo
Dhavl al-tibvai li-manzimah al-hu_ffizbadi'ar ol-bavak (Supplement to the exposition of the treatise of the hu.a?, in a beautifu1 illustration) It is not clear whether or not this supplement, or kurrLsah (gathering), has been independently published, as al-Sakhawi calls this book. The only information available is
found in d-SakhZwi's al-Jawa3tir wa-al-Durar and al-l'la3 bi'l-Tawbr'kh."' It is also
reported that this supplement has been attached to al-Hafiz Sham &Din b. N&ir aI-Din exposition entitled BadPat al-BayinjT Wafaya? al-A 'yax, which consists of 28 names."'
Ibid,549. Sh%r Memiid 'Abd al-Mun'im. Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaZa3i; 549.
" See Shams &Din Muhammad b. 'Abd a l - w m a n al-SakhZG. al-Ic&7zbi al-Tawbiktz, ed. Franz Rosenthal (Baghdad: Matba'at al-'Ani, 1963) 197; also ShSikir Mahrniid 'Abd al-Mun'im, ibid., 550.
al-Sakhawi, al-I'lZn bi a!-TawbrWr, 197; Sh-&r Mahmiid 'Abd al-Mun'im, ibid.
'Ilm rija1 al-had2h is considered an important branch of hod& studies, even half of the
science of hadrh.' fladrfh is second only to the Qur'an, in its transmission and in respect of contradiction and fabrication. In order to prove the authenticity of the traditions, hadah scholars throughout history have endeavored either to elaborate a so-called ljadrfh science or to research every aspect related to the transmission of hadz'ihs -- a sub-branch later known as
had5h criticism. Knowing hadrth transmitters in detail is one part of this sub-branch. This is
where the background, personality, scholarship, religiosity and many other aspects of each
transmitter are recorded. Moreover, research into the transmitters' Jives, intellectual range, period, and chains of transmission rested on a strong teacher-student relationship. Developments in this area forced later had% scholars to be selective in their reception of those purporting to transmit a had3h. Scholars had to assess the reliability of the latter.2 These efforts resulted in several biographical works. The Iraqi Shu'bah b. Qajjzj (d.
160 AH) was one of the first to scrutinize had% tran~rnitters.~ He was followed by Yahyi b.
This consideration is based on the fact that hadith in general consists of two main piirts; s a ~ and d m m .The study o f men o f hadr'rh ('ilm nja7 al- hadr'rh) is really the study o f sanad. See Muhammad 'Abd al-AziZ alKhawli, Ta71Zh Funin al-Hadr'rh (Beirut: DZr aLQalam, 1986), 197; Sh&r Ma[;lmiid 'Abd al-Mun'im, Ibn @ajar al-'AsqalGiwa-diru3at mu+annafZih wa manhajih wa rnawa7idihfikita3ih al-i~a3ah (BaghdZd: D5r alRisZlah, n-d.), 504.
Tetl Rooke, In My Childhood: A study o f Arabic autobiography (Stockholm: Stockholm University, 1997), 75. luynboll. Muslim Tradirion: Studies in Chronology. Provenance, and Authorship of Early Hadah (Cambridge: Cambridge University f ress, 1983), 134.
Sa'7d al-Qaf~Zn (d. 198 AH), m a d b. Hanbal (d. 241 AH), and many others. Eventually, a
new kind of literature called fabaqi? emerged> where transmitters are recorded and arranged
according to their generation and origin.
The first great work of this kind, still useful today, is Kita3 al-Tabaqa? al-Kabrr of
Mu&mmad b. Sa'd b. MLuG' al-Zuhii (d. 230 AH), also known as Ibn Sa'd. Some years later, the internal division of ?abaqaT works was ultimately adapted to the new alphabetical order in which hadah transmitters were recorded. The first two major works of this kind were
al-Ta7zM al-Kabrr of IsmZil b. IbrZEm al-BukhFui (d. 256 AH) and Kita3 al-Jarh wa al-
Ta'dil of Ibn Abi H&m al-RE (d. 327 AH).^ These two works were followed by a number
of others, which incorporated the information contained in them6 Another period of transition was the composition of biographical works based on the names of transmitters whose transmissions were recorded by the authors of al-kutub al-sittah (the six books of hadirh).' The major work on this genre was al-mu yarn al-Mushtarnil 'ala-
Dhikri Amal S h u y u i al-A'immah al-Nab2 by Abii al-QZsim Ibn 'As-ikir (d. 571 AH),
exclusively known as the first compilation with a content specifically covering the biographies of masters from whom the authors of al-kutub al-sinah transmitted their hadrfhs.
In this work, Ibn 'As*
recorded the names in alphabetical order, followed by any of the
authors of al-kutub al-shah who received the transmission. For simplification, Ibn 'Asikir
Juynboll, Muslim Tradition,134,
The authors of the six boob are al-BukhH, Muslim, al-Tinnidhl. al-Nasi'i. Abii DZwGd and Ibn Miijah.
devised his own code - the letter kha for al-BukEiz6, mim for Muslim, dal for Abii DKwGd,
ra- for al-TirmidE, nu% for al-Nasii?, and q$ for Ibn MZjah al-~azwini.~
In later years, Ibn Hajar al-'AsqdZxG wrote many books on historiography? rijal alhad2h, ikhti~a? ("summary"), sharh ("ccommentary"), usiil a[-hadrfh ("principles of the
prophetic tradition"), naqd al-hadr'th ("criticism of the prophetic tradition7'), and other areas.
On various subjects in the field of hadtfh transmitters, he wrote at least 22 books1*- most, if not all, of which became basic to the t a j ~ - 3 and ta'dr2 of hadr'rh transmitters. One of these books was the Tahdha al-Tahdhib. Tahdhib al-~ahdha" is a biographical work which describes the background of the had5h transmitters. This book was not the first of its kind, but came as the completion of this genre or "a standstill," to use Juynboll's term, on the record of had5h transmitters. As Juynboll has pointed out, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib recorded "the most complete list of had5h transmitters occurring in all the canonical collections as well as
a few other revered ones, a list which was based upon the works of all his predecessors and
which has never been superseded by a later lexicon."12 Let us now examine Ibn Hajark motivation for writing this book, and his sources, structure, method, and code system.
See Jam51 ai-D?n A b i al-Hajjij YCsuf al-Mizzi. "Introduction." Tahdhib a[-Kam7 fi Asm' Eashar Awwid Ma'riif ( Beirut: Mu'assat al-Risilah, 1985). 37-38.
His al-Dumr al-Kmninnh may be an example of this kind.
For detailed information. see Part B of the first chapter.
" GAL,11: 8 1.
Juynboll, Muslim Tradition,135.
The first question which probably comes to mind in the study of Tahdhlb al-Tahdhib as a
biographical book, one specifically relating to hadrfh transmitters, has to do with the reason for its writing. Was Ibn Hajar motivated by any particular social or religious concerns? The author's motivation is intimately connected with "a wholly indigenous creation At~first, . " ' biographical ~ books used to commemorate religious of the Islamic C O ~ U I L ~ ~ patrons, including the Prophet and his Companions. This might be the reason why Sir Hamilton Gibb asserted that the early books on biography in Islamic community give no particular reason for their ~ o r n ~ o s i t i o n . ' ~ Tarif Khalidi apparently disagrees with this c o n c l ~ s i o n .By ~ ~ studying nineteen biographical dictionaries, he argues that in order to deal adequately with their conceptual framework, one would have to consider the motivation behind these biographical books. As in many other kinds of biographical books, various motives may be ascribed to them. For instance, Siifi biographies of predecessors were done in "commemoration of virtuous
ancestor^."'^ M@ammad b. al-Husayn
al-Sularrii (d. 412),17 a S G f i master, believed that
writing Sufi biographies was to commemorate the owners of "the truth of rnonothzism"'* (arb&
haq2iq al-ta~+id).l~ In his introduction to Arab genealogy, 'All b. w a d , well
I3 S i r Hamilton Gibb. "Islamic Biographical Literature," in Historians o f rhe M a e Easr, ed. Bernard Lewis and P.M.Holt (London: Oxford University Press. ), 54.
Gibb. "'IsIamicBiographical Literature," 54.
Tarif Khalidi. *'IslamicBiographical Dictionaries." The Muslim WorM 63. (1973). 53.
GAS. I: 671-674; GAL. I : 2 1 8-2 1 9 .
'' Tarif Khalidi. "Islamic B Biographical Dictionaries." 54.
I9 See AbG 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad b. al-Husayn b. Muhammad b. MkZ al-Sulami. Kitci3 Tabaqui a!SUfiah (Leiden: E.J. Brill. 1 9 6 0 ) . 5.
known as Ibn Hazm (d. 456) stated that studying g e n d o g y was fard (obligatory), and concerned the genealogy of the Prophet and that of Muslims specifically related to marriage
By studying the introductions to these books, Tarif Khalidi identified various motivations. Some of them consisted of reLigious edification, to inform the reader of "stories of the men of the past," partly for entertainment, partly for examples of right conduct. The authors may have been motivated to write their biographical work "tc establish the veracity or otherwise of traditionists."" As a Muslim scholar, emphasizing the importance of hadch studies, Ibn Hajar could not but turn his attentiori to the biographies of hadah transmitters. While working as a
librarian, he was early on attracted to the rich information found in existing biographies of
had2h transmitters. However, he became dissatisfied with their contents, which impelled him to edit preceding works, revising them or producing s~ll~~maries of his own." In the
introduction to Tahdhib al-Tahdhs, Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalE mentions that while entertaining, these works fell short of what a biography for hadilh transmitters had to be?
Ibn Hajar was impressed by Tahdhib nl-Kama7fiAsma7 al-Rija7 by Jams a l D i nAbii
al-HajjIij Ykuf b. al-2a.E al-Miz5 (d. 742 A.H.)," which he found the best compilation
al-'Arab (Cairo: D% al-
" See Abu Muhammad 'Afi b. &mad
b. Sa4d b. Hazm al-Anddusi, Jamharat A &
Ma%if, 1962), 2; see also Tarif Khalidi, ''~slarnic Biographical Dictionaries," 54-55.
'' Tarif Khalidi, ibid, 54-58. " Ibn Hajar often stated his dissatisfaction in the introductions to his books. See 'LIntroduction" to TahdhrZ, afTahdhib, 3 ; "Introduction." al-&%ah fr Tamye a!-Sawah, ed- 'Aii Muhammad al-B ijawi (Beirut: D5r al-layI, 1992). 2; "Introduction," T a b ~ i al-Muntabah r bi Tahn'r al-Mushtabah, ed. 'Afi Muhammad al-Bij5uTi (Cairo: al-Mu'assasah al-Migiyah aLbXmmah,n-d.), 1.
See Ibn Hajar aLLAsqa1Znini. "Introduction," TaMhB a[-Tahdhib. 3. lama al-Din AbB al-8ajjZj Ykuf b. al-ZaE al-Miui, TaMFzib al-Kama7jiAsm7 al-Rijol, ed. BashshZr 'AwwZd Ma'Nf (Beirut: Mu'assasat al-RisiIah, 1985); GAL, I E 75.
introducing the transmitters of traditions ever writtea2' However, he criticized the author's entries, which he thought were too long. Ibn Hajar did not deny the reliability of the data, but he believed prolixity prevented readers from grasping the basic ideas in each entry?
Another book which Ibn Hajar criticized was al-Kuihiffima 'rifat man Iahu riweah
fr al-kutub al-sinah of Shams al-Din Abii 'Abd Ail&
was a summary of al-Mizzl's work?
al-Dhahabr (d. 748 AH) .27 This book
However, Ibn Hajar found it too short. Its entries
merely presented title, with no indication of contents.2g
Another book which Ibn Hajar considered was Tadhhib al-Tahdhib of a l - ~ h a h a b ~ " His view was that the information it provided was more ample than that of al-KaShif, and even d-Mizzi's Tahdhib al-Kamal; however, al-Dhahabi seemed to go too far. His sentences
are unusually long. The obituary dates in his entries are unconvincing, being based on
assumption and estimates ( ~ a n n wa rakhrniiz). Much of the information about the qualities
and defects of had!fh transmitters are omitted, although they are needed to judge whether
each sanad is weak, good or sound, accepted or note3'
2s Ibn Hajar al-'PsqalLn?,'bIntroduction," Tahdhla al-TnMhib (Hyderabad: Majlis DOrat al-Mab% elNizZmiyah, 1325). I: 2.
Shams al-Din Abii *Abd All& al-Dhahabi, al-KGh$f;-ma6n.ar m n lahu riwaiah fial-kurub al-sinah, ed. 'Izzah 'All 'id 'A!iyah and M i s i Muhammad 'Aii al-Mush? (Cairo: D k al-Kutub d-Hzdithah, 1972); GAL. D [ :
d-Dhahabi, ibid., 49.
Ibn yajar al-'Asqalani, "'Introduction,"I: 3.
GAL, 1 1 : 59.
'' Ibn Hajar aI-'AsqalZni, '?ntroduction," I: 3.
Overall, the shortcomings of these books are due to the fact that few entries are well presented or recorded. b n Hajar argues that in his Tahdhib al-K&,
many unknown names, to which he referred to as rawa- 'anfila% ("'he transmitted from such
and such) or raw6 'anhufula3. (such and such transmitted fiom him) or akhraja lahufula% (such and such related to him) without any clarification of who this fulax is. This type of presentation, according to Ibn Hajar, is unhelpfi& even confusing. It will neither "quench the
thirst" (la yanvial-ghullah) of the curious, nor "cure the disease" (layashfial- 'illah) of those
who are It was with this more religious, as opposed to historical intention, and aiming to provide comprehensive information on hadzh transmitters, that Ibn Hajar had composed this book. He hoped to redress the inadequacy of information of previous works in the tctjn3 and
fa 'dr'l of
B. The Sources of Tahdhz'b al-Tahdhz'b
As we saw, ibn Hajar availed himself of preceding works, mostly al-Mizz7's TaMh5 alKama? with certain additions, corrections and even reduction. In this part, we will present a detailed analysis of TaMhib al-Tchdhib's sources which will enable us to assess the importance of his work for biographical literature in general and in the field of hadith criticism in particular.
Ibn Hajar referred to a large number of other works.33 The first works that should be
mentioned is T ' d h 5 al-Kama2 of a i - ~ i z i i , " fiom which Ibn Hajar borrowed the main structure of his own book. Tahdhib al-Kamal comprises t h i r t y five volumes, which Ibn Hajar reduced to twelve, or about a third of the original.35 About half of al-Mizzi's f x s t volume is devoted to presenting the Prophet Muhammad, his life, his various names, extended family, ritual practices, battles and miracles? The second part of the volume records the biographies of those whose names are ~ h r n a d ? ~ Another source which Ibn yajar extensively employed is Kita3 al-Thiqa7 o f Ibn WbbZu aI-Busfi (d. 354 AH).^^ It figures in most entries of Tahdhs al-~ahdhib.'~ While most sources used by Ibn Hajar are not explicitly mentioned, the case of Ibn WbbZn's Kitab
n l - ~ h i ~is a an t ~ exception.4' ~ Other works of Ibn Qibban which Ibn Hajar consulted are al-
~ a h and e al-D~'afaT'.~~ The other sources of T a M h 3 al-Tahdhii, will be listed below in alphabetical order."
states that the large number of sources mentioned and used by Ibn uajar in his Tahdhib al-Tafzdhib may help confirm the authenticity of the printed edition of a manuscript, o r it may help identify one source which Ibn Hajar drew upon. Juynboll, Muslim Tradition, 135GAL, II: 75. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalanl. '?ntroduction," I: 3.
''Jams1 al-Din Abii al-HajjZj Yiisuf b. al-ZaEi al-Mizd, Tahdhib af-Kam7frAsma~af-Rijn, I: 174-244.
GAL, 1 : 172.
See for instance Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliirii, Tahdha al-Tahdhib, I: 9, 13, 16, 24,27, 80, 84,289 and 294; I I : 2, 3.1 10 and 188; I I I :273 and 369; TV: 124 and 352; V: 205 and 386; VI: 4 , 4 2 and 3 15; Vil: 2,132-133 and 496; WlI: 2 and 468; X: 39,98 and 217; XI: 445.
GAS, I : 190.
Juynboll, Muslim Tradition, 237 (Appendix). Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalSn?, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, 1 : 23.
- 'Abd All& b. 'A& b. 'Abd All& b . Muhammad b. MubZrak d-lujZ.6(d. 363:'
hometown, ~ u r j Z nhe , ~ was known as Ibn al-QagZn. Among had2h scholars, he was known
as Ibn ' ~ d i - ~ His ' book on had5h transmitters entitled al-Ka%il
was valued by hadrfh
scholars, including al-~hahab?.~'
- 'Abd AU& b. al-Mub%ak (d. l8l).'O
Although no biography of had3h transmitters has
elsewhere been attributed to 'Abd All& b. al-MubZrak, Ibn Hajar may have possessed one."
- 'Abd a l - R w a n b- Ab? HItim al-RiiG, well known as Ibn Abi Hitim a l R Z (d. 3 2 7 ) . "
The book Ibn Qajar mentioned is a l - ~ a r a 3 2 ? ~
Ibid, I: 294; see GAL. I: 273. In GAL, this book is mentioned as Kit03 al-TFnXh wa'l Majmir'n rnin alMuhaddi~hin.
In Muslim Tradition, JuynboII listed some of these sources. Juynboll, Muslim Tradition, 237-241 (Appendix).
B n Hajar aLbAsqalIni,TaMhib al-Tnhdhib, I: 16 and 290; II: 111 and 279; I U :368; IV: 124; V: 205; V I : 43: VIII: 256; GAS. I: 198-199.
Shams &Din Muhammad b. 'Abd al-R@man al-Sakhawi, al-I'lu3 bi al-TawbtM lirnan dhamma al-TaX'Wr, ed. Franz Rosenthal (Baghdad: Matba'at al-'&, 1963). 297-298.
Muhammad DiyZ' al-R&man al-~'zaxrii, DiraSatfTai-Jarh wa al-Ta 'dr?,475.
Ibn 8aja.r al-'AsqaI5ni. TaMhib al-Tahdh3, 1 1 : 111. In GAS, the complete title of this book is al-K&milfi
Ma 'nyatQu*afa7 al-Muhaddithii wa 'Ilal al-A&2r'rhh, see GAS, I: 198.
Shams d-Din Muhammad at-Dhahabi, Mriui al-l'ridal, I: 2.
'O Ibn Kajar al-'Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib. V: 385; see also Muhammad Qiyz* al-Rahman a l - A * ~ m i , DiraSatfi-al-Jarh w a al-Ta 'dil (Medina: Maktabah al-G hurabii' al-Athari yah, 1993,357-36 1;GAS. I: 95.
" JuynbolI, Muslim
" Ibn Hajar l-'Asqalini,
TaMh3 al-TaMh3. I: 84; 11: 278; N:352; V: 205: M : 145 and 315; X : 217; X k 337; GAS, I: 178-179. SJ Ibn Hajar aI-'Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhr'b, XI: 337.
- 'Abd a l - R w a n b. 'Amr Abii Zur'ah al-Dimash@ (d. 280)? H e is said to have composed
on a l - t a - n u wa 'l-ahaZh wa '1-hikaYa7 wa 'l-'ilal wa '1-su 'a7a7 (history, traditions, stories,
problems and questions)."
- 'Abd a l - R w a n b. Mahdi (d 198)? - 'Abd al-R-an
b . Ykuf b. Khirkh (or QirZsh) (d. 283)." In Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, he is
mentioned hdkquently, and credited with a book entitled Mathalib a l - ~ h a ~ k h u y n . ~ ~
- 'AGb. 'Abd AUZh b. Ja'far b. Nafih al-Sa'di Abii al-Hasan Ibn al-MadX (d. 2 3 4 ) ? ' - 'AIib. 'Umar b. w a d b. Mah& al-Baghdiia AbG al-easan al-DZraqufni (d. 3 8 5 ) ! '
Hajar mentions his n l - ~ u w a . q ~ . 6 '
- 'Ubayd All&
b. 'Abd al-Kaiim Abii Zur'ah al-Rki (d. 264f2
- 'UthrnZn b. Sa'id al-DZrh6 (d. 282)63
- &mad b. 'Abd AlIiih b. SZl* a l ' I j I i (d. 26 I).@
GAS, I: 302.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliini. Tahdhs al-Tahdhib. V I : 279-28 1.
