# Chapter 1 • Introduction

1.1 A gas at 20°C may be rarefied if it contains less than 1012 molecules per mm3. If Avogadro’s number is 6.023E23 molecules per mole, what air pressure does this represent? Solution: The mass of one molecule of air may be computed as m= Molecular weight 28.97 mol −1 = = 4.81E−23 g Avogadro’s number 6.023E23 molecules/g ⋅ mol

**Then the density of air containing 1012 molecules per mm3 is, in SI units,
**

molecules öæ g æ ö ρ = ç 1012 ÷ç 4.81E−23 ÷ 3 molecule ø mm è øè g kg = 4.81E−11 = 4.81E−5 3 3 mm m

Finally, from the perfect gas law, Eq. (1.13), at 20°C = 293 K, we obtain the pressure:

kg ö æ m2 ö æ p = ρ RT = ç 4.81E−5 3 ÷ ç 287 2 ÷ (293 K) = 4.0 Pa Αns. m øè s ⋅K ø è

1.2 The earth’s atmosphere can be modeled as a uniform layer of air of thickness 20 km and average density 0.6 kg/m3 (see Table A-6). Use these values to estimate the total mass and total number of molecules of air in the entire atmosphere of the earth. Solution: Let Re be the earth’s radius ≈ 6377 km. Then the total mass of air in the atmosphere is

m t = ò ρ dVol = ρavg (Air Vol) ≈ ρavg 4π R 2 e (Air thickness) = (0.6 kg/m 3 )4π (6.377E6 m)2 (20E3 m) ≈ 6.1E18 kg Ans.

Dividing by the mass of one molecule ≈ 4.8E−23 g (see Prob. 1.1 above), we obtain the total number of molecules in the earth’s atmosphere: N molecules = m(atmosphere) 6.1E21 grams = ≈ 1.3E44 molecules m(one molecule) 4.8E −23 gm/molecule Ans.

2

Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition

1.3 For the triangular element in Fig. P1.3, show that a tilted free liquid surface, in contact with an atmosphere at pressure pa, must undergo shear stress and hence begin to flow. Solution: Assume zero shear. Due to element weight, the pressure along the lower and right sides must vary linearly as shown, to a higher value at point C. Vertical forces are presumably in balance with element weight included. But horizontal forces are out of balance, with the unbalanced force being to the left, due to the shaded excess-pressure triangle on the right side BC. Thus hydrostatic pressures cannot keep the element in balance, and shear and flow result.

Fig. P1.3

1.4 The quantities viscosity µ, velocity V, and surface tension Y may be combined into a dimensionless group. Find the combination which is proportional to µ. This group has a customary name, which begins with C. Can you guess its name? Solution: The dimensions of these variables are {µ} = {M/LT}, {V} = {L/T}, and {Y} = {M/T2}. We must divide µ by Y to cancel mass {M}, then work the velocity into the group:

ì µ ü ì M / LT ü ì T ü ìLü hence multiply by V = = , { } í ý=í ý í ý í ý; 2 î Y þ î M /T þ î L þ îT þ finally obtain

µV = dimensionless. Ans. Y

This dimensionless parameter is commonly called the Capillary Number.

**1.5 A formula for estimating the mean free path of a perfect gas is:
**

l = 1.26

µ µ = 1.26 √ (RT) p ρ √ (RT)

(1)

Chapter 1 • Introduction

3

where the latter form follows from the ideal-gas law, ρ = p/RT. What are the dimensions of the constant “1.26”? Estimate the mean free path of air at 20°C and 7 kPa. Is air rarefied at this condition? Solution: We know the dimensions of every term except “1.26”: ì L2 ü ìMü ìMü {l} = {L} {µ} = í ý {ρ} = í 3 ý {R} = í 2 ý {T} = {Θ} î LT þ îL þ îT Θþ Therefore the above formula (first form) may be written dimensionally as

{L} = {1.26?} {M/L⋅T} = {1.26?}{L} {M/L } √ [{L2 /T 2 ⋅ Θ}{Θ}]

3

Since we have {L} on both sides, {1.26} = {unity}, that is, the constant is dimensionless. The formula is therefore dimensionally homogeneous and should hold for any unit system. For air at 20°C = 293 K and 7000 Pa, the density is ρ = p/RT = (7000)/[(287)(293)] = 0.0832 kg/m3. From Table A-2, its viscosity is 1.80E−5 N ⋅ s/m2. Then the formula predict a mean free path of

l = 1.26

1.80E−5 ≈ 9.4E−7 m (0.0832)[(287)(293)]1/2

Ans.

This is quite small. We would judge this gas to approximate a continuum if the physical scales in the flow are greater than about 100 l, that is, greater than about 94 µm.

1.6 If p is pressure and y is a coordinate, state, in the {MLT} system, the dimensions of the quantities (a) ∂p/∂y; (b) ò p dy; (c) ∂ 2 p/∂y2; (d) ∇p. Solution: (a) {ML−2T−2}; (b) {MT−2}; (c) {ML−3T−2}; (d) {ML−2T−2}

1.7 A small village draws 1.5 acre-foot of water per day from its reservoir. Convert this water usage into (a) gallons per minute; and (b) liters per second. Solution: One acre = (1 mi2/640) = (5280 ft)2/640 = 43560 ft2. Therefore 1.5 acre-ft = 65340 ft3 = 1850 m3. Meanwhile, 1 gallon = 231 in3 = 231/1728 ft3. Then 1.5 acre-ft of water per day is equivalent to Q = 65340 ft 3 æ 1728 gal ö æ 1 day ö gal ç ÷ ≈ 340 3 ÷ç day è 231 ft ø è 1440 min ø min Ans. (a)

The data show that C = 1. I
The formula admits to an arbitrary dimensionless constant C whose value can only be obtained from known data.00 2 I in 0. the right hand side must have dimensions of stress. and I = 0. {I} = {L4}. Fifth Edition
Similarly. Substitute the given data into the proposed formula:
σ = 10880
lbf My (2900 lbf ⋅in)(1. or: C ≈ 1. or σ = My/I. for the particular case M = 2900 in⋅lbf. Thus it must be that σ is proportional to M also.85E6 ÷ ≈ 21 ÷ç day ø è 86400 sec ø s è
Ans.
. where {C} = {unity} Ans. Find the only possible dimensionally homogeneous formula for σ. that is. or: {fcn(I)} = {L−4 } î LT þ î T þ We need just enough I’s to give dimensions of {L–4}: we need the formula to be exactly inverse in I.4 in 4
Ans. and end up with {ML–2T –2}. The correct dimensionally homogeneous beam bending formula is thus:
σ =C
My . (b)
1. but the bending moment contains both mass and time and in exactly the combination we need. with area moment of inertia.8) = 10880 lbf/in2. or: í 2 ý = {L}{fcn(M.I)}. Then a metric unit for this water usage is:
æ L öæ 1 day ö L Q = ç 1.5 in) =C =C . 1850 m3 = 1. whose dimensions are {ML2T –2}.5 in. Now we have reduced the problem to: ì ML2 ü ì M ü σ = yM fcn(I). it is clear that {I} contains neither mass {M} nor time {T} dimensions. Suppose also that. y = 1. or í 2 ý = {L} í 2 ý{fcn(I)}.85E6 liters. our old friend from strength of materials. the predicted stress is 75 MPa.4
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.I)} î LT þ ì M ü or: the function must have dimensions {fcn(M. {MT –2}. Well. Solution: We are given that σ = y fcn(M.
ì M ü {σ } = {y}{fcn(M. to achieve dimensional homogeneity. For homogeneity.I)} = í 2 2 ý îL T þ
Therefore. we somehow must combine bending moment.I) and we are not to study up on strength of materials but only to use dimensional reasoning. Convert stress into English units: σ = (75 MPa)/(6894.8 Suppose that bending stress σ in a beam depends upon bending moment M and beam area moment of inertia I and is proportional to the beam half-thickness y.4 in4.

9 The dimensionless Galileo number. acceleration of gravity g. It combines the quantities density ρ. µ = viscosity. Without peeking into another textbook. {L} = {L}.π.
. expresses the ratio of gravitational effect to viscous effects in a flow. Thus we obtain:
æρö ρ 2 gL3 gL3 Galileo number = Ga = ç ÷ ( g)( L )3 = = 2 µ2 ν èµø
2
Ans. and ρ = density. length scale L. Well.Chapter 1 • Introduction
5
1. hoping for homogeneity. find the form of the Galileo number if it contains g in the numerator. we have assumed that all constants (3.9. {g} = {L/T2}. Solution: The dimensions of these variables are {ρ} = {M/L3}. and {µ} = {M/LT}. using Table 1-2:
ì 9π ü {F} = {3π }{µ}{D}{V} + í ý{ρ}{V}2 {D}2 ? î 16 þ
2 ì ML ü ìMü ìL ü ìMüì L ü or: í 2 ý = {1} í ý{L} í ý + {1} í 3 ý í 2 ý {L2} ? îT þ î LT þ îT þ îL þîT þ
where..
1. We then make the combination dimensionless by multiplying the group by L3.e. Is the formula homogeneous? Solution: Write this formula in dimensional form. making sure that g appears only to the first power: ì ρ ü ì M / L3 ü ì T ü í ý=í ý=í 2ý î µ þ î M / LT þ î L þ while only {g} contains {T}.16) are pure. yes indeed. and viscosity µ. Thus {ρ/µ}2{g} = {T2/L4}{L/T2} = {L−3}. all terms have dimensions {ML/T2}! Therefore the StokesOseen formula (derived in fact from a theory) is dimensionally homogeneous. we need to multiply it by {ρ/µ}2. Divide ρ by µ to eliminate mass {M} and then combine with g and L to eliminate length {L} and time {T}. i. To keep {g} to the 1st power.10 The Stokes-Oseen formula [10] for drag on a sphere at low velocity V is:
F = 3πµ DV + 9π ρ V 2 D2 16
where D = sphere diameter. Ga. {unity}.

