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Teaching the Abenaki Way (Working Title

)
Course Syllabus

The Champagne Bark House, Barton, VT. ca. 1950

Course Abstract This course, a cooperative venture between the Haven Project, an Indigenous VT organization, and the University of Vermont, is designed for professionals who are charged with interpreting the Vermont Indigenous Experience to the public. This audience includes K-12 and Higher Education teachers, museum curators and interpreters, government officials interested in understanding the ethnic diversity of the state, and health care providers interested in cultural competency. This "emerging science" course details the revolutionary corpus of information that has been uncovered by the 2009 VT Lake Champlain Quadricentennial and the 2011-2012 Vermont State Recognition Process, through lecture/discussion, readings, demonstrations, videos, and field experiences. In addition to content, the course demonstrates through service learning that a philosophy of reciprocity between Euro-and Native America is possible through the development of individual projects, materials and experiences that will be provided to the state's four recognized bands at the conclusion of the course.

Three Graduate-level Credits EDCI 200 Instructor: Frederick M. Wiseman, Ph.D.
Director, Haven Project and Abenaki Tribal Museum Tribal Councilor, Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi

Location, Meeting dates and times: TBA:

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Course Description:
Background In the 1980s, after centuries of silence about indigenous communities in Vermont, archaeologists began to publish information on the extensive Vermont archaeological record, and ethnohistorians began publishing the vast amount of primary documentary information languishing in archives in the United States, Canada and Europe. Much of the research produced a chronicle of conflict and diplomacy prior to 1790, rather than the understanding of the culture itself. About the same time, Native communities in Northern Vermont began reasserting their Indigenous identity. From 1972 to 2009 an Abenaki renaissance began that asserted there was much of value in Indigenous Vermont, and the long process for state recognition began, including the gathering of oral history and other forms of ethnohistoric and ethnographic information previously ignored. This process proved that there is an unbroken Indigenous presence in Vermont and ended with Vermont State Recognition of four Vermont Indigenous Bands (Elnu, Koasek, Missisquoi and Nulhegan) in 2011/2012. At the same time, the process uncovered a mass of revolutionary new Vermont data, focused on the history and culture, during the 180-year gap since statehood. As a result, the Haven Project, a multimedia database, including documents, imagery, video and audio, was created to archive, organize, analyze, and interpret this new information for the indigenous community. Recently, Haven has decided to partner with selected museums and educational institutions in Vermont and New Hampshire to make this information available to educators and other interpreters of the Indigenous experience. Brief description This three credit graduate level course is based upon the Haven database and associated materials such as publications, posters and video, designed to acquaint Vermont K-12 Teachers, museum professionals and even Health/ Human Services specialists with the revolutionary new information concerning Vermont's Indigenous People. These data were revealed by research for the 2009 Vermont Lake Champlain Quadricentennial Celebration, and the 2010-2012 Vermont State Recognition and supersede old Indigenous stereotypes such as "Post-1790 Empty Vermont," or Hiding in Plain Sight," that have heretofore forced interpreters of the Native Vermont experience to look to Maine or Canada for "real" Abenaki culture. We will briefly focus on the Contact Period, 1550-1650 as baseline, and then delve into the Late Historical Period, 1790-1970 which is the Foundation of Haven. The data for the intervening, so-called "Colonial" period is little changed from the work of pioneering researchers such as Colin Calloway, but will be examined as it relates to the new data. Lecture, discussion and reading topics include Indigenous political, cultural and economic geography, ecology, socio-political structure, technology and world view. Haven does not focus on the traditional history of armed conflict and "great men." As detailed below in the topical listing, the first part of the course will examine the Early Contact Period, the necessary "baseline" for understanding the unique cultural, ecological and spiritual characteristics that either have persisted until today, or form the basis of an ongoing cultural renaissance. In this section of the course we will rely on primary and secondary source materials specific to the far northeast Wabanaki people (the Abenakis and their cultural siblings) that formed the basis of the cultural reconstructions for the Vermont Lake Champlain Quadricentennial.. The main portion of the course content will focus on the Vermont Abenaki experience during the 1790-1970 period when academia had "written off" the Abenakis, finding little or nothing of importance or value in the 19th and 20th century indigenous record. We will provide readings, demonstrations and discuss in detail the new findings regarding agriculture, plant use, hunting and fishing, social organization and land tenure, material culture and arts, performance and spirituality. In this we endeavor, we have heretofore unpublished oral history, amazing new artifacts and imagery, as well as new written documents to rely on. The last part of the course will examine the 1970-today Abenaki Renaissance; how it evolved, why it is controversial, and its future political and cultural prospects. We will have a field trip to Missisquoi, to see its historical sites and what is "going on" there and meet with tribal leaders to get their sense of where the community is going. Service Learning Over the last 25 years, I have perfected a system by which students are offered an opportunity to give back to the local and regional Indigenous communities that have shared this heretofore internal information. Students are in need of this information and the associated resources, and the originating communities are in need of support in their ongoing political, cultural and spiritual revitalization. It is important in traditional societies to keep a balance with both sides offering something to each other. In this case information and resources will be exchanged. Often without sufficient resources to make regalia, dance accessories, musical instruments and other necessary components for cultural revitalization, community organizations and leaders have relied on my

