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Manual Work Systems Worker-Machine Systems Automated Work Systems Determining Worker and Machine Requirements Machine Clusters
Three Categories of Work Systems
1. Manual work system Worker performing one or more tasks without the aid of powered tools Worker-machine system Human worker operates powered equipment Automated work system
Process performed without the direct participation of a human worker
Manual Work System
Work unit – the object that is processed by the work system Workpiece being machined (production work) Material being moved (logistics work)
Customer in a store (service work) Product being designed (knowledge work)
Unit operations – tasks and processes that are treated as being independent of other work activities
Manual Work Systems
Human body accomplishing some physical task without an external source of power With or without hand tools When hand tools are used, the power to operate them is derived from the strength of a human worker Other human faculties are required, such as handeye coordination and mental effort
Pure Manual Work
Involves the physical and mental capabilities of the human worker, and no machines, tools, or other implements are employed in performing the task. Material handler moving cartons in a warehouse Workers loading furniture into a moving van without the use of dollies Dealer at a casino table dealing cards Office worker filing documents Assembly worker snap-fitting two parts together
Manual Work with Hand Tools
Manual tasks are commonly improved by the use of hand tools. A tool is a device or implement for making changes to some object (e.g., the work unit), such as cutting, grinding, striking, squeezing, or other process. A hand tool is a small tool that is operated by the strength and skill of the human user. Examples of manual tasks involving the use of hand tools include the following: Machinist filing a part Assembly worker using screwdriver Painter using paintbrush to paint door trim QC inspector using micrometer to measure a shaft diameter
Repetitive vs. Nonrepetitive Tasks
Repetitive Task Relatively short duration (usually a few minutes or less) High degree of similarity from one cycle to the next Nonrepetitive Task Takes a long time Work cycles are not similar
Cycle Time Variations
A main objective in work design is to determine the one best method for a task, and then to standardize its use Once the method has been standardized, the actual time to perform the task is a variable because of: Differences in worker performance differences in hand and body motions Mistakes by worker Variations in starting work units The learning curve phenomenon Differences in the physical and cognitive attributes among workers performing the task Variations in the methods used by different workers to perform the task
Defined as the pace or relative speed of working As worker performance increases, cycle time decreases From the employer’s viewpoint, it is desirable for worker performance to be high What is a reasonable pace to expect from a worker?
A pace of working that can be maintained by a properly trained average worker throughout an entire work shift without injurious effect on the worker’s health or physical well-being The work shift is usually 8 hours, during which periodic rest breaks are allowed Normal performance = 100% performance Common benchmark of normal performance: Walking at 3 miles/hr
The time to complete a task when working at normal performance Actual time to perform the cycle depends on worker performance Tc = Tn / Pw where Tc = cycle time, Tn = normal time, and Pw = worker performance or pace
Example: Normal Performance
Given: A man walks in the early morning for health and fitness. His usual route is 1.85 miles. A typical time is 30 min. The benchmark of normal performance = 3 miles/hr. Determine: (a) how long the route would take at normal performance and (b) the man’s performance when he completes the route in 30 min.
(a) At 3 miles/hr, time = 1.85 miles / 3 miles/hr = 0.6167 hr = 37 min (b) Rearranging equation, Pw = Tn / Tc Pw = 37 min / 30 min = 1.233 = 123.3 % Alternative approach in (b): Using velocity = 1.85 miles / 0.5 hr = 3.7 miles/hr Pw = 3.7 miles/hr / 3.0 miles/hr = 1.233 %
Same as normal performance, but acknowledges that periodic rest breaks must be taken by the worker Periodic rest breaks are allowed during the work shift Federal law requires employer to pay the worker during these breaks Other interruptions and delays also occur during the shift
To account for the delays due to: Personal time (P) Bathroom breaks, personal phone calls Fatigue (F) Rest breaks are intended to deal with fatigue Delays (D) Interruptions, equipment breakdowns
Defined as the normal time but with an allowance added in to account for losses due to personal time, fatigue, and delays Tstd = Tn (1 + Apfd) where Tstd = standard time, Tn = normal time, and Apfd = PFD allowance factor Also called the allowed time
Irregular Work Elements
Elements that are performed with a frequency of less than once per cycle Examples: periodic changing of tools (e.g., changing a knife blade) Irregular elements are prorated into the regular cycle according to their frequency
Example: Determining Standard Time
Given: The normal time to perform the regular work cycle is 3.23 min. In addition, an irregular work element with a normal time = 1.25 min is performed every 5 cycles. The PFD allowance factor is 15%. Determine (a) the standard time and (b) the number of work units produced during an 8-hr shift if the worker's pace is consistent with standard performance.