''Ibid., V :3; VI: 4; Vm: 105.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalan?. Lisa% al-MTmk, III:
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZni, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib,E l :487; X: 38; GAS, I: 108.
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaI5ri7. ibid. I: 21, 27 and 84; V I : 145, 316 and 317; WI: 256; M: 73 and 206. See also GAS., 206-209; GAL,I: 173-174.
Ibr, @ j a r d-'AsqalZrG, ibid. I: 2 1 .
Ibid,I: 86; 11: 4; XI: 336; GAS. I: 145.
Ibid, III: 183; X: 98.See GAS, 600.
a Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZni, TaMhib al-Tahdhr'b, I: 17,292 and 294; II: 1 1 1, 188 and 279; I D :182,273 and 368; IV.352; V :205 and 386; in: 317; VII: 132.430 and 496; GAS, 1 : 143.
a d b.
'AGb. Shu'ayb al-NasZ'i
(d. 303)? Ibn Haja. mentioned his book entitled al-
a d b. 'Amr b. 'Abd al-Khaiq al-Bau& (d. 2921~'
- w a d b. Kanbal (d. 2 4 1 ) ~ ~ - &mad b. Zuhayr b. Abi Khaythamah (d. 2 7 9 ) ! ' - Al-Fa@ b. Dukayn Abii Nu'ayrn (d. 2 1 9 ) . ~ ' - Al-KhaGb AbG Bakr al-Baghdi& (d. 463/1071)? The author of many books, including
TaYzM Baghduia and al-~ifd~ahh."
- IbrZEm b. Ya'qiib al-JkajZrii (d.259).73 - Maslamah b. al-QZsirn al-Ququb? (d.3 ~ 3 ) ~ ~ ~ - Mulpmmad b. w
a d Abii al-'Arab (d. 333)? His work TabaqZ 'UZurna7 al-Qayrawin is
mentioned by Ibn ~ a j a r . ' ~
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalan?, ibid.. I: 10, 11. 15. 18. 26. 27. 86 and 289; III: 273; N: 3 and 124; V: 205; V I : 315 and 317; VII: 132 and 497; I X : 289; X: 39; XI: 3. see also GAL,X: 170; GAS, I: 167-169.
Ibn Hajar aGbAsqalZni. ibid.. X: 39.
Ibid, X: 2 14; XI: 445. See GAL, I: 193.
Ibn Hajar aL6AsqalZn?.ibid.. I: 292; III: 182; X: 98 and 214; XI: 445. See GAS, I: 319-320.
Ibn Hajar ai-'AsqalIni, ibid. I: 292; X : 300; GAS. 1: 101. Librande mentions that Ibn Sa'd used al-Fad1 b . Dukayn's biographical works. See Leonard T . Librande, Conrrasts in the Two Earliest Manuals of ' U l u i alHadr'rh: The Beginning ofrhe Genre (Ph.I>. Dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, 1976). 188.
Hajar al-'AsqalZni, ibid.. I: 16.27 and 84; VILI: 3; I X :207.
Ibn Haja.aLbAsqalZni,Tahdhr'b a!-Tahdhr'b, VICI: 468; Xt: 336; GAS. I: 135.
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZn?, ibid, I: 84; VII: 317; Vm: 361;I X72 and 453,
''Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal~~. Tahdhrb ol-Tahdhib. I: 19: I E 368; VI: 418; GAS.I: 356-357.
- Muhammad b. 'Amr b. Miis2 al-'UqayIi (d. 3 2 2 1 . ~ - Muhammad b. 'Umar al-Wgqidi (d. 2 0 7 ) ? ' - Muhammad b. Abi al-Hasan IsmZlll b. Ibr&
b. al-Mughkh al-Jucfi aL-BukhZ (d.
His books entitled
al-TanU a l - ~ w s a ! ~ and ' al-Takn'kh a a l - ~ a b ~ are '~
frequently mentioned by Ibn ~ a j a r . ' ~
- Maammad b. Husayn b. w a d b. d-eusayn Abii &Fa* al-Azdi (d. 367).84 Ibn Hajar
mentions his work a l - ~ a l b . ~ ~
- Muhammad b. Idris al-ShSfiT (d. 204)? - Muhammad b. IdIis b. al-Mundhir b. D5wGd b. M
al-R&i (d. 277)."
G al-Ghatfadi al-HaqG Abii G t i m
- Maammad b. 'Is5 b. Sawrah b. MGsi b. a l D m & al-Timidhi (d. 279). The author of a
well-knownhadrfh collection entitled al-Ja7ni' al-$'ah% and of al- 'llal a l - ~ a b i r ~ ~
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliini, ibid-, W: 4 18.
Ibid, I: 10,19,290 and 294;
m:182 and 273; VII: 494; Vm: 256; X: 485; XI: 336; GAS., I: 177.
ibn Hajar aLbAsqal%-ii, ibid, VIE 358; GAS. 294-297.
Muhammad Diyh' al-Rahman al-A'zarni, DiraSatfial-Jarh wu al-Ta'dil. 398-407. See GAL, I: 163.
GAL, I: 164.
ibid., 166. Ibid.
See Ibn Hajar aLbAsqa15ni. Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, I: 14.20.79and 86. II: IV:277; V : 3; V I E 256; DL: 73 and 206; X : 300 and 485.
"Ibih,I: 81 and 290; III: 272; W 353 and 463; VII: 497; IX:3; see also GAS,I: 199.
f i n Hajar aLbAsqaliin7,ibid., W: 497.
" Ibn Hajar al-'Asqahi. ibid. I: 27; V:3; GAS, I: 153.
: 188-190Ibid, X: 217. See GAL. I
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaiiini, Tahdhr'b al-TaMhib, I: 294; W :277; Vm:468. See GAL, I: 169.
- MuQarnmad b. Ishiq b. Khuzaymah b. al-MugEah b. SZI& b. Bakr (d. 3 1
of a hodih book, which Ibn Kajar referred to as al-Sahih. This book was valued by hadr'th scholars. According to J a l a al-Dk 'Abd al-R-an b. Abi Bakr a l - S u y 7 (d. 91 I), Ibn
Khuzaymah's $ah% was better than Ibn Qibbb's ~ahi7j?*
- Muhammad b. al-Nae b. Salamah b. al-JKd al-JiirGdi (d. 29 1).' - Mu&mrnad b. Maammad b. m a d b. IshZq al-Naysabili al-Karabis? Abu m a d alHakim (d. 378)P2 He is reputed to have composed many books, including al-Asmb wa al~~rza1'~
- Muslim b. al-HajjZj (d. 26 l)P4 Ibn Hajar mentioned his books nl-$ah% and nl-W@dai are
- Shu'bah b. yajjiij b- al-Ward aLCAtalii al-Azdi Abii B i s t k ( d 160
- Sulaymiin b al-Ash'ath b. IshZq b. Basiiir b. Shaddad b. 'Amr b. 'ImrZn Abii DZwGd alSijist-%'i (d. 2 7 0 ) : '
Ibn Hajar aL6AsqalEni.ibid, I: I6 and 27; IX:72; X: 99; GAS. I: 601.
J a I a &Din 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr al-SuyiiG, Tadrib a[-raWifTsharh Taqn'b al-Nawawc ed. 'Abd alWahhab 'Abd al-bfif (Medina: al-Maktabah al-'Ilmiyah, I959), 54,
Ibn Hajar aLbAsqal&i, Tahdhr'bal-Tahdhib, I: 10 and 19.
He is mentioned in TaMhib at-TaMhib as Abi e m a d al-HZkim or al-H%n AbG Aiynad. See ibid. 179 and 294; 1 1 : 27 1 ;VIII: 256; GAS. I: 203-204.
DiyZ* al-Reman al-A'zami. DiraSatfi al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dil, 478-480.
Ibn Hajar al-'~sqalEni,Tahdhib a/-Tahdhr'b,2: 1 10; X:300. See GAL, I: 166-168. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliin?, ibid, I: 292.
1 1 : 3; GAS. I: 92.
294; XI: 336.
" See GAS, I: 149-152; GAL, I: 168. He is mentioned in Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliini, Tahdhib a l - T a w . I: 27 and
- 'Umar b. w
a d b. 'UthmZn b. l
d b. Muhammad Abii
HafS. al-Waciz, or Ibn Sh&
(d 3 8 5 ) ? ' The author of a book on jarh and ta'dil entitled T'iM A m - al-Thiqa? rnimmn
nuqila 'anhwn a l - ' i ~ m to~which ~ Ibn Hajar referred as a l - ~ h i ~ a 7 , , 'and "
a biographical work
entitled a l - ~ f d lo,' -
- Ya'qiib b. Shaybah (d. 262).'02 - YahyZ b. Ma% (d. 233).'03
- YahyZ b. SaTd al-Qa~gZn(d. 198).lo4
YGsuf b. 'Abd All& Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Barr Abii 'Umar, or Ibn 'Abd al-Barr (d.
463).lo5The author of
a l - ~ a h a % a h ,a ' ~biographical
work on the
- Zakariya b. YahyZ al-SZ. (d. 307).lo7He is credited as having written books entitled Tax%
Bap-ah and al-Qu'afa .108
Hajar al-'Asqalan?, ibid., I: 13 and 289; U: 278; III: 182 and 273; VII: 494; Vm: 468; X: 215. See GAL, I:
Muhammad Diyl' al-Raman al-A'wm?. Dir&at$al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dn,483.
lbn Hajar al-'AsqalZnl, TaMhib al-Tahdhib, Vm:468.
Ibid., I: I 3.
I0?bid., I I i : 182; V I : 317; VIII: 468; GAS, 1: 144.
qajar al-'Azqal&ii, ibid, I: 292; GAS. 106-107.
Ibid, II: 3. Ibid, I: 289; Vm:3 and 358;X I : 27 I. GAL. I: 453Ibid, I : 289 and 295; UI: 182; V: 205; Vm: 105 and 256; X: 214; ;Fa: 271; GAS, I: 349-350; GAL, I: 453-
GAS, 1 : 349-350.
What remains unclear is whether Ibn Hajar actually had access to the above-mentioned sources,since he gives no convincing indication of this. Ibn yajar's treatment of some, if not
all, these sources, is weak. Instead of stating the title of each work and the authon, Ibn Hajar
merely says qala ("'someone said") or rawL ("someone transmitted"), which probably does not indicate first hand knowledge of the authors' work.
Aside from these shortcomings, Ibn EJajar's reliance on the huge number of sources is
testimony to his erudition and thoroughness when dealing with the biographies of hadah transmitters.
C. The Structure of TahdhIb al-Tahdkiib
There are 12,455 biographical entries in Tahdhs al-Tahdhib,including different names ascribed to the same person. The entries for had3h transmitters are similarly organized. Each
enny begins with the name of the transmitter and gives its variants.
After giving the transmitter's name, Ibn Hajar lists the masters from whom the information had been transmitted and his students who, in turn, transmitted. Following this list of masters and students, Ibn Hajar briefly assessed had* scholars and critics, the
qualities or defects of the transmitters - based on the structure of al-Mizzi's Tahdhr'b al-
Kamal. Lastly, Ibn Hajar summarized the assessments of many other sources based on his
own research. To distinguish this additional information, he began with the word q u h ("I: said"), indicating that the statement that follows to the end of the entry is his own.
In order to make sense of the structure of Tahdht'b al-Tahdhr'b, here are two
randomly- picked, translated entries.
e ] Qutaybah b. SaLIdb. Jaaiil b. TaIif b. 'Abd All&
al-Thaqafi their client, Abu Raj2 al-
Baghillikii. Baghill% is one of the villages of Balkh. lbn 'Adi said that Yahya is his name,
Qutaybah his laqub. Ibn Mandah asserted that [Qutaybah's] name is 'Ali. Qutaybah nansmitted [hadirhs] from M a , al-layth Ibn LaZcah, Rushdin b. Sa'd, Diiwud b. 'Abd al-Ralpnan al-'Attk, Khalaf b. KhaGfah, 'Abd al-Ralpnan b. Abi al-Mawwa,
Bakr b. Mudir, al-Mufaddal b. Fad&&, 'Abd a l - W ~ t h b. Sa?d,
mid b. Zayd, 'Abd
All& b. Zayd b. Aslam,
and the others [a%arG].
Among those who transmitted [hadr'ths] from [Qutaybah] were al-~arna?ah'~~ excluding Ibn MZjah, al-TirmidE also related his transmission to Qutaybah, Ibn MZjah by way of [bi wasitah] w a d b. Hanbal, @ad
b. SaCld al-D-,
Abii Bakr b. Abi Shaybah,
and Mulpmmad b. Yahya al-Dhuhali. These include the people who died before him,such as
'AIib. & M a e , Nu'aym b. Hammiid, Abu Bah al-Humaydi, Muhammad b. 'Abd AU& b.
Namir, YahyZ b. Ma%, and YahyZ b. 'Abd al-Haniid al-HammiG. [Among those who
transmitted from him are] Abl? Khaythamah Zuhayr b. Harb, al-Hasan b. 'Arafah, HZrh al-
UammZl, 'AbbZs al-'Anbari.. .and Abii al-'Abb% M ~ a m m a d b. IshZq al-SarrZj, considered
the last person to transmit [hadiihs]from him, and others [a?dianih].
al-Athram [transmitted] from m a d that the latter mentioned Qutaybah then praised
him. w a d then said that he [Qutaybah] was the last person to hear [a transmission] fiom
Ibn LaEcah. Ibn Malin, AbC HZtirn and al-Nass? held that [Qutaybah is] thiqah
[trustworthy]. al-NasZ added that me is] jadiq [reliable]. +ad
b. Maammad Ibn Ziy ad
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaIZni, Tahdhib al-TahdGb,VIE358-361.
al-&miX said, "Qutaybah b. Sa'id told me: 'I did not find in my book the mark of redness
[hzimrah] but that it belonged to M a d , and of greenness [Wlu~jrah] but that it belonged to YahyZ b. Ma'in."
Mulpwmad b. Efumayd b Farwah said, "I heard Qutaybah say: 'On my first travel in
the year 172, I sojourned in Ir5q when I was 23 years old."' Al-FarhiyEi said that Qutaybah was +-aduiand there was none of the eminent ones in Iriq but he transmitted from him. He then said: "I heard 'Umar b. 'AIi say: 'I passed by Qutaybah in MhZ, leaving it behind without taking anything from him, which I later regretted.'"
al-H-&im said that Qutaybah was rhiqah ma'mun [trustworthy and followecWtrusted]
and the hadah that he transmitted fiom al-Layth, fiom Yaiid b. Abi Hubayb, from Abi alTufayl, and from Mu'Iidh b. Jabal about combining two prayers is spurious. He subsequently transmitted with that chain of transmission to al-Bukhz. Al-Hikim then said: ''I asked Qutaybah: 'With whom did you write fiom al-Layth b. Sa'd, the bad* of Yazid b. Abi
mbayb, from Abi al-Tufayl?" Qutaybah responded, "[It was] with KhZlid al-MadZ'irii."
M~ammad b. IsmZTil then said that it was Khiilid d-Madabin,who introduced the hadr'ths to
the masters [shuyu&h].Abii Sa5d b. Yiinus said that no one talked to him except Qutaybah. It
is said that he erred. The right view is [that the lpd3h was transmitted] from Abii al-Zubayr.
al-Khayib said that he was strongly rejected in tradition. AQmad b. S i y 2 al-Marwazi said that
he is f m [thabat] in what the owners of customary behaviour and community have
transmitted. I heard him say that he was born in the year 150. By the last two days of Sha'bZn
240, having written hadr'ths from three classes LrabaqaTs]. Musa b. H-Kin said that
[Qutaybah] was born in 148, when al-Abmashdied in '48.
I said [qultu]
the former [that he was born in 1501 - is more convincing,
5 5 .Perhaps, because it follows from his story above which indicates that he was born before '
b e was born] early that year.
What is taken by al-Hakim to be spurious is not the point, because the purpose of
presenting the story, which came fiom al-Bukhz, is that Kh&d was the one who introduced
this ha&h as having been transmitted fiom al-Layth. In it forgetfulness is ascribed to al-
Layth despite his eminence and importance since KhZd introduced into it what was not part
of his report. What is correct is what Abii Sa'id b. YGnus said that [the transmission of al-
Layth from] Yaiid b. Abi Hubayb was a mistake from Qutaybah, and the sound report is from Abu al-Zubayr.
Such a hadrSh was also transmitted by M
a and S e a n from Abii aL-Zubayr, from
Abii al-Tufayl; but the content of ha&
transmitted by Qutaybah was about the explication
of combining [two prayers] during the fmt prayer.
This is not in the report of M a . If it passes that there be a mistake as regards a transmitter in the chain, then it is permissible that there be a mistake as regards words in the body of the report- The judgment of spuriousness upon Qutaybah is too excessive. God
knows the best.
Ibn Hibbh said in his al-ntiqgt that Qutaybah died on Wednesday of Sha'blin 240.
Maslamah b. QZsim said that [Qutaybah] came fiom Khur%& and was thiqah. He died in
241. Ibn al-QanZn al-FG? asserted that he never made tadk&."' In al-Zzharah, al-BukhZ
transmitted 308 ljadrfhfiom him, while Muslim msmitted 668,
] Muhammad b. Bashshar b. 'Uthmk b. DZwud b.
Kays2n al-'Abdi A b i Bakr a l H Z q
F1-c transmitted (hadahs)from 'Abd al-Wahhiib al-Thaqafi, Ghundar, R i & b. 'Ubadah, Haranii b. 'Amarah, Ibn Abi 'Adi, Mu'adh b. Hisham, YahyZ al-Qa~~iin, f i n Mahdi, AbG
D h d al-Tay&si, Yaiid b. Zuray ', Yazid b. Hihiin, Ja'far b. 'Awn, Bahz b. Asad, S-iiLim b.
Niih.. .'Abd al-Samad b. 'Abd al-Wcth and many people [khuluq kathrr]].
Those who transmitted [[zadrfhs] from him were al-juml'ah - al-NasZ5 by the way of
Abu Bakr d-Marwazi and ZakariyZ al-Sijd, Abii Zur'ah, Abii Hatim, Baq'r b. Makhlad, 'Abd
AU& b. e r n a d , Ibo NZjiyah, Ibr-iXh al-qarbi, Ibn Abi al-DunyZ, ZakariyZ al-SZY, Abii
KhaGfah, Ibn Khuzaymah, al-SSj, d-QGim b. ZakariyTi al-Muprriz, Mdynmad b. al-
Musayyab d-ArghiyZni, Ibn S Z' id, al-B aghawi and others (akharG).
Ibn Khuzaymah said, "I heard BundZr say: I visited YahyZ b. Sa'id al-Qal*
more than 20 years. BundZr said: If YahyZ had lived past this period, I. would have heard
much from him." M-xjurii said, from ~ b Dgwud, i ''1wrote more than fifty thousand hadr'ths
from BundZr z d wrote something from Abii MGZ. If SalZmah was not in [the transmission
ofJ Bundk, indeed his hadz'rhs would have been abandoned."
... 'Abd All& b. Muhammad
b. Sayyik said: 'I heard ' A m b.
'AGsay under oath that Bundii has lied to have transmitted
'IL See the brief explanation in Chapter One, Part B in the discussion on Ibn Hajar's Ta'rzTAhi ai-TaqdG bi MaraTib al-MawsUfrn bi al-TadZk
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalEni, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, X70-73.
hadith fiom YahyZ. Ibn Saw%said, BundZr and AbG MCsE were rhiqnh [austwoahy]. AbG
MGsi is better because he only read from his writings, while BundEr read from any books.