-3students to provide these and other materials and services. For example, the Passamaquoddy (a tribe in Maine) chiefs' headdresses, wampum belts and sashes of office were made in Vermont by my students in the 1990's. And so, students projects include service-learning opportunities, ranging from "mini-internships, to constructing replica materials (experimental ethnography) to film, to doing primary research on topics needed by the communities. Goals/outcomes The overall goal of the "Teaching the Abenaki Way" course is simple-- to introduce professional interpreters to the breadth and depth of the culture system and material/social/spiritual content of the VT Indigenous experience revealed since 2009. This goal will be attained through various concrete learning outcomes as listed below. The most important learning outcome is an understanding and analysis of the wealth of new interpretation regarding the VT Abenaki experience that has arisen since 2009, and sufficient knowledge of the breadth of source material in Haven so as to be able to access it for use in the future. Students will be able to discuss and analyze the various historical periods covered in the course, and across the curriculum from political structure to spirituality and worldview. Students will learn skill applicable to navigating the Haven database and configure it to their own needs. Lastly, through their projects, students will give back to the subjects of their interest.

General Course Information
Course Policies/Expectations:
This is an intensive, eleven day experience with a follow up day for project presentations/discussion, and so a day's absence will be the equivalent of missing more than a week's work in a semester course and is unacceptable, with some exceptions (see "Grading," below). In addition, this graduate level course is dense with heretofore unpublished data applicable to understanding the Vermont Indigenous experience. Therefore, each student must have read and understood the required readings before the topic is discussed, and there will be time for question/answer and discussion made available during the day. The instructor believes that free and open academic discussion at the graduate level cannot be infringed by any preconditions or expectations. Therefore, expectation of in-class contribution is confined to the final presentations. We will not have any exams, because we assume that graduate students will do everything possible to keep up with the reading assignments. Each student will prepare a Daily Journal that commences upon beginning the readings and will complete on the day the course projects are turned in. It will encompass a log of hours spent on various readings/projects etc, scholarly musings regarding the readings, the lectures, presentations and the videos, including but not limited to an evaluation of each one's contribution to the course and the student's desired outcomes of the course. This detailed information will be used to refine the course for future offerings. Secondly, students will prepare an application of the course content to their profession (e.g. lesson plan, exhibit concept, etc.) that can be made available to other professionals as well as the Indigenous communities dealt with by the course. Lastly, in the spirit of Haven's Philosophy, each student will prepare a final project (or projects) that will be of service to the ongoing Abenaki revitalization, and do a final presentation on that project. These products have been requested by the four VT Indigenous Bands, or other Native organizations or organizations serving a Native mission. All students are required to be familiar with and adhere to the ―Academic Honesty Policy Procedures‖ delineated in the following website. http://www.uvm.edu/~uvmppg/ppg/student/acadintegrity.pdf ).

Accommodations:
Accommodations will be provided to eligible students with disabilities. Please obtain an accommodation letter from the ACCESS office and see one of the instructors early in the course to discuss what accommodations will be necessary. If you are unfamiliar with ACCESS, visit their website at http://www.uvm.edu/access to learn more about the services they provide. ACESS: A-170 Living Learning Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. PH: 802-656-7753, TTY: call 711 (relay), Fax: 802-656-0739, Email: access@uvm.edu, Instant Messenger: UVMaccess. General office hours: 8:30am – 4:30pm Monday through Friday. Call to make an appointment.