B is not a constant.68” is proportional to the “discharge coefficient” Cd for the hole. What are the dimensions of B?
Solution: Using Table 1-2.]
1.68” is indeed dimensionless Ans. [The formula is very similar to the valve-flow formula Q = Cd A o (∆p/ ρ ) discussed at the end of Sect.12 For low-speed (laminar) flow in a tube of radius ro. the following formula for volume flow Q through a hole of diameter D in the side of a tank whose liquid surface is a distance h above the hole position:
Q = 0. it follows that the constant “0.68?
Solution: Write the equation in dimensional form:
ì L3 ü ? 2 ì L ü {Q} = í ý = {0. it hides one of the variables in pipe flow. {µ} {M/LT} îT þ îTþ
or: {B} = {L–1} Ans. {L3/T}.
.4.4. What are the dimensions of the constant 0. write this equation in dimensional form: ì L2 ü {∆p} 2 {M/LT 2} 2 ìL ü {u} = {B} {r }.11 Test. for dimensional homogeneity. The proper form of the pipe flow relation is u=C ∆p 2 2 ro − r Lµ
(
)
where L is the length of the pipe and C is a dimensionless constant which has the theoretical laminar-flow value of (1/4)—see Sect.6
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.68?}{L } í 2 ý îT þ îTþ
1/ 2
{L}
1/ 2
ì L3 ü = {0. and the number “0. the velocity u takes the form
u=B ∆p 2 2 ro − r µ
(
)
where µ is viscosity and ∆p the pressure drop. In fact. or: í ý = {B?} {L } = {B?} í ý . 6.68} í ý îTþ
Thus.68D2 gh where g is the acceleration of gravity. The parameter B must have dimensions of inverse length. Fifth Edition
1. since D2 ( gh ) has provided the correct volume-flow dimensions. The formula is dimensionally homogeneous and can be used with any system of units. 1.

P1. as shown in Fig. one could convert to SI units: Q = 0. so that η is a dimensionless ratio. BG:
Q = 40
L ft 2 lbf lbf ft⋅lbf = 1. Power = 16(550) = 8800 s s s in ft
η=
(1.7) = 11930 W. Write this in dimensional form:
ì L3 ü {Q} = í ý = {B}{f(H.81. ∆p = 35 2 = 5040 2 .g)}. or: {L3/T} = {L}{L1/2/T}{fcn(H)}.g).41 ft 3 /s)(5040 lbf /ft 2 ) ≈ 0. thus h = (0.g)} = í ý îTþ
Fig. 8800 ft⋅lbf /s
Similarly.81 or 81% Ans. Therefore g must enter in the form g1/2 to accomplish this.14 The volume flow Q over a dam is proportional to dam width B and also varies with gravity g and excess water height H upstream.41 . What is η if ∆p = 35 psi.14
So the function fcn(H. and the input power is 16 horsepower?
Solution: The student should perhaps verify that Q∆p has units of power.g) must provide dimensions of {L2/T}.Chapter 1 • Introduction
7
1.13 The efficiency η of a pump is defined as
η=
Q∆p Input Power
where Q is volume flow and ∆p the pressure rise produced by the pump.
1.04)(241300)/(11930) = 0. ∆p = 241300 Pa. or: {fcn(H)} = {L3/2}
. Then convert everything to consistent units. The relation is now Q = Bg1/2fcn(H). but only g contains time. îTþ ì L2 ü or: {f(H. Q = 40 L/s.g)} = {L}{f(H. What is the only possible dimensionally homogeneous relation for this flow rate? Solution: So far we know that Q = B fcn(H.14.04 m3/s. and input power = 16(745. for example. P1. Ans.

civil engineers use the following formula for flow rate: Q ≈ 3.9”? Can this equation be used with confidence for a variety of liquids and gases?
.
1.16 Test the dimensional homogeneity of the boundary-layer x-momentum equation:
ρu
∂u ∂u ∂p ∂τ + ρv =− + ρ gx + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y
Solution: This equation.14 just above. By comparing with the answer to Prob. the function must be a 3/2 power.15 As a practical application of Fig. Solution: Clearly the formula cannot be dimensionally homogeneous. í ý = L L3 T 2 î L2 T 2 þ î ∂ x þ îL T þ
All terms have dimension {ML–2T –2}. í ý = =í 2 2ý íρ u ý = íρ v ý= 3 L î ∂ xþ î ∂yþ L T L î L T þ î∂ x þ îL T þ
{ρ g x } =
M L ì M ü ì ∂τ ü M/LT 2 ì M ü =í =í 2 2ý ý. Test each term in sequence:
2 ì ∂ u ü ì ∂ u ü M L L/T ì M ü ì ∂ p ü M/LT ì M ü = í 2 2 ý.54
What are the dimensions of the constant “61. P1.9D
2. often termed a sharp-crested weir. 1.3” hides the square root of the acceleration of gravity. try to explain the difficulty and how it might be converted to a more homogeneous form. because B and H do not contain the dimension time. Fifth Edition
In order for fcn(H) to provide dimensions of {L3/2}. Is this formula dimensionally homogeneous? If not.14.63 æ
∆p ö ç ÷ è L ø
0.17 Investigate the consistency of the Hazen-Williams formula from hydraulics:
Q = 61. we see that the constant “3. sec).
1.8
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. like all theoretical partial differential equations in mechanics.3 BH3/2.
1. where C is a dimensionless constant Ans. The formula would be invalid for anything except English units (ft. with Q in ft3/s and B and H in feet. This equation may use any consistent units. Thus the final desired homogeneous relation for dam flow is:
Q = CBg1/2H3/2. is dimensionally homogeneous.

and surface tension difference δY .9}{L2. as asked. and (b) that it will stop after travelling a distance x = mVo/K. Suppose a particle of mass m is constrained to move horizontally from the initial position x = 0 with initial velocity V = Vo. still in common use in the watersupply industry. where K is a constant. Actually. the formula is extremely inconsistent and cannot be used with confidence for any given fluid or condition or units.10. V drops off exponentially with time.18* (“*” means “difficult”—not just a plug-and-chug. If M is proportional to L . diameter and turbulent velocities less than 10 ft/s and (certain) English units.
.9} = {L1. (a. Prob. x = mVo /K.54} Ans. as t → ∞.19 Marangoni convection arises when a surface has a difference in surface tension along its length. The dimensionless Marangoni number M is a combination of thermal diffusivity α = k/(ρcp ) (where k is the thermal conductivity).b)
Thus. hence F = KV. 1. and.Chapter 1 • Introduction
9
Solution: Write out the dimensions of each side of the equation:
0.9}{D2. the first (linear) term in Stokes’ drag law.
1. is dominant. integrate ò dt dt V K V 0
o
V
t
Solve V = Vo e − mt/K
and x = ò V dt =
0
t
mVo 1 − e − mt/K K
(
)
Ans. viscosity µ.45T0.08M–0.63} í ý ý îLþ îTþ î L þ 0. find its form. Solution: Set up and solve the differential equation for forces in the x-direction:
dV dV m å Fx = − Drag = ma x . This formula should be held at arm’s length and given a vote of “No Confidence.54 ì L3 ü ? ì M/LT 2 ü ì ∆p ü = {61. the Hazen-Williams formula.63} í {Q} = í ý = {61. Show (a) that its velocity will decrease exponentially with time.54
The constant 61.”
1. that is) For small particles at low velocities.9 has fractional dimensions: {61. Clearly. is valid only for water flow in smooth pipes larger than 2-in. length scale L . or: −KV = m = −ò .

8732 − . then í = í ý= 2 ý=í 2ý í ý îT þ î µ þ T M î µ α þ îT L þ î L þ δ YL Multiply by L and we obtain the Marangoni number: M = Ans. Set up a differential equation for the ball motion and solve for the instantaneous velocity V(t) and position z(t). Solution: For this problem. then divide by α to eliminate time:
ìδ Y ü ìδ Y 1 ü ì L T ü ì 1 ü M LT ìL ü = í ý . Vo = 45 m/s. {L} = {L}.72 .) A baseball. We divide δ Y by µ to get rid of mass dimensions.
.2 meters. whence we evaluate the maximum height of the baseball as zmax = 145 ln[sec(0.2601t) sø è é cos(0.2601 s−1 .8732 radians. although this one can be done analytically.8734)] ≈ 64.0010 N⋅s2/m2. so one might also expect some students simply to program the differential equation.72 tan(0. The air drag on the ball is CV2. and C = 0. with a numerical method such as Runge-Kutta. {µ} = {M/LT}. is thrown directly upward from the initial position z = 0 and Vo = 45 m/s.8732 − 0. where C ≈ 0. for upward motion z:
dV å Fz = −ma z .2601 ≈ 3.10
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.
mg m = 37. Ans.8732/0. C s
Cg m = 0. Find the maximum height zmax reached by the ball and compare your results with the elementary-physics case of zero air drag. = 145 m m C
Hence the final analytical formulas are:
æ mö V ç in ÷ = 37. m(dV/dt) + CV2 = −mg.0010 N ⋅ s2/m2. {δY} = {M/T2}. µα
{
}
1. This is cumbersome.8732) ë û
The velocity equals zero when t = 0. we compute
φ = 0.2601t) ù and z(in meters) = 145 ln ê ú cos(0. or: −CV − mg = m . Fifth Edition
Solution: List the dimensions: {α} = {L2/T}.145 kg. solve dt
2
V o
ò
V
dV = − ò dt = −t g + CV 2 /m 0
t
Thus V =
æ mg Cg ö m é cos(φ − t √ (gC/m) ù tan ç and z ln ê = çφ − t ÷ ú ÷ C m C cosφ ë û è ø
where φ = tan –1[Vo √ (C/mg)] .20C (“C” means computer-oriented.36 s. we include the weight of the ball. with m = 145 g. For the given data m = 0.