I heard my father and asked him about the 'Abd AUZh b. 'AIi b. al-Madiii said, "
hadrh which Bund5.r had transmitted from Ibn Mahdi, fro= Abii Bakr b. 'Ayyiish, from '&im, fiom Zrr, from 'Abd AUZh, f i o m the Prophet, may God bless him, who said, 'Have
sahcr Dast meal before daybreak during the month of Ramad&] because by performing it,
[you] will earn God's blessing [barakah].' My father said that it was a lie, and he strongly
rejected it. He said that Abu Diiwud told him [the had* was] mawq$'"
b. al-Dawraq? said, "We were beside Yahya b- Marm and when Bundk
was mentioned, I noted that he did not comment; instead, he was i n c h e d to consider him weak" He then said: ' 7saw that a l - Q a w f i was not pleased with him, and said that Bundiir
owned a pigeon."
al-Azadi said, "Many people wrote from Pundir] and accepted him. The remarks of Yahya and of al-QawZE were not meant to discredit him. I found that he is mentioned only
as being good [khayr] and truthful [~adUq]." al-Birqkii said, "I heard 'Abd All& b.
Muhammad. B. Ja'far al-Bushaw say: 'Muipnmad b. Ishsq b. Khuzaymah toId us, from Muhammad b. BashshZr, Bundid"' al-'Ijli said that [BundZr] was Bqran, trustworthy, with many hadl'ths to his name, a story teller [ha7ik). AbC HZtirn said that he was reliable, while al-NasZ said that he was good
and acceptable. .. al-Sarriij said: "I heard Abii Sayy% say: 'I heard Bundir say: I was born in
the same year that Hammzd b. Salamah had died. Hammad died in 167."' AI-BukhZ and
'I3 Mawqufis a hadiih whose content i s based on the Companions* statements. See Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalZP, Nurhar al-Nag, 34-
others said that PundZr] died in the month of Rajab 252. Ibn W b b L said that he (Bundik]
memorized his hadith and recited them from memory,
I m n Hajar] said [ q u h ] that Ibn H i b b b made a mention in his al-Thiqui. In al-
Tawhiif,Ibn Khuzaymah stated, "The leader of his time, Muhammad b. BashshZr told us-" In
his Sahq, al-BukhE stated: ''Bundir wrote to me and mentioned one hadrfh r n ~ s n a d . " ~ Were it not for the strength of trustworthiness, his writings would have been reported from
him, along with his being in the fourth class in the eye of his masters. But he had many report
and possessed [some hadr'-h] which no one else had.
Maslamah b. Qkim said, "Ibn M a h r a told us about him and said that he was
trustworthy and famous." al-DZraqupii said that pundiir] was among the good and firm memorizers. al-Dhahabi said, ''Whenever he traveled, he always met with the elite &adr'rh scholars]. He also met with the scholars of Bqrah and I hope that he is acceptable." In alZaharah, ai-BukhiE transmitted about 250 hadrTihs from him and Muslim about 460.
In the entries of his Tahdhih al-Tahdhib, Ibn Hajar seems to include all the names, kunyahs
and laqabs ascribed to the transmitter. To the above entry of Qutaybah (d. 240 AH), for
instance, were added names from his family tree (e-g., b. SaSd b. Jaxiil b. T5i.f b. 'Abd All&), his client name (al-Thaqafi, as the client of Thaqif). This same person happened also to be known as Abii Raja' al-Baghill=, his nisbah (attribute), as he came fkom Baghillan, a
small town in ~ a l k h .lS' Even Ibn Hajar recorded the different opinions of had% scholars on
' 1 4 Hadah rnusnad is a kdfih that is transmitted from the Prophet through the Companions without interruption until the last transmitter (ibid,,49). 'lS Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalini, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, VIII:358.
name variants. Ibn 'Adi and Ibn Mandah's views regarding Qutaybah's real name are cases
Compared to the entry of Qutaybah in Kira3 al-Jar+ wa al-Ta'dn, al-Rki recorded his name as Qutaybah b. Sa'Id Abii RajP' al-Baghillikii n?-Bakhi mawla (client) of ~ h a q i f . '
Al-Rki's record is short but not simple, since Baghillan is a small village of Balkh. This might present the use of both nisbakr, which are used to refer to Qutaybah. lbn Hajar only mentions al-Baghill= with a geographical reference. Following the transmitter's name, Ibn Hajar listed the masters f i o n whom this transmitter had obtained his information; he listed his students who, in turn, transmitted, Ibn Hajar's listing here was based on reputation in the Wr'th transmission. Respecting the students of Qutaybah, Ibn Hajar begins with the name of Malik, followed by al-layth, Ibn
Latii'ah, Rushdin b. Sa'd, D h d b. 'Abd al-R-an
d-'Attar, Khalaf b. Khalifah, 'Abd al-
b. Ab? al-Mawwa, B a k ~ b. Mudir, al-Mufaddal b. Fadaah, 'Abd al-W-kith b. Sarld,
Hammad b. Zayd, 'Abd All& b. Zayd b. Aslam ...and W d ' . This is not an alphabetical
arrangement. Although it may not cause the students of jarh wa ta'dz any difficulty, it may confuse someone searching for the masters of certain transmirters. Ibn Hajar simplifies the long listing of masters and students by employing terms
which indicate that a master has transmitted his hadr'rh to many students and that a student
has received a transmission from many masters -- terms like Malq ( p e ~ p l e ) , " Wlalq ~ korhfi
' jamaTah (group),
a h r & (others)121 and ghuymhum (others).
Abll HZtirn al-RE?, Kim3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta 'dr?,E I :140. See f o r instance, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani. Tahdhib al-Tahdha, TI:2.
for instance, ibid, III:2.
This approach may have had two results. By indicating that such and such a
transmitter had many masters fkom whom he received a tradition and many students who related his tradition, it simplified the entry system. On the other hand, by stating that there were many others who transmitted hadah from a given transmitter and to whom this transmitter related his transmission, it may serve as a guide to more information about his masters and students contained in other books, if any. Otherwise, it may provoke speculation about other masters or students who received or transmitted a hadrfh, casting doubts about
the chain of transmission.
Ibn Hajar simplified his mention of the names of both masters and students. For brevity's sake, he used the transmitter's commonly known name. Ibn Hajar did this for Muhammad b. BashshZr (d. 252)." familiar Zaqab Bundk. Another method of his is to shorten the full names of certain .transmitters. Instead of recording Abii Bakr 'Abd All& b MuQammad b. Abi Shaybah (d. 235)124and 'Uthmk b. Instead of his real name, Ibn Hajar used his more
See for instance, ibid, V: 13 1.
1 2 '
See for instance, ibid, M:3. See for instance, ibid, IV:3.
'* Ibid., XII: 342 and IX:70-73.
Ibid,. XII: 299 and VI:2-4.
Muhammad b . Abi Shaybah (d. 239),lE b n aajar simplifies them as IbnZ Abi shaybahL" or
the two sons of AbE Shaybah (d. 182).ln
Following chis list of masters and students, Ibn Hajar briefly assessed hadrh scholars
and critics, the qualities or defects of the transmitters - based on the structure of al-Mzzi's
Tahdhr'b al-Karnal. Interestingly, Ibn Hajar did not always offer his own judopent on the quality or defect of the transmitters. Instead, he made brief statements. For example, many h d 5 h critics disputed whether a l - Z ~ actually transmitted a hadsh from 'Amr b. Muslim b .
'UmZrah b. Ukaymah ( d
Ibn Ifajar held, 'The right view is that the person from whom
al-Zuhfi transmitted a k d 2 h was 'Amr b. Muslim b. Ukaymah, not 'Amr b. Muslim b.
'UmZrah b. ~kaymah.""~ Ibn Hajar summarized the assessments of many other sources e.g., Ibn EbbZn al-Busfi's al-;rhiqa? and Ibn SaLd's Kitab Tabaqa? a l - ~ a b r ' r . ' To ~~
disthggish this additional information, Ibn Hajar began with the word quZm ("I said"), indicating that the statement that followed to the end of the entry was his own.13'
lSIIbid, XTZ:299, VII:121 and 149-151.
For instance, the entry for earnmad b. Us5mah b . Zayd al-Qurashi,whose tradition they transmitted. See, ibid, m:2.
bid., ~ 1 4 1 -
See Part B of this chapter.
Ibn Fajar al-'Asqai&ii, "Introduction."
1 : s .
D. Ibn@@u%Method in
method for compiling this book is adapted from Tahdhib nl-Kama7 of al-Mizzi,
which he always refers to as al-As~'" However, Ibn Hajar restructured the contents of his
own work, Let us now summarize some methodological aspects of Ibn Hajar's Tahdhr'b al-
Tahdhib by looking at the work's sources and structure.
EmpIoying extensive scope of sources
In Tahdhib al-Tahdhs, Ibn Hajar is not strict in his use of sources in each entry. His range of
history,13' haah,13' jarh,L36 and t ~ ~ ' d 2 . ' ~ ~ sources includes general works in biography,i33
Relying on the dates Ibn Hajar mchdes & persods dares of birth and death in many entries. Where there are more than one possibility, he will record all, without always giving his sources. Some critics, d'~ in ~ 130 AH; others like Yahyz Ibn among them Khalifah, held that 'AbbG b. a l - ~ a ~died
I" Using biographical books like R i j d a[-Bukhaxof AbG al-Walid a l - ~ ~ and , i 01-Afmli of Ibn S h & h See ibid, V: 334 (al-BEfi) and I: 13 (Ibn S h a h ) . IU Using books on history like Tax= al-Awsa! and al-KnbE of al-BukhZfi and Ta4rikhof Ibn Abi KhaythamahFor instance, ibi'd, I: 79 (al-Bukhki and 292 (Ibn Abi Khaythamah).
13' Relying on books of hadith like the $z~$.Y of al-BukhZ and Muslim, and the Sunan of al-NasZ'i may be cases in point. For instance, ibid, I: 20 (al-Bukhz); 11: 110 (Muslim); III: 273 (al-NasETi).
U6 Fur instance, ih-jafs
ase of Kitdb dYIal al-Kobir o f al-TirmidE See ibid, TV: 277.
'" TheexteasZvellsing of a l - T W ofIbn mi&
A-Bus6 might be a case in point. See note #35.
Macm (d. 233 AH) that he died in 131 AH; another date recorded by Ibn Hajar is 132 AH,
which however has no clear reference ($a) in TaMhib a ~ - ~ a h d h % . ' ~ ~
Presenting various opinions on one subject in a very brief way
Ibn Hajar's purpose in Tahdha al-Tahdhib is to provide a comprehensive record of had5h
transmitters, in order to "cure the problem" of inaccuracy in preceding works with respect to
He tried to be inclusive in his record of opinions and criticisms of hnd8h each transmitter.140
transmitters. Whenever there was a wide variation in opinion, he sought either to find some
middle ground or to support one of them, endeavoring always to be as conclusive as the
information before him permitted. Some statements which indicated this are: wa al-sah3 ...
("'andthe right view is.. .") or wa al-npzhh.. .("the most accurate view is.. '4I.)".
Recording the name of its entry completely
In Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, Ibn Hajar clearly recorded his entry based either on all the records he
could find or on what peopIe commonly knew. The entry for H@ b. 'Umar, for instance, gives a Iong name found in previous works.142In Tahdhfb al-Tahdhib, 'Umar b. Hafs's complete name is Kafs b. 'Umar b. aLQ5.rit.hb. Sakhbara al-kzdi al-Namaii Abii 'Umar al-
Haw@ Ibn al-Narnir b. 'UthmZn wa yuqau mawla bani ' ~ d i . 'In ~~ al-Dhahabi's MGaSt al-
' 3 1
I b i d ,V:204-205.
Ibid. I : 3.
The various books which record parts of his name may be found in Juynboll, Muslim T r u d i r i o n ,138.
I'tida?, it figures as Hafs b. 'Umar al-NamG al-HawG Abu 'Umar a l - ~ + i i . ' In ~ ~another source, it is simply Abii 'Umar a l - ~ a w @ . ~ ~ ~ This implies that Ibn Hajar had more sources than his predecessors, thanks either to
his access to a good library or to his own journey abroad. '41 It certainly indicates Ibn Hajar's
E. Ibn mar's Codes
For simplification, Ibn Hajar used a code system.''"
(G ; ) : Suhq of al-Bukhari but the indicated had% is Mu ' a l ~ a ~ ~ " ~ ( tt ) : al-Adab al-Mufrad of d-BukhiE
( E~ ) :KIIuZuq A f ' a l al- 'IbuZ of d - B u k h c
(j ) (
: Rar al-Yadayn of d - B u k h Z :Sah* of Muslim
Al-Dhahabi, MkaX al-l'tida7, I: 265. variation in books of hadZh transmitters led to the suspicions of innovation. luynboll, Muslim Tradition,
See Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalIni's biographical sketch in Chapter One.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal5ni. "Introduction." Tahdhib a[-Tam& I: 5-6; Ibn eajar a I - ' A ~ q a lTaqt-3 ~ ~ ~ al-
Tahdhib, ed. 'Abd aI-WahhIb 'Abd al-Latif (Medina: al-Maktabah al-'IImiyah. 1960) I: 7;Muhammad J a m l al-Din al-QZimi, Qawdid al-TaBr'rh min Funin M q a l a 3 al-flad5h. ed- Muhammad Bahjah &Bay.& and Maammad Rashid RidZ (Beirut: DZr aI-Nafa'is, 1987) 252.
A hadZh may be called mu'allaq if the first of its a-ansmitters - saha%i(one Companion) or two, qaba3iwa ra3iS (Companion and Follower) - is not mentioned in the chain of transmission. Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaIW. Nurhat al-iVa?r: Shurh Nukhbar al-Fikr (Ci4ro: Matba'at al-Istiqhah, 1368 AX.), 26.
( + ) :Muqaddimat al-Sah* of M u s h
( J )~
:Kit& al-Sunan of AbG DZwGd
:al-Mara3Z o f Abii DawGd
( JA ) :Fada7il al-Anza7 of AbG DZwu-d
) :al-Nitkh of Abii DZwud :al-Qadr of Abii DZwiid : al-Tafarrud of AbG Diiwiid :al-Masa7il of AbG D5wiid
:Musnad Malik of Abii DZuGd
:al-Ja-mical-$a@% of al-Tinnidh?
: al-Shama7il o f al-Tirmidh? : E t a 3 al-Sunan o f ai-NasZf
( L)LSL; ) :Musnad 'AE o f al-NasZ'i (
, ) : ' h a 1al-Ymvm wa al-Luylah of al-NasZTi
( L)L> ) : K h a d i s 'AlFof al-Nas Z'T
) :Musnad MaZk of al-NasZT
:Kit& al-Sunan of Ibn MZjah
:aL-Tafsz'r of Ibn Mzjah
: This code indicates that all of the above-mentioned authors include the entries,
which are marked by this code.
( t' 4 I )
:This code indicates that all but al-Bukhz and M u s h include entries with this code
alongside the titles of their works.
F. Printing History of the Text
Tahdha al-Tuhdhib was first published in 1325 AH by Majlis D&at al-Ma'ikif alN i z h i y a h in Hyderabad Deccan, India Karnil Muhammad Muhammad 'Uwaydah gives
the same publishers' name, but with a different date: 1327 A H . ' ' '
This is the date which
M w G d Sh*
'Abd al-Mun'im also mentions in his work on Xbn Majar's a l - l d a h fl
TamyE al-~aha%ah.'~~ This may not necessarily mean that one of the dates is wrong. The
work comprises 12 volumes, not all of which were published at the same time. Unlike
'Uwaydah and 'Abd al-Mun'im, we will use the publication date of each volume of Tahdhr'b
al-Tuhdhib, not that of the complete set.
Therefore, the first volume was published on 20th Jumadi a l e i i1325.152This volume includes an introduction by the author and 961 biographies entries for hadr'th
In TaqnZl al-TaMhr'b, Ibn Hajar employed code ( Tahdhib,7.
for the same purpose, see Ibn Hajar, Taqn% al-
K S l Muhammad Muhammad 'Uwaydah. ibn Kajar aL6AsqalakPShayW, al-lsZm (Beirut: DZr al-Kutub a l -'Ilmiyah, 1993.6 1.
I S ' ShIkir Ma@miid 'Abd al-Mun'im, ibn @ajar al-'Asqal&i warDira2.a~ M ~ a m f a ? i hwa-Manhajih waMawaXdihfiKitabih aL-&&ah (BaghdZd: DZr al-Ris5Iah. n.d.),. I52 . Ibn Fajar al-'AsqalGi, TaMfribal-Tahdttib, I: 5 1 6 .
transmitters. The first name is A l p a d b . Ibr%
b. K h Z d Abu
AH).IS3; the work ends with Tawbah Ab3 Sadaqah al-AnsG d-Bqfi (d.
The second volume was published on 5" of Sha'ban, 1325.'" This volume contains
790 entries, starting with ThZbir b. a l - A l p ~ f and ' ~ ~ ending with H & h b. Muhammad b.
'Abd AU& b. Qays b. Makhramah b. al-MupiUab al-MupIlabi a l - ~ a d a d i . ~ ~ '
The third volume was published in early DhG al-Qacdah 1325
includes 912 entries, beginning with Hammiid bb. Uskah b . Zayd a l - ~ u r a s h i 'and ~ ~ ending
w i t h Sa'wah a l - ~ a h G16* .
The fouah volume, published 24" Muharram 1326 AE-I,I6' contains 801 biographical entries, beginning with SaTd b. A b b L a l - ~ a r r i i ~and ' ~ 'ending with Damirah a l - ~ a m a r i . ' ~ ~ The fifth volume, pubfished on 26" Rabic al-Awwal 1326 contains 664
entries, beginning with T Z q b. Ushaym b. Mas 'Ed al-Ashjaci (d.?)16' and ending with 'Abd
153 [bid., 9.
Ibid., 5 16,
Ibid-,I E 488.
'" Ibtd, rv:2.
1 6 '
Ibid., V : 391, Ibid , 2 ,
All& b. Ab? al-MNall al-'&(d.
The sixth volume, published on 7" JumiZ d-Th%Gyah 1326 entries, beginning with 'Abd All&
AH,'^' contains 951
b. Mt&arnmad b. Abi ~ h a ~ b aand h ' ending ~~ with 'Abdah
b. Abi LubZbah al-Asadi al-~h~difi.'~~
The seventh volume was published on 6& RamadZn i n 3 2 6 AH,'" and contains 852
entries, beb@ming with 'Ubzyd A l l &
b. a l - m a s al-Nakha'i AbE M
a al-KiE al-
I C h a z z ~and ~ ~ending ' with 'Umar mawla ~hafacith.'"
The eighth volume, pubLished at the end of DE al-Qa'dah 1326 biographies, staning with 'Arnr b. A b b k b. UthmZn b. 'AEb contains 835
al-Amawi al-~adadi'" and
ending with Layth b. 'Asim b. al-Alah b. Mughith b. al-Heth b. Arriir a l - ~ u l a d i . " ~ The ninrh volume, published on 22nd of Rabi' al-Awwal, 1327,"~ includes hadsh
msmitters with the name Muhammad, arranged according to the fathers' name. The
collection, which reaches 888 entries, b e , @ n s with Muhammad b. AbZn b.
Ibid-, 39 1 . ibid., VI: 363.
' 6 8
'ImrZn b. ZySd b.
' 6 6
Ibid, 2-4. Ibid, 46 1-462.
1 7 '
'* Ibid, 507-
'" Ibid, VIII: 470. '" Ibid, Vm: 2.
Ibid, 469. Ibid, M: 546.
~@ih In , and ends with persons called simply Muhammad, whose name does not constitute a
n a b or attribute.'78
The tenth volume was published on 15" JumZdi al-khk 1327
AH.'^^ This volume
contains 887 entries, starting with al-Ma@ b. Muhammad b. Mas'iid at-GhZifiqi (d. 183
and ending with Niy& b. ' ~ n v a h . ' ~ ' The eleventh volume was published on 4h Ramad& 1327
AH,^^' covering the
biographies of 871 had8z transmitters. It begins with H-GGn bb. l3ri.JS.m al-Ahwaii Abii
Muhammad a l - ~ ~ i and i ' ~ ends ~ with YGnus b. YGsuf b. Hammiis b. 'Amr al-LaytE al~adadi,'~~
The twelfth volume was published in the year 1 3 2 % This ~~~ final volume records the transmitters known only by their kuna; laqab, tribe, fathers ' names, grandfathers', mothers',
uncles' and so forth. It also devotes a special place for women traosmitters, women known
by their kuna; laqab and those known by rnubhama ("obscure names"). This volume covers
3043 ennies, which starts with the kunyah Abii Ibr&
al-Ashhali al-Madadi (d.?)'"
ends with Umm Salarnah (d. ?), a rnrrbhamah (female) ~ansmitter.'~'
Ibid., 2-3. Ibid, 493.
