1.1 Indian Economy Overview:
India has been one of the best performers in the world economy in recent years, but rapidly rising inflation and the complexities of running the world’s biggest democracy are proving challenging.

India’s economy has been one of the stars of global economics in recent years, growing 9.2% in 2007 and 9.6% in 2006. Growth had been supported by markets reforms, huge inflows of FDI, rising foreign exchange reserves, both an IT and real estate boom, and a flourishing capital market. Like most of the world, however, India is facing testing economic times in 2008. The Reserve Bank of India had set an inflation target of 4%, but by the middle of the year it was running at 11%, the highest level seen for a decade. The rising costs of oil, food and the resources needed for India’s construction boom are all playing a part. India has to compete ever harder in the energy market place in particular and has not been as adept at securing new fossil fuel sources as the Chinese. The Indian Government is looking at alternatives, and has signed a wide-ranging nuclear treaty with the US, in part to gain access to nuclear power plant technology that can reduce its oil thirst. This has proved contentious though, leading to leftist members of the ruling coalition pulling out of the government. As part of the fight against inflation a tighter monetary policy is expected, but this will help slow the growth of the Indian economy still further, as domestic demand will be dampened. External demand is also slowing, further adding to the downside risks. The Indian stock market has fallen more than 40% in six months from its January 2008 high. $6b of foreign funds has flowed out of the country in that period, reacting both to slowing economic growth and perceptions that the market was over-valued. It is not all doom and gloom, however. A growing number of investors feel that the market may now be undervalued and are seeing this as a buying opportunity. If their optimism about the long term health of the Indian economy is correct, then this will be a needed correction rather than a downtrend. The Indian government certainly hopes that is the case. It views investment in the creaking infrastructure of the country as being a key requirement, and has ear-marked 23.8 trillion rupees, approximately $559 billion, for infrastructure upgrades during the 11th five year plan. It expects to fund 70% of project costs, with the other 30% being supplied by the private sector. Ports, airports, roads and railways are all seen as vital for the Indian Economy and have been targeted for investment.


Further hope comes from the confidence of India’s home bred companies. As well as taking over the domestic reins, where they now account for most of the economic activity, they are also increasingly expanding abroad. India has contributed more new members to the Forbes Global 2000 than any other country in the last four years.

1.1.1 Recent Growth Trends in Indian Economy
India’s Economy has grown by more than 9% for three years running, and has seen a decade of 7%+ growth. This has reduced poverty by 10%, but with 60% of India’s 1.1 billion population living off agriculture and with droughts and floods increasing, poverty alleviation is still a major challenge. The structural transformation that has been adopted by the national government in recent times has reduced growth constraints and contributed greatly to the overall growth and prosperity of the country. However there are still major issues around federal vs. state bureaucracy, corruption and tariffs that require addressing. India’s public debt is 58% of GDP according to the CIA World Fact book, and this represents another challenge. During this period of stable growth, the performance of the Indian service sector has been particularly significant. The growth rate of the service sector was 11.18% in 2007 and now contributes 53% of GDP. The industrial sector grew 10.63% in the same period and is now 29% of GDP Agriculture is 17% of the Indian economy. Growth in the manufacturing sector has also complemented the country’s excellent growth momentum. The growth rate of the manufacturing sector rose steadily from 8.98% in 2005, to 12% in 2006. The storage and communication sector also registered a significant growth rate of 16.64% in the same year. Additional factors that have contributed to this robust environment are sustained in investment and high savings rates. As far as the percentage of gross capital formation in GDP is concerned, there has been a significant rise from 22.8% in the fiscal year 2001, to 35.9% in the fiscal year 2006. Further, the gross rate of savings as a proportion to GDP registered solid growth from 23.5% to 34.8% for the same period. Large, dynamic and steadily expanding, the Indian economy is characterized by a huge workforce operating in many new sectors of opportunity. The economy of India is as diverse as it is large, with a number of major sectors including manufacturing industries, agriculture, textiles and handicrafts, and services.

Agriculture is a major component of the Indian economy, as over 66% of the Indian population earns its livelihood from this area. However, the service sector is greatly expanding and has started to assume an increasingly important role. The fact that the Indian speaking population in India is growing by the day means that India has become a hub of outsourcing activities for some of the major economies of the world including the United Kingdom and the United States. Outsourcing to India has been primarily in the areas of technical support and customer services. In general, the Indian economy is controlled by the government, and there remains a great disparity between the rich and the poor. Ranked by the exchange rate of the United States Dollar, the Indian economy is the twelfth largest in the world. In Purchasing Power Parity GDP, the figure for India was 1.5 trillion US Dollars in 2008. The per capita income of India is 4,542 US Dollars in the context of Purchasing Power Parity. This is primarily due to the 1.1 billion population of India, the second largest in the world after China. In nominal terms, the figure comes down to 1,089 US Dollars, based on 2007 figures. According to the World Bank, India is classed as a low-income economy. Recent trends have seen India exporting the services of a numerous information technology (IT) professionals. IT professionals have been sought for their expertise in software, software engineering and other financial services. This has been possible as a result of the high skill levels of Indian IT professionals. Other areas where India is expected to make progress include manufacturing, construction of ships, pharmaceuticals, aviation, biotechnology, tourism, nanotechnology, retailing and telecommunications. Growth rates in these sectors are expected to increase dramatically. Over the years the Indian government has taken an economic approach that has been influenced, in part, by the Socialist movements. The Indian national government has maintained a high and authoritative level of control over certain areas of the Indian economy like the participation of the private sector, foreign direct investment, and foreign trade.


It may be observed that in spite of the tremendous debate about the justification of the privatization of industries traditionally owned by the government, the process of privatization has still continued at a steady pace. One of the major challenges before the Indian economy, or those who are responsible for operating it, is to remove the economic inequalities that are still persistent in India after its independence in 1947. Poverty is still one of the major issues although these levels have dropped significantly in recent years. As per official surveys, it has been observed that in the 2004, almost 27% of the working Indian populace was living poverty line. Poverty is a challenge that’s becoming increasingly important in relationship to the alarming rate of new births. This implies that ever more rapid change, or birth control policies like the ‘One Child’ policy in China, are needed to reduce the numbers affected by poverty in the vast Indian economy. Indian economy has been witnessing a phenomenal growth since the last decade. The country is still holding its ground in the midst of the current global financial crisis. Quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) at factor cost at constant (1999-2000) prices for Q3 of 2008-09 is estimated at US$ 171.24 billion, as against US$ 162.57 billion in Q3 of 2007-08, showing a growth rate of 5.3 per cent over the corresponding quarter of previous year. Despite the global slowdown, the Indian economy is estimated to have grown at close to 6.7 per cent in 2008-09. The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) pegs the GDP growth at 6.1 per cent in 2009-10. This scenario factors in sectoral growth rates of 2.8-3 per cent, 5-5.5 per cent and 7.5-8 per cent, respectively, for agriculture, industry and services. A number of leading indicators, such as increase in hiring, freight movement at major ports and encouraging data from a number of key manufacturing segments, such as steel and cement, indicate that the downturn has bottomed out and highlight the Indian economy's resilience. Recent indicators from leading indices, such as Nomura's Composite Leading Index (CLI), UBS' Lead Economic Indicator (LEI) and ABN Amro' Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI), too bear out this optimism in the Indian economy. Meanwhile, foreign institutional investors (FIIs) turned net buyers in the Indian market in 2009. Direct investment inflows also remain strong, prompting official expectations that

below the

foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2009 would better the realized inflows of US$ 33 billion in 2008 and touch US$ 40 billion. According to the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) 'Asia Capital Markets Monitor' report, the Indian equity market has emerged as the third biggest after China and Hong Kong in the emerging Asian region, with a market capitalization of nearly US$ 600 billion.

1.1.2 The Economic scenario
Investor sentiment in India has improved significantly in the first quarter of 2009, according to a survey conducted by Dutch financial services firm ING. With foreign assets growing by more than 100 per cent annually in recent years, Indian multinational enterprises (MNEs) have become significant investors in global business markets and India is rapidly staking a claim to being a true global business power, according to a survey by the Indian School of Business and the Vale Columbia Center on Sustainable International Investment. Despite the global financial crisis, inflow of foreign capital to the country has increased sharply in 2008-09. • India's foreign exchange reserves increased by US$ 4.2 billion to US$ 255.9 billion for the week ended May 8, 2009, according to figures released in the Reserve Bank of India's (RBI) weekly statistical supplement. • Net inflows through various non-resident Indians (NRIs) deposits surged from US$ 179 million in 2007-08 to US$ 3,999 million in 2008-09, according to the RBI. • FDI inflows during April 2008-January 2009 stood at US$ 23.9 billion compared with US$ 14.4 billion in the corresponding period of the previous fiscal, witnessing a growth of 65 per cent, according to the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion. • FIIs have made investments of around US$ 2 billion as of May 14, 2009, including a record single day net purchase of US$ 824.72 million on May 13, 2009, according to the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). • Inflation for the week ended March 7, 2009, fell to an all time low of 0.44 per cent. The sharp fall in inflation was due to several factors including easing prices

of food articles and fuel items along with a high base effect. Currently, the inflation rate stood at 0.7 per cent for the week ended April 25, 2009. • The year-on-year (y-o-y) aggregate bank deposits stood at 21.2 per cent as on January 2, 2009. Bank credit touched 24 per cent (y-o-y) on January 2, 2009, as against 21.4 per cent on January 4, 2008. • Since October 2008, the RBI has cut the cash reserve ratio (CRR) and the repo rate by 400 basis points each. Also, the reverse repo rate has been lowered by 200 basis points. Till April 7, 2009, the CRR had further been lowered by 50 basis points, while the repo and reverse repo rates have been lowered by 150 basis points each. • Exports from special economic zones (SEZs) rose 33 per cent during the year to end-March 2009. Exports from such tax-free manufacturing hubs totalled US$ 18.16 billion last year up from US$ 13.60 billion a year before.