Standard Hours and Worker Efficiency
Two common measures of worker productivity used in industry to assess a worker’s productivity are standard hours and worker efficiency Standard hours – represents the amount of work actually accomplished Hstd = Q Tstd Hstd = standard hours accomplished; Q = quantity of work units completed; Tstd = standard time per work unit Worker efficiency – work accomplished as a proportion of shift hours Ew = Hstd / Hsh Ew = worker efficiency; Hstd = # of standard hours of work accomplished; Hsh = # of shift hours (8 hr)
Worker efficiency is commonly used to evaluate workers in industry. In many incentive wage payment plans, the worker’s earnings are based on his or her efficiency or the number of standard hours accomplished. Worker efficiency and standard hours are easily computed, because the number of hours in the shift and the standard time are known, and the number of work units produced can be readily counted.
When worker operates a powered equipment we refer to the arrangement as a worker-machine system. Examples: Machinist operating a milling machine Factory worker loading and unloading parts at a machine tool. Truck driver driving an 18-wheel tractor-trailer Worker crew operating a rolling mill that converts hot steel blocks into flat plates. Clerical worker entering data into a PC
Types of Powered Equipment
Distinguished from hand tools by the fact that a source of power other than human strength is used to operate it. Common power sources are electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, and fossil fuel motors § Portable power tools are light enough in weight portable power drills, rotary saws, chain saws, and electric hedge trimmers. § Mobile powered equipment are generally heavy pieces of equipment Transportation equipment, agricultural and lawn-keeping, forklift trucks, electric power generator at construction site § Stationary powered machines stand on the floor or ground and cannot be moved while they are operating Machine tools (e.g., turning, drilling, milling); office equipment (personal computers, photocopiers, telephones, fax machines); cash registers, heat treatment furnaces
Classification of Powered Machinery
Numbers of Workers and Machines
Means of classifying worker-machine systems is according to whether there are one or more workers and one or more machines
One worker and One machine Taxicab driver and taxi Multiple workers and One machine Ship's crew
One worker & Multiple machines A worker tending several production machines Multiple workers and Multiple machines Emergency repair crew responding to machine breakdowns in a factory
One Worker and One Machine
Good work design attempts to achieve the following objectives: Design the controls of the machine to be logical and easy to operate for the worker. Design the work sequence so that as much of the worker’s task as possible can be accomplished while the machine is operating, thereby minimizing worker idle time. Minimize the idle times of both the worker and the machine. Design the task and the machine to be safe for the worker.
Level of Operator Attention
Full-time attention Welders performing arc welding Part-time attention during each work cycle Worker loading and unloading a production machine on semi-automatic cycle Periodic attention with regular servicing Crane operator in steel mill Periodic attention with random servicing Firefighters responding to alarms
Two welders performing arc welding on pipe - requires fulltime attention of workers (photo courtesy of Lincoln Electric Co.)
Cycle Time Analysis in Worker Machine System
In terms of cycle time analysis, worker-machine systems fall into two categories: (3)systems in which the machine time depends on operator control, the task can be either repetitive or nonrepetitive (5)systems in which the machine time is constant and independent of operator control, and the work cycle is repetitive.
Cycle Time with no Overlap between Worker and Machine
If there is no overlap in work elements between the worker and the machine, then the normal time for the cycle is simply the sum of their respective normal times: Normal time for cycle
Tn = Tnw + Tm
Where Tnw = normal time for the worker-controlled portion of the cycle, min: and Tm = machine cycle time (assumed constant).
Standard time for cycle
Tstd = Tnw (1 + Apfd) + Tm (1 + Am)
where Tnw = normal time of the worker, min; Tm = constant time for the machine cycle, min; Am = machine allowance factor, used in the
Worker-Machine Systems with Internal Work Elements
In the operation of a worker-machine system, it is important to distinguish between the operator’s work elements that are performed in succession with the machine’s work elements and those that are performed simultaneously with the machine elements. Operator elements that are performed sequentially are called external work elements while those that are performed simultaneously with the machine cycle are called internal work elements.
Example 2.10 Internal Versus External Work Elements in Cycle Time Analysis
The work cycle in a worker-machine system consists of the elements and associated times given in the table below. All of the operator’s work elements are external to the machine time. Can some of the worker’s elements be made internal to the machine cycle, and if so, what is the expected cycle time for the operation?
Although the total times for the worker and the machine are the same as before, element 4 in the revised cycle (which Consists of elements 1, 2, and 6 from the original work cycle) is performed simultaneously with the machine time, resulting in the following new cycle time: Tc = 0.10 + 0.12 + 0.75 = 0.97 min This represents a 34% reduction in cycle time, which translates into a 53% increase in production rate. When internal elements are present in the work cycle, it must then be determined whether the machine cycle time or the sum of the worker’s internal elements take longer.
Automated Work Systems
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is accomplished without human assistance Implemented using a program of instructions combined with a control system that executes the instructions Power is required to drive the process and operate the control system
Levels of Automated Systems
Semiautomated machine Performs a portion of the work cycle under some form of program control Human worker tends the machine for the remainder of the cycle, by loading and unloading it Operator must be present every cycle Fully automated machine Operates for extended periods of time with no human attention
Automated robotic spot welding cell (photo courtesy of Ford Motor Company)
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