Ibid, X I : 492,
Ibid, 2. Ibid., 492.
IBN HAJAR AL-'ASQALM AND TAJH-~ AND TA 'Dfk OF @WITH TRANSMITTERS
By the end of the second AWeighth CE century, Muslim scholars realized that many
traditions had been fabricated, the result of '%ompetition between disputing political interests,
- Umayyads, SWah and Khawikij; regional groups of scholars with interest in legal
questions; and theologians disagreeing on questions such as free will predetermination."' Interest in had* versus
transmitters subsequently began to develop and
evaluations of the quality of their transmission were made.' In later centuries biographies of hadrfh transmitters began to flourish. However, they mostly contained lists of men of tradition and the teachers from whom they obtained the transmission; students who related them in their transmission; and dates and statements about their accuracy.' These qualifying notes are found in the canonical compilations of had*, mostly in the form of brief statements. Views concerning the various classes of transmitters differed according to whether those traditions were accepted or rejected.
John Burton, An Inzroduction ro the Ifadr'rh (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994). 148.
J- Robson, "al-Djarh wa 'I-Ta'dil," in EI2, I: 462.
See Chapter I1 ofthis study.
In the following section, these views will be discussed. This will assist us in
determining whether or not Ibn Hajar's contribution in this field amounted to an independent position in h a d 2 criticism-
A. lbn Hajar al-'Asqalanf's Formulation on Tajn? and Ta 'dz7 Tajni or "discrediting" is etymologically related to jaraha-yajrihu-jarh%n, which literally
r to declare unreliable.'* In had& science, jarh means "the attempt to means "to wound s
uncover the states of hadirh transmitters, whose transmissions may bring disgrace or discredit."* Tabd2 or "justification," on the other hand, has the root 'ad,which literally means "a state in the soul indicating that the person is honest and straightforward.'" In @dE'th science, it is defined as "an attempt to show the reasons for receiving the transmissions of certain hadah transmitters."' Based on the aforementioned definition, we may say that tajni and ta'dz'l o f hadz'rh transmitters are "attempts to assess the requirements of hadah transmitters in order to be convinced of their positions, whether they are in majn! or ta'di?, which are expressed with
Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Wrinen Arabic, ed. J.M, Cowan (Lthaca: Spoken Language Services, Inc., 1994). 141.
'Bakri Shaykh e n , Adub al-nadrih a[-Nabawi(Beirut:D h al-Shuriiq, 1975). 63.
See Jams &Din Muhammad b- Mukarram Ibn Mmdhk, Lisa% al- 'Arab (Beirut: DZr al-Sadr and DZr Beiriit, 1956),XI: 430. Bakfi Shaykb Aniin, Adab al-lfadr'th al-Nabawi, 63.
certain terms."' The two elements are important for assessing @dZh transmitters, and later on helped decide whether the hadrfh of a given transmitter may be rejected or accepted.
Hadrfh scholars in the early periods disagreed on whether or not discrediting had2h
transmitters was d o w e d in Islam. Some held that discrediting hadah transmitters is an attempt to uncover their bad side and to exhibit their flaws ('uwrah)? which in Islam may be considered slander (ghibah) and prohibited (har&).'*
In response, h G n NawawT (d. 676 AH)"
asserted that "assessing the defects of
Wr'th transmitters is permitted (j2iz) and even obligatory (waTib),in view of the obligation
to safeguard the nobility of Islamic law (shan"ah)."12The aim is not merely to uncover the
flaws of the hadrfh transmitters but, for the sake of is15111and its followers, to eradicate falsity
in hadah transmi~sion.'~
In discrediting hadiih transmitters, b n Hajar offered no specific explanation about his
position whether he agreed or not in the issue of uncovering flaws.14 However, in his
Nukhbat al-Fikar he outlined ten reasons for deciding when someone is flawed in his
K a l Muhammad Mulpnmad 'Uwaydah, Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalakE ShayWz al-Islak (Beirut: D i r al-Kutub al'Ilmiyah, 1995), 115; see also Bakii Shaykh Aniin, Adab al-Hadiih al-Nabawi, 63; d s o Subhi S&h, 'UIuh alHad% wa Mugalahuh: 'Ard wa dira2ah (Beirut: D& al-'Ilm Ii aI-MalZyin, 1966), 109.
Bakii Shaykh Amin, Adab al-Hadr'th al-Nabawi, 64.
'* See QS, XLVI: 12.
He is Muhy a1-Din AbG ZakariyZ Yahyi b. Sharaf al-NawaH;i d-ShZ'i. See GAL, I: 496-502.
" h k n Nawawi. Sharh S a h q Muslim. I: 60; see also Muhammad Jamn &Din al-Qhimi. Qawa7id al-TaMiih min Funin Mugalah al-eadr'th, ed. Muhammad Bahjah a l - B a r n and Muhammad RashTd Rids (Beirut: DZr alNafa'is, 1987), l 13 and 196.
Bakri Shaykh h i i n , Adab al-Hadiih al-Nabawi, 64-65.
E m i l Muhammad Muhammad 'Uwaydah. Ibn m a r at-'Asqa&iE Shuykh a[-Islah, 119.
transmission of a hadrfh. This may lead us to presume an indication of his position on this matter. The ten reasons are:"
- Being a Liar (al-kadhib). A h d 5 h transmitted by a liar may be called 'bmaw&"' or
- Being accused of lying (muttaham bi al-kadhib). If a transmitter is accused of lying, his
transmission may result in his hadiih being called "matrut' or abandoned.I7
many mistakes Vuhsh al-ghalaf). The transmission of a person known for his
mistakes is called hadah 'brrzunkn?*, or rejected.''
- Being forgetful (ghaflah).The transmission is also categorized as hadIfh "rn~nkar."'~
- Acting unlawfully Vaj-iq). This is also categorized as Ija&h - Being
suspect (wahm). Hadrfh, which is nansmitted by such a transmitter is called
"mu 'allaP' or defective."
- Being contradictory (mukhakfah).This results in six different types of hadith: rnudruj7
(spuriously inserted as regards both the chain of transmission [isnid] and the content (mzn);
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliixii, Nuzhat al-Nryr: Sharh Nukhbat at-Fikar, 30.
l6 A hadrih may be known as maw@ either as a result of thorough research done by an expert of h d i r h on the sanad and the matn of a hadr'th, or as announced by the person who invented it. Ibn qajar mentioned the common reasons for making up a Wr'th. Among them are 'adarn al-dr'n (having no religion), ghalabar al-jahl (being foolish), faq al-'aqabiyah (excessive fanaticism) and itriba? hawa-ba6d al-ru 'may (following the wish of some [political] leaders). See the detailed information with samples in Ibn Hajar aLbAsqalZn?,Nuzhar al-Nap-: Sharh Nukhbar al-Fikar. 3 1-32.
maqZu3 (reciprocal), m a z 2 (addition), rnu&arib (disarray), musahhaf (misplacement of
diacritical marks) and rnzdpznqf (corrupted words)?
- Being unknown (iahalah).
The hadah transmitted by someone in this category is called
majhd (unknown), either he is majhd nl-'ayn (personally) or majhd al-ha7 (c~nditionall~).'~
-- Innovating (bid'ah).This category is not clearly defined, but Ibn yajar mentioned two
categories of bid 'ah: bi-mukafsir, which he defined as someone who is firm in respect of kufr (disbelief) and whose hadiih is totally rejected by most hadrfh scholars (ju?nhz.Gr),and bimufassiq (acting unlawfully or committing many mistakes).24
- Having bad memory (s2 al-hik).This results in two types of ha&h:
and rnuWtra1i.t (mixed)?
Depending on the various reasons for discrediting them, had5h transmitters were divided into various classes (rnambuh).Discussing this differentiation is an important part of
hadah science, where transmitters were studied in depth and their capabilities e~amined.'~
This is due to the fact that not all deficient transmitters were of the same class, nor were aU those qualified." They were grouped according to personal qualifications, formulated as simple attributions. This is to avoid giving an improper assessment of hadirh transmitters. 28
I b i d , 37-39.
I b i d . ,39-40.
z i[ b i d . , 4 1-42.
ai-Siddiq Bashi Nqr, Dawa3il at-Riw*
h 'in& nl-Mu&uidithFn mariblis: Mansh=t,
Ibn Vajar al-'AsqalZxG, N W r 01-Nap-: Shorh M b a t at-Fikor, 66.
In general, hadrfh scholars divide the had!fh transmitters' flaws into five classesw:
The first class consisted of deceidul transmitters: terms used included: kadhdha3 (a l i a r ) , yakdhib (to lie), yada ' al-had& (to forge a hadah), wadda-' (forgerer), wada 'a hadrrhan (to forge a hadiih), or dajjal (swindler).
The second class involved the suspicion or accusation of deceit, e.g., fulak muttaham
bi al-kadhib or al-wad' (someone who is accused of being a liar or forgerer), sa2ir (disreputable), haXk (destructible), dhalib (faded), dha71ib al-hadr'rh (someone who fades the hadr'th), rnatrrik (abandoned), mmik al-badiih (someone whose had* is abandoned),
tarakuh ([hudirh scholars] abandon him), jihi n a y (he is surveyed), sakati 'anhu ([hadah scholars] are silent on him) or la yu'tabar bihi (he is not regarded), la yu'tabar bi hadahihi (his had% is not regarded), laysa bi al-thiqah (he is not trustworthy), laysa rna'muk (he is not foLIowed/reliable) and so forth. The third class consisted of straightforward rejection: fulaS2 rudda hadiihuh (someone whose badah is rejected), r a d d i had5hah ([hadrfh scholars] reject his badrrh), mar&
hadr'th (rejected in had5h), daeFfjidd (very weak), wa71 bi rnarrah (feeble in one instance), t a r a h i hadiihah ([hadrfh scholars] discard his hadZh), mugarah al-hadah (discarded in
k d i t h ) , amti bih (I blame him), laysa bi shay (he is nothing), la s h q (nothing), la-yusakr
shay (he is not worth anything), etc.
and included the terms da'g (weak), munkar The fourth class involved ccweakness"
al-hadiih (refused in had3h), hadahuh munkar (his hadz'th is refused), rnudtarab al-@zdi?h (confused in had2h), wal (feeble), da "a$% ([hadiih scholars] make him out to be weak),
and la yuhtajjfh (he is not consulted).
al-Siddiq Bashir N e r , Qawa3tt al-Riwayuh 'inchal-Muhaddithr'n,245-246.
The fifth class consisted of disputed cases: fl maqa? (there is a disagreement about
him), fih da'f (there is a weakness within h i m ) , fi Jpd3hih &'f (there is a weakness in his
kdirh), yu'rafwa yunkar (he is known and refused), Zuysa bi dhaX (he is not the one), laysa
bi al-math (he is not firm), Zaysa bi al-quwa-(he is not strong), laysa bi hujjah (he is not
competent), laysa bi 'umdah (he is not the main), laysa bi al-marda-(he is not approved), ! a 'anu- j?h ([hadith scholars] discredit him), m u ! 'uh (discredited), sayyi' al-hzfi @ad in memory), Zayyin (mild), Iayyin al-Mdz'rh (lenient in hadrfh),fih Zayyin (there is a mildness in
him), or takaZIamUfrch ([&ua!'th scholars] disagree over him).
Conversely, the qualities of reliable hadr'rh transmitters are generally divided into f o w classes:30 The first class is: thabat hujjah (reliable and competent), thabat ha?& (reliable and good in memory), rhiqah thabat (trustworthy and reliable), thiqah rnutqin (trustworthy and xcurate), thiqah thiqah (doubly trustworthy), etc., constituting two elements with the same words either used or unused.
The second class: thiqah
and writing), hi$@ (good in
rnutqin (accurate)?' da-bir (good in memory
and hujjah (competent).
a ba's bih, ~ a d f q (truthful), The third class: laysa bih ba's (he is acceptable), l
ma 'mu% (followed/trusted).
'' al-Khafib al-BaghdZfi, al-KifiahjT 'lfm al-Riwayah, ed. Qrnad 'Umar Hiishim (Beirut: D k al-Ki6b
Ibn Abi HZtim, Kirab al-Jarh wa al-Tu 'dr?, 247.
33 A b l 'Arnr 'UthmZn b. 'Abd al-R-an Ibn SdEh d-Shahraziki, Muqaddirnar ibn al-Saki3 w a Maha3in alIgiki$z,ed. 'A'ishah 'Abd al-Raman b . aI-ShZG (Cairo: D5.r d-Ma'Eirif, 1989). 308.
The fourth class: rnahalluh al-sidq (his station is veraciv), rawaw 'anhu ([hadr'rh scholars] take transmission from him), ilaal-sidq m a huwa, shaykh w a w (moderate master) or wasa! (moderate), shaykh (master). (average in had*), al-hadiih (upright in had5h), rnuq6Pib al-hadirh
jayyid al-@dfi (faultless in hadah), husn al-hadah (good in hadiih),
suwaylih (less upright), ;adui in $hai Allax (truthful by God's w i l l i n g ) , or ajiiannahu laysa bih ba's ( Ihope he is acceptable).
In his Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta'd~," Ibn Abi Hitim a l - R E (d. 327) offered four levels
of ra'dZ, serving as 'a standard for writers of later times.'35 He mentioned in order of merit
the four levels of mCd3 as follows. First, thiqah, mutqin, thabat and yuhtajj (he is consulted);
second, ~ a d u qmahariuh , al-$dq, and la ba 'sa bih; third, shaykh; and fourth,;alih al-hadrfh.
In his ~ u ~ a d d i m aIbn h , Sal& ~ ~ (d. 643)37 offered four levels of m'dZ similar to those
of Ibn Abi EJZtim al-R%<. The difference between them lay at the fust level, where Ibn S d Z h
had two more criteria: ha$z and dabif. Instead of yuhtajj at the first level, Ibn Sal* suggested
hujjuh, which is similar in meaning.
In his M e a n a[-ICtida2fiNaqd al-~i'ja??~ al-Dhahabi (d. 7481~' offered five levels of
ta 'd2. First, thiqar thiqah, thabat hujjah, rhabat
@ F z ,thabar mutqin; second, thiqah, thabat,
His formulation may be found in his Kirab al-Jarh w a al-Ta'drZ (Hyderabad: Majlis Da'irat al-Ma'Zrif. 1952)- I 1 : 27-30; see also Ibn Sd*, Muqaddimah, 307-309; Jala d-Din al-Suyufi, Tadn3 al-RaGFfiSharh Taqn'b al-Nawawc ed. 'Abd al-WahhZb 'Abd al-Lacf (Medina: d-Maktabah aLbIlmiyah,1959), 230-232.
35 J. Robson, "a[-Djarh wa '1-Ta'di7."462. This is due to the fact that al-Khafib al-BaghdZcE (d. 463). h k n alNawaG and Ibn Sal* al-Sahaziki followed almost the same pattern that Ibn Abl HZtim al-RZzl did in classifying the classes of hadr'ih transmitters. 36
Ibn Sal* al-SahrazGfi, Muqaddimah, 307-309. GAL, I: 440: GAL Supplement I: 6 10 ff-
''AbG 'Abd All& Muhammad b. Ahrnad Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi. Mkai al-16rida7FNaqdal-Rija7, ed. 'Ali
Muhammad al-Bijawi (Cairo: 3 s al-BZb ~ al-Halab?. 1 9 6 3 ) .I: 3.
mutqin, third, ~ a d u i laysa , bih bars; fourth, salih al-hadr5h, maballuh al-sidq, m d i alU 4 badsh, husn al-hadah, shaykh w q , shaykh, wasu5 and £Bh, &
in s h d Allal, g.auaylib,
a@an la ba'sa bih.
In his Nukhbat al-Fikr, Ibn Hajar aLbAsqZl%iproposed six levels of ta 'dr?.Compared
to the above formulations o f hadr'th scholars, in general, or o f Ibn Abi H%im al-Rki, Ibn
at-Shahraziifi and Shams al-D?n al-Dhahabi, in particular, Ibn Hajar clearly offered a
differentscheme. lbn Hajar suggested the following First, awthaq al-na? (the most
trustworthy person), arhbat a h a 3 (the most reliable person), fawq al-thiqah ilayh almuntahciji al-tathabbut (above trustworthiness, he is the highest in reliability), la-athbat minh (no one is more reliable than him), min rnithlfula5z (he is an exemplary person), fulin yus 'a2 'anhu (the one who is referred to);second, thiqat thiqah, thabat thabat, hujjat hujjah,
third, thiqah, thabat, hujyah, hi& thabat thiqah, h i j ? hujyah, thiqat ma'min, thabat hul~ah;
da3i~; fourth, jadG, rna'rnfi, la ba'sa bih, khiya? fifth, ?a% al-had2h, mahalluh al-gidq, rawaw 'anh,jayyid al-hadiih, husn al-hadirh, muqcirib, wasar shaykh, wasa!, shaykh, wahm, sadiq lahu awham, ~ a d u iyukh~c , ;ad@ s 2 al-hifi, ssi' al-hi&, sad@ taghayyara bauiruh,
yurrnabi bid'; and sixth, ;ad*
in sha7 Alluih, ;uwaylib, arjian la ba'sa bih, maqbul.
In the above, the first level is the highest, the authority of which in had5h
transmission is accepted unconditionally. The second level is slightly different from the fmt.
The third is not as authoritative as the second, and the fourth is slightly inferior to the third -
See GAL 11: 57 ff; Supplement I I : 45 ff.
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaIZnT, Nuzhat al-Naqr: Sharh Nukhbar al-Fikar, 67; see also Jala &Din al-Suyiiji, Tadn'b al-Rub; 232-234; Syuhudi Ismail, Kaedah Kesahihan Sanad Hadis (Jakarta:Bulan Bintang, l988), 175.
such slight differences occurred. And the last contains men whose traditions may be written for comparison with those of others.
On tajn?, Ibn Hajar offered a similarly different formulation. Ibn Ab? H5tim al-
~ki:' followed by Ibn S a -l e42 for the same level and terms, arranged his levels as follows.
First, kadhdha3, m a ~ r i k al-hadirh, dha3ib al-hadah; second, da '$ al-hadiih; third, Zaysa bi quwa; fourth, layyin al-had%.
a l - ~ h a h a b iformulated ~~ his al-jarlj terms in five levels. First, kadhdha3, dajja'I,
wa&la-', y&ac al-bdr'th; second, muttaham bi al-kadhab, munafaq 'ala tarkih; third, mat* dha7zib, laysa bi thiqah, halik, saaktt 'anh,fl nazr, saqi~, la yu 'tabar, fourth, da'Fjiddan,
Jfnt ma@, laysa bi alwal, da'afiih, laysa bi shay dac$wa wal, fifth level, layyin. j% da '
quwa; laysa bi hujjah, tu 'raf wa tunkar, tukullima j%, say$ al-hv;, yd'af fib, qad du '$a, lakinnah rnubtadi '. ukhtulifa@, laysa bi dhaX, la yuhtajy, ~ a d i q
As in his tacd2formulation, Xbn Hajar offered one more level than al-Dhahabi. His
formulation was: first, akdhab al-na3 (the gravest liar), awda' al-na3 (the gravest forgerer), man7 a[-kadhb (powerful in lying), rukn al-kadhb (chief o f lying), ilayh al-rnuntahu- fTalwadc(he is the highest in forging); second, kadhdha3, dajja?, waddaa'; third, rnunaham bi al-
kadhb, muttaham bi al-wad', rnatruk al-hadr'rh, dhalib, halik, scriqii, la yu'tabar bih, la yu'tabar had2huh, sakanu 'anh, mat&, tarakuh, Zaysa bi fhiqah, ghayr thiqah
(untrustworthy),ghayr ma 'mu% (not followecUunreliable);fourth, daFjiddan, la yuscEwrshay,
ibn Abi Yatirn al-Rk-, Kita3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta 'dr?, 11: 3 1-34.