1.1.3 The rural India growth story
The Indian growth story is spreading to the rural and semi-urban areas as well. The next phase of growth is expected to come from rural markets with rural India accounting for almost half of the domestic retail market, valued over US$ 300 billion. Rural India is set to witness an economic boom, with per capita income having grown by 50 per cent over the last 10 years, mainly on account of rising commodity prices and improved productivity. Development of basic infrastructure, generation of employment guarantee schemes, better information services and access to funding are also bringing prosperity to rural households.

1.1.4 Per Capita Income
The per capita income in real terms (at 1999-2000 prices) during 2008-09 is likely to attain a level of US$ 528 as compared to the Quick Estimate for the year 2007-08 of US$ 500. The growth rate in per capita income is estimated at 5.6 per cent during 2008-09, as against the previous year's estimate of 7.6 per cent.

1.1.5 Advantage India
• According to the World Fact Book, India is among the world's youngest nations with a median age of 25 years as compared to 43 in Japan and 36 in USA. Of the BRIC—Brazil, Russia, India and China—countries, India is projected to stay the youngest with its working-age population estimated to rise to 70 per cent of the

total demographic by 2030, the largest in the world. India will see 70 million new entrants to its workforce over the next 5 years.

India has the second largest area of arable land in the world, making it one of the world's largest food producers—over 200 million tonnes of food grains are produced annually. India is the world's largest producer of milk (100 million tonnes per annum), sugarcane (315 million tonnes per annum) and tea (930 million kg per annum) and the second largest producer of rice, fruit and vegetables.

• • •

With the largest number of listed companies - 10,000 across 23 stock exchanges, India has the third largest investor base in the world. India's healthy banking system with a network of 70,000 branches is among the largest in the world. According to a study by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), India's consumer market will be the world's fifth largest (from twelfth) in the world by 2025 and India's middle class will swell by over ten times from its current size of 50 million to 583 million people by 2025.

1.1.6 Growth potential
• Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are set to see major investments after the straightening out of certain regulatory tangles. The commerce department expects about 120 SEZs to be operational by 2009-end, up from existing 87. • According to the CII Ernst & Young report titled 'India 2012: Telecom growth continues,' India's telecom services industry revenues are projected to reach US$ 54 billion in 2012, up from US$ 31 billion in 2008. The Indian telecom industry registered the highest number of subscriber additions at 15.84 million in March 2009, setting a global record. • A McKinsey report, 'The rise of Indian Consumer Market', estimates that the Indian consumer market is likely to grow four times by 2025, which is currently valued at US$ 511 billion. • The volume of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and group restructuring deals in India witnessed a sharp nine times jump at US$ 2.27 billion during March 2009


against the volume of deals in February 2009, according to a Grant Thornton report.

India ranks among the top 12 producers of manufacturing value added (MVA)— witnessing an increase of 12.3 per cent in its MVA output in 2005-07 as against 6.9 per cent in 2000-05—according to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).

In textiles, the country is ranked fourth, while in electrical machinery and apparatus it is ranked fifth. It holds sixth position in the basic metals category; seventh in chemicals and chemical products; 10th in leather, leather products, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel; twelfth in machinery and equipment and motor vehicles.

In a development slated to enhance India's macroeconomic health as well as energy security, Reliance Industries (RIL) has commenced natural gas production from its D-6 block in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin.

India has a market value of US$ 270.98 billion in low-carbon and environmental goods & services (LCEGS). With a 6 per cent share of the US$ 4.32 trillion global market, the country is tied with Japan at the third position.

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Industry Overview


The impact of the global economic crisis in 2008 reached far and wide. It has significantly affected the worldwide PC market demand as many large enterprises delayed purchase decisions and reduced IT budgets. Even the growth of the China PC market has slowed down under the economic challenges. At the same time, the PC industry as a whole has shifted dramatically and rapidly to lower price points, imposing additional pressures on industry players. During the 2008/09 fiscal year, the year-on-year growth of worldwide PC market shipments decelerated to approximately 4 percent mainly supported by consumer and low-priced notebook segments. The China PC market and worldwide commercial PC segment in which Lenovo® is heavily weighted showed significant slowdown in the second half of the fiscal year under the economic crisis. In addition, the Group could not enjoy the benefits of the growth in transaction space as it has not adequately addressed the worldwide transaction segment outside China, in particular the consumer market. Lenovo reported lower-than-market growth in its worldwide PC shipments which only increased by approximately 2 percent year-on-year. As a result, the Group’s market share decreased slightly to 7.6 percent, ranking number four worldwide during the fiscal year. The Group’s financial performance in the second half of the 2008/09 fiscal year was significantly impacted by the widespread economic slowdown. Lenovo’s overall sales for the fiscal year decreased 9 percent year-on-year to approximately US$14,901 million, resulting from the slower PC shipment growth and a steeper-than-normal decline in average selling prices exacerbated by the weak economic backdrop. The Group’s gross margin performance was further affected by the continued shift in the market to lower price points, aggressive pricing and currency fluctuations. The gross margin (excluding one-off items) for the fiscal year declined to 11.9 percent from 15.0 percent while gross profit (excluding one-off items) decreased 27 percent yearon-year to approximately US$1,779 million. In anticipation of continued deterioration in the global economic environment, Lenovo announced a global resource restructuring plan in January 2009 to reduce costs and enhance operational efficiency. About 2,500 employees were eliminated as a result of this action which is expected to realize annual savings of approximately US$300 million on a run rate basis in the coming fiscal year. Despite Lenovo’s efforts to control expenses during the 2008/09 fiscal year, the decline in sales and pressure on gross margin resulted in 95 percent year-on-year decline in the Group’s profit before taxation (excluding the cost of restructuring actions and one-off

charges) to approximately US$29 million for the year. The Group reported a loss attributable to shareholders of approximately US$226 million, after accounting for US$146 million of restructuring costs and US$71 million of one-off charges. This compared to a profit attributable to shareholders (including US$20 million net profit from discontinued operations) of US$484 million in the previous fiscal year.

1.2.1 Vendor highlights
Hewlett-Packard (HP) made further inroads into consumer portables through the retail channel and continued to gain share overall. The vendor's shipments grew 3.6% on year worldwide with above-market performance in the US. The company also performed well in Europe and Asia Pacific. Although still heavily affected by the commercial slump, Dell saw good growth from consumer-focused SKUs and reclaimed the number one spot in the US. The company continues to restructure operations, develop its consumer business, and should benefit from an eventual rebound in the commercial segment. Acer continues to capitalize on its growing channel presence to ship portables geared toward a wide range of cost-conscious consumers. The company maintained its lead in mini notebook PCs while its early entry into Atom-based netbooks should also pay dividends later in the year. The company saw a significant gain in the US market, likely benefiting from the troubles of Dell and Lenovo. Lenovo's renewed focus on notebooks and emerging regions produced positive growth following declines in the past two quarters. Solid growth was reported in Latin America and Asia Pacific market excluding Japan, while yearly declines in mature regions slowed compared to the first quarter of 2009. Its home court advantage in Asia Pacific market excluding Japan also has led it to focus on a myriad of government stimulus programs, which could pay dividends while riding through the commercial downturn. Toshiba had a solid second quarter where it outgrew the market in most regions and moved up to the fourth spot in the US. Toshiba's mini notebook offering has helped it to weather the storm comparatively better than other Japan-based OEMs and it was the only major Japan-based OEM to have positive yearly growth in Japan.

Table 1.1- Top five vendors’ worldwide PC shipments
IDC: Top-5 vendors' worldwide PC shipments, 2Q09 (k units)

2Q09 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 Vendor shipments HP 13,095 Dell 9,108 Acer 8,431 Lenovo 5,757 Toshiba 3,494 Others 26,407 All Vendors 66,291

Market share 19.8% 13.7% 12.7% 8.7% 5.3% 39.8% 100%

2Q08 shipments 12,644 10,984 6,815 5,596 3,163 29,202 68,403

Market share 18.5% 16.1% 10% 8.2% 4.6% 42.7% 100% Y/Y 3.6% (17.1%) 23.7% 2.9% 10.5% (9.6%) (3.1%)

* PCs include desktop and portable PCs (including mini notebooks), but exclude x86 servers. Source: IDC, compiled by Digitimes, July 2009

Table 1.2: India Client PC (Desktop + Notebook) Shipments: Top 3 Vendor Market Shares (% of units), 4Q 2008 vs. 4Q 2007*
4Q ’07 Client PC Shipments (Notebook PCs + Desktop PCs) Vendor Market Share Hewlett-Packard 17.6% HCL 10.8% Lenovo 8.9% release 4Q ’08 Client PC Shipments (Notebook PCs + Desktop PCs) Vendor Hewlett-Packard Dell HCL Market Share 15.6% 10.9% 9.6%

*According to IDC’s India Quarterly PC Tracker 2008, 4Q 2008 quarter, March 2009

Table 1.3- PC Shipments’ Market Share
4Q 2008 PC Shipments (Desktop PCs + Notebook PCs) Vendor Market Share 1Q 2009 PC Shipments (Desktop PCs + Notebook PCs) Vendor

Market Share

Hewlett-Packard Dell HCL Infosystems Acer Lenovo

15.6% 11.0% 9.6% 7.7% 6.6%

Hewlett-Packard HCL Infosystems Dell Acer Lenovo

18.2% 9.8% 9.7% 7.3% 4.7%

1.3 PEST Analysis

1.3.1 Political (inc. legal)
Political factors include government regulations and legal issues determining the conditions under which companies have to operate. In this field, the computer industry has to face certain restraints. Problems can arise in countries where political stability is not guaranteed, no matter whether companies operate production facilities or if they do business with the country through exports. Many countries still have restrictive policies which are maintained to protect domestic manufacturers and production. Such policies often hinder foreign companies from entering into this market. The only possibility to do business in those countries is to establish partnerships with local companies, where they are additionally forced to accept minority shares and to provide money and technological know-how. However, the computer industry sees great potential in those countries which lose their restrictions. This is especially true for China which has opened for many industries since its accession to WTO in2001. In the course of globalization trade barriers decline and new markets emerge, allowing free trade to expand.