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Required and/or recommended readings: Required Readings
(Please note that while all Haven publications, are authored or coauthored by the instructor of the course, the embedded information is a compendium of information from numerous sources, most importantly the oral histories of scores of living Indigenous people in Vermont and New Hampshire. Other than the original recognition petitions submitted in 2010-2012, this information has not been brought before the public. As far as any critique or comparison on the part of the students, this information has not been sought by any other researcher, nor has it been reviewed or analyzed by others, except for partisans who deny that there is any Indigenous culture in the VT/NH area. Thus students are given a unique opportunity to access "breaking news" in the world of regional Indigenous content.) Wiseman, Frederick 2001. Voice of the Dawn. University press of New England. ____ 2009 At Lake Between. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Basin Harbor, VT. ____ Champlain Tech Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Basin Harbor, VT. ____ 2010 Baseline 1609. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Basin Harbor, VT. ____ 2012, Always in Fashion Wabanaki attire, prehistory to 1609. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Indigenous Vermont Series 2012: Swanton, VT. ____ 2012, Exceptional elegance: 19th and 20th century Western Wabanaki clothing. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Indigenous Vermont Series 2012:2 Swanton, VT. ____ 2012, Indigenous Vermont Trade Ornament: 1700-1850. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Indigenous Vermont Series 2012:4 Swanton, VT. ____ 2012, Vermont's Indigenous Spirituality Wôbanakik Heritage Center Indigenous Vermont Series 2012:6 Swanton, VT. ____ 2012 Late Period (1890-1970) Indian baskets in Vermont. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Indigenous Vermont Series 2012:9 Swanton, VT. ____ 2012, Musical instruments of the Abenakis and their neighbors. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Wabanaki Series 2012:3 ____ 2012, Ancestral Wabanaki belief: a documentary perspective. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Wabanaki Series 2012:6 Swanton, VT. ____ 2012, Across a world of water: Historic Wabanaki watercraft. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Wabanaki Series 2012:7 Swanton, VT. ____ 2013, Wabanaki beadwork: 1850-2000. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Wabanaki Series 2013:6 Swanton, VT. Seeds of Renewal: Repatriating Indigenous Vermont germ plasm. Wôbanakik Heritage Center, Swanton, VT Indigenous Vermont Series 2012:14. 44 pp. ____, and Melody Walker 2012. The Abenakis and their Neighbors: Teachers and Interpreters resources. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Indigenous Vermont Series 2012:5 Swanton, VT. ____ and Melody Walker 2013. Haven: A virtual museum of Indigenous Vermont. Wôbanakik Heritage Center Indigenous Vermont Series 2013:4 Swanton, VT.

Recommended Readings:
Gallagher, Nancy Breeding Better Vermonters. University Press of New England

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Student Evaluation/Assessment
The evaluation will rest on the quality and depth of projects that have a measurable product that is of measurable service to Haven or the Indigenous Vermont Community, such as a comprehensive evaluative Journal, professional product and a Final Project and its presentation (see project options and details below). They will be turned in the day of the Final Project Presentation. Of course, the huge variety of professional products and final project choices precludes a precise scoring/grading rubric, but below you can see an overarching framework that will establish expectations and percentage contributions to the grade of each division of product/project. If you choose a project that you do not believe fits well within the framework below, please meet with me and we will develop a more specific framework.