372 U∞ dt R
Substituting ζ = −1. and L3 cleans it all up:
Thus the dimensionless Gr = ρ 2 gβ∆TL3 /µ 2 Ans. from elementary physics formulas. ζ = dt ∂ t ∂x R x øê ζ ø è è x øú ë û R èζ
This acceleration is negative. Gr.22
Using the concepts from Ex.36. the velocities are
u = U ∞ (1 − R 2 /x 2 ). If Gr contains both g and β in the numerator. 8. find (a) the maximum flow deceleration along AB.81 2g 2(9.5. V = Vo − gt and z = Vot − gt2/2. what is its proper form? Solution: Recall that {µ/ρ} = {L2/T} and eliminates mass dimensions.Chapter 1 • Introduction
11
For zero drag. (a)
. v = w = 0
Fig. the acceleration of gravity g. 1. and reaches a minimum near point B. x = −R.
Solution: We see that u slows down monotonically from U∞ at A to zero at point B. as a uniform stream approaches a cylinder of radius R along the line AB shown in Fig. the acceleration (du/dt) is
æ R2 ö é æ 2R 2 ö ù U 2 æ 2 du ∂ u ∂u 2 ö x = +u = 0 + U∞ ç1 − 2 ÷ ê U∞ ç + 3 ÷ú = ∞ ç 3 − 5 ÷ . length scale L. and the coefficient of volume expansion β.]
1. (b) R
2 du |min = −0. is a combination of density ρ. we need the product {β∆Τ} = {1}. P1.
1. P1. Then {g} eliminates {T}. or dx è dt ø 3 x |max decel.” From Example 1. – ∞ < x < –R.291 Ans. and (b) its location.291 into (du/dt) gives
Ans.62 cm. temperature difference ∆T. ≈ −1.2 m g 9.22.5.22* According to the theory of Chap.21 The dimensionless Grashof number. defined as β = (−1/ρ)(∂ρ/∂T)p. viscosity µ. To eliminate temperature. which is found by differentiating the acceleration with respect to x:
d æ du ö 2 5 ç ÷ = 0 if ζ = .81)
Thus drag on the baseball reduces the maximum height by 38%. [For this problem I assumed a baseball of diameter 7.59 s and z max = o = ≈ 103. we calculate that t max height = Vo 45 V2 (45)2 = ≈ 4. as expected. which is a flow “stagnation point. with a drag coefficient CD ≈ 0.

98 kg/m 3 . finding the flow rate from a faucet.013.3−1)
Ans. for CO2. and T1 = 400°C = 673 K. Fifth Edition
A plot of the flow deceleration along line AB is shown as follows.24 Consider carbon dioxide at 10 atm and 400°C. (b)
(NOTE: The large errors in “ideal” cp and “ideal” final pressure are due to the sharp dropoff in k of CO2 with temperature. Solution: From Table A.0775. (a)
For EES or the Gas Tables. (a) Then use the ideal gas laws:
ρ1 =
cp =
p1 1.250 Pa kg = = 7. c p = 1119 J/(kg⋅K). as seen in Fig.23E
This is an experimental home project. k ≈ 1.30. Convert pressure from p1 = 10 atm = 1.250 Pa.12
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. Calculate ρ and cp at this state and then estimate the new pressure when the gas is cooled isentropically to 100°C. and R ≈ 189 m2/(s2⋅K).
1.97 3 . the formula is
p2 æ T2 ö = p1 ç è T1 ÷ ø
k /( k −1)
p2 æ 373K ö = =ç ÷ 1013 kPa è 673K ø
= 0. or: p2 = 79 kPa
Ans.3 − 1 kg⋅K
1.)
. 2 2 RT1 (189 m /s K )(673 K ) m kR 1. p2 = 43 kPa Ans.3 of the text.4. just program the properties for carbon dioxide or look them up:
ρ1 = 7. 1. (a)
For an ideal gas cooled isentropically to T2 = 100°C = 373 K.3(189) J = = 819 k − 1 1. and (b) the Gas Tables or EES. Use two methods: (a) an ideal gas.3 /(1.
1.013.

υ
or: W1-2 = (0. given R = 2077 m2/(s2⋅K) from Table A-4.9 m 3) ≈ 0. Also.296 kg)(2077 J/kg⋅K)(293 K)ln(1. Therefore. on the moon or wherever. Estimate the work done: W1-2 = ò p dυ = ò
1 1 2 2
m RT dυ = mRT υ
ò
1
2
dυ = mRT ln(υ2 /υ1).9 m3 of helium at 200 kPa and 20°C. (c) how much heat transfer.0 ft 3 ) ≈ 0.9) = Q1-2 ≈ 92000 J
Ans. is required to expand this gas at constant temperature to a new volume of 1.5 m3.3286 kg/m 3)(0.00732 slug/ft 3 RT (1717 ft⋅lbf/slug ⋅°R)(535° R)
Then the total weight of air in the tire is Wair = ρ gυ = (0.5 m3? Solution: First find the density of helium for this condition. in kg.26 A tire has a volume of 3.0 ft3 and a ‘gage’ pressure of 32 psi at 75°F. no matter where you are. (a) on earth. (c)
1. what is the weight of air in the tire? Solution: Convert the temperature from 75°F to 535°R. in MJ.Chapter 1 • Introduction
13
1. (a. Convert the pressure to psf:
p = (32 lbf/in 2 )(144 in 2 /ft 2 ) + 2116 lbf/ft 2 = 4608 + 2116 ≈ 6724 lbf/ft 2
From this compute the density of the air in the tire:
ρair =
p 6724 lbf/ft 2 = = 0.9 to 1.707 lbf Ans.25 A tank contains 0.2 ft/s2 )(3. The first law of thermodynamics gives
dQadded − dWby gas = dE = mc v ∆T = 0 since T2 = T1 (isothermal)
Then the heat added equals the work of expansion. we expand a constant mass isothermally from 0.3286 kg/m 3 (2077 J/kg⋅K)(293 K)
Now mass is mass. m He = ρHeυ = (0. Change 20°C to 293 K:
ρHe =
p R He T
=
200000 N/m 2 ≈ 0.b)
For part (c). If the ambient pressure is sea-level standard.00732 slug/ft 3 )(32.296 kg
Ans. Estimate the total mass of this gas.
.5/0. and (b) on the moon.

6% J/kg⋅K Ans. Fifth Edition
1. We can take an average value: p = 40 psia. but if we wanted to.624 500 14. Therefore steam is nearly an ideal gas in this (high) temperature range and for this (low) pressure.165 600 15.6% Ans.3% less than the ideal-gas approximation for steam in Table A-4: 461 m2/(s2⋅K).2 lbm/slug) ft⋅lbf = ≈ 2721 T (400 + 459.
. å 5 i=1 kg ⋅ K
With such a small uncertainty.14
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. At 400°F.6)°R slug°R
The metric conversion factor. ft3/lbm: 400 12. for all data.699 ù (32. 13]: T.27 Given temperature and specific volume data for steam at 40 psia [Ref. °F: R. the sum of the squares of the deviations from the perfect-gas law:
æ pV ö Minimize E = å ç R − i ÷ Ti ø i =1 è
5 2
by differentiating
5 æ ∂E pV ö = 0 = å2çR − i ÷ Ti ø ∂R i =1 è
Thus R least-squares =
p 5 Vi 40(144) é 12.685 700 17.9798”: Rmetric = 2721/5.1 m2/(s2⋅K). then. from the inside cover of the text. is “5.2) = +L + å ê 5 i =1 Ti 5 1260°R ú ë 860°R û
For this example.195 800 18.624 ft 3 /lbm)(32. Solution: The units are awkward but we can compute R from the data. Convert this to metric units for our (highly accurate) least-squares estimate: R steam ≈ 2739/5.9798 = 455. Let’s try all the five data points: T.9798 ≈ 458 ± 0. “R”400° F = pV (40 lbf/in 2 )(144 in 2 /ft 2 )(12. it would go like this: We wish to minimize. The English result shown above gives Rleast-squares ≈ 2739 ft⋅lbf/slug⋅°R.624 18. Not bad! This is only 1.699
Is the ideal gas law reasonable for this data? If so.6%. °F: v. 400°F ≤ T ≤ 800°F: R steam ≈ 1 5 J R i ≈ 458 ± 0. find a least-squares value for the gas constant R in m2/(s2⋅K) and compare with Table A-4. least-squares amounts to summing the (V/T) values and converting the units. m2/(s2⋅K): 400 455 500 457 600 459 700 460 800 460
The total variation in the data is only ±0. we don’t really need to perform a least-squares analysis.

7 ö ≈ 215.7 × 144 2 ÷ (5 ft 3 ) ln ç è ø è 14. at 40°C.7 psia = 2116 psfa). we obtain the quantitative work done:
æp ö æ lbf ö æ 134. by about 2. from Table A-4. Estimate the energy in ft-lbf required to compress this air isothermally from one atmosphere (14. compute the density of this wet air and compare with dry air. wet.000 ft⋅ lbf W1-2 = p 2υ2 ln ç 2 ÷ = ç 134.10 3 R a T R w T 287(313) 461(313) υ m
Ans. at 100% relative humidity. assuming an ideal gas: W1-2 = − ò p dυ = − ò
1 1 2 2
æυ ö æp ö mRT dυ = −mRT ln ç 2 ÷ = p2υ2 ln ç 2 ÷ υ è υ1 ø è p1 ø
where the latter form follows from the ideal gas law for isothermal changes.
.
1. from Table A-5.Chapter 1 • Introduction
15
1. we obtain
ρ=
ma + m w p p 93975 7375 kg = a + w = + = 1.29 A tank holds 5 ft3 of air at 20°C and 120 psi (gage). Solving for the mixture density.28 Wet air.046 + 0.051 ≈ 1.7%.
By comparison. Rair = 287 and Rwater = 461 m2/(s2⋅K). 100% humidity. is at 40°C and 1 atm. the density of dry air for the same conditions is
ρdry air =
p 101350 kg = = 1. For the given numerical data. Meanwhile.7 ÷ ø è p1 ø ft Ans. the vapor pressure of saturated (100% humid) water is 7375 Pa. Solution: Integrate the work of compression. at 40°C. Dalton’s law of partial pressures is
p tot = 1 atm = pair + p water = or: m tot = m a + m w = ma m Ra T + w R w T υ υ for an ideal gas
paυ p wυ + Ra T R w T
where.13 3 RT 287(313) m
Thus. air is lighter than dry air. Using Dalton’s law of partial pressures. whence the partial pressure of the air is pa = 1 atm − pw = 101350 − 7375 = 93975 Pa. Solution: Change T from 40°C to 313 K.