1.3.2 Economic
The computer industry expects a growth of approximately 10 percent over the next years. This growth is influenced by the economic situation in a specific country, having an impact on the purchasing power of potential customers. Additionally, changing inflation rates and currency fluctuation also determine the profitability of a company.

1.3.3 Social
The national demand for computers is dependent on the educational level prevailing in a specific country. The higher the educational standard, the higher is the demand. Furthermore, computers get more and more involved in daily life. Today, children already get familiar with the use of computers at a very young age, representing a generation that will hardly live or work without a computer in future. Additionally, the brand image of a computer and lifestyle trends get more and more decisive for the purchasing decisions. The computer industry adapts to this trend, e.g. by offering a wide range of notebooks and by trying to create a strong brand name.

1.3.4 Technological
There is hardly any industry that is characterized by a faster technological development than computer industry. Increased research and development have caused permanent innovation processes which lead to short product life cycles resulting in a faster depreciation of the products.

1.3.5 Market structure
The computer industry is characterized by a quasi-oligopolistic structure. It is dominated by 5 major global players although there are a lot of small companies which often serve only regional markets. The following graph illustrates the division of the computer market of each individual company. Company HP DELL LENOVO ACER TOSHIBA OTHERS Market share 18.1% 15.6% 7.8% 9.4% 4.4% 44.7%

Chart 1.1- Market Share of various players in PC Industry

1.4Industry Profile
In India, the software boom started somewhere in the late 1990s. Most of the Indian software companies at that moment offered only limited software services such as the banking and the engineering software. The business software boom started with the emergence of Y2K problem, when a large number of skilled personnel were required to fulfill the mammoth database-correction demand in order to cope up with the advent of the new millennium. The profile of the Indian IT Services has been undergoing a change in the last few years, partly as it moves up the value chain and partly as a response to the market dynamics. Ten years ago, most US companies would not even consider outsourcing some of their IT projects to outside vendors. Now, ten years later, a vast majority of US companies use the professional services of Indian Software engineers in some

manner, through large, medium or small companies or through individuals recruited directly. The market competition is forcing organizations to cut down on costs of products. The professional IT services on the other hand are becoming increasingly expensive. The offshore software development model is today where onsite professional services were ten years ago. There is a high chance (almost a mathematical certainty), that in less than ten years, the vast majority of IT services (software development being just one of them) from developed countries, will be, one, outsourced and two, outsourced to an offshore vendor. Despite the global economic slowdown, the Indian IT software and services industry is maintaining a steady pace of growth. Software development activity is not confined to a few cities in India. Software development centers, such as Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Calcutta, Delhi-Noida-Gurgaon, Vadodara, Bhubaneswar, Ahmedabad, Goa, Chandigarh, and Trivandrum are all developing quickly. All of these places have state-of-the-art software facilities and the presence of a large number of overseas vendors. India’s most prized resource is its readily available technical work force. India has the second largest English-speaking scientific professionals in the world, second only to the U.S. It is estimated that India has over 4 million technical workers, over 1,832 educational institutions and polytechnics, which train more than 67,785 computer software professionals every year. The enormous base of skilled manpower is a major draw for global customers. India provides IT services at one-tenth the price. No wonder more and more companies are basing their operations in India. The industry is in an expansion mode right now, with dozens of new offshore IT services vendors emerging every day, the industry has a high probability of being subjected to the 80:20 rule in not too distant a future. In perhaps another ten years, 80 percent of all outsourced offshore development work will be done by 20 percent of all vendors, a small number of high qualities, trusted vendors. Only a few select countries and only the most professional companies in those countries will emerge as winners. India will definitely be the country of choice for offshore software development. It has the potential to become and remain the country of choice for all


software developments and IT enabled services, second only to the USA. The third choice could be far distant. India is among the three countries that have built supercomputers on their own. The other two are USA and Japan. India is among six countries that launch satellites and do so even for Germany and Belgium. India's INSAT is among the world's largest domestic satellite communication systems. India has the third largest telecommunications network among the emerging economies, and it is among the top ten networks of the world. To become a global leader in the IT industry and retain that position, India needs to constantly keep moving up the value chain, focusing on finished products and solutions, rather than purely on skill sets and resumes. It also needs to be able to package its services as products, rather than offering them as raw material. It needs to be able to recognize and build up on its strengths and work on weaknesses. Another extension of the IT industry is the ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) which is a sector dependent on IT sector. Information technology consulting (IT consulting or business and technology services) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf. The PC industry is one of the strangest in the world. There is probably no other type of product that is so technologically sophisticated, sells for so much money, and yet is sold by so many companies for so little profit. The severe competition in the industry is the #1 reason why so many problems are encountered by those who deal with PC vendors. While I consider there to be absolutely no excuse for a company not treating its customers fairly, at the same time I think customers should have some idea of what vendors are up against in this demanding marketplace.

1.4.1 Features of the Industry
It Is Very Price Competitive: By far, the most important thing to remember about the PC industry is this: it is one of the most competitive in the world. The main

reason for this is the simple fact that making a PC is just not that difficult. Most are assembled from standardized components and not a lot of expertise is required. There are few barriers to entry to the market, meaning it is easy to set up a new PC company. As a result, there are tens of thousands of companies making PCs that perform similar functions. This causes the market to be extremely price-competitive. Most of the other characteristics of the industry follow directly from this fact. • Systems and Components Sell with Low Margins: Since the market is so competitive, vendors often sell at very low margins. Computers aren't like many other products, where the company selling the device is making upwards of 50% of the price of the product as gross profit (meaning, profit before overhead and general expenses). For PCs it is more like 10% or less. Many people buy a $1500 PC thinking the vendor is making, say, $500-700 on the item, and they find it hard to understand why these companies aren't getting rich. It's more typical for the vendor to make less than $100 profit on such a PC. Some small companies make virtually no profit at all on straight PC sales, and survive on post-warranty support and consulting! • The Market Experiences Rapid Price Fluctuations: There is probably no other industry that has prices change as dramatically and frequently as the PC industry. Usually, prices are decreasing. This is good for the consumer but very bad for vendors, because it means that their already low margins get squeezed if prices drop between the time that they buy a product and the time they sell it. It's not unheard of for a vendor to buy a component wholesale at price $X and find 24 hours later that the retail price has dropped below $X! The vendor must then try to dump the product as fast as possible to limit his losses. You won't find many industries where this occurs with regularity. • Vendors Keep Low Inventories: In an environment where margins are low and prices are generally dropping, keeping high inventory is a death sentence--whenever prices drop the vendor potentially loses money on every component in inventory at the time. For this reason, most companies try to keep as little in inventory as they can get away with.

Vendors Contend With High Bankruptcy Rates: Because of all the challenges involved in running a PC business, the bankruptcy rate is high. Many vendors have been in business only a short time. Some open a store, have it fail, and then open another one with a new name, sometimes year after year.

The structure of PC industry is almost unique. The original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) that produce and sell PCs bear most of the risk, while the downstream suppliers of components make most of the profit. Many analogies have been drawn with other mature-product industries, such as automobiles, but we find such comparisons inaccurate. The key difference is that the suppliers of PCs are struggling to identify meaningful differentiation vs. competitors. This leaves manufacturers competing primarily on price, which exacerbates the pressure on margins. The airline business presents a more realistic comparison. Aircraft manufacturers and airports are profitable and continue to benefit from growth in demand, but the carriers are struggling and further consolidation is viewed as inevitable.

Although the apparent inability to differentiate products drives the PC industry's focus on price competition, the downward movement of pricing is also because of oversupply. There are too many suppliers, all struggling with similar challenges in this highly cash-intensive business. We continue to observe fire sales resulting from overproduction and price-led promotions by PC suppliers looking to accelerate cash flow or boost market share. The result is an industry which, in some market segments, seems locked into a "race to the bottom" in the pricing of products. Clearly, this trend is unsustainable. In November 2004, these observations, combined with our market expectations for 2006 through 2008, led us to predict that by 2007, three of the top 10 PC suppliers would exit the market. Within weeks, IBM announced the sale of its PC Division to Lenovo Group. Our market analysis was straightforward. Unit growth between 2006 and 2008 will average about 6 percent, but revenue will remain flat. Key PC component suppliers, such as Intel and Microsoft, have historically been highly adept at maintaining their PC revenue, and their overall revenue from PCs will probably

continue to grow as the market continues to shift toward mobile PCs. This leaves PC suppliers facing the prospect of producing more PCs for dwindling revenue. This situation will inevitably lead to further consolidation among the leading suppliers. The impact of consolidation will not be limited to PC suppliers. Intel, AMD, Microsoft and other component suppliers will also see change as the structure of their market evolves. Although these changes will ultimately result in a healthier PC industry that is better able to equate innovation to sustainable business, the period of adjustment will bring additional challenges to the buyers and users of PCs. Choice of supplier and continuity of supply will be less certain, while the adoption of emerging PC technologies will present additional risk. This collection of research further explores the analysis behind these observations and examines the likely impact for PC suppliers, key component suppliers and the buyers of PCs.
1.5 Major Players

in the PC Industry



The Hewlett-Packard Company commonly referred to as HP, is the largest PC manufacturer in the world. The company was founded by Stanford University classmates Bill Hewlett and David Packard in 1939.It is headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United State and operates in more than 170 countries around the world. HP specializes in developing and manufacturing computing, storage, and networking hardware, software and services. HP is a Fortune 500 company and is ranked 9 in 2009. In august 2001, HP and Compaq came together to merge by a 25 billion$ stock deal. The company employs 321,000 people as on 31st December, 2008. Mark V. Hurd chief executive officer and the chairperson of HP since September 22, 2006 has focused on maintaining the companies leadership in exploring how technology and services can help people and companies address their problems and challenges, and realize their possibilities, aspirations and dreams. Even in the poor economic conditions of 2008, the company had a net revenue growth of 13% from $104.2 billion in FY07 to $118.3 billion in FY08.
19 HP’s Product Line
The company HP provides a wide range of products and services to its customers and is divided into six business segments:

Personal Systems: Hewlett-Packard is the world's largest manufacturer of personal computers, and its Personal Systems Group (PSG) is responsible for the development and sale of HP's commercial and consumer PCs, workstations, handheld devices, digital entertainment systems, and other related services and accessories.