Mugaddimah, 309-3 1 0 .
Ibn Hajar al-'AsqaIZni, Nuthat al-Naqr: Sharh Nukhbat al-Fikar, 66-67; see also JalZl al-Din Tadn3 al-Ra-WE 230-232; Shuhudi Ismail, Kaedah Kesahihan Samd Hadis, 175.
r n a ~ ~m ia , a ~ 'al-hadrfh, h unni bih, wal, radd hadr'ihah, raddihadrfhah, rnard& al-hadi?h, laysa bi shay ;fifth, &z
'g du 'afic'h,mun kar al-hadah, mu@rib
al-Wiih. hadrfhuh m d a r i b ,
rnajhul, sixth, Zayyin, laysa bi al-quw& da 7 ah2 al-(zadiih, da % fr hadiihih da % si' al-hijS, rnaqa2 fih,frhadchih rnaqa?, yunkar wa yu 'raf, j2-z khalf (there is a controversy about him), ukhtulifafi (he is disputed), laysa bi hujjah, luysa bi al-rnatn, laysa bi al-'abd (he is not a [good] servant), laysa bi dhal, laym bi al-marda, laysa bi dhaX al-quwa, i a ' a n i f i , takallarnU@, ma a'larn bih ba's, a r j f a n la ba's bih. According to Ibn Kajar, the first level of both raJ'rih and ta'dr'l is limited to formulations, whose forms and/or meanings are in terms of muba7aghah (intensity) - such as nkdhab and ilayhi al-rnuntahci' al-wad' for tajr*, and awthaq for tu4d2," The other levels
are categorized according to their gradations. The extreme levels of each category stand on
different edges, while the more moderate ones stand closer together?
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalkii clearly put thiqah ("reliable") at the third level; while alDhahabi placed it at the second; Ibn Ab? HZtim a l - R Z and Ibn Sal& at the first. As
mentioned above, Ibn Hajar put kadhdhaa (liar) at the second level, whereas others put it at
the frrst, adding that the f ~ slevel t is reserved for akdhab a h a > (the gravest liar).
The question may be raised as to whether the person labeled as thiqah (trustworthy)
by others is the same person whom Ibn Hajar would label as awthuq al-na> (the most
trustworthy person)? Similarly, is the person disqualified as kadhdhab (Liar) by other scholars
the same one described as akdhab al-nalr (the gravest liar) by Ibn Hajar? What accounts for
this difference in terminology? According to Syuhudi &mail, the difference among hadiih scholars' classification of transmitters may have at least three causes. Firstly, had5h scholars always pose different opinions when vying to decide on the qualities or defects of certain transmitters. Secondly, when classifying hadah transmitters. they employed different terms with similar meanings.
Thirdly, some hadirh scholars were not consistent in their employment of certain terms.47
YahyZ b. Ma5 (d. 233), for instance, was once asked about the quality of al-'Ala' b. 'Abd al-RalyEn, he replied that he is E ba'sa bih (acceptable), but when asked whether al-'A12 b. 'Abd al-Ralpnaii was better than Sa'id al-Muqbiii, Yahyii responded that YahyZ was more uustwoahy than al-'AlIYand added that &'Ma' was d a ' ~ ( w e a k ) . ~ ~
In sum, one may argue that in his discussion of the various classes of hadah
transmitters, Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalkG offered a more detailed and precise scheme. The presentation of his formulation may suggest that Ibn Hajar al-'Asqa1~'s use of tajn? and
ta 'dZ reflects his comprehensive view of the different types of hadiih transmitters. Does this
also indicate his willingness to include tawassuf (moderate), if not tasahul (leniency or looseness), or even "more moderate," in Tarif Khalidi's terms,"
and defects of had5h transmitters?
when judging the qualities
In his Tahdhib al-TuMha, he presented opinions of many hadrh scholars regarding the qualities and defects of &dah transmitters and used different tenns to distinguish them.
Syuhudi Ismail. Kuedah Kesahihun Sanad Hadis, 180-1 8 1 .
Tarif Khalidi, bbIslarnic Biographical Dictionaries: A Preliminary Assessment," Muslim World 63. 1973.59.
The question is whether or not Ibn eajar d - ' A s q d ~ in ins moderation had accepted weak
- weak due to the defectiveness of their transmitters. In the following part,
some results of h d r f h criticism will be presented in order to determine Ibn Hajar's assessments of the transmitters of certain hadr'rhs, This will shed light on his position on
B . Validity of Some l@d%hsbased on Ibn Hajar's Tuhdhz'babTuhdhr'b
In this part, we w i l l assess the transmitters of four randomly-selected hadr'ths.We understand
that this method of taking samples for analyzing data is open to objection and limits the
conclusion we may draw. Looking at the huge number of entries in Tahdhz'b al-TuMhib,
amounting to 12,455entries, it is clear that one would need a much more systematic approach than this in order to draw conclusions.
We have selected the transmitters of four hadiihs categorized as being about "moral
exceilences and virtues" (fadiV wa maniqib). T h e f i s t hadah is about the excellence of alStrat al-Fa3ihah ("Opening Chapter"). The rest are about the virtues of the Prophet, his physical and spiritual qualities. The reason for the selection in this area is that the fabrication
of had3hs occurred mostly to enhance either the physical or spiritual q u a l i ~ of the Life of
Muslims. In other words, fabricating had3h was justified as an effort to improve the life of
Muslims by providing them transmitted sayings, which were claimed as had5hs. Hadith
scholars do not strictly abandon such a hadith.50
Ibn d-MubZrak was once told about a person, who was considered weak in transmitting a kdr'th. He replied that it was acceptable if that person transmitted a &zdrfh about moral aptitute, guidance, zuM (asceticism) and so forth. See Ibn Abi H5im al-RE, Ki?a% a[-Jarhwa al-Ta 'dr?,I I :30-3 1.
The study will not approach these hadr'ths for their contents. It aims first to see whether Ibn Hajar's records of the transmitters of the four hadch indicate differences fiom similar enhies recorded in al-Dhahabl's Mech al-l'tidal, Ibn Abi HEtim al-REii's Kita3 al-
Jarh wa al-Tag& -- particularly those transmitters who were assessed as having tajn'h among
hadrTh scholars. Secondly, it investigates whether or not the assessment of the selected hadrThs justifies the continued assumption that Ibn Hajar's T'hdhib al-Tuhdhib is an
independent source supporting the validity of a given had3h. Thirdly, we will see whether
Ibn yajar's entries lead to a moderate, if not lenient, assessment of the validity of a had5h.
The First Eadith
Sanad: Al-NasZ'l, [akhbaranZ] M a a m m a d b. Bashshar, [QaddathanZ] Yahyi b. Sa'id and Muhammad b. Ja'far, [haddathanz] SSucbah, ['an] Khubayb b. 'Abd al-Ralpan, ['an] HafS b. 'Asim, [ ' a n ] Abii Sa'id al-Mu'allZ.
Mam (content): The Messenger of Allah passed by me when I was praying. He then called
me but I did not come. I prayed and then I went to him. He asked, 'What prevented you fkom
corning to me?" I replied, "I was praying." He said, "Didn't Allah say, '0 you who believe, respond to All21 and His Messenger..."' He said, "I will teach you the geatest sLah i n the
Qur'Zn, before I leave the mosque." When he intended to leave [the mosque] I reminded him. He then said "al-hamd ZiZlal rabb al-'a7arnr'n" praise be to Allah, the lord of the worlds],
which is al-sab' al-mathcinr [seven repeatedly recited verses] and the Grand Q u r ' k which
has been given to me.''
The Arabic text of this hadiih may be found in m m a d b. Shu'ayb al-Nasii'i, Sunan al-NasaT(Cairo: alMaktabah al-Tijikiyah a l - K u b c 1930), II:139; See also m m a d b. 'AIi b. Fajar al-'Asqallhi, Fath al-Ba7i bi Sharh Sah* al-Bukha?i(BeirGt' DZr a1-Ma'rifah, 1980). VIII:156-7, 307-8,38 1; IX:54; SulaymZn b . Ash'ath
A.J. Wensinck's Concordance et indices de la tradition rnuscr~mane~~ shows that the
text and context of this hadr'th were recorded by five out of the nine hadr'th books which
'AsqalZ.6 had consulted. Isma9 b. Ibr=m
al-Bukhk? (d. 256), whose Sah% has been
authoritative for so many Muslims and even regarded as "second in importance only to the
~ur'ik,"" recorded four had%
which are close in form to the versions given by +ad
Shu'ayb al-NasZ5 (d. 303). SulaymZn b. Ash'ath Abii DZwCd (d. 275), 'Abd All& b. 'Abd
ai-Diki6 (d. 255) and w a d b. Hanbal (d. 241) also reported this hadah in their
canonical compilations.54 These scholars reported all the hadr'ths on the authority of Abii MGsZ b. al-Mu'allZ by way of Hafs b. %im. Khubayb b. 'Abd a(-RWZn and Shucbah.
This kind of &zdrfh is said
After Shu'bah, more than one rnuhaddith transmitted this ha&h?
to be ghan'&," since it is reported by a single transmitter through a single line of transmission.
Abu DGGd al-SijistZni al-Azadi, Sunan AbiDiwud, ed. Muhammad Muhji al-Din 'Abd at-Haniid (Befit: alMaktabah aLL&riyah, 1 9 8 0 ) . II: 71-2; 'Abd All& b. 'Abd al-Remiin aI-D%mi al-Samarqandi, Sunan alDaYimC ed. F a w k &mad ZarnarG and KhTilid al-Sab' al-'Alamm? (Beirut: DZr al-Kitib aI-'Arab?, 1987), I I : 538; Mmad b. Hanbal, Musnad al-lnzh Ahmad b. Hanbal (BeiG: DSr al-Fikr, 1980), IV: 21 1.
This concordance is also known as al-Mu 'jam al-Mufahras li A r f e al-AM2ith al-Nabawiyyah.
Annemm-e Schirnmel, And Muhammad is H i s Messenger (Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, I98S), 27-
" Abii Diiwiid, for instance, reported a hadr'th where KhZrijah b. at-Salt al-Tar6mi quoted his paternal uncle as
saying, "He came to the Apostle OF All& [may peace be upon him] and embraced Islam. He k e n returned and passed some people who had a Iunatic fettered in chains. His people said, "We are told that your companion has brought some good. Have you something by which you can cure him? I then recited SuG-ar al-Fatihah and he w a s cured . . . [ a l-Hadr'th].See AbG Daw-d, Sunan AbTDawCd, III: 1092.
"Hadah Gharr'b is "m-rawa-raawinfaqa?," a hadith reported by a single transmitter through a single line of transmission. Such a had5h. according to d-Tirm-dG, "is not necessarily d a ' g but it might be $ah* [sound] or &sun [good] if it comes through a single line of aansmission. In some cases it might be &'F because a single reporter, alone reporting a particular ha&h or a part of it. is more liable to forget or make a mistake than a host r i t i c i s mo f Hadirh, 125; Leonard of other reporters saying the same thing." See Suhaib Hasan AbduI Ghaffar, C TLibrande defined such a hadirh as "a transmission which is unusual in its links or in its text." This definition
In this part, I will examhe the above chain of transmission of al-NasZTi as follows:
Nas55 (d. 303)
[ r ] al-Nask? was one of the six famous traditionists who compiled the traditions of the
Prophet. His complete name was M q a d b. Shu'ayb b. 'Afib. Sin& AbG 'Abd a l - R w k al~ a s Z ?He wrote al-Szcnan al-Sughnior al-Mujrabui which in @adr5hstudies is counted
among the al-Kumb al-~iztah.*~ Nasii? himself b y his own admission included only reliable
M~ammad b. BashshZr (d. 252)
1 His complete name was Maammad b. Bashshiir b. 'UthmZn
b. DZwGd b. KaysZn al-
'Abdi Abii Bakr al-HZfi? al-Bqii. In hod*
Literature, he was known by his surname B u n d L
He transmitted had&
f?om 'Abd Wahhiib al-Thaqafi, Muhammad b. ~a'far,6' YahyZ b.
&=id6' and many others.
There was no agreement among hadiih experts on his capacity to transmit had%. For
said (in ~ b DZwGd), i "I wrote more than fifty thousand @ad& from
is seemingly a conclusion of Ibn al-Bayyi6's explication about this had5h. See Leonard T .Libmde, Contrasts in the Two Earliesr Manuals (Ph-D- diss., McGill University, 1976), 199.
"Ibn Hajar aLLAsqalE.TaMhib al-Tahdhib (Deccan: DB'irac al-Ma'iirif al-NiZmiyyah, 1326 A.H-), I:36. ''Al-Kurub al-Sinoh refers to the six authoritative (zadrih compendia generally accepted by Muslims. They are
the $ ' a & of al-Bukhz and Muslim, the Sunan of Abi DZwud, the Sunan (al-Jaini' al-Sah*) of al-Tiidhi, Mujtaba-of aI-NasZ'i, and Sunan of Ibn MZjah.
d-Tibriii, Mkhkxi7 al-Masaaih, trans. al-H5j MawlZni F a z I u lK & . Press, 1960),40.
M A , B L . (Pakistan: Rafque
BundZ and wrote something from AbG MGsZ SalZmah being absent fiom [the transmission
ofJ BundZr, his had5hs have been abandoned-" Moreover, 'Abd All& b. Mulpmmad b. SiyZr stated that he had heard 'Amr b. 'AEsay under oath that Bundiir Lied in order to transmit a Wz'thunder the authority of YahyZ. This was aIso ascribed to BundZr by 'Abd AU& b. 'Ali
b. al-MadXi in the transmission of had5hs under the authority of al-Mahdi.
On the other hand, Mulprnmad b. Husayn al-Azdi (d. 394) found BundEr acceptable.
He argued that the accusation that he lied was not intended to label Bundik as deceptive,
since BundZr was always mentioned as good and reliable. His reliability was also admitted by
Abu Q&m at-Rki (d. 277):'
w a d b. Shu'ayb al-Nasa'i and m a d b. 'Abd All&
(d. 2 6 1 )f~ in ~Hajar ~ a l - ' A s q a l l ~ added that his reliability i n the transmission of hadrth
rested on how many of his transmissions were included by Ismi% b. Ibr-Xrn al-BukhZii (d.
256) (205 hadiths) and Muslim b. al-Hajjgj (d- 261)(460 hadiths) in their
Muhammad b. Ja'far al-HudhaIi (d. 193)
] Mt@ammad b. Jabfar,an erudite had5h scholar in his time, was popularly known as
Ghundk It was reported that GhundZr transmitted had2hs from many mu@zddithuX but that
he relied-specifically on Shu'bah b. al-HajjEj, his master in hadilh transmission. 'AIi b. al-
Madinl (d. 234) said that he liked Ghundk's transmission from Shu'bah more than 'Abd alRaQmZn's. Ibn Mahdi said he availed himself of Ghundar's writings in order to elaborate the
life of Shu'bah. Even 'Abd All&
b. al-Mubkak (d. 181) claimed that for people who
AbJ Muhammad 'Abd al-R;zhmZn b. Al-Imam aI-Kabir Abii HZtim Muhammad b- IdEs b. al-Mundhir a l - R Z in his Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dl?p a p - t : DEr d-Kurub aLCIImiyyah,1970). VE214, says that when his father (AbG HZtim) was asked about BundZr, he answered that BundZr was a reliable man.
aLCAsqal%, Tahdhib al-Tahdhr'b,IX:7 1-2, Ibid, IX:73.
disputed about Sh'bah's hadslz, GhundG7swritings became the standard. Ibn Abi Hatim d-
R E and Ibn Sa'd
also acknowledged his authority in w i i h transmission and described him
as m r ~ t w o r t h ~ . ~ ~
Shu'bah (d. 160)
complete name was Shu'bah b. al-Efajjiij b. al-Ward aL6AraGal-Azdi. In his
lifetime, he transmined had@ from more than three hundred scholars - including Khubayb
b. 'Abd a l - ~ a l y n He ~ . was ~ ~ described as having a special
legal import. +ad
for preserving ?gdahs of
ibn I$anbal even exaggerated this by claiming that if Shu'bah had not
existed, these had2hs would have been lost.
Many hadiih critics admined his trustworthiness in transmission. Among them were
w a d b. 'Abd All&
al-'IjE and Ibn &bb% ai-Bus& Although Ibn Sa'd credited him with
this authority, he also criticized him for some errors in reporting the name of hadah
transmitters. In his al- 'Zlal, al-Dcaqu-6 made a criti~ism.~'
Khubayb b. 'Abd al-RaIpniin (d. 132)
[ t ] His complete name was Khubayb b. 'Abd ai-RalpZn b. Khubayb b. YasZ d-An$ki
al-KhazrZji Abii a1HZiit.h al-Madim-. He died in 132 A.& in the reign of the Caliph Marwan
b. Muhammad. He received had3hs &om scholars l i k e Hafs b. 'Tsim b. 'Umar b. Khattgb
and was considered and described as trustworthy by YaQyZ b . Marm (d. 233), Ibn Sa'd and
Ha.&b. '&im (d.?)
L ] Hafs b. '&im b. 'Umar b. Khattgb transmitted hndrths which he received from his
father and other well-known Companions like Ab6 Hurayrah, Abu Sa'id al-KhudrZ and Abii
Sa'id b. d-Mucal15. Al-NasZ'i, Hibat All& al-Tabaii, Ibn W b b k al-Bus& Abii Zur'ah a l -
R5.Z (d. 264) and w a d b. 'Abd AU& al-'IjE described him as trustworthy. Even M u s h
placed him among the most eminent of ~ d c k a . h . 6 ~
Abli SaCid b. al-MucaIIhal-Ansari (d. 74 AH)
] There are several views regarding his name. One is that it was al-Hkith b. al-
Muba.LIZ.Another claims that it was Aws b. al-Muball&and yet another that it was Abii Sa'id
b. al-Mu'allii. Although he was called RSb b al-Mu'allE, Abu 'Umar claimed that whoever
called him R S b must be wrong because R Z c was killed in the Battle of ~ a d r ?Instead, for
Abu Sa'id's complete name, he offered al-Hikith b. Nufay' b. al-MuCaIlZb. LawdhZn b.
I b i d ,Ik402-3.
Abii 'Umar Yiisuf b . 'Abd Allah Maammad b. 'Abd a(-Barr, 01-IstTaob fiMainj.ar nl-A;&%, M@ammad al-B ijk4 (Cairo: Matba'at Nahdah,), IV:1669.
E@ithah b. Zayd b . Tha'labah, the son of Zurayq al-An$= aL-ZuraG. H i s mother w a s
Umaymah b. Qa.q b .~hans~' It is said that only two Successors received his only two hadr'th transmissions. The first was Haf$ b. 'Girn, who transmitted the present &n23h; the other was 'Ubayd b. Hunayn,
who transmitted anorher hadirh, which begins bbkunna-naghdiilia~-~~q4'72
Ibn Qajar al-'AsqalZG disagreed with historians who gave 74 AH for Abii Sa'id's death, at ody 64 years of age. He argued that if he had really met the Prophet, he would have been too young; the mam or statement of the ha&h Hajar added that Abii Saqd died at 84 years of age.74 discussed here contradicted it?3 Ibn
Evaluation and Conclusion
The assessment of the transmitters of this had'rh is not concentrated on the first four
transmitters - AbE Sa5d b. al-Muball&HafS b. &im, Khubayb b. 'Abd al-Ralynan and
Shu'bah b. al-HajjZj. Nor does it include the last transmitter, al-Nasi?. The reason is that
hadrfh scholars praise them all and we do not find any critical assessment of them. Instead,
Muhammad b. BashshG's assessment may raise some points for discussion.