[Exact integration of Eq.1 kg/m3.29? Solution: First evaluate the density change of water.06986T – 0. which is why it is safe to test high-pressure systems with water but dangerous with air. T in °C Ans.94042 slug ø
Ans.704 slug) ç Hence W1-2 ≈ ç ÷ ≈ 21 ft⋅ lbf è 2 ft ø è 1.7 × 144 2 ÷ (9.003601(45)2 ≈ 990.
When compared with the data. At 120 psi(gage) = 134. 1. The curve-fit does not display the known fact that ρ for fresh water is a maximum at T = +4°C. we obtain
ρ45°C ≈ 1000.7 psia.
This is excellent accuracya good fit to good smooth data. When evaluated at the particular temperature of 45°C. At 1 atm.16
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.29 above.6 – 0.7 è 1.7 æ ρ ö 3 = ≈ 3001ç ÷ − 3000.94 ø
7
Hence m water = ρυ = (1.29 if the tank is filled with compressed water rather than air.30 Repeat Prob.06986(45) – 0.0036014T2. (1. Now the work done. and test its accuracy vis-a-vis Table A-1. is
W1-2 = −ò p dυ = ò
1 1 2 2
æmö m dρ ∆ρ pdç ÷ = ò p ≈ pavg m 2 2 ρ ρavg èρø 1
2
for a linear pressure rise
æ 0.
. Fit this data to a least-squares parabola. solve ρ ≈ 1. (1.940753 slug/ft .31 The density of water for 0°C < T < 100°C is given in Table A-1. as in Prob. The data and the parabolic curve-fit are shown plotted on the next page. compute ρ at T = 45°C and compare your result with the accepted value of ρ ≈ 990. po 14.940753)(5 ft 3 ) ≈ 9. Why is the result thousands of times less than the result of 215.6 – 0. Fifth Edition
1.7 + 134. Finally.22): p 134. 1.22) would give the same numerical result.000 ft⋅lbf in Prob.] Compressing water (extremely small ∆ρ) takes ten thousand times less energy than compressing air. ρ = a + bT + cT2.000753 ft 3 ö lbf ö æ 14.94 slug/ft3. Solution: The least-squares parabola which fits the data of Table A-1 is:
ρ (kg/m3) ≈ 1000. 1. ρ o ≈ 1.
1.2 kg/m3 Ans. the density would rise slightly according to Eq.704 slug The density change is extremely small. the accuracy is less than ±1%.

Chapter 1 • Introduction

17

1.32 A blimp is approximated by a prolate spheroid 90 m long and 30 m in diameter. Estimate the weight of 20°C gas within the blimp for (a) helium at 1.1 atm; and (b) air at 1.0 atm. What might the difference between these two values represent (Chap. 2)? Solution: Find a handbook. The volume of a prolate spheroid is, for our data,

2 2 υ = π LR 2 = π (90 m)(15 m)2 ≈ 42412 m 3 3 3

**Estimate, from the ideal-gas law, the respective densities of helium and air:
**

(a) ρ helium = pHe 1.1(101350) kg = ≈ 0.1832 3 ; R He T 2077(293) m

(b) ρ air =

pair 101350 kg = ≈ 1.205 3 . R air T 287(293) m

**Then the respective gas weights are
**

kg öæ mö æ WHe = ρ He gυ = ç 0.1832 3 ÷ç 9.81 2 ÷ (42412 m 3 ) ≈ 76000 N m øè s ø è

Ans. (a)

Wair = ρ air gυ = (1.205)(9.81)(42412) ≈ 501000 N

Ans. (b)

The difference between these two, 425000 N, is the buoyancy, or lifting ability, of the blimp. [See Section 2.8 for the principles of buoyancy.]

18

Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition

1.33 Experimental data for density of mercury versus pressure at 20°C are as follows: p, atm: ρ, kg/m3: 1 13545 500 13573 1000 13600 1500 13625 2000 13653

Fit this data to the empirical state relation for liquids, Eq. (1.19), to find the best values of B and n for mercury. Then, assuming the data are nearly isentropic, use these values to estimate the speed of sound of mercury at 1 atm and compare with Table 9.1. Solution: This can be done (laboriously) by the method of least-squares, but we can also do it on a spreadsheet by guessing, say, n ≈ 4,5,6,7,8 and finding the average B for each case. For this data, almost any value of n > 1 is reasonably accurate. We select:

Mercury: n ≈ 7, B ≈ 35000 ± 2% Ans.

**The speed of sound is found by differentiating Eq. (1.19) and then taking the square root:
**

æ ρ ö dp po ≈ n(B + 1) ç ÷ dρ ρ o è ρo ø

n −1

é n(B + 1)po ù , hence a|ρ = ρo ≈ ê ú ρo ë û

1/ 2

it being assumed here that this equation of state is “isentropic.” Evaluating this relation for mercury’s values of B and n, we find the speed of sound at 1 atm: a mercury

é (7)(35001)(101350 N/m 2 ) ù ≈ê ú 13545 kg/m 3 ë û

1/ 2

≈ 1355 m/s

Ans.

This is about 7% less than the value of 1450 m/s listed in Table 9.1 for mercury.

1.34 Consider steam at the following state near the saturation line: (p1, T1) = (1.31 MPa, 290°C). Calculate and compare, for an ideal gas (Table A.4) and the Steam Tables (or the EES software), (a) the density ρ1; and (b) the density ρ2 if the steam expands isentropically to a new pressure of 414 kPa. Discuss your results. Solution: From Table A.4, for steam, k ≈ 1.33, and R ≈ 461 m2/(s2⋅K). Convert T1 = 563 K. Then,

ρ1=

**p1 1,310,000 Pa kg = = 5.05 3 2 2 RT1 (461 m /s K )(563 K ) m
**

1/k

Ans. (a)

kg m3 Ans. (b)

æp ö ρ2 ρ = 2 =ç 2÷ ρ1 5.05 è p1 ø

æ 414 kPa ö =ç è 1310 kPa ÷ ø

1/1.33

= 0.421, or: ρ2 = 2.12

Chapter 1 • Introduction

19

**For EES or the Steam Tables, just program the properties for steam or look it up:
**

EES real steam:

ρ1 = 5.23 kg/m 3

Ans. (a),

ρ2 = 2.16 kg/m 3

Ans. (b)

The ideal-gas error is only about 3%, even though the expansion approached the saturation line.

1.35 In Table A-4, most common gases (air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, CO, NO) have a specific heat ratio k = 1.40. Why do argon and helium have such high values? Why does NH3 have such a low value? What is the lowest k for any gas that you know? Solution: In elementary kinetic theory of gases [8], k is related to the number of “degrees of freedom” of the gas: k ≈ 1 + 2/N, where N is the number of different modes of translation, rotation, and vibration possible for the gas molecule.

Example: Monotomic gas, N = 3 (translation only), thus k ≈ 5/3 This explains why helium and argon, which are monatomic gases, have k ≈ 1.67. Example: Diatomic gas, N = 5 (translation plus 2 rotations), thus k ≈ 7/5 This explains why air, nitrogen, oxygen, NO, CO and hydrogen have k ≈ 1.40. But NH3 has four atoms and therefore more than 5 degrees of freedom, hence k will be less than 1.40 (the theory is not too clear what “N” is for such complex molecules). The lowest k known to this writer is for uranium hexafluoride, 238UF6, which is a very complex, heavy molecule with many degrees of freedom. The estimated value of k for this heavy gas is k ≈ 1.06.

1.36 The bulk modulus of a fluid is defined as B = ρ (∂ p/∂ρ)S. What are the dimensions of B? Estimate B (in Pa) for (a) N2O, and (b) water, at 20°C and 1 atm. Solution: The density units cancel in the definition of B and thus its dimensions are the same as pressure or stress:

ì M ü {B} = {p} = {F/L2} = í 2 ý î LT þ

Ans.

(a) For an ideal gas, p = Cρ k for an isentropic process, thus the bulk modulus is: Ideal gas: B = ρ d (Cρ k ) = ρ kCρ k −1 = kCρ k = kp dρ

Ans. (a)

For N 2 O, from Table A-4, k ≈ 1.31, so BN2O = 1.31 atm = 1.33E5 Pa

with L = h. B≈ ρ d [po {(B + 1)( ρ / ρo )n − B}] = n(B + 1)p o ( ρ / ρ o )n = n(B + 1)p o dρ at 1 atm
For water. (a)
The density of glycerin at 20°C is 1264 kg/m3.5 Pa⋅s)(5. or: k = 1 + R/c v = 1 + 189/610 ≈ 1. (b) 1.38
Solution: (a) For glycerin at 20°C. P1. what are (a) its specific heat ratio. and is found to be decidedly laminar. Thus. approximately. (b)
This is 2.5 N · s/m2.
1. P1. (a) [It is probably N 2 O] With k and R known.006 m) Re L = = ≈ 28 Ans. from Table 1.37 A near-ideal gas has M = 44 and cv = 610 J/(kg⋅K). Then the Reynolds number is defined by Eq.8:
τ=
µV (1. what shear stress (in Pa) is required to move the upper plate at V = 5.4. Fifth Edition
For water at 20°C. if the fluid is glycerin at 20°C and the width between plates is 6 mm.31 Ans. the speed of sound at 100ºC = 373 K is estimated by
a = kRT = 1. (b)
1.13E9 Pa
Ans.7% less than the value B = 2.38. Then
c v = R/(k − 1). B ≈ 3000 and n ≈ 7. The shear stress is found from Eq.5 kg/m ⋅ s µ
. for a liquid. At 100°C. µ ≈ 1.31[189 m 2 /(s2 ⋅ K)](373 K) ≈ 304 m/s
Ans. but we more usefully try to estimate B from the state relation (1-22). 1. (1.19E9 Pa listed in Table A-3. so our estimate is Bwater ≈ 7(3001)po = 21007 atm ≈ 2.38 In Fig.5 m/s)(0. and (b) its speed of sound? Solution: The gas constant is R = Λ/Μ = 8314/44 ≈ 189 J/(kg⋅K).24).5 m/s) = ≈ 1380 Pa h (0. we could just look it up in Table A-3.5 m/s? What is the flow Reynolds number if “L” is taken to be the distance between plates?
Fig. Re < 1500:
ρVL (1264 kg/m 3 )(5.006 m)
Ans.20
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. (1) of Ex.