Imaging and Printing: Hewlett-Packard is the leading provider of imaging and printing systems in the world. HP's Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) provides consumer and commercial printer hardware, printing supplies, printing media and accessories, and scanning devices.

Enterprise Storage and Servers: HP is one of the leading providers of servers in the world, offering a wide range of servers and storage products and solutions for small businesses and larger corporations.

HP Services: This segment offers a large variety of information technology services, including technology services, consulting and integration services, and managed services.

Software: HP's Software segment provides management software solutions that assist large companies in managing their operations and information technology infrastructure,

HP Financial Services: Hewlett-Packard offers financing, leasing, and other financial management services for its larger enterprise customers, small businesses, and educational and governmental customers in order to allow its customers to purchase complete end-to-end information technology solutions.

The company sets its corporate objectives as: • • • • • Customer loyalty Profit Growth Market leadership Leadership

• • •

Commitment to employees Leadership capability Global citizenship The SWOT analysis of HP
STRENGTH • • • • Leadership position Consumer centric brand Strong after sales service Design strategy: looks cost strategy OPPORTUNITY • • PC business Service industry: bought world’s No 2 Service provider EDS • • WEAKNESS • Low flexibility: it does not have high customization available Decline in digital entertainment market Software service

THREAT • • • Pricing pressure Component pricing Slow revenue growth

1.5.2 Dell
Dell, a multinational technology corporation with its head quarters in Round Rock, TX, USA develops, manufactures, sells, and supports personal computers and other computer-related. Based in Round Rock, Texas, Dell employs more than 82,700 people worldwide. Michael Dell founded the company as PC's Limited with capital of $1000 in 1984. He is the present CEO and chairman of the company. Operating from Michael Dell's offcampus dorm-room at Dobie Center, the startup aimed


sell IBM


compatible computers .Michael Dell started trading in the belief that by selling personal

computer-systems directly to customers, PC's Limited could better understand customers' needs and provide the most effective computing solutions to meet those needs. The company changed its name to "Dell Computer Corporation" in 1988. Dell became the first company in the information technology industry to establish a product-recycling goal (in 2004) and completed the implementation of its global consumer recycling-program in 2006. Dell offers a variety of products and services. Among its offerings are a wide array of desktop and notebook computers, peripherals and software, technical support services, and corporate servers and storage systems. Dell’s Product Line
PCs (60% of revenue) Dell produces several lines of consumer and commercial PC systems, including both desktop and notebook models. Overall, Dell holds about 14% of the worldwide PC market. Within the PC segment, desktops contributed 32% of Dell’s Fiscal 2008 revenue, and notebooks accounted for 28%. Software, Peripherals, and Accessories (16% of revenue) Dell sells various software programs with its PC systems, such as productivity software, security programs, and games. Dell also sells a number of computer-related peripherals, including LCD monitors, printers, input and storage devices, etc. Aside from PC-related items, Dell sells various accessories and electronic devices, such as LCD televisions, digital cameras, and MP3 players. Servers and Storage (15% of total revenue in 2008) For its corporate customers, Dell provides both servers and storage systems. Dell also sells customized servers and enterprise systems designed to meet the specific needs of certain customers. Technical Support and Services (9% of total revenue in 2008) Dell also sells technical support services for its products, providing customers with assistance after they purchase their systems. In Fiscal 2008, revenue increased 6% yearover-year to $61.1 billion, The company recorded net income of $351 million for the fourth quarter ended Jan. 30, a 48 percent drop from the $679 million it recorded in last year's fourth quarter. Net income per share was $0.18. Revenue fell to $13.4 billion, a 16 percent drop from a year ago.
22 SWOT analysis of Dell STRENGTH • • • • •

Weakness • • • No proprietary technology High dependency on component suppliers Lack of software support for customers

Inventory turnover rate is 6 days. Revenue growth at 100% Cost efficiency Direct to customer business model: minimum credit risk Latest technology customization Internet sales leadership: $5M

everyday worldwide Opportunity •

Threat • • • • Dell’s market share is very less Price range considered premium Currently instability Tariff trade barriers fluctuation policy

Network service in B2B Strong potential in china and India Low costs and advanced technology Growth in business, education and government markets



Acer Incorporated is a Taiwan-based multinational electronics manufacturer. Originally named Multitech, it was founded by Stan Shih , his wife Carolyn Yeh, and a group of five others in 1976. Multitech was eventually renamed Acer in 1987. Acer is renowned for the development and manufacture of sophisticatedly and intuitively designed, easy to use products. Focused on marketing its brand-name IT products around the globe, Acer ranks as the world's No. 3 vendor for total PCs and No. 2 for notebooks, with the fastest growth among the top-five players. Acer’s product line

Notebook (71% of revenue): Notebooks are Acer's most profitable product, generating NT$417 billion in revenue in 2008. Within the past decade, growth in notebook sales has far outpaced growth in desktop sales. For example, in 2007, overall notebook shipments grew 33.8%, while desktop shipments grew only 4.8%. Netbook (9% of revenue): Netbooks are an emerging type of scaled-down portable computer, that are designed to be cheap, light weight, and easy to use. Acer is the #1 producer of netbooks worldwide by unit sales, with a 38% market share. Desktop (12% of revenue): Annual revenue growth in desktop sales has slowed from 50.2% from 2004 to 2005 to 3.8% in 2008 as consumers demand more laptops. The company expects desktop sales growth of 3-4% from 2009 to 2011. Display (5% of revenue): Acer manufactures LCD monitors, HDTVs, and projectors. In addition to consumers, the company is targeting businesses and governmental agencies for volume sales. Other (3% of revenue): Acer offers information security management, software systems development, data center services, and other IT support services. In addition, in 2008, Acer acquired E-Ten, a Taiwanese manufacturer of Pocket PC phones and PDAs. SWOT analysis of Acer
STRENGTHS • • • • Operational Efficiency — Tight Control on Overhead Costs Improved Economies of Scale Fast Reactions to Market Changes After Cautious ROI Evaluation Aggressive Price Strategy — • Particularly Suitable to a Time of Economic Recession • • Strong global logistics Strong relationships with suppliers • • WEAKNESS • • Low Profit Margins Multiple Brands, Which Increase Costs and Dilute Resource Brand perception as Low-Cost PC Provider Insufficient Attention to the Chinese Market the Second-Largest in the World Limited Product Portfolio for Midsize Business


OPPORTUNITIES • • Economic Downturn, Which Favors Low-Price Products Growth of Mobile PCs in Homes in Emerging Markets, Where Brand Preferences Are Weaker • • • Growth Into the Chinese Market Growth Markets Reaching Larger Numbers of Into Midsize-Business

THREAT • Continued Price Decline in Mobile PCs, Due in Part to Mininotebooks, Which Erodes Margins and profitability • Excessive Reliance on Western Europe, Which Contributed 40% of Acer's Total Mobile-PC Revenue in 2008 • • • Dell's Expansion Into Indirect Sales Samsung’s entering into consumer mobile PC s. Profit margin squeezed by sales to telecom service provider.

Customers by Targeting Various Segments Through Multiple Brands


2.1 Company History
The following is a brief history of Lenovo:

2000: Legend shares peak at HK$14.75 on March 6. 2001: Dell takes the largest share of the worldwide PC market for the first time. Legend
sales reach a peak of HK$27.2 billion in the fiscal year ended March 2000 and decline to HK$23.2 billion in the most recent fiscal year ended March 2004.

2003: The Company changes brand name to Lenovo from Legend to avoid infringement
of overseas brands. The company says it is preparing for expansion outside China, which has overtaken Japan to become the world's second-largest PC market. The US remains the world's largest PC market.

2004: The Company changes its name to Lenovo Group. Time Warner Inc, the world's
largest media company, on January 7 exits a US$50 million Internet venture in China with Lenovo. China accounts for 99 percent of Lenovo's sales in fiscal year ended March 2004 and 98 percent in the previous 12-month period. Lenovo's first-quarter PC shipment growth in China lags rivals such as Dell, according to market researcher IDC Corp. Lenovo has a 10.9 percent share of the Asian market excluding Japan, compared with 7.3 percent for Dell. Lenovo's Asian shipments rise 19 percent, compared with 52 percent for

Dell. Lenovo's sales of services and hand-held electronics grow the fastest of all its products in the most recent two fiscal years, each at an average rate that roughly quadruples. Computer sales rise at an average rate of 9 percent in the same period. Lenovo becomes an Olympic worldwide partner. It is the first Chinese company to become a computer technology equipment partner of the IOC. Lenovo decides to develop the rural market by launching the "Yuanmeng" PC series designed for township home users. Lenovo and IBM announce an agreement by which Lenovo will acquire IBM’s Personal Computing Division, its global PC (desktop and notebook computer) business. The acquisition forms a top-tier (third-largest) global PC leader.