Grading Guide:
One grade diminution for each 1/2 day missed Overview. Specialized assistance in making up lecture/course experience cannot be made available and so the missing of a single day will necessarily decrease the grade of a student by one full grade. The only exception is for a documented medical or legal emergency or an observed religious holiday. Students who plan to miss a day because of religious holiday must contact the instructor a week before the course begins so as to make alternate arrangements. Journal. 25% of grade Overview. Students will be evaluated on their completeness and thoughtfulness exhibited in the journal. If the student wished to keep the journal, a photocopy of the journal must be handed in as substitute. The journal information is vital to Haven and its client Indigenous Communities, to help improve the release, distribution and completeness of this heretofore unknown period and type of VT cultural history Journal Scoring Framework 1). Journal format (see below for separate Final Project framework) will be in standard field or lab notebook format -- in a sewn binding notebook with sequentially numbered pages, hand written in blue or black ink, any changes are to be crossed out, so as to leave original writing legible. Sketches of objects and scenes can be in pencil and erasures are allowed. 2. Journal entries will include a notation of hours spent on readings, projects etc. Resumes of the material is not necessary, but intellectual musings on the assigned material as well as classroom instructions, demonstrations, videos, field experiences are. What did you learn? Do you agree or disagree? What questions are left unanswered? Is this usable in my professional (or personal/family) life? How can this material be improved? How does this information revolutionize our understanding of the VT Native experience? How well did I do in experiencing/learning from the experiences presented by the course. Professional Product (lesson plan, museum exhibit concept, grant application etc.) 25% of grade. Overview. The "Product" will be graded on its complexity and elegance with regards to content, and how it fits within the professional paradigm. Professional Product Scoring Framework 1.) Product format. This will be handled on a case by case basis. For example, grant proposals will be evaluated as if they were actually developed for submission and so must strictly adhere to the grantor's submission protocols (which will also be provided, usually the URL of the granting agency's RFP pages). We will standardize lesson plans/units in terms of format (a Haven lesson plan format sheet will be provided in class for those selecting this option) so that they can be bound as a unit and made available to Native organizations, museums, teachers etc. Other product formats will be in a similar vein. 2.) Product Content. The material provided will be objectively evaluated on how well it meets the grantor's requirements, lesson plans will be evaluated by how they expressly articulate with the material itself as well as VT and National protocols such as the Common Core; and museum concepts will be evaluated by how they fit the museum's mission, as well as how it shows a working relationship with the museum's leadership and the people it depicts.

-6Final Service Project and Presentation-- 50% of grade. Overview The immense potential variability of the Final Projects (see p. ___) will require that they be evaluated on a case by case basis, with discussion with the student regarding the grading criteria and value for each type of project. I have seen virtually every type of replicative creation, internship, and graphic production type of final project and will use that experience to grade this portion of the students' work. For example, last year I had student who made a bow and arrow set for potential donation to a Calais, Maine museum. Upon completion, the student tried the bow and it broke, due to her not understanding the relation of grain to bow stave construction. She was upset and thought that this constituted a failure. It was not. I used her journal information to determine the amount of time/effort used, and by comparison with the prototype provided by the museum, I was able to use both technical and artistic/style to determine that it was an overall excellent job. Lastly, I was able to discover, through her presentation, what she had learned from the project regarding her own motor and intellectual skills and how they could work together to make a noteworthy project. (note I was able to clamp, glue and refinish the break, so the bow was salvageable as a display piece, so the "service" aspect was served). The student technically "failed" to successfully make her first bow, but I know she will know how to make the next one! (Note: she got an "A-" for the project.). Below is a framework for grading, to be modified if required by the project chose. Final Project Scoring Framework 1). Journal entries on the project reflect adequate time/effort to learn the background cultural aspects of the project (whether it be research on Abenaki Bows, or research into the organization you intend to intern with), as well as learn the intellectual and behavior/motor skills necessary for the project. 2). The technical assembly such as sewing, woodworking, video editing etc. of the project is of sufficiently high quality, based on comparative modern examples of the craft, that you would be proud to donate to a Native organization. For example a Wabanaki woman's hood need not be hand sewn as they were originally, but the machine stitching must be technically well-done, with straight seams, no loose thread etc. Each project in the list appended below has an indication of its technical difficulty, based on experience with traditional age students over several years. Unless you are committed to put the extra time in to learn the technical/assembly skills necessary, do not attempt a project well beyond your skill level. BUT--I have had one student who now makes birch bark canoes and another who makes ash-splint baskets full time, who began with this kind of final project, so do not hesitate to challenge yourself (you should have seen their first attempts!). 3.) The quality of the artistic style found in the final product is comparable to the prototype (s) provided by the Native organization. Unless requested, idiosyncrasy and personal style are not desired. The goal is to make usable items within a stylistic tradition, not art statements. For example, over the last four years we have made more than sixteen successful woman's hoods for a Native singing/dance ensemble, and they all have the same basic form and style, with only the size varying. After donation, each dancer can bead or add ribbon work (or both) to the hood to express her own individual style. The hoods remain the property of the Dance Ensemble, we do not make materials for donation to individuals. 4. The presentation of the project explains the motor and intellectual skills needed to understand its historical and cultural background, make a noteworthy project and how the student exhibited those skills in the development of the final product; and illustrates that, if necessary, the presenter will know how to make another sample to use in her/his professional setting.