As found in the entry of Ibn Hajar, we may see that there was no agreement among
&dZh experts on Muhammad b. BashshZr's capacity to transmit hadah. 'Amr b. 'Ali's
Ibn 'Abd al-Bar?, ibid., W-1670; see also 'Izz & D i n b. aI-Athir Abi d-Hasan b. Maammad al-Jazaxi, Usd al-Ghaaah jiMa 'rm t al-Saha%ah, ed. Muhammad b . Ib&im al-Bannii and Muhammad mmad 'Ashk (n-p.: D& al-Sha'b, l97O), V I : 142; and f ama al-DTn Abi al-Hajjij Yiisuf al-Mizzi, TaMhr'b al-Kama7 F A s d al-Rqa?l ed, Bashshiir 'AwwZd Ma'Nf (Beirut: Mu'assasat al-Ridah, 1992). XXXIII: 348.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal%, al-[&ah
fT TamyE al-Sabbah, ed. 'Ali Muhammad al-B ijaw'i (Beirut: Diir al-Jayl,),
statement, which was reported by 'Abd A l l h b. Mdgmmad b. Sayyk, f o r instance, appears to indicate this- 'Arm b. 'Afi said under oath that BundZr falseIy claimed to have transmitted
a hadtfh under the authority of Yahya. This was equally said of BundG by 'Abd All& b. 'Ali
b. al-Madidi in the former's transmission of bad2h under the authority of al-Mahdi. If this is
accepted, the chain of hadrfhcontaining Mdgmmad b. BashsG is hardly acceptable. lbn Hajar7s records on M@ammad b. Bashshiir are helpll. In his entry, Ibn Hajar included other scholars' assessments. Mulp.mmad b. Husayn al-Azdi (d. 394), who found Bundk acceptable, is a case in point. A 1 - A d argued that the charge of "lying" was not intended to label B u d % as deceptive, since BundZr was always mentioned as good and reliable. His reliability was also admitted by Abii HZtim d - R E (d. 277)," w a d b. Shu'ayb al-Nasa'i, and A l p a d b. 'Abd AU& al-'IjG (d. 261)? Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalX added that his reliability in the transmission of hadr'ih rested on how many of his transmissions
Isma% b. IbrZEm al-BukhC (d. 256) (205 hadiths) and Muslim b. al-HajjZj (d. 261) (460
hadiths) had transmitted.in their ~ a h i ? j s . ~ ~ The accusation that M u m a d b. Bashshiir had lied about having transmitted h&h from YahyZ by 'Amr b. 'Ali did not weaken the chain of transmission of this had& Muhammad b. BashshEr w a s supported by the fact that most critics of &dZh admitted his reliability. Even al-Bukhz and Muslim, who were very strict about including hadith in their
Sahr7zs accepted some hadr'ths on Muhammad b. Bashshar's authority. Another point in
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliin?, Tahdhib al-TaMhz3, XII: 108. Abii Muhammad 'Abd al-Ram& b. A l - I m h al-Kabir AbG Hgtim Muhammad 6. Idfis b. al-Mundhir a(-REzi in his Kira'b al-Jarh wa at-Ta'dr? (Bap-t: DZr al-Kutub aL6IIrniyyah, 1 9 7 0 ) , VE214, says that when his father (AbC Hitim) was asked about Bundir, he answered that Bundiir was a reliable man.
Ibn Hajar al-'~sqal?ini.Tahdhr'b al-Tahdhib, IX:7 1-2.
support is that Muhammad b. BashshZr transmitted this had2h by way not only of Yay5 but also of Muhammad b. Ja'far, whose transmission was reported by .aI-~ukhZ~??* We may conclude that the chain of transmission of this hadah seems to be solid, judging from the continuity of its transmitters. The transmitters themselves appear reliable, and were even praised by the critics of had%. In sum, this hadch may be said to have good
Of the transmitters of this hadr'rh, al-Dhahab? included only two in his M&n
Mulpmmad b. Bashshk and Muhammad b. Ja'far. According to al-Dhahabi, the former was
thiqah .radii, while the latter was regarded as God-fearing (aZ-muttaqr'n)and reliable. AlDhahabi was concerned with the claim of 'Amr b. 'Ali Abii Hafg al-Fall% (d. 249) that
Muhammad b. BashshZr was a liar. He even argued that none were inclined to accuse him of
being a liar since hadr'th scholars were convinced of his reliability and truthfulness. However, al-Dhahabi did not deny that some scholars were critical of him. When Maammad b.
BashshZr was mentioned to Yahya b. Ma%, the latter did not willingly comment; he was
i n c h e d instead to consider him weak. SimilarIy, AbG Dawild al-SijistiZ (d. 275) admitted writing about f i f t y thousand bdr'th from M ~ a m m a d b. BashshZr, with a note that "if
had not been included in his chain of transmission], I would indeed have
abandoned his hadiih [lawla-Salahah, la-tar&
" See Ibn Hajar ai- 'AsqaIan?, Fath al-Ba7-i bbi Sharh Sah3 al-Bukha'i-C VIII:38 1 .
* al-Dhahabi, Mkak al-I 'tidal, III:30.
Ibn Abi Hatim al-RZ, on the other hand, categorized Muhamrcad b. Bashshir as a
truthful person (+zd~?),*~ the second class in his scheme. If we compare this class to that of
al-Dhahab? and lbn Hajar, sadui is al-Dhahabi's third class and Ibn Efajar's fourth. Interestingly, f i n Hajar described M u l p m a d b. BashshZr as a trustworthy person (thiqah):'
which is one class above @iq.
Another transmitter of this had5h, which was categorized differently by Ibn Ab?
HZtim al-R%5, was Khubayb b. 'Abd al-RaQmZn al-An@iii. While al-Dhahabi did not
mention him in his M&n
s a -
and Ibn Hajar described him as thiqahYs2 Ibn Ab? Efiitirn called him
a ~ - h a d r f hthe ,~~ fourth class in his scheme.
Based on the above assessment, we may say that Ibn Hajar's entry for MuQammad b.
BashshSir is more detailed and comprehensive. The information he provided may give a more
balanced assessment of the personality and background of Muhammad b. Bashshk,
apparently influencing his conclusive remark that the latter was thiqah. By comparing the records of al-Dhahab? and Ibn HZtim al-Rafi on the same entry, we may find that Ibn Hajar includes almost all, if not all, the information they provided in their books.
The Second Eadith
Sanad: TirmidE, [haddathana] Sa?d b. Ya'qiib al-TZliqZG, [akhbarana] Ayyilb b. JZbk,
[ 'an] SimZk b. m b , ['an]JZbir b. Sarnurah.
" Ibn Ab? HZtirn a1-R&i, Kim3 at-Jarh wa nl-Ta 'dL!, VII:2 14.
*' Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliisii, Taqrt% al-TaMhl'b,11:147.
Ibid, I : 2 2 2 .
Ibn Ab? Gtim a l - R Z , Kira3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta 'd2, III:387.
Content ' 7saw the seal between the shoulders of AU&'s Messenger like a pigeon's egg".84
In order to prove the authenticity of this hadah, I will briefly examine its chain of
Tirmiabl ( d . 279)
[ 3.. -i1 Born i n 209
AH,^' TirmidEi was one of the six authoritative traditionists who
compiled the traditions of the Prophet. His complete name was Muhammad b. %Z b. Sawrah
b. MGsZ al-Qa@~& A ~ G % L He ~ had ~ at least four laqnbs: al-Bi&ii,
al-Daiir (blind), d-
Sulam?, and al-~irmidlii;~' but he was best known by the Iast one. TirmicE reportedly
claimed that his grandfather's hometown was MW, and that in the time of al-Layth b.
S a p & he had moved to ~ i r m i d ha , town ~ ~ on the north bank of the upper Am6 D q Z , where
he died in 279 AKg9
The Arabic text of this hadih may b e found in Ibn Qajajar aL6Asqal15nT, Farh al-Bairi bi Share S a h q alBukhax(Bayriit: DZr al-Ma'rifah, 1980), I:296; VI561; Abii d-Husayn Muslim b. al-HajZj al-Qushayfi alNaysZbEi, Sah2 Muslim, ed. Muhammad Fu'Zci 'Abd &BE@ (EgypuDZr Ihya' al-Kutub aLeArabiyah, 1955), W 8 2 3 and 824; Muiprnrnad b . %a ibn Sawrah a l - T i d G , Sunan al-lhnidhiwa huwa al-Jamit al-Sah% (Beirut: D5r al-Fii, 1983), V:263; and Sham22 T i d E (Urdu commentary by Muhammad Zakariyii) (Karachi: Niir Muhammad, n-d.), 7-8; AIynad b. flanbal, Musnad al-Im-m Ahmad 6 . eanbal (Bayriit: DZr alFikr, 1980). 1223; IE69.434 and 442; IV:19: V: 35,77,82, 83,90,95,98, 104, 340, 341, 354,437, 442 and 443; and VI:329.
In Muhammad 'Abd All& b. al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Shin$$, al-Salasab~?fiman Dhahrohum al-Tinnidhi bi Jarh wa Ta'dr? (Riyad: Taw5 ' b f u'assasat al-Mu'taman, 1415 A.H.), 14, the author says that d-Tinnidhi's lineage was also said to be either M ~ a m m a d b. 3s; b. Yarid b. Sawrah b. al-Sakan or Muhammad b.% b. Sawrah b. ShadZd b . % ~ .But his complete name is the best known among Muslims.
" 'Abd a l - G h S ~u~ l a p i h al-Bundz and Sayyid Kurdi Hasan, Mawsu?ut Rijal al-Kutub al-Tiscah (Bayriitr
al-Kutub aLbIlmiyyah,1993), III:440. 'hl
"Zap &Din 'Abd a l - m a n b. m a d b. Rajab al-E@bali, "Tarjamur al-Imamam al-Timidhi", in Shu* nl-TinnidhE ed. al-Sayyid SubljI Jkam al-Hamyad (Baghdad: al-'&, 1976)- 9.
James Robson, 'The Transmission of Tirmidhi's I-Lni'," Bulletin o f the School of Oriental and Afiican Srrrdies 16 (1954): 258. There are several opinions respecting the pronunciation of the name of Tirmidh. On these opinions, see Syams al-Din m a d b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr Ibn Khallikin, Ibn Khallikai's
Little is known about his Life. It is reported that he was born blind, But another
version has it that he lost his eyesight in later years,w as most hadrfh scholars agree?' He
traveled to Khuriisan, 'Iriiq and H i j k in search of knowledge and learned hadr'th,fiqh, 'ilal and biographies of hadith transmitters from many erudite scholars in his time. These included Malpniid b. GhayIin (d. 2 3 9 ) y Qutaybah b. Sa5d (d. 240 A-H.), Suwayd b. Nqr (d. 240),
'AGb. Hujr (d. 2441g3, Sa'ld b- Yabqiibal-TZliqZrii
(d. 244)94,m a d b. 'Abdah (d. 245)95,
Bishr b. Hi1Z.I al-SawwZf al-Bqii (d. 247)?6 'Abd AU& b. 'Abd al-Ralynb al-Samarqandi (d. 2 ~ 5 ) al-Bukhz ~'~ (d. 256) and Muslim (d. 261)?*
"A.J. Wensick " d - T i d h i . "
Encyclopaedia o f Islam, I" edition (Leiden: E . J . B ~ ,1 9 8 7 ) ,Vm:796.
lbid. SchoIars have offered many reasons for his blindness. In his 'Translation ...," M. Hidayat Hosain said that Tirmidhi shed so many tears in fear of God that he finally lost his eyesight- In 'The Transmission of Tirmidh?'~J h i ' , " James Robson advanced the view put forward by aI-Dhahabi's that his blindness was caused by weeping over B u k h z ' s death- He does not seem to agree with the opinion that al-Tirmidhi was born blind. See aiso Syams &Din Muhammad b. *mad b . 'UthmZn al-Dhahabi, Siyar A'h-m al-Nubaw, ed. Shu'ayb alAma'iij and 'Afi AbG Zayd (Bap-t: Mu'assasat al-RisZlah, 1 9 8 6 ) ,XE270.
See Robson, 'The Transmission of Timidhi's J & ' ", 258; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A81gm al-Nubah-, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, "Ta rjamar al-lmim al-Tinnidh?', 10.
Ibn Hajar a1-'AsqalZni, Tahdhib al-TahdhI'b, V I : 56. Ibn Rajab, "Tajamah al-Im-m al-Timidhi", 9.
Hajar al-'Asqahi. Tahdhr'b al-Tahdhib, I V : 103.
Ibid, I : 4 6 2 .
It is reported by al-H-2ci.m that when al-Bukhk? died, none of his potential replacements in KhurZsb at that time could compare with TirmidG in knowledge, memory,
piery and a~ceticism?~
A fascinating story was also reported by AbG Sacd al-Idiisi telling of al-TirmidE's
unusual capacity to commit traditions to memory.
On the way to Mecca he met a shaykh &om whose traditions he had copied out two juz'. TL.Iking he had these notes with him, he began to question the shaykh about his traditions, but he was surprised to find that, instead of his notes, he had brought some blank sheets of paper. He continued his questions with these sheets in hand- After a time the shaykh noticed that they were blank and rebuked him, whereupon TirmiW assured him that he learned his traditions by heart. The shaykh was unconvinced of his genuineness even, when he recited his traditions to him, so TinnidE asked him to recite some others. The shaykh recited 40 traditions and TirmidE repeated them without making a single mistake, thus showing his remarkable powers of comminihg traditions to memory.loO
In his lifetime, he composed at least nine books, mostly on had5h-related topics.lO'
Sarld b. Ya'qub d-TSliqZn'i (d. 244)
It was reported that a lT q i l@
acquired knowledge of hadirh and its transmission
from several teachers, including AyyCb b. JZbir. Ibn Hajar said that al-Athram claimed to have seen Sa'id studying h a d a s from A l p a d b. Hanbal (d 241), while AbG Zur'ah al-RkC,
al-Dhahabi, Siyar A 'la-m al-Nubala-, 273.
loo This English version is taken from James Robson, "The Transmission...", 259; see also al-Dhahabi. Siyar A 'lak al-lVrrbah7, 273; Ibn Hajar aL'AsqalIani, TahdhrZ,al-Tahdha, IX:388.
'Of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalhni, i b i d . . N: 103. These books are: al-Ja-mi' or al-Sunan, ai-'Ilal a!-Zaghr'r, al-Shamqil al-Mdgmrnadiyyah (shortened as Shamaqil), al- 'Ilal al-Ka bir, Tasmiyar al-Saha3ah (there is no record of this
Maslamah, 'Ali b. 'Umar al-Dbqupli (d. 385) and al-NaG? declared him
ust two ah^.'*^
Ayyiib b. Jiibir (d.?)
] He transmitted bad*
from Sim& b. Harb, al-A'mash, 'Abd AUZh b. ' & i m
many others. None of the hadirh scholars described him as a reliable transmitter. As reported
by al-DiE, Yahya b. Ma'in said that Ayyiib b. JZbk was weak. This was also the assessment
of al-NasZyT,Abii Zur'ah and Abii HZtim. Even 'Ali b. al-Ma&
disqualified his hadi31s.'~~
Sirn5k b. Harb (d.123)
1 Sim& received his transmission of had2hs from JZbir b. Samurah. Yahya b.
MaTin and AbG q&m declared him trustworthy, but other scholars like Shu'bah b. al-QajjZj,
'Abd All& b. al-MubZrak,
S w Jazarah and Su@%
al-Thaw5 thought him weak. Ibn
Wbbiin in his al-Thiqa? claimed that he committed numerous errors in his t r a n s m i ~ s i o n . ~ ~
EvaIuation and Conclusion One may assume that the sanad of this had5h is weak, because the conditions for a sound hadrfh do not exist. As regards the isnCdYthe presence of two weak transmitters casts doubt
on the authenticity of this h a d X It is possible that the transmitters had seen each other,
book), al-Zrthd al-Mufrud (mentioned by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqailiini in his TahdhlZ, al-Tahdha), al-Asm- w a al(~ook on Traditions). KunP(mentioned in Tahdhib 01-Tahdhib), al-TuiM (The History). and Kitab 102 al-Shinqie, al-SalsabZ, 15.
l o ' Ibn Qajar al-'Asqal%ii. Tahdhib al-Tahdhib. I: 400; see also Mdpnmad b. %Z b. Sawrah d-Timidhi, Awsar al-NabiSalk-Allah alaih wu Sallam edited and commented by Saxriih 'Abbk (Beirk DZr al-Jay1 or Cairo: Maktabat aI-Zahrah, 1987),39.
Ibn Hajar al-.~sqalh?, ibid. IV:233-234.
based on what is known about them. But because of their lack of credibility in the transmission of hadiihs, the sanad o f the had% may be declared weak (da'3.1°5 Ibn uajar's own assessment may help in this case. When placing Sim& b. Harb between trustworthiness and wealmess, he determined that SimZk was
class in his rddr? scheme. This means that Sirnik's transmission was acceptable, leniently following Ibn MaCn and Ab6 HZtimYs assessments. However, the presence of Ayyiib b. Jiibir was of little help, since even Ibn Hajar credited him as weak transmittedo7
In his Meax, al-Dhahab? reported m a d b. Hanbal's statement regarding Ayyiib b.
JZbir to the effect that Ayyib's had& resembled that of truthful people (ah1 ol-~idq).For as al-Dhahabi mentioned, the same person, 'Abd All& b. 'A& (d. 365)- stated that his & & r h s
were good on average and that he was among those whose hadiih may be recorded.Io8 A l Dhahabi also recorded a hadirh which Ayyiib b. Jiibir had reportedly transmitted. At the end
of the had*, al-Dhahabi simply mentioned that the kd2fh was not sound (Sahfh).lOg Ibn Hajar's conclusion about Ayyib b. JZbir seems no different from the records of
Ibn Abi HEtim a l - ~ k ? l o In his Eta3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta 'd2, he mentioned various opinions
The same assessment may be found in a l - T i i d h i , AwsuTal-Nab< 39.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani. Taqn% al-Tahdhih 1332.
al-Dhahabi, MZak al-l'tidal, I: 132-
Ibid. Ir 132-Such a note might give two possibilities, either the hadiih is good (hasan)or weak (&'&
Ibn Abi @stint al-RE?. Kitu3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dil, II:242-243.
concerning Ayyiib b . J&r, including Yahy5 b. Maci,
'AG b. al-Madidi
(d. 234) and his
father, AbG EfZtim al-RE6 (d. 277). Overall, they declared him weak (da'r7).l1 Regarding Ibn Ifajar's remark on Sim& b. Ifarb, we may say that Ibn Hajar tried to be moderate. Between two different positions - Sim& as trustworthy and and Simak as weak Ibn Hajar detrennined that he was ~ a d i q .
The Third Eadith
Sanad: Tirmidkii mbaruna] Abii Raja' Qutaybah b. SZd, ['an] M
a b. Anas, ['m]
Rabi'ah b. 'Abd al-Ralyniin, ['an]Anas ibn M a k .
Content= "AllZh's messenger [may peace be upon him] was neither conspicuously t a l l nor
short-statured, and his color was neither glaringly white nor brown; his hair was neither very
curly nor very straight; All& commissioned him [as a Prophet] when he had reached the age
of forty. He stayed in Mecca for ten years and for ten years in Madinah; All& took him away
when he had just reached the age of sixty, and there had not been twenty white hairs on his
head and beard."'
Abii Rajli' Qutaybah b. SaCid (d. 241)
Ibn Hajar aL6Asqal2ni, Fa* al-Biz?; V1:564, and X:356; Muslim, Sah* Muslim, 18 18, 1819, 1824; alTirmidhi, Sham-'il Timidhi, 7-8; *mad ibn Hanbal, Musnad al-lm-m Ahmad ibn fianbal, IE135.203, 240; J a G I& D i n d-Suyiifi, Sharh Surzan al-NasaT(Cairo:aI-Maktabah ai-Tijikiyyah al-Kubs 1930) Vm:131.