2005: Lenovo completes the acquisition of IBM's Personal Computing Division, making
it a new international IT competitor and the third-largest personal computer company in the world. Lenovo announces the closing of a US$350 million strategic investment by three leading private equity firms: Texas Pacific Group, General Atlantic LLC and New bridge Capital LLC. Lenovo establishes a new Innovation Center in Research Triangle Park, N.C., to enable customers, business partners, solution providers and independent software vendors to collaborate on new personal computing solutions. Lenovo introduces the industry's thinnest, lightest and most secure Tablet PC, the ThinkPad X41 Tablet. Lenovo introduces the first widescreen ThinkPad with embedded wireless WAN, the ThinkPad Z60, available for the first time with a titanium cover. Lenovo becomes the world's largest provider of biometric-enabled PCs by selling its one-millionth PC with an integrated fingerprint reader. William J. Amelio is appointed as CEO and President of Lenovo.

2006: Lenovo introduces the first dual-core ThinkPad notebook PCs, improving
productivity and extending battery life for up to 11 hours. Lenovo technology flawlessly supports the 2006 Olympic Winter Games in Torino, Italy, supplying 5,000 desktop PCs, 350 servers and 1,000 notebook computers. Lenovo also hosts seven Internet i.lounges for use by Olympic athletes and visitors. The first Lenovo-branded products outside of China debut worldwide. Researchers, scientists and product design teams from around the world combine Lenovo's heritage in enterprise and consumer PC technology to design

the Lenovo 3000 product line, which features new desktop and notebook models specifically designed to provide worry-free computing to the small business market segment.

2.2 Organizational Structure
It is the formal and informal framework of policies and rules, within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications, and allocates rights and duties. Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles, power, and responsibilities are delegated, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between levels of management. This structure depends entirely on the organization’s objective and the strategy chosen to achieve them. In a centralized structure, the decision making power is concentrated in the top layer of the management and tight control is exercised over departments and divisions. In a decentralized structure, the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions have varying degree of autonomy. There are various functional departments likeHR Department Financial Department Marketing Department Transactional Department Relational Department Strategic Department Legal Department

Chart 2.71- Organizational Structure 2.3 Awards and Certifications:
1)"Client of the Year" in the Advertising Big Bang 08, organized by the Ad Club, Bangalore.

2) MEDIA, the premier marketing trade publication in Asia has awarded Lenovo the ‘Communicator of the Year’ for this year’s Asia-Pacific PR Awards. In particular, Lenovo’s sophisticated usage of social media and willingness to blur the lines between conventional marketing and PR impressed the Media editorial team this year. 3)In DIGIT's cover story ‘Icons of Trust 2008 – which brands can you rely on?’: Lenovo/IBM beat all other brands to bag the top spot on the Trust Index Lenovo has been voted the most trusted brand in the Laptops category 4) Lenovo India wins three awards in the DQ Channels “Channel Choice Awards 2009” a) Best Marketing Support- Silver award b) Best Commercial Terms- Silver award c) Best Online Support – Silver award

2.3 Vision and Mission
Lenovo strives to be a new world company that makes award-winning PCs for our customers. We operate as a company uninhibited by walls or organizational structures using world sourcing to harness the power of innovation across our global team. We design innovative and exciting products and services to meet our customers’ needs.

2.4 SWOT analysis
STRENGTH • • • • Lean cost structure Effective business model Innovation leadership Event sponsoring






growth rate in all market segment • • Ignoring potential market Retaining of largest shares by competitors

• • •

Good marketing and distribution strategies Strategic alliance with suppliers Quick responsiveness

• •

Poor global perception High delivery time:3 weeks

• Strong R&D: taken over from IBM OPPORTUNITY • • • • • • • Increasing global demand for PC Specialty shops proving one stop platform for distribution Government Internet boom Increasing product lines Netbooks Converting manual orders to automotive orders product portfolios/ organizations increasing their spending on IT

THREAT • • • • • • Competition threat from both local and international markets Industry reaching maturity Software piracy and clone market Price war Emerging small firms International competitors forming alliances with local competitors.

STRENGTH 1. Lean cost structure: The Group’s distinctive capability and expertise in managing costs and expenses allows it to achieve high efficiency and has been one of the most important factors for its success. This has become more critical under the current economic conditions. 2. Effective business model:


Lenovo’s dual business model sets its products, services and business process around customer need and market segmentation. This tightly integrated, end toend model allows the Group to quickly react to market dynamics and changes in the back-end. 3. Innovation leadership: Lenovo owns the greatest track record for innovation in the PC industry and remains committed to innovation in its products and technology. While it needs to be cost-effective, innovation can drive business and add value for customers.

4. Good marketing and distribution strategies: Promotion and distribution at Lenovo is done through a network of channel partners, retail stores, Teleweb, and Lenovo authorized dealers across the globe. Lenovo also promotes environmental friendly ‘green’ products- ThinkPad X300 series is the first notebook to earn ‘Green Guard’ certification 5. Strategic alliance with suppliers: Since Lenovo is horizontally integrated, it depends on the outsourced suppliers for in time delivery of quality products; like many companies, keeping the customer always in mind, time and quality.

6. Quick responsiveness:

The company has Best-in-Class Service. It has 24/7 Technical/Sales Support centers across the globe. 7. Strong R&D: taken over from IBM: Acquiring a reliable/well-known company such as IBM has helped boost its products, especially ThinkPad and IdeaPad. 8. Event sponsoring:

Lenovo was the TOP Sponsor of the Olympic Games and provided the technology hardware for these Games in 2008. Nearly every aspect of the management of the Games, from gathering and storing participant data to displaying the scores, was dependent on hardware provided by Lenovo. It gave Lenovo an upper edge as compared to other competitors.

OPPORTUNITY 1. Increasing global demand for PC: 2. Signing of memorandum of understanding: The company can develop their market in US by signing a memorandum of understanding with the US 3. Specialty shops proving one stop platform for distribution 4. Government organizations increasing their spending on IT 5. Internet boom 6. Increasing product portfolios/product Lines 7. Netbooks 8. Converting manual orders to automative orders

WEAKNESS 1. Unable to maintain sustained growth rate in all market segment: Lenovo is heavily weighted showed significant slowdown in the second half of the fiscal year under the economic crisis because it has not adequately addressed the worldwide transaction segment outside China, in particular the consumer market.

Ignoring potential markets: The main focus of Lenovo is on the established markets and they lack marketing strategies to enter into the untapped markets. Retaining of largest shares by competitors:



Lenovo’s competitors have larger number of shares in the market. HP (18.1%), Dell (15.6)%, Acer(9.4)% give Lenovo a tough competition.

Poor global perception: In China, the customers perceive Lenovo as a premium brand, but Lenovo has to reinforce this perception to its global brand. High delivery time: The order delivery time in Lenovo is around 3 weeks. This results in customers waiting for a longer time.


THREAT 1. Competition threat from both local and international markets: 2. Industry reaching maturity: 3. Software piracy and clone market: 4. Price war 5. Emerging small firms 6. International competitors forming alliances with local competitors.

2.5 People
“Company believes that their people provide them the cutting edge and for the

sustainable success, their performance orientation and customer focus is imperative. The company believes that only where people grow, the organization grows”. People are the biggest asset of the company. They believe that the “biggest brands” they stand for today are a consequential of our “best people”. The company has measurement systems and recognition schemes to identify and encourage individuals and teams demonstrating customer service excellence. Rewards, promotions and growth opportunities at Lenovo are based on performance. The company ensures that all of their policies, forward-looking initiatives and goals are fully

communicated to all the employees and that they understand and relate to these. Company’s commitment to their people is reflected in the sense of belonging and pride they feel towards the company and the passion and commitment they bring to their work.

2.6 Policies
Lenovo has staff welfare policies and some Business guidelines for all employees. 1. Leave Policy for regular employees i.e. Privilege leave, Sick leave, Casual leave, Maternity leave, Post- maternity leave, Leave of Absence. 2. CLC scheme 3. Loan Policy: The Company provides its employees with various kinds of loans such as Car Loan, Housing Loan etc. Apart from welfare policies company also has some conduct guidelines for the employees such as legal remedies, privacy in workplace, protection and use of Lenovo assets etc.

2.7 Lenovo Products Notebooks

ThinkPad Notebooks


Track record of success, cost-savings Industry-leading capabilities that dramatically increase productivity and reduce cost. Features: ✔ Business class technology ✔ Thin, light widescreen designs ✔ Extra long battery life ✔ Advanced mobile workstations

IdeaPad Notebooks

Engineered for a great user experience Perfect for home/home office, with distinctive designs and features for entertainment and multimedia.

Features: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Home/office versatility 11.1 to 17 inches widescreen displays Dolby home theatre audio Touch sensitive controls VeriFace face recognition securities

Lenovo 3000 Notebooks


Worry-free computing at a great value A smart choice for business computing needs and budgets. Plus, new models ideal for home/home office.