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Instructional Sequence:
This course lasts five hours per day for two weeks (10 Days) with a field trip to Missisquoi, and fourhour gathering one month after the lectures conclude for final project turn in and discussion Part One The Haven Baseline, 1590-1650 This introductory section of the course examines what has been called "the ethnographic present" that period of time when Indigenous culture was still relatively uncontaminated by European culture, yet there were literate observes of this culture who could record its nature. Some new insights and interpretations of the early contact period were revealed during the 2009 "Lake Champlain Quadricentennial," and these will be shared. Haven does not consider this the "real" Indigenous Culture, but treats it as an analytic baseline to use in comparative analysis of recent and modern Indigenous Vermont culture. This documentary information is also important for interpreters of the Abenaki experience to understand, in that it does not necessarily "fit" into the well-used older stereotypes about Vermont Indians. Day 1 10:00 11:00 Introduction to Haven and Indigenous Identity -- "The "Ethnographic Present." The Abenaki People as first described in documents. Readings: Baseline 1609 (Wiseman, 2009, LCMM) Champlain Tech (Wiseman, 2009, LCMM) Always in Fashion Wabanaki attire, prehistory to 1609. (Haven, 2012) Demonstration and Photo opportunity: Contact Period Indigenous stone tools and ceramics. Archaeological nomenclature and typologies 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00 The Fur Trade, The Alliance. (VOD 76-77) Readings: Wampum laws of the Great Council Fire (Haven 2011) Video: 1609: The Other Side of History (DVD) Demonstration and Photo opportunity: Contact Period trade goods, French and British diplomatic silver, Wampum belts and strings Part Two Indigenous VT/NH Cultural Ecology 1790-1970 The basis of Indigenous societies and everything else is subsistence, the obtaining of materials from the natural environment. This section of the course focuses on the geography and ecology of subsistence. Many of these techniques which are still used today, or are within living memory; are well-documented, direct descendents of cultural ecologies that predated European Colonization of this part of the world. Day 2 8:00 Introduction: The N'nodem: Indigenous Vermont Land Tenure Hunting technology and Tactics I: Winter Hunting with snowshoes and toboggan. Demonstration and Photo opportunity: Snowshoes 9:00 Hunting technology and Tactics I: Spring/Summer/Fall Hunting Demonstration and Photo opportunity: Historic hunting tools including bows arrows, spears. 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00 Fishing Technology Evidence for and building of the Indigenous Vermont Bark Canoe; the leister, harpoon, hook and line. Fishing tactics for lake and river. Readings: Across a world of Water: Indigenous Western Wabanaki Canoes. (Haven 2012) Demonstration and Photo opportunity: Historic period fishing spears and hook and line. Day 3 8:00 9:00 Indigenous VT Ethnobotany, introduction Readings: Indigenous Ethnobotany of Vermont (Haven 2012:) Medicinal ethnobotany, plant collection and application, the types of VT Indigenous shamans, focusing on the healer.

-810:00 Subsistence and industrial plant collection, seasonality and scheduling. 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00 Indigenous Agriculture I: Seeds of Renewal; Indigenous Vermont cultivars. Mound Agriculture, evidence for technology and ceremony Readings: Indigenous Vermont agriculture (Haven, 2013)