(1.Chapter 1 • Introduction
21
1.80E−5 Pa · s for air at 20°C from Table 1-4. read µ/µc ≈ 1. and from Eq.
é (T/To )1. Fig.5. (b) the Sutherland law.5 (293 + 110) ù µ = µo ê ú ≈ (1. From Fig.30b). 1. B ≈ 1903°K. (c)
1.40 Curve-fit the viscosity data for water in Table A-1 in the form of Andrade’s equation.93E−5) ≈ 3. Critical values for air from Ref.7. We have eleven data points for water from Table A-1 and can perform a least-squares fit to Andrade’s equation: Minimize E = å [ µ i − A exp(B/Ti )]2 .0016 kg/m⋅s.52E − 5 m⋅ s This is only 1. the temperature ratio is T/Tc = 773/132 ≈ 5. Solution: First change T from 500°C to 773 K.
æ 773 ö µ = µo (T/To ) ≈ (1.80E − 5) ê ú (T + S) (773 + 110) ë û ë û kg Ans. Then our critical-point-correlation estimate of air viscosity is only 3% low:
µ ≈ 1.31).5 (To + S) ù é (773/293)1.5.8)(1. (a) For the Power-law for air. for air. (1. 3 are: Air: µc ≈ 1.8.8µc = (1. n ≈ 0.7
≈ 3.
.80E − 5) ç è 293 ÷ ø
n 0.93E − 5 Pa⋅s Tc ≈ 132 K (“mixture” estimates)
At 773 K. and (c) the Law of Corresponding States. 1.39 Knowing µ ≈ 1.
The result of this minimization is:
A ≈ 0. (c) Finally use Fig.
æ Bö µ ≈ A exp ç ÷ where T is in °K and A and B are curve-fit constants.9. S ≈ 110 K. (b) For the Sutherland law. Compare with the accepted value µ(500°C) ≈ 3.55E − 5
kg m⋅ s
Ans.7% low. (1. (b) = 3. and from Eq. then set
i =1 11
∂E ∂E = 0 and =0 ∂A ∂B
Ans.58E−5 Pa · s. estimate its viscosity at 500°C by (a) the Power-law.5E−5
kg m⋅ s
Ans. (a)
This is less than 1% low.5. 1. èTø
Solution: This is an alternative formula to the log-quadratic law of Eq.30a).

and make a linear curve-fit. (a)
Note that the constant “2.29E −5 ç ÷ è 300 K ø
0. so Andrade’s equation is not as accurate as the log-quadratic correlation of Eq.5(300 + S)/(Ti + S)]2 and minimize by setting ∂ E/∂ S = 0. However. (1. and it works fine.31). °K: µ. take logarithms.27E–5.
1.27E–5” at T = 300 K. we don’t have a simple way to perform a linear least-squares correlation. Thus the result is: Sutherland law:
µ (T/300)1.30b) drastically.85E–5 500 3. The accuracy is ±1% and would be poorer if we replaced 2.73
Ans. unless we rewrite the law (1.29E–5 by 2.29E–5” is slightly higher than the actual viscosity “2.b). (1. Solution: (a) The Power-law is straightforward: put the values of µ and T into. We can try µo = 2. (b) For the Sutherland law. (b)
.27E–5 kg/m⋅s for starters. Fifth Edition
The data and the Andrade’s curve-fit are plotted. it is no trouble to perform the least-squares summation.25E–5 800 4. kg/m · s: 300 2.64E–5
Fit these values to either (a) a Power-law.83E–5 700 4.41 Some experimental values of µ for argon gas at 1 atm are as follows: T.5 (300 + 143 K) ≈ 2.27E–5 400 2. The error is ±7%. “Cricket Graph”. plot them.22
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. The best-fit value of S ≈ 143°K with negligible error.37E–5 600 3.30a. or (b) a Sutherland law.27E−5 kg/m⋅s (T + 143 K)
Ans. E = Σ[µi – µo(Ti/300)1. say. The result is:
æ T °K ö Power-law fit: µ ≈ 2. Eq.

5 (200 + 95.27 400 2. Eq. [ref.30a.08E–5
Fit these values to either (a) a Power-law.83 3.43 Yaws et al. (b) For the Sutherland fit.68 4. Power-law: µ × E5.25 4.64 4.83 2. data: µ × E5.80 3. Sutherland:
1.b). °K: 300 2.37 600 3.83 700 4. with T in absolute units. and make a linear curve-fit. say.27 2. E = Σ[µi – µo(Ti/200)1. (a)
The accuracy is less than ±1%.85 2. or (b) a Sutherland law.88E–5 1000 4.20E–5 800 3.505E − 5 ç ÷ è 200 K ø
0. Solution: (a) The Power-law is straightforward: put the values of µ and T into.64
µ × E5.1° K)
For the complete range 200–1200°K. (1.85 500 3. (a) Can this formula be criticized on dimensional grounds? (b) If we use the formula anyway.5(200 + S)/(Ti + S)]2 and minimize by setting ∂ E/∂ S = 0.D in the least-squares sense for a set of N data points?
.50E–5 kg/m·s and To = 200°K for starters. how do we evaluate A. we can emulate Prob.Chapter 1 • Introduction
23
We may tabulate the data and the two curve-fits as follows: T. 34] suggest a 4-constant curve-fit formula for liquid viscosity: log10 µ ≈ A + B/T + CT + DT 2.B.41 and perform the least-squares summation. The result is:
æ T °K ö Power-law curve-fit: µ He ≈ 1.1° K) ≈ ± 4% Ans.50E−5 kg/m ⋅ s (T + 95. (b) 1.50E–5 400 2.33 3. “Cricket Graph.24 4.37 3. We can try µo = 1.43E–5 600 3.1°K. plot them.29 2. °K: µ. Thus the result is: Sutherland law:
µ Helium (T/200)1. the Power-law is a better fit. 1. and it works OK.
1.25 800 4.42 Some experimental values of µ of helium at 1 atm are as follows: T.68
Ans.” take logarithms.C.50E–5 1200 5. The Sutherland law improves to ±1% if we drop the data point at 200°K. kg/m ⋅ s: 200 1. The best-fit value of S ≈ 95.

41.0095
Solution: At lower temperatures.C. It would be more comfortable to this writer to write the formula in terms of some reference temperature To: log10 µ ≈ A + B(To /T) + C(T/To ) + D(T/To )2 .D are not.
where fi = A + B/Ti + CTi + DTi2 − log10 µ i
Presumably this was how Yaws et al. ∂ E /∂ C = 0. 0°C < T < 60°C. °C: µSAE30.41):
é æ B öù ∂E ∂E = 0 and =0 Andrade fit: With E = å ê µ i − A exp ç ÷ ú . [34] computed (A.11 60 0. but B.
Then evaluate ∂ E /∂ A = 0.B. kg/m · s: 0 2. we must make a least-squares fit for the 6 data points above (just as we did in Prob. Therefore a surprisingly wide difference in viscosity-versus-temperature still makes an oil “SAE 30.
1. (#1)
. å fi T 2 i = 0. µ ≈ A exp(B/T). at 100°C. these values are up to fifty per cent higher than the curve labelled “SAE 30 Oil” in Fig. å fi /Ti = 0.C. express the square error as a summation of data-vs-formula differences:
2 2 ù E = åé ë A + B/Ti + CTi + DT i − log10 µ i û = å f i i =1 i =1 N 2 N
for short.44 The viscosity of SAE 30 oil may vary considerably.3 < ν < 12. if you’re a purist: A is dimensionless. 1. 1.0095 is within the range specified by SAE for this oil: 9. the value 0.24
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. Ref.” To fit Andrade’s law.042 80 0. (dimensionless A.B.C. then set T ∂ A ∂ B è ø i =1 ë i û
6
2
This formulation produces the following results:
Least-squares of µ versus T: µ ≈ 2. which it surely must.C. and ∂ E /∂ D = 0.B.00 20 0. if its density lies in the range 760 < ρ < 1020 kg/m3. 26].35E−10 kg æ 6245 K ö exp ç è T° K ÷ ø m⋅ s
Ans. å fi Ti = 0. Fifth Edition
Solution: (a) Yes. However.40 40 0.017 100 0.D) for 355 organic liquids. ∂ E /∂ B = 0.D) (b) For least squares. to give four simultaneous linear algebraic equations for (A.5 mm2/s. A-1 of the Appendix. T. Comment on the following data and fit the data to Andrade’s equation from Prob.D):
å fi = 0. according to industry-agreed specifications [SAE Handbook.

(#2)
The accuracy is somewhat better.018 100 0.033 0.43 40 0.
1. θ = 15°.45 A block of weight W slides down an inclined plane on a thin film of oil.42 0.017 0. è hø
or: Vterminal =
hW sin θ µA
Ans.45 if m = 6 kg. as follows: T. errors of ±50%. but not great.00 1. and the film is 1-mm thick SAE 30 oil at 20°C. P1.011 0.” The reason is that µ varies over three orders of magnitude. as in Fig.0095 0. The film contact area is A and its thickness h. P1.45 at right.0078
Neither fit is worth writing home about. A = 35 cm2.
Fig.Chapter 1 • Introduction
25
These results (#1) are pretty terrible. An alternate fit to Andrade’s equation would be to plot ln(µ) versus 1/T (°K) on.40 0. derive an analytic expression for the terminal velocity V of the block.11 0. kg/m ⋅ s: Curve-fit #1: Curve-fit #2: 0 2. “Cricket Graph. even though they are “leastsquares. The result is:
kg 1 æ 5476 K ö exp ç Least-squares of ln(µ ) versus : µ ≈ 3.046 80 0.00 2.” and then fit the resulting near straight line by least squares.
1. Assuming a linear velocity distribution in the film.0044 0. By “terminal” velocity we mean that there is no acceleration. °C: µSAE30.31E−9 è T° K ÷ ø m⋅ s T
Ans. so the fit is biased to higher µ. say.68 20 0.45
Solution: Let “x” be down the incline.13 60 0.108 0. P1.
.46 Find the terminal velocity in Prob. Then a force balance in the x direction gives:
æ Vö å Fx = W sinθ − τ A = W sinθ − ç µ ÷ A = ma x = 0. Assume a linear viscous velocity distribution in the film below the block. in the direction of V. Andrade’s equation is not accurate for SAE 30 oil.042 0.

