SOME STATISTICS FORMULAS

FREQUENTLY USED FORMULAS
Sample mean

n = sample size; N = population size

Population mean

Sample standard deviation

Population standard deviation

Sample mean for a frequency distribution

Sample standard deviation for a frequency distribution

Sample coefficient of variation

Range = Largest data value - smallest data value

Standard z value

Original x value

Central limit theorem

RO!A!ILITY FORMULAS
Probability of an event A

where f = frequency of occurrence of event n = sample size Probability of the complement of event A P(not A) = 1 - P(A) ultiplication rule for independent events

!eneral multiplication rules

Addition rule for mutually exclusive events P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) !eneral addition rule P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B) Permutation rule

Combination rule

ean of a discrete probability distribution

Standard deviation of a discrete probability distribution

!INOMIAL DISTRI!UTION FORMULAS

"#e$e r = num%e$ o& su''esses; p = p$o%a%ilit( o& su''ess; q = " # p

$ormula for a binomial probability distribution

ean for a binomial distribution

Standard deviation for a binomial distribution

CONFIDENCE INTER)ALS
Confidence interval for a mean %large samples&

Confidence interval for a mean %Small samples&

Confidence interval for a proportion %'here np ( ) and nq ( )&

SAM LE SI*E
Sample size for estimating means

Sample size for estimating proportions

RE+RESSION AND CORRELATION
*n all these formulas

+east squares line

Standard error of estimate

Pearson product#moment correlation coefficient

Coefficient of determination r2 Confidence interval for y yp - E y yp + E where yp is the predicted y value for x

Spearman Ran, correlation coefficient

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