Part Three Indigenous Vermont Society 1790-1970 Probably there has been more misinformation about recent historical Indigenous society floating around than any other part of Indigenous culture. We hear about emigration, hiding in plain sight, weak leadership, an absence of verifiable local indigenous craft arts in books museum installations and lectures, etc., none of which are valid descriptions of what happened. Here we set the record straight with newly revealed oral history and other forms of documentation. Day 4 10:00 Introduction: Types of Indigenous Vermont communities: Rural and "downtown." The response to British-American Genocide: family decisions (exile, escape to the woods and ―passing‖). The transfer of Indigenous identity: Pirates, River-rats, and Gypsies— (VOD 120-139) Video: Against the Darkness. 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00 Settlement Patterns and architecture, the persistence of the longhouse and wigwam. 2:00 A cultural miscellany; family structure, child rearing, spirituality, family and community leadership styles. Readings: Vermont's Indigenous Spirituality (Haven, 2012), Ancestral Wabanaki belief: a documentary perspective(Haven, 2012) Day 5 10:00 Indigenous VT Decorative Arts I: 1860-1930 Fiber/basketry arts Readings: 20th century Indian baskets, (Haven 2012: ) Demonstration and Photo opportunity: VT Abenaki splint baskets 11:00 Indigenous VT Decorative Arts II: 1790-1930 Clothing and fashion accessories, including the discovery of Western Abenaki beadwork. Readings: Exceptional Elegance, Western Wabanaki Clothing (Haven 2012) Wabanaki Beadwork (Haven, 2012), Abenaki Trade Silver (Haven, 2012 ) Demonstration and Photo opportunity: Historic clothing and fashion accessories. 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00 Indigenous Decorative Arts III: 1860-1930 Wood and stone carving/sculpture. Demonstration and Photo opportunity: 19th century wood carvings. 2:00 The VT Eugenics Survey. The domestic hygiene movement and Vermont as the last great th white hope, and the collapse of the artistic tradition. 20 century Vermont genocide as an American experience Part Four The Indigenous Vermont Renaissance 1972-2006 After two centuries of being below the radar of Euroamerican society, the Indigenous VT/NH communities struggled their way back into regional consciousness, often being ridiculed or suffered ethnic stereotyping and racist activities. We will discuss the various revitalization strategies of the different Indigenous bands and evaluate their success and legacy. Day 6 The Culture and Politics of Abenaki rebirth: Issues of authenticity and ―ethnogenesis‖ in cultural revitalization. Modern Indian identity vs. the modern ―Classic‖ minorities. Red Power, the ―New Indians‖ and their influence on the Abenakis. Demonstration and Photo opportunity: Early Renaissance craft arts, 19701990. 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00 A quick historical summary of Abenaki rebirth: Missisquoi (1970-). (VOD 151-157) 10:00

-9Day 7 10:00 A quick historical summary of ethnic rebirth in the Connecticut River Basin (1996-): Nulhegan, Koas and Elnu. Forces against the Renaissance: Abenaki Factionalism. (VOD 169-178) 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00 A little Problem of Ethnocide by the State of Vermont, 1995-2006. Missisquoi and Federal Recognition: an introduction. What is recognition and why it is racist?. The Abenaki Information Project and the Vermont attack against Abenaki identity. The "Casinos and land Claims" fear-mongering. Inverted politics and Indians. Readings: The Vermont-Abenaki War 1995-2006 (Haven, 2011) Part Five The Modern Abenaki World (2006-) So where are the Indigenous people of today? This section will offer a candid appraisal of the ongoing renaissance , looking at it from a societal viewpoint as well as examining the technical aspects of ethnic engineering as practiced today. Day 9 10:00 A quick historical summary of the Vermont State Recognition process from Senate Bill 117, through the Recognition of Missisquoi and Koasek in 2012. 11:00 The Vermont indigenous Alliance and the Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs; Political change at Missisquoi, Nulhegan and Koasek. 12:00-1:00 Lunch 1:00: Revitalization Case Study: the restoration of Agricultural technology and ceremony. Readings: Seeds of Renewal (Haven, 2012), Indigenous Vermont Musical Instruments (Haven 2012) Video: The Sun Dance. Day 10 10:00 11:00 Where do we go from here? Working with Archaeologists, anthropologists and ethnographers. Video: Before the Lake was Champlain Breakout sessions: Teachers, professionals, Abenakis/by interest Readings: The Abenakis and their Neighbors: Teachers and Interpreters resources. (Haven, 2012) Swanton, VT. Reports of breakout sessions Summary of Course

2:00 3:00

Day 11 (Saturday) Field Trip Stop 1. Investigating historic and modern Abenaki cropping systems: The Abenaki Heritage Gardens, Intervale Center, Burlington. Stop 2. The epicenter of Northern Vermont Abenaki culture. ASHAI Building, Swanton with Missisquoi Tribal Council. Missisquoi Wildlife Refuge, Swanton; Monument Road, Swanton Highgate, The four weeks after the classroom experiences end Journal updating; Professional Product and Final Project completion Final Project Presentations (Time TBA with students, at least four weeks after class completion) Final evaluation period, potluck meal and projects turn in