as shown below.4 m/s through a sleeve 6.48 A thin moving plate is separated from two fixed plates by two fluids of unequal viscosity and unequal spacing. (a )
The formula is of course valid only for laminar (nonturbulent) steady viscous flow. We simply substitute these values into the analytical formula derived in Prob.0035 m )
Ans.26
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.45:
V= hW sin θ (0. ν = 0. Ro − Ri (0.88.0301 − 0.02 cm in diameter.0300 m)
1.29 kg/m ⋅ s)(0.00 cm in diameter and 40 cm long is pulled steadily at V = 0. Fifth Edition
Solution: From Table A-3 for SAE 30 oil.63 N · s/m (or kg/m · s).06 m)(0. Determine (a) the force required.63 N ⋅ s/m 2 )(0.
1.81 N)sin(15°) m = ≈ 15 2 s µA (0. Estimate the force required to pull the shaft. The clearance is filled with oil.29 kg/m · s.003 m2/s and SG = 0. and (b) is there a necessary relation between the two viscosity values?
Solution: (a) Assuming a linear velocity distribution on each side of the plate.001 m)(6 × 9. µ = ρν = (0. the force is balanced by resisting shear stress in the oil:
µ Vπ Di L æ V ö F = τ A wall = ç µ ÷ (π D i L) = Ro − Ri è ∆R ø
For the given oil. 1.003 m2/s) ≈ 2.4 m/s)π (0.
. we obtain
æµ V µ Vö F = τ 1A + τ 2 A = ç 1 + 2 ÷ A h2 ø è h1
Ans. The contact area is A. Solution: Assuming a linear velocity distribution in the clearance. Then we substitute the given numerical values to obtain the force:
F=
µ Vπ D i L (2.4 m) = ≈ 795 N Ans. µ ≈ 0.88 × 998 kg/m3)(0.47 A shaft 6.

Let the rotational rate be Ω (rad/s) and the applied torque be M. Let the inner and outer cylinders have radii ri and ro. î LT þ î (3π )DL þ î (1)( L )( L ) þ î LT þ ì 2 ρ DL ü ì (1)( M /L3 )( L )( L ) ü {t} = {T } and í ý=í ý = {T } Yes. as in Prob. and there is no necessary relation between the two viscosities. they may have separate. but now fixed axially and rotated inside the sleeve. (b) Suppose that a 2. Put all this together:
M = ò ri dF =
2π
ò
0
Ωri 2πµΩri3 L ri µ ri L dθ = ro − ri ro − ri
Solve for the viscosity: µ ≈ Μ ( rο − ri ) 2πΩri3 L
{
}
Ans. dimensions OK. unrelated shear stresses.
1. 27. with total sleeve length L. respectively.50 A simple viscometer measures the time t for a solid sphere to fall a distance L through a test fluid of density ρ. derive a theoretical relation for the viscosity µ of the fluid between the cylinders.Chapter 1 • Introduction
27
(b) Since the center plate separates the two fluids. Solution: Assuming a linear velocity distribution in the annular clearance. estimate the oil viscosity and verify that the inequality is valid. as described in Ref.47. If the time to fall 50 cm is 32 s. the shear stress is
τ =µ
∆V Ωri ≈µ ∆r ro − ri
This stress causes a force dF = τ dA = τ (ri dθ)L on each element of surface area of the inner shaft. Ans. Using these parameters.49 An amazing number of commercial and laboratory devices have been developed to measure fluid viscosity. The moment of this force about the shaft axis is dM = ri dF. (a) M /LT î µ þ î þ
. 1. dimensions OK. Solution: (a) Test the dimensions of each term in the two equations:
ì W t ü ì ( ML/T 2 )(T ) ü ì M ü ìMü {µ} = í ý and í net ý = í ý = í ý Yes. (a) Show that both of these formulas are dimensionally homogeneous.5 mm diameter aluminum sphere (density 2700 kg/m3) falls in an oil of density 875 kg/m3.
1. The fluid viscosity µ is then given by
µ≈
Wnet t 3π DL
if t ≥
2 ρ DL µ
where D is the sphere diameter and Wnet is the sphere net weight in the fluid. Consider a concentric shaft.

since the formula involves five things.02 m)3 (0. Then the analytical expression derived in Prob. 1]:
2 2 2 2 Sµ = √ S2 m + S∆R + SΩ + SR3 + SL
(
)
Ans. 30 and 31 of Chap.50 for a shaft 8 cm long.0200 m) kg = ≈ 0.0102. 1. with ri = 2.00625)2 ] ≈ 0.05 cm.0025 m)(0.5 æ 0.81 m/s2 )(π /6)(0. and ri and ro (±0.
It might be SAE 30W oil! For estimating overall uncertainty.40 kg/m ⋅ s = 5. What is the fluid viscosity? If the experimental uncertainties are: L (±0.00625 ÷ = 0.29 3 rad ö m⋅ s æ 2πΩR i L 2π ç 125. t is greater
1.003.00 cm and ro = 2. M (±0.5 m)
Ans.0025 m)3 = 0. The overall uncertainty is then expressed as an rms computation [Refs. The measured torque is M = 0.5 m) = µ 0.082
. what is the uncertainty in the viscosity determination? Solution: First change the rotation rate to Ω = (2π/60)(1200) = 125.000146 N )(32 s) = = 0.0205 − 0.293 N ⋅ m)(0.51 Use the theory of Prob. the total uncertainty is a combination of errors.02 ö SR3 = 3SR = 3 ç = 0.04 = 0.5
0. each expressed as a fraction:
SM = 0. 1.28
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.003 N-m). We need the net weight of the sphere in the fluid: Wnet = ( ρsphere − ρfluid )g(Vol )fluid = (2700 − 875 kg/m 3)(9.5 s OK.02 mm).40 m⋅s 3π DL 3π (0.08)2 + (0.003)2 + (0.7 (0.000146 N
Then µ =
Wnet t kg (0.5 mm).0102)2 + (0.0025 m)(0.50 directly above is
µ=
M(R o − R i ) (0. Fifth Edition
(b) Evaluate the two equations for the data. SΩ = 0.7 rad/s.01 0. S∆R = = 0.08 m) ÷ è ø s
Ans. rotating at 1200 r/min.293 0. Ω (±1%).02-mm) errors. SL = 80 è 20 ø
One might dispute the error in ∆R—here we took it to be the sum of the two (±0.01)2 + (0.003 0.293 N·m.08. (b)
Check t = 32 s compared to
2ρDL 2(875 kg/m3)(0.
= [(0.

6 m) m ⋅s ÷ sø 0. with L = 2 m. Neglect air drag and derive a formula for the cone’s angular velocity ω(t) if there is no applied torque.2% = 0. for the given belt parameters.5 m/s over SAE 30W oil at 20°C.
Fig. What power P in watts is required if the belt moves at 2.52 The belt in Fig.29 ± 8.29 ± 0.29 kg/m ⋅ s.Chapter 1 • Introduction
29
The total error is dominated by the 8% error in the estimate of clearance. µ). (b)
1.52
Solution: The power is the viscous resisting force times the belt velocity:
L æ Vö P = τ oil A belt Vbelt ≈ ç µ ÷ (bL)V = µ V 2 b h è hø Ans.
(b) For SAE 30W oil. P1.03 m s3 è øè
2
2
Ans. (Ro – Ri).024
kg m⋅ s
Ans. We might state the experimental result for viscosity as
µexp ≈ 0.5 ÷ (0.53* A solid cone of base ro and initial angular velocity ωo is rotating inside a conical seat. ø
. P1.53
dr æ rω öæ d(Torque) = rτ dA w = r ç µ ÷ç 2π r sinθ è h øè
ö ÷. Neglect air drag. V. Assuming a linear velocity profile. Solution: At any radial position r < ro on the cone surface and instantaneous rate ω. B.29 ≈ 73 = 73 W ç 2. µ ≈ 0. b = 60 cm. Then.0 m kg ⋅ m 2 P = µ V bL/h = ç 0.
æ kg ö æ mö 2. P1. and h = 3 cm?
Fig.52 moves at steady velocity V and skims the top of a tank of oil of viscosity µ. develop a simple formula for the beltdrive power P required as a function of (h. L.
1.

54.55 Apply the rotating-disk viscometer of Prob.25 rad/s)(0. 1.R.25 rad/s.
Fig.54* A disk of radius R rotates at angular velocity Ω inside an oil container of viscosity µ.30
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. h R πµΩR 4 µΩ 3 M = 4π r dr = Ans.h. we may integrate:
w
ωo
ò
πµ ro4 dω =− 2hI o sinθ ω
ò
0
t
2 é 5πµ ro t ù dt. as in Fig. P1.
. rotation rate 900 rev/min. What is the fluid viscosity? If each parameter (M.54. the viscous shear τ ≈ µΩr/h on both sides of the disk. d(torque) = dM = 2rτ dA w = 2r or:
µΩr 2πr dr. measured torque M = 0.54
Solution: At any r ≤ R.001 m)(0. to the particular case R = 5 cm. Then.Ω) has uncertainty of ±1%. where I o (cone) = mro . Assuming a linear velocity profile and neglecting shear on the outer disk edges. h ò h 0
1. 1.537 N·m.
µ=
hM (0. Fifth Edition
ro 0
or: Torque M = ò
πµω ro4 µω 2π r 3 dr = h sinθ 2h sinθ
We may compute the cone’s slowing down from the angular momentum relation:
M = −Io dω 3 2 . or: ω = ω o exp ê − ú ë 3mh sinθ û
Ans.537 N ⋅ m) N⋅ s æ kg ö or = = 0. derive an expression for the viscous torque on the disk.29 ÷ 4 4 2 ç πΩR π (94. Thus.54. h = 1 mm. Convert the rotation rate to rad/s: Ω = (900 rev/min)(2π rad/rev ÷ 60 s/min) = 94. what is the overall uncertainty of the measured viscosity? Solution: The analytical formula M = πµΩR4/h was derived in Prob.05 m) m è m ⋅sø
Ans. P1. m = cone mass dt 10
Separating the variables.
1.