Features: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Roomy, widescreen displays Stylish silver colored top covers Preloaded small business softwares LenovoCare tools, support and services

Desktops ThinkCentre Desktops

Award winning quality and innovation Industry-leading capabilities that dramatically increase productivity and reduce cost. 36

Features: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Energy efficient desktops Security on a corporate level at a small business price Dual Independence Display (DID) The ThinkCentre Energy Calculator

IdeaCentre Desktops

New PCs for home/home office Loaded with features for everything from family finance to multimedia and entertainment. Features: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

VeriFace face recognition Automatic brightness adjustment Antibacterial keyboard OneKey convenience


ThinkCentre Workstations
Features: ✔ User centric design ✔ Cool and quiet 37

✔ ISV certifications ✔ Environment-friendly


Tower Servers
Features: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Single and dual sockets Easier cooling Existing-network scalability Hard disk drive optimization

Rack Servers
Features: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Single and dual sockets Space-optimized design Centralized cable management Centralized server management

Accessories and Upgrades


2.8 Departments 2.8.1HR
Human resources are an increasingly broadening term that refers to managing "human capital," the people of an organization. The field has moved from a traditionally administrative function to a strategic one that recognizes the link between talented and engaged people and organizational success. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and System Theory. Human resources have at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production although this perspective is changing as a function of new and ongoing research into more strategic approaches at national levels. This first usage is

used more in terms of 'human resources development', and can go beyond just organizations to the level of nations. The more traditional usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within a firm or agency, and to the portion of the organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues, typically referred to as 'human resources management. Functions of Senior Manager- Talent Management/C&B/Partner • Compensation and Benefits: Compensation includes topics in regard to wage and/or salary programs and structures, for example, salary ranges for job descriptions, merit-based programs, bonus-based programs, commission-based programs, etc. There are altogether 10 structures in the organization. Employee benefits typically refer to retirement plans, health life insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, vacation etc. Benefits are increasingly expensive for businesses to provide to employees, so the range and options of benefits are changing rapidly to include, for example, flexible benefit plans. • • The development and integration of the organization as a whole is another important function performed by the senior management. Various individual development plans and strategies are planned, executed and proper follow up is done. Functions of Senior Manager – HR Operations/ Performance Management • HR Operations: The Human Resource operations include Payroll is the sum of all financial records of salaries, wages, bonuses and deductions. The other feature being maintaining a database of list of employees receiving wages or salaries, with the amounts due to each and also the total sum of money to be paid out to employees at a given time.

Performance Management, performance is the sum of behaviour and results, and cannot be viewed as independent of either component. It is an outcome of effective management. Performance Management is found in the success of its employees in serving customer needs, creating a culture of respect and commitment, with a focus on active learning etc., a culture where the predominate

method of building habits of success involving knowing when and how to “carve mistakes in sand and success in stone” (Benjamin Franklin quote). The benefits of performance management are: Direct financial gains results in growing sales volume, reduced costs and aligns the organization directly behind the CEO’s goals. The other advantage is the firm gets motivated workforce, which optimizes incentive plans to specific goals for overachievement, not just business as usual; creates transparency in achievement of goals. Also helps the other departments for example assists in auditing process and compliance with legislative requirements.

Statutory related aspects: As per the laws, the database and other records are to be maintained in accordance.

Functions of Asst. Manager- Talent acquisition/L&D/ E- engagement

Talent Acquisition:

The Talent Management Systems or "Strategic Human

Capital Management Applications” are the next-generation extensions of traditional Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS).Talent acquisition involves all the sub processes around finding, attracting and engaging highly talented individuals into the organization. Talent acquisition is part of a broader strategic approach in the quest to gain and sustain a competitive advantage. Talent acquisition takes a long term view of not only filling positions of today, but also identify talents for future openings. These future positions may be identifiable by looking at the succession management plan or by analyzing the attrition.

Training (Learning and Development): Training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. Training is basically considered to be of short term or task specific education but the organisation aims and has built a scientific learning process among the employees, which helps them (employees) to achieve knowledge at the workplace.

Learning and development encompasses three main activities: Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds.

Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. • Employee Relations: Employee Relations involves the body of work concerned with maintaining employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale. Essentially, Employee Relations is concerned with preventing and resolving problems involving individuals who arise out of or affect work situations. Advice is provided to supervisors on how to correct poor performance and employee misconduct. In such instances, progressive discipline and regulatory and other requirements must be considered in effecting disciplinary actions and in resolving employee grievances and appeals. The firm is continuously engaged in building employee and employee relations and also has many activities running to help the workers have a high standard social life, like kids at work, traditional days etc,. 2.8.2 Accounts Receivables Accounts receivable (A/R) is one of a series of accounting transactions dealing with the billing of customers who owe money to company or organization for goods and services that have been provided to the customer. This is typically done by generating an invoice and mailing or electronically delivering it to the customer, who in turn must pay it within an established timeframe called credit or payment terms. On a company's balance sheet, accounts receivable is the amount that customers owe to the company. Sometimes called trade receivables, they are classified as current assets assuming that they are due within one year. To record a journal entry for a sale on account, one must debit a receivable and credit a revenue account. When the customer pays off their accounts, one debits cash and credits the receivable in the journal entry. Companies can use their accounts receivable as collateral when obtaining a loan (assetbased lending) or sell them through factoring. Pools or portfolios of accounts receivable can be sold in

2.8.3 Customer Service and Support Customer service and support (CSS) is the part of a company's customer relationship management (CRM) department that interacts with a customer for their immediate benefit, including components such as the contact centre, the help desk, and the call management system. To increase customer satisfaction, while minimizing the costs involved, companies today are turning to customer-based service applications such as Web self-service and online communities for customer-to-customer support. Technical support may be delivered by different technologies depending on the situation. For example, direct questions can be addressed using SMS, Online chat, E-mail or Fax; basic software problems can be addressed over the telephone or, increasingly, by using remote access repair services; while more complicated problems with hardware may need to be dealt with in person. 2.8.4 India Finance Corporate finance is the task of providing the funds for a corporation's activities. It involves balancing risk and profitability, while attempting to maximize an entity's wealth and the value of its stock. Long term funds are provided by ownership equity and longterm credit, often in the form of bonds. The balance between these forms the company's capital structure. Short-term funding or working capital is mostly provided by banks extending a line of credit. In case of Lenovo India Pvt. Ltd, it’s the holding company Lenovo Group Ltd., which contributes majorly to the both long term as well as short term financial requirements. On the important part of Lenovo’s finance team was when the company acquired the IBM’s PC division the accounting department was not transferred along with some other teams. Hence it was both a challenge and an opportunity for the Lenovo team to build a finance team which would see that they grow up from the scratch. The finance team which is headed by CFO, for Indian operations its Mr. Rama Subramanian, determines the requirements of peers and develops a system, a strategy and work in co-ordination with other teams in the organisation. The culture of the organisation is such that the best person in the job is allotted the work, as a result the efficiency and employee morale is high. 2.8.5 Pricing team

Pricing is the last bastion of guesswork in global business, but researches shows companies that make pricing a priority, and implement solutions from a specialized pricing team can see a effective contribution on the profit side., sometimes as high as 20 percent. Pricing is generally accepted as a core business practice, but the process the companies use varies and also sometimes it is arbitrary. Pricing policy is defined as a standard procedure used by a firm to set wholesale and retail prices for its products or services. In other words, price planning takes into view factors such as a firm’s overall marketing objectives, consumer demand, product attributes, competitors’ pricing and market and economic trends. Pricing Objectives: Pricing objectives or goals give direction to the whole pricing process, determining the objectives is the first step in pricing. When deciding on pricing the important features considered are: • • • • • • • • The overall financial, marketing and strategic objectives of the company. The objectives of your product or brand. Consumer price elasticity and price points. Maximize long-run profit Increase Market share and Company growth Obtain or maintain the loyalty and enthusiasm of distributors and other sales personnel. To enhance the image of the brand and get competitive edge Social, ethical, or ideological objectives

2.8.6 Accounts Payable Team / Disbursement Team Accounts payable is a strategic, value-added accounting function that performs the primary non-payroll disbursement functions in an organization. As such, the AP operation plays a critical role in the financial cycle of the organization. AP enables an organization to accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the entire payables process. In addition to the traditional AP activities whereby liabilities to third-party entities (suppliers, vendors, taxing authorities, etc.) are recognized and paid based on the credit policies agreed to between the company and its suppliers, today's AP departments have taken on much wider roles

including fraud prevention, cost reduction, workflow system solutions, cash-flow management, internal controls and vendor (supply chain) financing. Large firms like Lenovo are using specialized Accounts Payable Automation, like SAPto automate the paper and manual elements of processing an organization's invoices. The firm also uses PAW software which has been procured from IBM when the firm acquired the PC division. However, coming next financial year the operations of the team will be completely carried out in SAP. 2.8.7 Internal Audit

Internal auditing is a profession and activity involved in helping organizations achieve their stated objectives. It does this by using a systematic methodology for analyzing business processes, procedures and activities with the goal of highlighting organizational problems and recommending solutions. Professionals called internal auditors are employed by organizations to perform the internal auditing activity. The scope of internal auditing within an organization is broad and may involve topics such as the efficacy of operations, the reliability of financial reporting, deterring and investigating fraud, safeguarding assets, and compliance with laws and regulations. Internal auditing frequently involves measuring compliance with the entity's policies and procedures. However, internal auditors are not responsible for the execution of company activities. As a result of their broad scope of involvement, internal auditors may have a variety of higher educational and professional backgrounds. 2.8.8 Business Control In accounting and auditing, internal or business control is defined as a process affected by an organization's structure, work and authority flows, people and management information systems, designed to help the organization accomplish specific goals or objectives. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the organization's resources, both physical (e.g., machinery and property) and intangible (e.g., reputation or intellectual property such as trademarks).

2.8.9 Claims Team A claim is a legal action to obtain money, property, or the enforcement of a right against another party. The legal document which carries a claim is called a Statement of Claim. It

can be any communication notifying the addressee of alleged faulty execution which resulted in damages, often expressed in amount of money the party should pay/reimburse. There are several issues of concern when filing a statement of claim. Although to file a Statement of Claim is fairly straight forward, it is important it be done properly or you may lose your case due to a simple technicality. A Claim is a Legal statement made to alert the accused of the legal implications. 2.8.10 Marketing and sales Marketing is an integrated communications-based process through which individuals and communities discover that existing and newly-identified needs and wants may be satisfied by the products and services of others. Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market, as in shopping, or going to a market to buy or sell goods or services. In Lenovo, marketing division is responsible for marketing strategy, advertising, researching, promoting, conducting customer surveys, branding, public relations and creating of corporate style. All these responsibilities can be gathered in several main functions of the marketing department. The main function of a sales department is to co-ordinate sales activities, to meet the customer demand with appropriate supply, to increase the sales volume considering a particular period of time, to find appropriate persons/ agencies to carry out the sales activities, to help marketing department in meeting the sales volume forecasted by them.