PROJECT INFORMATION
Projects Introduction: The standard educational paradigm involving Aboriginal peoples, extracts materials (artifacts, germ plasm and DNA) and information (ethnographic, spiritual etc.), then converts it into a commodity that is saleable within Euroamerican Culture, such as books, videos, museum installations, and coursework such as this. The researchers, teachers and institutions are enriched by the public (students in this case) at the expense of Indigenous people who traditionally get nothing from the process. This is the essence of Neocolonialism. In opposition to this extractive intellectual process, and to reestablish balance between Aboriginal Institutions

- 10 represented by Haven and Euroamerican Institutions represented by UVM, each student will be expected to produce a tangible product for one of the modern groups we will study in the course. Through this process, each will learn a skill that can be transferred to the classroom or museum setting. The project choices are limited to what has been requested by Haven's Constituent entities, ranging from the four state-recognized bands, ECHO and the Lake Champlain maritime Museum, The Intervale Center, the Wôbanakik Heritage Center, and others as needed. It will be unclear exactly what will be requested until just before the course registration period, but usually revolves around making things to be used by museums or tribes including replica artifacts, computer graphics work, photography, videotaping and production, mini-internships of various kinds, such as agricultural help, or documentation etc. Replicative projects involve making facsimiles of traditional artifacts from First Nations. Each year we receive requests from Native organizations in the Northeastern United States, Quebec and the Canadian Maritimes to manufacture materials for their revitalizing ceremonies. In the past we have provided regalia and ceremonial equipage for the Wôbanakik Heritage Center (1996-2012), Abenaki Tribal Museum (1998-2006) in Swanton, VT, the 1998-Quebec and 2000 Maine Wabanaki th Confederacy meetings, the 300 Anniversary of the Great Peace of Montreal (2001), the Seven Nations Alliance (1999-2010). A list of requested materials will be provided to all registered students as part of their registration packet. The raw materials should be procured from the instructor within the first few days of the semester. Over the last ten years, my students have made 1000+ objects that are being used by Native and Euroamerican groups to educate Vermonters about their native heritage. A portion of the materials used in class projects have been purchased by these organizations, and another portion will be funded by the UVM course fee. As soon after registration as possible, the instructor and students will decide on a contract detailing the nature and format of how the students will be evaluated for their final project, which constitutes 70% of their grade. This precociousness is required in that we need to order materials and have them shipped from the tribes or outside suppliers in order to get them to the students by the end of the classroom portion of the course. It also takes time to set up the other activities with Indigenous sponsors. The basic assumption is that in addition to attendance, the student will complete the readings, journaling and the Final Project. Once that contract is approved and signed by both the students and professor, it will remain in force until the project turn-in event at the end of the course, unless modified by agreement by both parties. The progress report and online communication at the end of the classroom portion of the course will appropriately monitor the progress of the student throughout the "project time" between the field trip and the project presentation gathering. In order to get feedback to the student as early and as often as possible, a detailed progress report will be emailed to me during the "Project time" period. I recognize that not all students will feel comfortable in doing service for Indigenous organization as a major portion of their final grade, due to a feeling of a lack of skill in the requisite technology, transportation problems and the like. In that case I will offer a waiver, at my discretion, for the student to do a more traditional research paper on a subject deemed applicable to the Abenaki Renaissance. The paper must be typed double spaced and be more than 12 pages in length, and be a product you will be proud of to have duplicated and given to the four VT Indigenous Bands and their partners. I expect proper pagination, grammar, syntax, and bibliography as prerequisites to a good evaluation. A strictly descriptive paper, no matter how well researched, documented and written cannot earn more than the equivalent of a B+. In order to rate "superior" in a graduate-level course, it must show original thought and a spark of significant creativity. However, a creative paper cannot succeed without having a solid foundation of data and analysis. A standard research paper should involve about 50 or more hours work.