4% Ans. M.01)}2 ]1/ 2 ≈ 0.
The uncertainty is dominated by the 3% error due to radius measurement. M. and Ω and a third power in R.4% kg/m·s or 0.01)2 + {4(0. P1.01)}2 ]1/ 2 = 0.
For uncertainty. Convert the rotation rate to rad/s: Ω = (600 rev/min)(2π rad/rev ÷ 60 s/min) = 62.56.
µ=
3M sinθ 3(0.01)2 + (0. the liquid gap is h = r tanθ. 1. Then.01)2 + (0. 31] would be
2 2 2 2 ù Sµ = é ëSθ + SM + SΩ + (3SR ) û ≈ [(0.035. derive a formula for the viscosity µ in terms of the torque M and cone parameters.56 above to the special case R = 6 cm.56* For the cone-plate viscometer in Fig. or: ±3. or ÷ cosθ ø è r tanθ ø è R 2πΩµ 2 2πΩµ R 3 3M sinθ Ans. P1.56.θ) has an uncertainty of ±1%.83 rad/s)(0.01)2 + (0.013 kg/m·s.06 m)3 m2 è m ⋅ s ø
Ans. θ = 3°. Then
æ Ωr ö æ dr ö d(Torque) = dM = τ dA w r = ç µ ç 2π r ÷ r. looking at the formula for µ.29 ± 4.Ω.
1.29 ± 0. M= r dr = .044 or: ±4.5% kg/m·s or 0.83 rad/s. 1. (1.29 or = = ç ÷ 2πΩR 3 2π (62.157 N ⋅ m)sin(3°) N⋅ s æ kg ö 0. and Ω and a fourth power in R.01)2 + {3(0. What is the fluid viscosity? If each parameter (M.29 ± 3.01 kg/m·s. We might report the measured viscosity as µ ≈ 0.5% 1/ 2
Ans. what is the uncertainty of µ? Solution: We derived a suitable linear-velocity-profile formula in Prob.Chapter 1 • Introduction
31
For uncertainty. The overall uncertainty estimate [see Eq.56
Solution: For any radius r ≤ R. and a rotation rate of 600 rev/min.01)2 + (0. and the gap is filled with test liquid µ. the angle is very small. We might report the measured viscosity as µ ≈ 0. we have first powers in h.157 N ⋅ m. or: µ = ò sin θ 0 3sin θ 2πΩR 3
1. we have first powers in θ. looking at the formula for µ.
Fig. Assuming a linear velocity profile. 1/ 2
The uncertainty is dominated by the 4% error due to radius measurement.29 ± 0. M = 0.44) and Ref.R. The overall uncertainty estimate [see Eq. (1. 31] would be
2 2 2 2 ù Sµ ≈ é ëSh + SM + SΩ + (4SR ) û ≈ [(0.
.44) and Ref.57 Apply the cone-plate viscometer of Prob.

040
1274 0. Neglect the effect of any air in the tube.36/3600 m /s) m
Do the same thing for all five data points: ∆p. using the formula µ = π r o4∆p/(8LQ). which requires a different formula.02 m)(0. length L.002 m)4 (159000 N/m 2 ) N ⋅s = ≈ 0.04 cm. density ρs falls due to gravity inside a tube of diameter Do.040 2 3 8LQ 8(0.µ).29 kg/m·s from Table 1. kPa: 159
2
318 0.47. The Reynolds number of the capillary has risen above 2000 and the flow is turbulent.08 477 1.093(?) Ans. Derive a formula for terminal fall velocity and apply to SAE 30 oil at 20°C for a steel cylinder with D = 2 cm.0204 − 0.25 m)(0.
ρs gD (Do − D) 8µ
For the particular numerical case given. ρsteel ≈ 7850 kg/m3.02 m) = 8µ 8(0. and L = 15 cm. What is wrong with the last two data points? Solution: Apply our formula.59 A solid cylinder of diameter D. The data are Q.14 leads to a capillary viscometer [27]. 1. kPa: 0. the cylinder weight should equal the viscous drag: a z = 0: ΣFz = − W + Drag = − ρsg or: V =
é ù π 2 V D L + êµ ú π DL. µ ≈ 0. is filled with a film of viscous fluid (ρ. 1.72 318 1.040
The last two estimates.58 The laminar-pipe-flow example of Prob.36 159 0. Solution: The geometry is similar to Prob. N·s/m :
0.4.32
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.080(?)
1851 0. At terminal velocity.
µ. (Do − D) = D.29 kg/m ⋅ s)
Ans. Then the formula predicts
Vterminal =
ρsgD(Do − D) (7850 kg/m 3 )(9.44 1274 1.040
477 0.80 1851
Estimate the fluid viscosity. Fifth Edition
1. 4 ë (Do − D)/2 û
Ans. Given ro = 2 mm and L = 25 cm.
≈ 0.81 m/s2 )(0. The clearance. with consistent units. 1. only vertical instead of horizontal. to the first data point:
∆p = 159 kPa: µ ≈
π ro4 ∆p π (0. For SAE 30 oil at 20°C. m3/hr: ∆p. are incorrect. though measured properly. Do = 2.265 m/s
.

Sketch this velocity distribution between the cylinders and comment.Chapter 1 • Introduction
33
1. Solution: Evaluate the shear stress at each cylinder by the Newtonian law. Let x be in the direction of travel. 4.61 An air-hockey puck has m = 50 g and D = 9 cm.60 A highly viscous (non-turbulent) fluid fills the gap between two long concentric cylinders of radii a and b > a. If the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder moves steadily at axial velocity U. a/b = 0. (1. Let A be the bottom area of the puck. the fluid will move at the axial velocity: vz = U ln(b/r ) ln(b/a )
See Fig. How long will it take the puck to (a) slow down to 1 m/s. When placed on a 20°C air table.23):
τ inner = µ τ outer = µ
d é U ln(b/r ) ù µU æ 1 ö µU = ç ÷ = ê ú dr ë ln(b/a) û ln(b/a) è r ør =a a ln( b/a) d é U ln(b/r ) ù µU æ 1 ö µU = ç ÷ = ê ú dr ë ln(b/a ) û ln(b/a ) è r ør =b b ln( b/a)
Ans. Find expressions for the shear stresses at both the inner and outer cylinder surfaces and explain why they are different. the blower forms a 0. Eq. Ans. The velocity profile is seen to be nearly linear. respectively.
They are not the same because the outer cylinder area is larger. is shown for a relatively wide annulus.2 for a definition of the velocity component vz. A = πD2 /4. which means τinnera = τouterb. A sketch of vz(r).8. For equilibrium.8E−5 kg/m·s. Then the only force acting in the
.12-mm-thick air film under the puck. from the logarithmic formula above. (b) stop completely? Also (c) how far will the puck have travelled for case (a)? Solution: For air at 20°C take µ ≈ 1. we need the inner and outer axial forces to be the same. The puck is struck with an initial velocity of 10 m/s.
1.

What is the excess pressure within the bubble? Solution: At 30°C the surface tension from Table A-1 is 0. ∆p = 2Y 2(0.8E−5 kg/m ⋅ s)[(π /4)(0.09 m)2 ] = ≈ 0. we obtain the time: V = 1 m/s = Vo e − Kt = (10 m/s) e −(0. where K = V mh 0
t
Integrate again to find the displacement of the puck:
x = ò V dt =
0 t
Vo [1 − e − Kt ] K
Apply to the particular case given: air.00012 m)
−1
(a) When the puck slows down to 1 m/s.0712 N/m) = ≈ 28500 Pa R (5E−6 m) Ans.0191 s
Ans.62 The hydrogen bubbles in Fig. First evaluate the time-constant K: K=
µ A (1. (a)
(b) The puck will stop completely only when e–Kt = 0.0191 s −1 mh (0. or: t = ∞ (c) For part (a).
. For a droplet or bubble with one spherical surface. (c)
This may perhaps be a little unrealistic. Assume an “air-water” interface at 30°C.13 have D ≈ 0. the puck will have travelled.32). But the air-hockey puck does accelerate slowly!
1. m = 50 g. h = 0. or t ≈ 121 s
Ans.050 kg)(0. (b)
Vo 10 m/s (1 − e − Kt ) = [1 − e −(0. Vo = 10 m/s. where h = air film thickness h dt
Separate the variables and integrate to find the velocity of the decelerating puck:
V
Vo
ò
dV µA = −K ò dt. Fifth Edition
x direction is the air drag resisting the motion. µ ≈ 1. (1.0191)(121) ] ≈ 472 m −1 K 0.01 mm.34
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. 1.8E−5 kg/m·s.
x=
Ans. or V = Vo e − Kt . from Eq. assuming a linear velocity distribution in the air:
å Fx = −τ A = − µ
V dV A=m .12 mm. D = 9 cm.0191 s
)t
. in 121 seconds.0712 N/m.

37) by making a force balance on the fluid interface in Fig. so we may solve for the pressure difference: ∆p = Y
æ dθ æ 1 dL 2 dθ1 + dL1dθ 2 dθ ö 1 ö = Yç 1 + 2 ÷ = Yç + ÷ dL1dL 2 è dL1 dL 2 ø è R1 R 2 ø
Ans. the internal excess pressure from Eq.65
.
Fig.63 Derive Eq.00073 m Ans.65 is used to estimate the pressure p1 in the tank by measuring the 15-cm height of liquid in the 1-mm-diameter tube. solve R = 0.000364 m.0728 N/m)/R.Chapter 1 • Introduction
35
1. and (b) mercury.9c
But dA = dL1dL2 and sin(dθ/2) ≈ dθ/2.64 A shower head emits a cylindrical jet of clean 20°C water into air.9c.0728 N/m. D = 0. The pressure inside the jet is approximately 200 Pa greater than the air pressure. for our data. 1. in mm.
1. (1. Solution: The surface tension forces YdL1 and YdL2 have a slight vertical component. Solution: From Table A. P1. (1. The fluid is at 60°C. Calculate the true fluid height in the tube and the percent error due to capillarity if the fluid is (a) water.5 the surface tension of water at 20°C is 0. Thus summation of forces in the vertical gives the result
å Fz = 0 = 2YdL 2 sin(dθ1 /2)
+ 2YdL1 sin(dθ 2 /2) − ∆p dA
Fig. Thus.
1. ∆p = Y /R = 200 N/m 2 = (0. Estimate the jet diameter. 1.65 The system in Fig.31) is ∆p = Y/R. For a liquid cylinder. P1.