Abii Raja' Qutaybah b. S a C r d (d. 241)
t ] He transmitted had&
fiom Miilk b. h a s , al-layth, Ibn LaG'ah and others. Many
&d5h scholars, such as YahyZ b. Mapi, Abii H a h and al-NasZ'i, admitted his
l3 . trustworthiness. Even al-BukhGi narrated some 308 had2hs on the authority of ~ u t a ~ b a h
MZlik b. Anas (d. 179)
He founded one of the four Islamic schools. In had2h transmission, none denied his
reliability and thoroughness. It was reported that he cited only sound hadr'rhs and from
RabT'ah b. Abl 'Abd al-Etaban (d. 136)
[ t] RabTCah was reported to have received hadzhs from Anas b. M-ik, al-SZ'ib b. YaZd and
many others. Among those who transmitted hadiihs from him were M&k b. Anas and
Shu'bah. He was a trustworthy scholar, as admitted by m a d b. Hanbal, w a d b. 'Abd
All& al-'IjG, AbG HZtim al-Bus& al-NasIT, and many other critics afterwards. He was even
regarded by Mus'ab al-Zubayfi as a mujXof Madinah at that time.
Evaluation and ConcIusion
Having looked at how scholars had assessed the transmitters of this hadith, we do not need to
Ibn Hajar al-Asqallk?, Tahdhib al-Tuhdh2, W : 3 6 I.
Having looked at how scholars had assessed the transmitters of this hadith, we do not need to go into greater detail about this sanud, since its transmitters were generally thought to be reliable. Ibn Hajar's remarks towards the above mentioned transmitters provide a convincing result. He provided his own conchsive remarks regarding those transmitters by crediting Abii Raj2 Qutaybah b. Sa5d as thiqah thabat (trustworthy and re~iable),"~ a second class of his formulation, M%k b. Anas as rats al-muttaqr'n wa kabr'r al-rnuthbitr7z (the leader of the devouts and the e l i t e of the reliable~).~There is no clear classification of this term in his formulation, Nevertheless, by noting the meaning we may assume it to belong at the first class.
Rabi'ah b. Abi 'Abd al-R@%,
the third transmitter, is described by Ibn Hajar as
thiqah ( t r u s t ~ o r t h ~ ) ,the " ~ third class of his formulation. To conclude, this hadrfh may be regarded as sound,
In his Mkak al-lCtida2,al-Dhahabi did not mention Qutaybah b. SaTd and M
Anas at all. The one he mentioned among the transmitters of this had*
is Rabi'ah b. Abi
'Abd aI-Ralpnin. But he merely followed Abii HZtirn and Ibn Sala6 who mentioned him in
Dhayl al-Qucaf3. It was due to an assumption that Rabi'ah had changed in his last days
(taghayyarn fTal-aMir). Regardless of this assumption, al-Dhahabi asserted that Rabi'ah's
transmissions were confidently consulted (ihtajja bih) by a l l the owners of the books (as&& al-kurub [al-had~rh])."~ The term which al-Dhahabi used, ihtajja bih, was not clearly stated
I b i d ,II:223.
'" Ibid, I: 247.
al-Dhahabi, MiZaiz al-l'tidal, 1 : 3 3 6 .
in his formulation; however, a consideration of its meaning helps us place it at the second
class, together with thiqah and thabat. In this case, Ibn Hajar gave Rabi'ah a similar
qualification, but in different class of formulation, since he described Rabi'ah
In his Eta3 al-Jar4 wa al-Tu'dr?, Ibn Abi m t i m al-Rk? covered all the above
transmitters without any significant distinctions. He presented Rablcahby quoting Abii Bakr al-Humaysl's and his father Abii Hgtirn d-R%'s opinions. The former said that Rabi'ah was
good in memorizing hadrfh (ha&); while the latter regarded him as a rrustworthy Medinan
The Fourth Eadith
Sanad: TinnidG, (haddathanii) 'Abd AlI&
b. 'Abd al-Ra@nin, [akhbarana] IbrXrn b. al-
Mundhir al-E&~zaml, [akhbaranu] 'Abd al-'Azk 6 . ThZbit al-Zuhii, [wdathanl'] Isma'il b.
IbrXm b. AklC MGsh b. 'Uqbah, ['an]Kurayb, ['an]Ibn 'A b b 2 (may God be pleased with
Content: 'The Apostle of AIlah
... When he spoke, it was as if a light shined from inside
See 'Abd All& b. 'Abd a l - R w a n al-DZrirn? al-Samarqandi. S u ~ ol-DaXmi, n (Beirut: D L al-KiGb al'Arabi. 1987). l: 44; al-Tinnidhi, Sharn2il Tinnidhi, 20- l. This Wr'th was also reported by al-Tabtihi? and alBayhaq?. al-Suyiiji in his ai-Ja'ini' a e g h 5 - describes chis &dr';h as sound. See al-Tirmidhi, AwsaJal-Nab; 36.
1 2 '
'Abd A1121 b. 'Abd al-Ra$mSn(d. 255)
E3is proper name w a s 'Abd AUih b . 'Abd a l - R b. ~&Fa@ ~ b. B a h h b. 'Abd al-
AbG Muhammad al-Samarqandi al-H-Ti. He was ad emdite
scholar whose transmission was accepted by ~uslim,"" Abu Dzwfid, al-Tirmidhi and al-
~ u k h a i i .He ' ~ was also thought to have a remarkable memory and great piety. d-Khafib alBaghdEcIi reported fkom Akgnad b. Qanbal that 'Abd AU&
b. 'Abd a l - R d p % was
~briiliirnb al-Mundhir (d. 236)
] I b r a m reportedly transmitted had5hs from many scholars at that time,
including M-ik and Ibn Uyaynah. 'AIi b. 'Umar al-Dkaqufdi expressed confidence in his
authority and said that he was a t r u W person. Ibn l$ibbZn also included him in his al-
niqai. l =
'Abd al-'Aziz b. Thiibit (d. 196)
1KS proper name was 'Abd al-'Aziz b. 'ImrZn b. 'Abd al-'Aziz and was well known as
Al-Bukhz said that the
Ibn Abi Thsbit. Many hadzh scholars denied his aptitude in had*.
hadah which he reported were rejected. This was also the view of al-Nasz'i, who prohibited
It is reported that Muslim transmitted approximately 73 h a d *
from 'Abd Ail& b. 'Abd aI-R@man. See
Ibn Hajar aI-'~s~ai&?. Tahdhih al-Tahdha, V: 296.
al-BukhZi includes &d&s
raken from 'Abd All& b. 'Abd a l - w m a n not in his nl-Juinig.See i b i d ,V:296.
the writing down of his kdr'th reports. Ibn Qibbk explained that this was due to the fact that
he narrated rejected hadI'ths from sources lmown to have been untr~chful.'~~
ISrnGQ b. Ibrahim (d. 169)
] H e was Isms% b. I b r - i i b. 'Uqbah al-Asadi. It was reported that he received his
transmission from his uncle Miis;,
d-Zuhii and N&'.
Yahy5 b. Ma% and al-NasZT
considered him trustworthy, and Abii HZtirn and AbE Dikiid al-Sijistz foound no problem in his transmission. Al-Dirk6 added that he never knew anything about IsmZiJ b. Ibr& except the truth.'"
However, Mahammad b. qusayn al-Azdi disqualified him and considered him weak.
Maammad b. Husayn al-Azdi (d. 394) was not alone in this assessment, since Zakariyii b.
YahyZ al-SZ. (d. 307) before him made the same assessment.128
Kurayb (d. 98)
Kurayb b. Abi Muslim al-H5s
Ibn Sacd said that he was trustwor~ hy and that he
reported good hadshs. Ibn 'AbbZs, 'Ikrimah, al-Nasarl and Ibn e b b & declared him
' 2 1
I b i d .Vm:433.
Evaluation and Conclusion
The main problem with this had2h is the third and fourth transmitters. All the others were
trustworthy, Muharnmad b. Husayn al-Azdi's and ZakariyZ b. YalyZ al-Si.i.3 assessments of
IsmZ5l b. IbrZGm may have been covered by other scholars' assessments of his qumcation
in transmitting a hadzh. However, 'Abd al-'A&
b. Abi ThZbit7s weakness in this hadah
does not help and tends to weaken the chain of transmission. Ibn Hajar disqualified him and declared him as having been abandoned (matm~). 130
In his M s a k , al-Dhahabi gave an assessment similar to that of Ibn Hajar of IsmZLil b.
I b r X m and Ibn Abi ThZbit. He quoted assessments of al-BukhZfi and al-NasZ, which indicated that Ibn Abi ThZbit's hadrfh was abandoned (matr~ik).'~~ Ibn Abi HZtim al-R&7s records about IsrnZQ b. IbrXm shows that he was a trustworthy (thiqah) transmitter credited by YayZ b. Ma'in. AbG @tim al-Riii described
him as la-ba'sa bih,13' which indicates that IsrnZ17s transmission was acceptable.'33 When
M a d b. Hanbal was gked about 'Abd al-'Az-i b. Abi ThEbit, he replied that he never wrote anything from him. Ibn Abi H5tim al-Rki, quoting his father's opinion, mentioned him as master ( s h a y ~ ~ ) , ' the " third class in his formulation.
Hajar al-'Asqalfini. Taqrib al-TaMha, I: 5 11 -
al-Dhahabi, Mlmk al-l'tida1,I : 100 and IIk 138-
In Ibn Abi HZtim aI-RZi's classification of @dr'ih transmitters, la ba'sa bih is placed in the same cIass as the truthful (qade),
Abi H5tim al-Gzi. Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta 'dr'l. I1: 1 5 2 .
This thesis is a study of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal%iidi'sTahdhib al-Tahdhs and his formulation of
tajn3 and ta'dil of had2h transmitters. There is little doubt that Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalh- w a s
unusually gifted in the field of fiodrfh from an early age. As a youth, he had been strongly drawn to fiad5h. His fust book on hadiih, Naqm al-La'alT bi'l-MPah al-AwaTE completed towards the end of 796 AH, was the fust work to bring him scholarly recognition. Ibn Hajar established reputation in his early thirdes when, in 804 AH, he completed the draft of a work
- Ta 'I@ al-Ta 'liq - where he traced the missing links to some hadr'ths in the Sah$
of Bukhari. His most famous work is a commentary on the Sah$ of al-BukhZ - Fath al-
BaTiSharh Sah~? al-Bukha?; which everywhere became a primary reference for those who
study the content of sound had5hs (~a@lii. He completed its introduction in 813 AH, and the commentary evolved from lectures he gave starting in 817; the latter were completed on 1 Rajab 842. Furthermore, his compilations on this subject have been welcomed as important sources in religious learning. His Tahdhib al-Tahdhl% has exclusively been the last alphabetical work or summation on had& transmitters, containing rich data on the social and personal backgrounds of hadah transmitters presented in comprehensive fashion.
Major Works of Ibn Qajar
During his life time, Ibn Qajar had composed many books on the backgrounds of hadah
transmitters for both tajr* and ta'd2, ranging from the lives of Companions of the Prophet
and their followers to those of his contemporary hadrfh transmitters. Ibn Hajar composed
these books because he was dissatisfied with previous ones in the same field, in which he noted many errors and significant misinformation_ His aim in these books was merely to preserve the validity of the prophetic traditions and to provide the right information in an easy and comprehensive way. Some of his compilations were based on the order of his contemporaries. This, of course, may indicate his fame and scholarship.
b n Hajar's scholarly works subsequently flourished and drew unprecedented
attention from Muslims, although Ibn Hajar's compilations were clearly continuations of preceding ones. He foilowed the patterns established by Muslim writers from earlier centuries
- such as @ad
b. Hanbal, b n Abi HZtim al-RZ? - whose compilations in the field of
hadr'rh transmitters were considered "a standard for writers of later times," namely, al-Mizii and al-Dhahabi. It is clear, therefore, that Ibn Hajar relied on a stable standard in his works,
What is unique to his compilations is the rich data about the lives and backgrounds of had5h transmitters. This certainly helped make him a patron in the field. JalP &Din al-Suyug (d.
9 11 AH) and Zayn al-Dvm d-Azhaii (d- 925 AH) were later inspired and influenced by Ibn
Hajar a l - ' A s q a l ~ . They did not break the summation, but rather offered a confirming analysis, even following Ibn Hajar's data with few comments.'
Ibn Hajar's Tahdhib al-Tahdhib
In his Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, Ibn Hajar provided comprehensive data on the hadrrh
transmitters. The entries in Tahdha al-Tahdhib appear uniformly arranged.
Jala al-Din al-SuyGfi. Tadn'b al-Ra-wifiSharh Taqrib at-Nawawc ed. 'Abd al-Wahhiib 'Abd al-LaGf (Medina: al-Maktabah al-'nmiyah, 1959). 230-232; Zay n al-Din d-Azhari, Far4 al-Ba2i 'ahAlfyyah al- 'Iraqi Fa: aIMalba'ah aI-Jadidah, 1354), IE2- 13.
F i r s t , for every entry Ibn Hajar gives a name based on
aIl the versions given by the
transmitters known among Muslims at that time. Although f i n Hajar did not mention his sources, this work is the outcome of studies both in libraries and on journeys to other Islamic lands. In his entries, he recorded the name of the person's father, grandfather, greatgrandfather and so forth, as long as the list needs to be. It also includes the nisbah, kunyah, Luqab, and clientage, if any. However, a single name may have different versions, although it is not known who used those other versions, alI recorded in Tahdhib al-Tahdht'b with the preceding note "qr?a", which means, "it is said." Second, Ibn Hajar listed the teachers in an order determined firstly by reputation or fame and followed, alphabetically, by other names. This method was employed for listing the students who transmitted from the person in question.
Third, b n Hajar offers comments, criticisms, assessments and opinions regarding the
background of the person, including his dates, personal life, qualifications and moral force in a conclusive manner - mostly on the pattern of al-Mizfi's Tahdhr'b al-kTarna~fiAsm2 al-
Lastly, Ibn Hajar provided his own additional comments and criticism in the entry
which are not found in d-Miul's compilation. To distinguish this, Ibn Hajar used qultu ( "I
said") before the statement. Interestingly, Ibn Hajar did not give his own judgment or
assessment of the person in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, preferring to do so instead in T a q d alTalzdhib, which is the Tahdhz3's introduction. Ibn Wajar explained his reason and purpose. Indeed, in the field of hudr'th criticism, particularly the criticism of chains of transmission, this book is worth using as an independent source of background to hadzfh transmitters.
In comparison to Ibn Abi Hgtim d-Rliii's Kita'b al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dZ and atDhahabi's M &
al-I'tida2, we found the entries presented by Ibn Hajar to be more detailed
and comprehensive. The arrangement according to tajni and ta'dZ notions seem more
balanced, and appear to cover the assessments of previous works in the same field. Interestingly, we found some points in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, which are not mentioned in either Kita3 al-Jar4 wa al-Tar&? or M5Ln al-l'tida7. This ranged from the entry names to
their personal and intellectual assessments. The entry for Qutaybah is a case in point;
Muhammad b. Bashshir is another instance.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqaliisii on Taj*
and Ta'dz? of flad2h Transmitters
In his discussion of the various classes of hadrfh transmitters, Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalE offered
a more detailed and precise scheme. His formulations suggest that Ibn Hajar al-'Asqal-&i?s
use of tajr$ and ta'dr? may reflect a comprehensive view of the different types of jjud3h transmitters. This also may indicate his willingness to include tawassu; (moderate), i f not
rasa7tul (laxity), or even "more moderate," in Tarif Khalidi's terms, when judging the
qualities and defects of hadith transmitters. According to Ibn Hajar, the first level of both tajn'h and ta'dg is limited to formulations, whose forms and meanings are in terms of mubalaghah (intensity) - such as akdhab and ilnyhi ai-rnuntaha-fr' al-wad' for taj*,
and awthaq for tacdz?.Other hadah
scholars like Ibn AbT H Z t i m al-R&i and Ibn Sal* al-Shahraziifi limited their formulation of thiqah to the f ~ s level, t and al-Dhahabi limited his formulation to the twin notions of rhiqah
thiqah and thiqah thabat. Similarly, Ibn Hajar placed kadhdha3 (liar) at the second level,
whereas others placed it at the first, adding that the first level is reserved for aMhab al-n&
(the gravest liar).
The question arises as to whether the person labeled as thiqah (trustworthy) by others
is the same person whom Ibn Hajar would label as awrhaq a h a 3 (the most trustworthy person)? Similarly, is the person disqualified as kadhdhaa (liar) by other scholars the same one described as akdhab al-nu3 (the gravest Ear) by Ibn &jar?
By looking at the entries of some badith transmitters in Tahdha al-Tahdhib and
comparing them to the same entries in Ibn Abi Hatim al-RZ?s Kira3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta 'dZ and al-Dhahabi's MSak al-l'tidd, we found that there is a difference among those entries. When Ibn Abi Hatim al-Rki credited MNarnmad b. BashshZr, for instance, he describes him
the second class in his scheme. al-Dhahabi describes the same person as thiqah
qadiq. Both assessment are at the f i s t level of their respective schemes. Ibn Hajar in this case just mentioned as thiqah, which appears to indicate an intermediary position. However, if the two other scholars placed Maammad b. BashshG at the first level, Ibn Hajar's notion of thiqah is the third. The discussion on the qualification of Sim& b. Harb of the second hadrfh is another
similar example. Between the two different positions
- Sim& as trustworthy and Sim&
weak - Ibn Hajar determined that Sim& was sadiq (truthfuI), the fourth level in his scheme.
While Ibn lfajar and Ibn Abi HZtim al-R%i mentioned all the transmitters of the third
hadrfh, d-Dhahabi recorded only Rabi'ah b. Abi 'Abd al-RaIpZn and called him ihtajja bih (confidently consulted). Ibn Abi HZtim's notions on the transmitters of this Wr'th showed
that all of them were trustworthy, the first Ievel of his scheme. This may lead to the
conclusion that this is a sound had5h.
Ibn Hajar's notions also showed the same result. However, they were more convincing, since the lowest range of his assessment was trustworthy. The highest one was
ra's al-rnunaqh wa knbir al-muthbin'n (the leader of the devout and the elite of the reliable),
belonging to the first class of his notion.
In dealing with the transmitters of the fourth hadrfh, Ibn @ajar followed the
mainstream of badrfh scholars, who assessed 'Abd All& b- Abi ThZbit as having been abandoned. Although the latter was assessed as a shuykh (master), as Ibn Abi HZtim d - R k ? mentioned, Ibn Hajar did not try to reconcile the two. Instead he declared him as matmi (abandoned).
Based on the above assessments of the four hadrfh, we may conclude that it is not true
that Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalikii had, in his moderation, accepted weak (da'3 had2h.s - weak due to the defectiveness of its transmitters. In some cases, Ibn Hajar showed moderation in his assessments of hadiitz transmitters, hoping to reconcile the two different kinds of hadrh
transmitters by providing his own notion. In other cases, he preferred to follow the majority
opinion. Ibn Hajar's notion of "in kana al-jarh mufassaran, qubila, wa illu- 'umila bi'rra'df2"' (if the jarh is explained, it is accepted; if not, the ta'd2 has to be initiated) may clarify his position. In sum, we may say that Ibn Hajar al-'Asqa1~'s approach in presenting and assessing hadirh transmitters is more thorough and, to some degree, is more scientific than that of other scholars within the same field. His use of and reference to previous similar works may show this. Moreover, by formulating his own concepts by which to classify
ead3h transmitters, Ibn Majar al-'AsqalX
demonstrated his intellectual independence.
Although he failed to jusdfy clearly his formulation, they plainly reflected his untiring efforts
to preserve the validity o f the hadah as the second to the Qur'Zn by providing the adequate
background and assessment of the transmitters,
K h i 1 Muhammad Muhammad 'Uwaydah, Ibn Hajar al- 'AsqahiZ Shuykh al-isla-m (Beirut: Dk al-Kutub al'Ilmiyyah, 1995). 1 19.