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APPENDIX ONE (to be updated before course begins)
The Big Deal this summer is refining the Indigenous Vermont Virtual Museum. We will need to make materials for the educational kit and teachers' displays, as well as work on the virtual museum using Photoshop and ―Image Armada‖ software. Also, we are going to help the Passamaquoddy People (Native people who live in Easternmost Maine) with their new museum, especially with clothing and other exhibit materials (Lots of sewing!!). Lastly, we are helping the Seven Nations of Canada (located at the Akwesasne Mohawk Reservation in NY) with their flags. Computer graphics Haven Project poster ## For educational display. Need someone who knows Photoshop. Clothing photographs cut and put on transparent backing in Photoshop. Image armada image management ### Need to edit artifacts in Photoshop for installation in museum settings. Photography Agricultural posters We will photograph agricultural products as they stand during mid summer in fields in the Lake Champlain Basin and the Connecticut River Valley.. Need someone who knows Photoshop to make nice posters for use in K-12 classrooms museums and other venues.. Sewing Ribbon decorated Woman's Hoods ## Need to attach ribbons at the borders of the two colors. Then with a pair of small scissors cut the ribbon 2/3rds of the way through and sew down by hand to make decorative "points" to the ribbon. Use the braided cloth ribbon to hem the hoods. Bead decorated Woman's Hoods ## Need to sew down triangular designs to the hoods. Women's Leather leggings (2) # Need two pair cut from brain-tanned leather, fringe added and sewn with artificial sinew. Then painted with red and black acrylic paint. Women's wool 18th century leggings (4) ## Need two pair cut from red wool and two pair from navy wool, side flap of contrasting color added and then decorate with strips of ribbon. . Then with a pair of small scissors cut the ribbon 2/3rds of the way through and sew down by hand to make decorative "points" to the ribbon. Lastly, edge the flap and hem with braided ribbon. Men's wool 18th century leggings (4) ## Need two pair cut from red wool and two pair from navy wool, side flap added and then decorate with strips of ribbon. Then with a pair of small scissors cut the ribbon 2/3rds of the way through and sew down by hand to make decorative "points" to the ribbon. Lastly, edge the flap and hem with braided ribbon. Breechcloths (5) ## Breechcloth for waterproof outfit Need two breechcloths cut from red wool and two from navy wool, and then decorate with strips of ribbon. Then with a pair of small scissors cut the ribbon 2/3rds of the way through and sew down by hand to make decorative "points" to the ribbon. Lastly, edge the breechcloth hem with braided ribbon. Belts and sashes 18th century Trade cloth sashes (4) # 18th century finger-woven sashes (2) ## 18th century garters (3 pair) ### Ribbon work Red caped blouse (A), need to ## 1. Cut down the front so that it open in the front, then hem it at the cut. 2. sew down white and teal intermediate ribbon banding on the blouse.

- 12 Blueberry caped blouse ## need to sew down edge and intermediate ribbon banding and add four large and two small brooches. Black dress with red and yellow ribbons ### 1. Cut down the front and make a deep "V" neck. 2. Yellow ribbon at the inside of the "V" then a red ribbon behind it. Chemise alteration ## Sew on four bands of blue ribbon. Flags (need 8) ### Seven Nations of Canada Flags-- white diamonds on a green background. Video Agricultural ceremony video We need all of the plants, artifacts and costuming videotaped for use in a 30 minute video on VT Agriculture.. Wampum Bias woven wampum collars (need three) # Wood and horn working Sun Disc staffs (need 20) # In the woods, cut hardwood sapling that is 1-1.5 inches in diameter at the base. You will need to find the straightest trees that you can. Cut the sapling to 8 feet long. Remove bark and carefully remove all branches. Then with knife or plane, plane off all the bumps in the sapling where the branches came in. Tie the saplings in a bundle and let dry to be absolutely sure they are completely straight. Cut off top and bottom straight across, then with a pocket-knife round off base and top. When completely dry drill two holes in the top. First is 3/4" from the top and second is 5" from the top. Sand to 200 grit and then I will provide a water-based stain to color the staffs. After one coat, sand off any roughness with 400 grit sandpaper. Horn rattles (need 10) ## Cut small plywood plug, insert and glue 3" below mouth of horn, after dry, add 25 cherry pits, then carve and carefully fit the hardwood plug to the mouth of the horn and glue in, being sure to not get glue on the cherry pits. Sand over the plug to a domed shape and then scrape and sand the horn rattle to polish it. Dew claw leg rattles (need 2 pair) # Drill holes through tops of dewclaws to make bells. Thread leather thongs through and attach to panels. Difficulty Key # = very easy ## = intermediate (need to learn the skill as you proceed with the project) ### = Moderately difficult (need to already know how to sew or use woodworking tools etc.)

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PROJECT SELECTION FORM
NAME _____________________________________

Professional Product Name and short Abstract

Final Project name(s) from requested projects list

______________________________________________________________________________ Any comments or notes to me:

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