PART-B Chapter-3 Research Design

3.1. Introduction to the Project Topic:
Performance management is the activity of tracking performance against targets identifying opportunities for improvement - but not just looking back at past performance. The focus of performance management is the future - what do you need to be able to do and how can you do things better? Managing performance is about managing for results. Performance-based management at any level in the organization should demonstrate that: • • • • You know what you are aiming for You know what you have to do to meet your objectives You know how to measure progress towards your objectives You can detect performance problems and remedy them

3.2 Statement of the problem

Measuring employee performance has come a long way from the annual performance appraisal to an ongoing performance management system. Performance Management is one of the key processes that, when effectively carried out, helps employees know that their contributions are recognized and acknowledged. But at times it gets diverted from its objectives. There is a need that the opinion of the appraisees about the Performance management system be discussed with the management so as to make the system highly effective. Management desires information on the perception of the employees towards the existing performance management system and hence wants to gauge its effectiveness. Hence this study is being conducted and therefore the statement of the problem is: “To study the Effectiveness of the Performance Management System at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd.”

3.3 Title of the study:
The project is titled as “A Study on the Effectiveness of the Performance Management System at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd.

3.4 Objectives of the study:
• • •

To study the Effectiveness of the Performance Management System at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. from the perspectives of the management. To study the Effectiveness of the Performance Management System at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. from the perspectives of the employees. To understand the shortcomings of the Performance Management System at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. To come out with solutions that will help the organization in formulating better strategies for the development of the employees and the organization.

3.5 Scope of the study:

The study is exclusively conducted on the employees of Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. who have undergone at least one appraisal cycle. The study is conducted to analyze and obtain their insights about the Performance Management System. It was carried out within the Lenovo office at Ferns Ikon in Bangalore city over a period of six weeks.

3.6 Research Methodology:
3.6.1 Sources of Data For the purpose of the study, both primary and secondary data are utilized.
• • •

Primary data is collected through self administered structured questionnaire. Each respondent was interviewed and data was collected. The questionnaire contained Twenty Five questions and it was a mix of open ended and close ended questions. Secondary data is collected from Internet, Newspapers and magazines, company web link.

3.6.2 Research Type: The type of research adopted for the project is descriptive research. It refers to those studies used to describe phenomena associated with a subject population or to estimate proportions of the population that have certain characteristics. Descriptive research basically means discovery of association among different variables. 3.6.3 Sampling Plan:

Type of sampling: Judgment sampling is a common non-probability method. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually an extension of convenience sampling

Sampling Unit: The study is conducted on the employees of Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. who have at least undergone one appraisal cycle. The survey was conducted to know about their perception towards the Performance Management System. The main motive behind the survey is to study the effectiveness of the PMS from the employees’ perspective.

Sample Size: A sample of thirty respondents was considered as sample size for the research.

3.6.4 Research Instrument

The main tool that has been used in data collection is questionnaire that has been constructed for this purpose. Primary data was collected by means of questionnaire which was distributed to the employees of Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. who have at least undergone one appraisal cycle.
3.6.5 Data Collection Method

The survey was conducted by way of personal interview wherein the researcher gave the respondent the questionnaire and initiated a two-way conversation to obtain information from the participant.

3.6.6 Limitations of the Study • • •

In the project, non-random sampling has been used which is a non probability sampling method; it therefore does not provide estimates of precision. The sample size is restricted to only those employees of Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. who have at least undergone one appraisal cycle. The study was done for a short period of time, which might not hold true over a long period of time.

3.6.7 Operational Definitions

a) Performance Management System Performance management is an ongoing process of communication between a supervisor and an employee that occurs throughout the year, in support of accomplishing the strategic objectives of the organization. The communication process includes clarifying expectations, setting objectives, identifying goals, providing feedback, and evaluating results. It is an ongoing process that takes place throughout the year. The Performance management process is a cycle, with discussions varying year-to-year based on changing

objectives. The cycle includes Planning, Checking-In, and Assessment. It’s a 4 step process. It includes: - Incumbent/Appraisees, Manager/ Appraiser, Reviewer, HR. b) Incumbent/Appraisee Appraisee is an individual, who is assessed as part of the performance cycle. He is the key driver of his own performance management system. c) Manager/ Appraiser An Individual who helps plans performance and assesses the performance of one or more appraisees that report to him/her. He also helps manage performance & provides continuous feedback and coaching.

d) HR HR to function as a facilitator in the process- would ensure adherence to guidelines, support, and dispute resolution and modify design aspects to align with organization requirements. They are responsible for the normalization of the scores and will facilitate the process and ensure sanctity of implementation, process rigor and quality. e) KPI A performance indicator or key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure of performance. Such measures are commonly used to help an organization define and evaluate how successful it is, typically in terms of making progress towards its long-term organizational goals. KPIs can be specified by answering the question, "What is really important to different stakeholders". KPIs may be monitored using Business Intelligence techniques to assess the present state of the business and to assist in prescribing a course of action. The act of monitoring KPIs in real-time is known as business activity monitoring (BAM). KPIs are frequently used to "value" difficult to measure activities such as the benefits of leadership development, engagement, service, and satisfaction. KPIs are typically tied to an organization's strategy using concepts.


The KPIs differ depending on the nature of the organization and the organization's strategy. They help to evaluate the progress of an organization towards its vision and long-term goals, especially toward difficult to quantify knowledge-based goals.

Chapter-4 Data Analysis


4.1. Analysis and Interpretation
Table 4.1 Showing frequency of the respondent’s familiarity with the process of Performance Management System Frequency Percent Valid Percent 26 86.7 86.7 2 6.7 6.7 2 30 6.7 100.0 6.7 100.0

Valid Yes No Up to some extent Total

Graph 4.1 Showing frequency of the respondent’s familiarity with the process of Performance Management System

A formal PMS






0 Yes No Up to some extent

A formal PMS

Inference: 87% of the respondents said YES when asked whether they were familiar with the process of Performance Management System.

Table 4.2 Showing perception of employees regarding PMS’s simplicity Frequenc y 21 4 4 1 30 Valid Cumulative Percent Percent 70.0 70.0 13.3 83.3 13.3 3.3 100.0 96.7 100.0

Valid Yes No Up to some extent Can't say Total

Percent 70.0 13.3 13.3 3.3 100.0

Graph 4.2 Showing perception of employees regarding PMS’s simplicity





0 Yes No Up to some extent Can't say

Is PMS simple?

Inference: Majority of the respondents (70%) feel that PMS is simple, 14% of respondents were not agree and 14% of respondents were agree up to some extent.

Table 4.3 Showing percentage of employees satisfied with the current PMS Frequenc y 15 6 8 1 30 Valid Cumulative Percent Percent 50.0 50.0 20.0 70.0 26.7 3.3 100.0 96.7 100.0

Valid Yes No Up to some extent Can't say Total

Percent 50.0 20.0 26.7 3.3 100.0

Graph 4.3 Showing percentage of employees satisfied with the current PMS







0 Yes No Up to some extent Can't say

Satisfied with the current PMS



Half of the respondents (50%) are satisfied with the current PMS, 27% of respondents are satisfied up to some extent and 20% of respondents are not satisfied with it. Table 4.4 Showing percentage of employees satisfied with rating system Frequenc y 17 6 5 2 30 Valid Cumulative Percent Percent 56.7 56.7 20.0 76.7 16.7 6.7 100.0 93.3 100.0

Valid Yes No Up to some extent Can't say Total

Percent 56.7 20.0 16.7 6.7 100.0

Graph 4.4 Showing percentage of employees satisfied with rating system








0 Yes No Up to some extent Can't say

Satisfied with the rating system

Inference: Majority of the respondents are satisfied with the rating system and some of them are satisfied up to some extent only a few (20%) are not satisfied and have given some suggestions to improve the rating system.

Table 4.5 Showing percentage of employees, who gets motivated from the recognition given to high performers Frequenc y 23 4 2 29 1 30 Percent 76.7 13.3 6.7 96.7 3.3 100.0 Valid Cumulative Percent Percent 79.3 79.3 13.8 93.1 6.9 100.0 100.0


Yes No Up to some extent Total 100

Missin g Total

Graph 4.5 Showing percentage of employees, who gets motivated from the recognition given to high performers






0 Yes No Up to some extent

Recognition given to high performers motivates

Inference: Majority of the respondents gets motivated when the recognition is given to the high performers.

Table 4.6 Showing percentage of employees who feel that the PMS is biased
Is it biased? Cumulative Percent 13.3 66.7 73.3 100.0


Yes No Up to some extent Can't say Total

Frequency 4 16 2 8 30

Percent 13.3 53.3 6.7 26.7 100.0

Valid Percent 13.3 53.3 6.7 26.7 100.0

Graph 4.6 Showing percentage of employees who feel that the PMS is biased








0 Yes No Up to some extent Can't say

Is it Biased?

Inference: Majority of respondents feel that PMS is not biased and some of them (13%) feel that it is biased. Table 4.7 Showing response regarding getting opportunity to take part in goal setting

Sufficient opportunity to take part in goal setting Cumulative Percent 63.3 80.0 100.0


Yes No Up to some extent Total

Frequency 19 5 6 30

Percent 63.3 16.7 20.0 100.0

Valid Percent 63.3 16.7 20.0 100.0

Graph 4.7 Showing responses regarding getting opportunity to take part in goal setting





0 Yes No Up to some extent

Sufficient opportunity to take part in goal setting

Inference: Majority of the respondents gets opportunity to take part in the goal setting, while some of them (20%) feel that they get opportunity up to some extent and some of them don’t get sufficient opportunity to take part in goal setting. Table 4.8 Showing response of employees and HR manager regarding career paths


Career paths are laid down with opportunities and limitations clearly specified Very true Level Employees Managers 4 0 4 True 13 0 13 Partly true 5 3 8 Not true 8 1 9 Total 30 4 34


Graph 4.8 Showing response of employees and HR manager regarding career paths



Career paths are laid down with opportunities and limitations clearly specified Very true True Partly true Not true





0.0 Employees Managers


Inference: Majority of employees are sure that career paths are laid down with opportunities and limitations clearly specified while on the other side HR Managers fell that it is partly true.