: the gravest liar : I hope he is acceptable : I hope he is acceptable :I blame him :the most reliable person :the gravest forgerer :flaws : the most trustworthy person :innovating : [hadr'thscholars] make him out to be weak :weakness : weakness of : weak :good in memory and writing Da3i' Da3jiddan : very weak Da 'if al-hadith : weak in tradition Daj~a? : swindler Dha'hib : faded Dha'hib al-hadr'th : someone who fades the hadr'th Fa3iq :one who commits many mistakes/acts unlawfully Fawq al-rhiqah ilayh al-munraha-Fa[-tarhabbur : above trustworthiness, he is the highest
Akdhab al-nas Arju-an la bags bih A&-annahu laysa bih ba ' s A m i bih Athbat al-na3 Awda ' aha? 'Awrah Awthaq a h a 3 Bid 'ah Qa ' ' a f i 3 Da T Da tf ahl al-had2h Qa 'if
in reliability. Frhadr'rhih da 7 : there is a weakness in his had* Frhadr'rhih maqa? :there is a disagreement about his Jpzdr'th :there is a weakness within him F r 3 2 da'f Fr'h khalf :there is a controversy about him Fz'h l q y i n :there is mildness in him Fr'h maqa? :there is a disagreement about him Fr'hi n a ~ r : he is surveyed Fuhsh a1-ghalaf : making many mistakes Fula> munaharn bi al-kndhib : someone who is accused of being a liar or forgerer FuZ& ruddu had2huh : someone whose bad5h is rejected Fulak yus 'a1 'anhu : the one who is referred to Ghafah : being forgetful Ghayr ma 'mu% : not followed/unreliable Ghayr thiqah : untrustworthy Ghr'bah :slander &372 :good in memory : good in memory and competent l f i f i hujjah ~ fladr'thuh mudtarib : his h d 5 h is confusing Had5huh rnunkar : his hadr'th is refused Ifara-m :prohibited
Hasan @-ah Hujyat hujjuh KaZik Tfum al-hadiih na-ai-sidq mihuwa nayh al-muntaha- fial-wadr JaF'iz Jahalah Jarh Jayyid al-had5h Jurnhu? Kadhdha3 Khiya? h-athbat minh Laba 'sa bih Lishay h-yu 'tabar bi hudrfhihi LCyu 'tabar bih LaLayu 'rabar ljadrfhuh Liyuhtaijfl Layusdivrshuy Laysa bi 'umdah Laysa bi al-al- 'abd Laysa bi al-mardaLaysa bi al-man5 Laysa bi al-rnatn Luysa bi abquwci Laysa bi al-thiqalz Laysa bi dha2 Laysa bi dhaX al-quwci Laysa bi hujj'ah Luysa bi qawZ Laysa bi shay Luysu bi thiqah h y s a bih bays Laysa rna'rnuli2 Luyyin al-hadr'th w i n Mu-a'lam bih bars Ma 'mu% Mahalluhu aGs2dq Majhu7 al- 'uyn Majhu7 al-ha?
:good :competent :doubly competent :destructible :good in badr'th :his position is close to truthfulness
:he is the highest in forging : permitted :being unknown :disparaging
:faultless in had5h :most [hadsh]scholars : liar :the chosen one :no one is more reliable than him :there is no harm in him :nothing : his hadrfh is not regarded
:he is not regarded : his hadrfh is not regarded : he is not consulted
: he is not worth anything :he is not he main :he is not a [good] servant :he is not approved : he is not frrm :he is not f h
:he is not strong :he is not trustworthy :he is not the one : he is not the strong one
: he is not competent : he is not strong : he is nothing
: he is not trustworthy : he is acceptable
: he is not followed/reliable :lenient in hadrfh : mild : I do not know if he is acceptable : followecUreliable :his station is veracity :personally unknown : unknown as to conditiodone whose integrity is not
verified : unknown
MaqZu3 M a r d d al-hadah Mardtd Martabah Ma! 'G Mafru-h Ma-tru-h al-had2h Marmi al-hadrfh Matrul Mawdu?
Mazr'd M i n rnithlficltik Mudfa rub al-hadah Mudiarib Mudallis Mudraj
Muharraf Mukhdafah Mukhtali! Munr" al-kadhb Munkar al-hadr'th Muqirib MuqaTib al-hadr'th Mu?ahhaf M u p rah al-hadZh Murqin Muriaham bi al-kadhib Muttaham bi al-wad' Qad du '$a, Rudda hadr'ihuh Raddudhad$hah Rawaw 'anh Rukn al-kadhb Sa?ih al-hadfh Sadiq i n s h 2 Allah SadTq lahu awham Sadu4 lakinnah mubtadi ' Sadiq SLZal-h~fi &zdu2 taghayyara bi a-irih SadUq yahim
:there is a disagreement about him :acceptable :upside down/reciprocal :rejected in hadr'th :rejected :class :discredited :discarded :discarded in hadah :one whose tradition is abandoned :abandoned : spurious :addition :he is an exemplary person : confused in hadah :dismay : one who practices sort of dubious term :interpolated both the chain of transmission [ i m a and the
: corrupted words : being contradictory :mixed : powerful in lying :refused in 4adtTh : average : average in hadr'th : misplacement of diacritical marks : discarded in hadr'th :exact, accurate : being accused of lying : being accused or blamed for forgery : he is really weaken :his hadr'rh is rejected : [had% scholars] reject his hadah : [bad2h scholars] take transmission fiom him :chief of lying : upright in hadah :truthful by God's willing : truthful but being suspect : truthful but making innovation :truthful but bad in memory : t m W l but he is IastIy changed
:truthful but committing mistakes sometimes : truthful
Suwaylib Sa2@ Sakanf 'anhu Sakam- 'anhu shah ShanV'a h Shaykh was! Shaykh SayyT al-h& Ta 'anu-fi Tarahu-hadrcthah Ta 'dr2 TakallarnUfi Tarakui Tasa3ul Tawassu~ Thabat Thabat ba& Thabat bujjah Thabat thabat Thabat thiqah Thiqah rnutqin Thiqah thabat
Thiqat rna'rn& Thiqat thiqah Tukullima_F Vkhtul,$afi
:less upright :disreputable : &zdi?h scholars] give no comment on him : [hadah scholars] are silent on him :isolated :Islamic law :moderate master : master : bad in memory : [had5h scholars] discredit him : [&d5h scholars] discard his hudfh :declaring trustworthy :[&dr'th scholars] disagree over him : [hadzh scholars] abandoned him : leniencyAooseness :moderate :reiiable :reliable and good in memory :reliable and competent : doubly reliable :reliable and trustworthy :trustworthy and accurate :trustworthy and reliable :trustworthy
: trustworthy and followed
Wal bi rnarrah al-Wad ' W d a ' a hadahan WuddaCI' Wahm WGib Wasal Wasal shaykh Yada ' al-hadrfh Yakdhib Yud'affTh Yu 'raf wa yunkar Yuhtajj YuWt*trF
: doubly trustworthy : he is disagreed : he is disputed : feeble : feeble in one instance : for,a;ing
: to forge a hadah : forgerer
:being suspect : obligatory
: moderate master : to forge a hadr'rh : to lie :he is weaken
:known and refused : consulted
: making mistakes
Yunkar wa yucraf Y u m - b i bid'
:refbsed and known : accused of making innovation
Appendix Four: &z&th N
'Abd al-Mun'im, Sh& Malpiid. Ibn Hajar al- 'Asqalini wa-dira3at rnqannafatih wa manhajih wa ma~vcZdihFkita3ih al-&&ah. BaghdZd: DZr al-Ridah, n.d.
'Abd al-Sattar, d-Shaykh. al-f,&afiz Ibn Hajar al-'Asqala%i. Amir al-Mu'minin jT aZHadr'th. Damascus: DG al-Qalam, 1992.
Abu DZwGd aI-Sijistarzl, SulaymZn b. Ash'ath d - h a & . Sunan Abi Ddivud, ed. Beiriit: al-Maktabah al-'Asriyah, Maammad Muhyi &Din 'Abd al-Had. 1980.
Abfi HZtim al-R-Ei, Abii Muhammad 'Abd al-RatpnZn b. a l - I m k al-Kabk M u i y m a d b. Idiis b. al-Mundhk Kita3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dil. Bay&: D& al-Kutub al'Ilmiyyah, 1970.
Abul Fazl, Sayyid. "Ibn Hajar; His time and his life," Islamic Culture 32, no. 1 (January
m a d b. Hanbal. Musnad a l - h & Ahmad 6.Hanbal. Beirut: D5.r al-Fikr, 1980,
A n i n , Bakii Shaykh. Adab al-Had2h al-Nabawl. Beirut: D?u al-Shw-q, 1975.
d-A'zanii, Muhammad DiyZ' al-R-an. Dirisa7 jT al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dZ. Medina: Maktabah al-Ghuraba' d-Athariyah, 1995. Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (GAL), and Supplement. 5 vols. Leiden: EJ. Brill, 1943. Bulliet, Richard W. 'A Quantitative Approach to Medieval Muslim Biographical f the Orient XIII Dictionaries," Journal o f the Economic and Social History o (1970). al-BundZ, 'Abd al-Ghaff-ar SulayrnZn and Sayyid Kurdi Hasan. Mawsgar Rija7 alKutub a[-Tis 'ah. B ayriit: Dk al-Kutub al-'nmiyyah, 1993.
Burton, John. An Introduction to the Hadiih. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press,
al-DZrinii, 'Abd All& b. 'Abd a l - R m Z n al-Samarqandi. Sunan al-Da- mi, ed. FawZz m a d Zamarli and K h a d al-Sabc al- ammi mi. Befit: D& al-Kitiib al-'Arabi, 1987.
al-Dhahabi, Abii 'Abd AU& Muhammad b. m a d Shams aI-D?n. MGak al-lctidaljT Naqd al-Rijal, ed. 'AIi Muhammad al-Bijiiw?. Cairo: 'is5 al-B& al-Halab?, 1963. al-Ka3hifjT ma 'rifat man lahu riwa7aah jT al-kutub al-sittah, ed. ' h a h 'Ali 'Id 'Aoyah and MGsZ Muhammad 'Ali al-MiisG (Cairo: DZr al-Kutub al-Hadithah, 1972);
Siyar A'lim al-Nubalay ed. Shu'ayb al-Arna'iit and 'Ali Abii Zayd. Bayxiit: Mu'assasat al-RisZlah, 1986.
Gibb, Sir Hamilton. "Islamic Biographical Literature," in Historians o f the Middle East, ed. Bernard Lewis and P.M. Holt. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.
Hitti, Philip K.History o f the Arabs. London: MacMillan &Co. Ltd., 1964.
. Holt, P. M. "Mamliilcs" in EZ2. 328-329, Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1971
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Abi 'Umar YEsuf b. 'Abd AlI& Mdpmmad. al-Is6'a'b F M a 'rifat alSa?ja3ah, ed. 'Ali M@ammad al-Bijawi. Cairo: Malba'ah Nahdah, 1960.
lbn Ab'i Efitim al-R&i, Kita3 al-Jarh wa al-Ta *diLHyderabad: Majlis Da'irat al-Mac5rif,
lbn al-AtEr, 'Izz &Din Abi d-Hasan 'AIi b. Muhammad al-Jazari. Usd al-Ghciiah fi Mu'rifat al-Saha%ah, ed. Muhammad b. Ibr-Xm al-BannZ and Muhammad Aipnad 'AshGr. N-p.: Dk d-Sha'b, 1970. Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalE,-&id b. 'Mi. Fath al-B6ii-i bi Sha* Sahq al-BukhLrr'.Beiriit: D& d-Ma'rifah, t 980.
--- al-fiha? bi Ma'rifar RuwZ al-fihcir, ed. Sayyid Kasrawi Hasan. Beirut: DZr alKutub al-'lnmiyyah, 1993.
a l - I a h fTTamyG al-Sahaaah, ed.
'AGMaamad al-Bijiiw?. Beirut: DZk al-Jayl,
Honoring the Muslim: Refiainingfiorn Harming and Thinking E v i lo f Him, trans. by Assad Nimer Busool, Ph. D .Chicago: Kazi Publication, 1982.
--- Lisak al-MEak. Beirut: Mu'assasat a l - A ' li ~ al-Ma~bEi'Zt, ~ 1971.
Sharh Nukhbat al-Fikr. Cairo: Matba'at al-Istiqkah, 1368 A.H.
Raf a w r 'an Quda? Mip-, ed. Khan$, 1998.
'AG Muhammad 'Umar. Cairo: Maktabat al-
TaY2 al-Manfa'ah bi Z a w a Rija7 al-A'imrnah al-Arba'ah B e i r u t : Dk al-KitZb aLbArabi,n.d, TabSir al-Muntabah bi-Tahni &Mushtabah, ed. 'Ali Muhammad al-Bujawi. Cairo: al-Mu'assasah al-Misriyyah a l - ' b a h , n.d. Talzdhib al-Tahdhr'b. Hyderabad: Majlis DIiirat al-Ma' Zrif al-NeZmiyah, 1325.
- Taqrib Tahdhr'b, ed. 'Abd al-WahhZb 'Abd. Law- Medina: al-Maktabah al'Ilmiyyah, 1960.
Ibn Haun, Abu Mdpmmad 'AG b. m a d b. Sacid al-Andalus?. Jamharat Ansa3 al1962, 'Arab. Cairo: Diir al-MackifT Ibn KhallikZn, Shams al-D'in m a d b. Maammad b. Abi Bakr. fin Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, trans. Bn MacGuckin De S h e . Paris: Printed for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1843. Ibn Mundhir, Jams al-Din Muhammad b. Mukarram. Lisa> al- 'Arab. Beirut: D5r al-Sadr and DZr Beiriit, 1956. Ibn Rajab, Zayn al-Din 'Abd al-Ra@nan b. m a d d-Hanbafi. 'Tarjamat al-Im-m alTirmiW7, in Sharh 'IZal al-Tinnidh3, ed. al-Sayyid Sub@ JGam al-Hamyad. Baghdad: al-'k-, 1976.
Ibn Sal& al-ShahrazG, Abu 'Amr 'UthmZn b. 'Abd al-RaIpan. Mtcqaddimat Ibn al$ala% wa Mahuiin al-I~tiZa~, ed- 'A'ishah 'Abd at-Rakpnm b. al-Sh@. Cairo: DZr al-MacZrif, 1989.
Ismail, Syuhudi. Kaedah Kesahihan Sanad Hadis. Jakarta: BuIan Bintang, 1988.
Juynboll, Gauthier K.A. Muslim Tradition: Studies in Chronology, Provenance, and Authorship of Early t.,adr'th- Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Kawash, Sabri Khalid. Ibn Ifajar al- 'AsqaZa%E A Srudy of the Background, Education and Career of a 'aim in Egypt. Ph.D diss., Princeton University, 1969.
Khalidi, Tarif. "Islamic Biographical Dictionaries: A Preliminary Assessment," Muslim Wold 63, 1973.
al-KhZtib al-TibrZ, Mishhi al-Masabih, trans. d-H2j Mawl5nii FazluI K h , M.A., B.L. Pakistan: Rafique Press, 1960.
al-Khafib al-BaghdZdL al-Kifaahfr 'Zlm al-Riwiyah, ed. Alynad 'Umar Hashim. Beirut: DZr al-Kitab al-'Arabi, 1986.
al-KhawIi, M ~ a m m a d 'Abd al-AZz?. Ta%%h Fun& 1986.
Beirut: Dir al-Qalam,
Lewis, Bernard. The Arabs in History. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 196% Librande, Leonard T. Contrasts in rhe Two Earliest Manuals o f 'Ulu'm al-Had5h: The Beginnings o f the Genre. Ph. D. diss., McGiU University, 1976.
al-Maqiizi, AQmad b. 'Mi. Kit& al-Sului li Ma 'rifat Duwal al-Mulrik, ed. Muhammad MuslKa Ziy5da.h. Cairo: MaJbacat Lajnat al-Ta'Iif wa &Tarjamah wa al-Nashr,
al-Mizzi, J a r d al-D7n Abi al-HajjZj Yiisuf. Tahdhib al-Kamal fiAsma- al-Rija1, ed, BashshG 'AwwZd Mabriif.Beirtit: Mu'assasat al-Risaah, 1992.
Muslim b. al-Hajjiij , Abii al-Husayn al-Qushay6 al-Naysiibbiiii. Sah2 Muslim, ed. M@ammad Fu' gd 'Abd al-B %$. Egypt:D& IhyZ' al-Kutub al-' Arabiyah, 1955.
al-Nasii'i, w a d b. Shucayb. Sunan al-llrasa7L Cairo: al-MaMabah al-Tijayah Kubri, 1930.
al-QZshii, Muhammad JarnZl al-Din. QawZid al-Tahxrfh min Funuk M u ~ ~ a l a al3 Hadiih, ed. Muhammad Bahjah al-Ba~iir and Muhammad RasEd Rid; (Beirut: DZr al-NaFa'is, 1987.
Robson, James. "al-Djarh wa '1-Ta'dil," i n E12,I: 462.
- 'The Transmission of Tirmidfii's Ja-mi',"
Afiican Studies 16 ( 1 954).
Bulletin o f the School of Oriental and
Rooke, Tetz. In My Childhood: A study ofArabic autobiography. Stockholm: Stockholm University, 1997. Rosenthal, F. "Ibn Hadjar a l - ' A s k a l ~ , " EI 2. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1971.
al-SakhZwi, Shams &Din Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Ra&nTtn. c'Inuoduction," al-Jawalir wa al-Durar fi tarjamat al-Shaykh al-lski-m ibn Ifajar (alCAsqaZi~i). Cairo: alMajlis al-A'lZ li al-Shu'iin al-Isl&niyyah, 1986-
al-I'Zai bi ai-Tawbikh, ed. Franz Rosenthd. BaghdZd: Matba'at aLc&ii, 1963. Nayn al-'lqya% frACy6nal-A'ytn, ed. Philip K. Hitti. New York: Malba'at alSGyyah al-Amrikiyyah, 1927.
al-Salafi, M u w a d ~ u ~ m i i nIhtirnak . al-Muhaddithk bi Naqd al-Had2h. Beirut: Mu'assasat Fu'id Ya'7nii li al-TajGd, 1987
Sub@. 'Uluiin al-Wudr'th wa Mugulahuh: 'Ard wa d i r e a h Beirut: DZr al-'Dm li alMalZ$n, 1966.
Schimmel, Annemarie. And Muhammad is His Messenger. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Sezgin, Fuat. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifnums (GAS). Leiden: EJ. Brill, 1967.
d-Shin$@, Muhammad 'Abd AU& b. al-Shaykh Muhammad. al-SulasabZ jF man Dhakarahum al-Timidhr bi larh wa Ta'dil. RiyZd: Tawzi' Mu'assasat alMu'taman, 1415 AH,
Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubayr. Hadith Literature: Its origin, development, special feature and criticism. Calcutta: Calcutta University Press, 1961. Suhaib Hasan Abdul Ghaffar. Criticism o f Hadith among Muslim with Reference to Sunan Ibn Majah London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1986. al-Sulanii, Abii 'Abd a l - R Mulymmad ~ ~ b. al-flusayn b. Maammad b. MGsZ. E t a 3 TabaqZ al-SUfiyah. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960. al-SuyEfi, JalZI al-D% 'Abd al-RaQmZn b. Abi Bakr. Sharh Sunan al-NasaT. Cairo: alMaktabah al-Tijiriyyah aI-KubrZ, 1930.
--- T a d d a[-rawrfr share Taqn% al-Nawawl: ed. 'Abd al-WahhZb 'Abd al-lafif.
Medina: al-Maktabah al-'Myah, 1959. al-Tirmidhi, Muhammad b. %a b. Sawrah. Aws$ al-NabTTalla-AZla3 alaih wa Sallam, edited and commented by Saniih 'Abbis. Beiriit: DZr al-Jay1 or Cairo: Maktabat al-Zahrak, 1987.
--- Sham2il TimidhT. Urdu commentary by Muhammad ZakariyL KarZchi: NEr
Sunan al-Timzidhiwa huwa al-Jami' al-Sahr')r. Beirut: DZr al-Fikr, 1983.
'Uwaydah, KTcmil Muhammad Muhammad. Ibn &ajar ul-'Asqala3E Shaykh al-Isla-m. Beirut: Diir aI-Kutub al-'Ilmi yyah, 1995.
Van Arendonk, C. "Ibn Hadjar al-'Askaliixii," Ell. Leiden: E.J.Bril1, 1927.
Wehr, Hans. A Dictionary o f Modem Written Arabic, ed. J.M. Cowan. Ithaca: Spoken Language Services, Inc., 1994.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?