Table 4.9 Showing response of the employees and HR Managers regarding Goal setting

Goal setting exercises are used to stretch capabilities to the limit Very true Level Employees Managers 1 2 3 True 21 1 22 Partly true 6 1 7 Not true 2 0 2 Total 30 4 34


Graph 4.9 Showing response of the employees and HR Managers regarding Goal setting



Goal setting exercises are used to stretch capabilities to the limit Very true True Partly true Not true





0 Employees Managers


Inference: Both the employees and HR Manager feel that goal setting exercises are used to stretch capabilities to the limit.

Table 4.10 Showing response of employees and HR Managers regarding targets Line managers always discuss performances and targets with you

Line managers always discuss performances aand targets with you Very true Level Employees Managers 4 2 6 True 16 2 18 Partly true 8 0 8 Not true 2 0 2 Total 30 4 34


Graph 4.10 Showing response of employees and HR Managers regarding targets



Line managers always discuss performances and targets with you Very true True Partly true Not true




0 Employees Managers


Inference: Majority of employees feel that line managers always discuss performances and targets with them and Managers also feel the same. Only some of the employees (33%) feel that it is partly true. Table 4.11 Showing response regarding autonomy to plan, organize and do the work


Employees are empowered and have the autonomy to plan, organize and do their work Very true Level Employees Managers 5 1 6 True 17 3 20 Partly true 6 0 6 Not true 2 0 2 Total 30 4 34


Graph 4.11 Showing response regarding autonomy to plan, organize and do the work




Employees are empowered and have the autonomy to plan, organize and do their work Very true True Partly true Not true



0 Employees Managers


Inference: Majority of employees and HR Managers both feel that employees are empowered and have the autonomy to plan, organize and do their work, which shows a level of comfort among the employees.

Table 4.12 Showing response regarding the expectations from the employees

PMS gives an idea what is expected from employees Very true Level Employees Managers 7 1 8 True 11 3 14 Partly true 8 0 8 Not true 2 0 2 Total 28 4 32


Graph 4.12 Showing response regarding the expectations from the employees




PMS gives an idea what is expected from employees Very true True Partly true Not true





0 Employees Managers


Inference: Employees and HR Managers both of them feel that PMS gives an idea what is expected from employees and a very negligible number of employees disagree.


Table 4.13 Showing response regarding PMS whether it allows employees to express their developmental needs
PMS allows employees to express their developmental needs Very true Level Employees Managers 6 1 7 True 11 3 14 Partly true 7 0 7 Not true 3 0 3 Total 27 4 31


Graph 4.13 Showing response regarding PMS whether it allows employees to express their developmental needs




PMS allows employees to express their developmental needs Very true True Partly true Not true





0 Employees Managers




Table 4.14 Showing response towards quality of work
A sense of pride in the quality of work Very true Level Employees Managers 16 0 16 True 10 3 13 Partly true 3 1 4 Not true 1 0 1 Total 30 4 34


Graph 4.14 Showing response towards quality of work



A sense of pride in the quality of work Very true True Partly true Not true




0 Employees Managers


Inference: Majority of employees feel a sense of pride in quality of work except a few. HR Managers also feel the same way.


Chapter-5 Findings, Suggestions & Conclusion

5.1 Findings:


a) Majority of the employees are familiar with the process of Performance Management System in Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. Although 7% employees do not know that company has a formal system for Performance Management. b) Opinions of the respondents about the simplicity of the PMS are mixed. Majority of the respondents (70%) find it simple whereas others consider it to be moderately complex. c) It was found that half of the employees (50%) are satisfied with the current Performance Management System (PMS) whereas others are satisfied up to some extent or not satisfied. d) Majority of the employees feel that they get sufficient opportunity to take part in goal setting whereas 15% do not feel so. e) PMS is considered time consuming only by 20% of the employees whereas 67% employees do not consider it to be time consuming. f) Employees believe that PMS does not distract them from the other important activities whereas only 10% employees do not agree to it. g) Majority of the employees is satisfied with the rating system and some of them are not satisfied and have given some suggestion to improve it. h) Recognition given to high performers motivates the employees. i) Employees also have enough courage to discuss all the matters of their goals with the manager. j) It was also found that superiors help their subordinates at the time of need. k) Employees at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. believe the PMS is not biased. Majority of the respondents in the survey gave a negative response when asked whether it is biased whereas 10% of the respondents consider it to be biased. l) Employees consider it to be true that career paths are laid down with opportunities and limitations clearly specified. m) Employees also agree that line managers always discuss performances and targets with them. n) Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. follows the process of performance management system effectively and efficiently. Most of the respondents agree that the appraisers communicate the expectations clearly and provide the role clarity which thereby reflects the effectiveness of the PMS.

o) Employees are empowered and have the autonomy to plan, organize and do their work. It shows that employees have freedom to do their work in their own way. p) Respondents agree that total quality is the only key to sustained success. q) Employees get all sorts of feedback i.e. numerical, formal and informal. r) The most compelling factor for the employees’ turnover was found to be the job insecurity and most to the employees gave more than one reason for the employees’ turnover including unclear job role, less growth and dissatisfaction with pay. s) Employees also feel that work is not very well defined and some what it is defined. t) Some of the employees do not feel any kind of stress in the organization whereas others feel different kinds of stress i. e. work burden, less appreciation for work, criticism from superiors and less support from subordinates. u) A mixed response came with regard to the proper training, some employees agree that proper training is provided and some feel that it only fulfills the purpose. v) There is absence of 360 degree technique of appraisal. The relationship between employees and the executives is one sided. w) Extra achieved targets are being recognized and awarded at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd.

a) Special training and awareness programs should be conducted for the appraisers and the appraisees on the purpose and the benefits of Performance Management System. It should create consciousness and strive for self development. ·b) Performance appraisal should not be limited to incentives alone but should be made use for identifying training needs, career developments and self improvement. It should also be used for promotion and career growth.

c) The performance management system should spell out the growth curve of an employee. The management should provide with growth plan for each employee and follow it effectively and efficiently. d) There should be a special committee which keeps a check on the Performance Management System and also address all the problems faced by the employees related to their performance management. e) Management should conduct regular sessions, group discussions and brain storming exercises with employees to know about their expectations from the PMS. f) Peer evaluations conducted by the employee’s co-workers may be initiated. They are the ones who do the same work and must be aware of the co-workers performance. g) In order to achieve better understanding and to develop skills, development and training programs are of absolute necessity. So management may conduct training programs based on the performance management system. h) The preparation of a comprehensive manual guideline giving the objectives of the system could be done. The process, the role of the appraiser, appraisees, HRD department and the reviewing officer should be made clear. The manual should spell out the complete guidelines of the performance management system.

5.3 Suggestions from Employees
Here are some of the suggestions given by employees • According to employees, PMS should be more transparent as it is only one way now. The company should have a 360 degree appraisal system, wherein ratings should be given by managers, peers and subordinates.

Actual facts and figures should be considered for goal setting and there should be two way communications between manager and employees.

• • •

Employees think that present PMS is subjective and it should be more objective. There should be clarity of the parameters for ratings along with soft skills and hard skills specified. End date should be provided for the development plans.

An organization's measurement system strongly affects the behavior of people both inside and outside the organization. If companies are to survive and prosper in information age competition, they must use measurement and management systems derived from their strategies and capabilities. Performance Management is one of the key processes that, when effectively carried out, helps employees know that their contributions are recognized and acknowledged. Performance Management System drives Performance Excellence in the Organization. It is a key to Strategic success.


At Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd., Performance Management system is commendable. The organization has a sound and effective Performance Management System. At Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. it is not considered as a mere routine affair but as a purposive developmental exercise. It gives supervisors and subordinates an equal opportunity to express themselves under structured conditions. Organization must keep up the good practices. However, they should focus on certain aspects like societal perspective, peer evaluations, forming a special committee etc. Thus, Performance Management System at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. is effective as it incorporates the major aspects like direction, awareness, support and rewards. It successfully recognizes and differentiates between high and low performance; brings about a feeling of transparency and fairness in the evaluation process; Increases the objectivity and accuracy of measurement of performance; Increases alignment between individual and organizational goals and increases the performance-reward linkage. It also helps in keeping a check on the performance by various follow up programs and provides various opportunities for self development. Hence, Performance Management system at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd. is indeed effective.


My Learning

My Learning
My internship at Lenovo (India) Pvt. Ltd was a great experience. Before starting the project I was totally naive of how complex the process of business world could be. My knowledge of subjects and books was not sufficient enough to provide me a clear view of what organizations are all about, how they form their strategies, how they achieve their goals and what possibly makes successful organizations. After a period of six weeks now I find myself in a much better position to explain what an organization and business is all about. It was indeed my fortune that I got associated with an organization which has a presence all over and is very much successful in its industry. In the internship program, I learned about the personal computer industry, the company, the various businesses of the organization and its various products and services. It was a great learning experience and also gained firsthand knowledge about the company and its activities from various top notches of the organization. I also got an opportunity to attend Open Forum in the company, which was very helpful and informative.

I got an opportunity to work with the HR team. I had hands on experience of various functions of the HR department. Here, I learned to associate my academic knowledge with practical experience. The company gave me an opportunity to do a study on the effectiveness of the Performance Management System. During the study, I learnt the complete process and gained a lot of useful insights on the performance management system. The study helped me to gain knowledge and exposure about the Performance Management System and its effectiveness. Thus, the internship program provided me the platform to learn and experience the real business world and will now help me in better understanding of my academic subjects where I would be able to associate them with reality. The internship program was an enriching experience indeed.


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