0091 m. Y ≈ 0.03 m) ≈ 0.0728 N/m (20°C water/air) and the estimated pull force is
F = 2π (0. is lowered into fluid of surface tension Y and contact angle θ < 90°. There are two surfaces.36
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.g. Experimental Physical Chemistry. For the given data. Derive an expression for the capillary rise h in the annular gap. Platinum-iridium is recommended for the ring. (a) (b) Mercury at 60°C: γ ≈ 132200 N/m3. see. McGraw-Hill Book Co.0662 N/m)cos(0°) = = 0. being noncorrosive and highly wetting to most liquids. if the gap is very narrow. is lifted from a water surface at 20°C. 1.. Use values from that example for contact angle θ : (a) Water at 60°C: γ ≈ 9640 N/m3. e.25 cm (+22% error) Ans. New York. Daniels et al.0275 m. θ ≈ 0°:
h= 4Y cosθ 4(0.0137 N
Ans. 7th ed. What is the lift force required? Is this a good method? Suggest a ring material. The forces are very small and may be measured by a calibrated soft-spring balance.
. γD (9640 N/m 3 )(0.001 m)
or: ∆htrue = 15. Solution: In the literature this ring-pull device is called a DuNouy Tensiometer.9.0728 N/m)(0.47 N/m)cos 130° = = −0.91 ≈ 15. inside and outside the ring. γD (132200 N/m 3 )(0. F.. so the total force measured is
F = 2(Yπ D) = 2Yπ D
This is crude—commercial devices recommend multiplying this relation by a correction factor f = O(1) which accounts for wire diameter and the distorted surface shape..
For further details..67 A vertical concentric annulus.66 A thin wire ring. 1970. with outer radius ro and inner radius ri.91cm ( −6%error)
Ans. Fifth Edition
Solution: This is a somewhat more realistic variation of Ex.001 m)
or: ∆h true = 15. θ ≈ 130°:
h= 4Y cosθ 4(0.75 cm ≈ 12.0 + 0. 3 cm in diameter.
1.0 – 2. (b)
1.

the contact angle shown above must be such that. The pressure difference across the interface is ∆p ≈ ρgη.68* Analyze the shape η(x) of the water-air interface near a wall. The surface tension rise is balanced by the weight of the film.
dη |x=0 = −cot(θ ) = −hK. thus h = cotθ dx K
. P1.
Fig. with single curvature.68
Solution: This is a two-dimensional surface-tension problem. Assume small slope.
Ans. The constant C2 is found from the maximum height at the wall:
η|x =0 = h = C2 exp(0). as shown. with a contact angle θ at x = 0 and a horizontal surface at x = ∞. the force balance on the annular fluid is
2 Y cosθ (2π ro + 2π ri ) = ρ gπ ro − ri2 h
(
)
Cancel where possible and the result is
h = 2Y cosθ /{ ρ g(ro − ri )}
1.Chapter 1 • Introduction
37
Solution: For the figure above. R−1 ≈ d2η/dx2. K = ( ρ g/Y)
To keep η from going infinite as x = ∞. Find an expression for the maximum height h. Therefore the differential equation is ∆p = ρ gη = Y d 2η ≈Y 2 R dx
æ dη ö = 1÷ ç è dx ø
This is a second-order differential equation with the well-known solution. hence C2 = h
Meanwhile.
η = C1 exp[Kx] + C2 exp[ −Kx]. it must be that C1 = 0.

81 m/s2 ) Ans. or: h ≈
2Y cosθ ρ gW
Ans. Evaluate h for water at 20°C if W = 0. It requires “small slope” and therefore the contact angle should be in the range 70° < θ < 110°. a vertical force balance gives:
å Fz = 0 = 2YL − ρ g d 2 L. where h = (Y/ρg)1/2 cotθ
Ans. Fifth Edition
The complete (small-slope) solution to this problem is:
η = h exp[− ( ρ g/Y)1/2 x].70
ρ gWhb = 2(Yb cosθ ). P1.5 mm.84) in water at 20°C. (a)
(b) Calculate dmax for a steel needle (SG ≈ 7. length L.38
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. If these tensions are nearly vertical. as shown. for a fluid of surface tension Y and contact angle θ between two parallel plates W apart. (b)
1.
Fig.073 N/m) = ≈ 0. Solution: With b the width of the plates into the paper.84 × 998 kg/m 3 )(9. P1.
1. or: d max ≈
π 4
8Y πρ g
Ans.00156 m ≈ 1.
. and density ρn may “float” on a liquid surface.69
Solution: The needle “dents” the surface downward and the surface tension forces are upward. as shown.
The formula clearly satisfies the requirement that η = 0 if x = ∞. Neglect buoyancy and assume a contact angle of 0°. The formula becomes: d max = 8Y 8(0.70 Derive an expression for the capillaryheight change h. Calculate the maximum diameter needle able to float on the surface.69 A solid cylindrical needle of diameter d. the capillary forces on each wall together balance the weight of water held above the reservoir free surface:
Fig.6 mm πρg π (7.

and θ ≈ 0°.25 = 2(pa − p v ) 2(131000 − 2337) = .0728 N/m)cos 0° ≈ 0.72 Early mountaineers boiled water to estimate their altitude. If they reach the top and find that water boils at 84°C. D2. Thus.25. æ pa + 4Y/r1 ö æ π 3 ö æ pa + 4Y/r2 ö æ π 3 ö æ pa + 4Y/r3 ö æ π 3 ö or: ç ç D1 ÷ + ç ÷ ç 6 D2 ÷ = ç ÷ ç 6 D3 ÷ RT ÷ RT RT ø è øè 6 ø è øè ø è øè The temperature cancels out. and surface tension Y. where ambient pressure is 131 kPa. Y ≈ 0. patm.Chapter 1 • Introduction
39
For water at 20°C. We may use this value to interpolate in the standard altitude.73 A small submersible moves at velocity V in 20°C water at 2-m depth. express D3 as a function of D1. Solution: The masses remain the same for an isothermal process of an ideal gas: m1 + m 2 = ρ1υ1 + ρ2υ2 = m 3 = ρ3υ3 . vapor pressure pv ≈ 55. to estimate
z ≈ 4800 m Ans.0005 m) Ans.
Ca crit = 0.5 mm.030 m ≈ 30 mm (9790 N/m 3 )(0. By definition.
1. for W = 0. At what velocity will cavitation bubbles form? Will the body cavitate if V = 30 m/s and the water is cold (5°C)? Solution: From Table A-5 at 20°C read pv = 2.1 m/s ρ V2 (998 kg/m 3 )V 2 Ans.
This is a cubic polynomial with a known right hand side. Table A-6. to be solved for D3. solve Vcrit ≈ 32.
h= 2(0. (a )
.337 kPa. ρg ≈ 9790 N/m3.4 kPa.
1. and we may clean up and rearrange as follows:
2 3 2 3 2 pa D 3 3 + 8YD 3 = pa D 2 + 8YD 2 + pa D1 + 8YD1
(
) (
)
Ans.71* A soap bubble of diameter D1 coalesces with another bubble of diameter D2 to form a single bubble D3 with the same amount of air.0728 N/m. For an isothermal process. approximately how high is the mountain? Solution: From Table A-5 at 84°C.
1. Its critical cavitation number is Ca ≈ 0.

12a). we compute:
Ca = 2(131000 − 863) ≈ 0. with a vapor pressure of 20 kPa. to 1000 kg/m3.337 kPa. [The actual pressure would not be negative. dropping L to about 8 km. (b)
1.
1. 1. the vapor pressure reduces to 863 Pa.3 MPa and friction drops the pressure over a distance L until it again reaches 20 kPa.25. therefore the body will cavitate. If V = 18 m/s.] Since the predicted pressure is negative.
.74 A propeller is tested in a water tunnel at 20°C (similar to Fig. What is the maximum possible pump spacing to avoid cavitation of the oil? Solution: The absolute maximum length L occurs when the pump inlet pressure is slightly greater than 20 kPa.3 MPa = 1. where the vapor pressure is zero.40
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. and the density changes slightly. will keep the body from cavitating at 18 m/s. therefore the body will not cavitate for these conditions. Ans. Friction losses in the pipe are 150 Pa per meter of pipe. or L max ≈ 8660 m Ans. Fifth Edition
If we decrease water temperature to 5°C.
It makes more sense to have the pump inlet at 1 atm. from Table A-5.5(101350 Pa) − ç 998 3 ÷ç 18 ÷ = −9650 Pa (??) 2 2è sø m øè
2
The predicted pressure is less than the vapor pressure. no amount of cooling—even to T = 0°C.75 Oil. not 20 kPa. can we change the water temperature and avoid cavitation? Solution: At 20°C. For this condition.38).3 MPa.4). will there be cavitation? If so. The lowest pressure on the body can be estimated by a Bernoulli-type relation. In other words. 1. (a) by an ideal-gas approximation (Table A. pmin = po − ρV2/2.5 atm and V is the tunnel average velocity.300. (1. if V = 30 m/s. quite simply. pv = 2. and (b) using EES (or the Steam Tables) and making small isentropic changes in pressure and density and approximating Eq. a cavitation bubble would form.000 Pa = (150 Pa/m)L. Compute the minimum pressure:
p min = po − 1 1æ kg öæ mö ρ V 2 = 1.289 (1000)(30)2
This is greater than 0. where po = 1. each of which increases the oil pressure by 1. The pump increases this by 1.
1. is delivered through a pipeline by equallyspaced pumps.76 Estimate the speed of sound of steam at 200°C and 400 kPa.

k ≈ 1. Solution: For a crude estimate.2 slug/ft 3](3760 ft/s)2 ≈ 1. the ideal gas approximation is within 2% of a Steam-Table solution.33 and R = 461 m2/s2·K. ρ = 1. (1. and the formula for sound speed predicts: a ≈ √{∆p|s /∆ρ |s} = √{(2000 N/m 2 )/(0. (a)
(b) We use the formula a = √(∂p/ ∂ρ)s ≈ √{∆p|s/ ∆ρ|s} for small isentropic changes in p and ρ.00358 kg/m 3 )} = 529 m/s Ans.0)(901)(101350 Pa) ≈ 731 MPa dρ Ans. a liquid ≈ n(B + 1)pa / ρa The bulk modulus of gasoline is thus approximately:
“Β” = ρ dp |1 atm = n(B + 1)pa = (8. 1.22) is too simplified to show temperature or entropy effects.Chapter 1 • Introduction
41
Solution: (a) For steam. At p = 401 kPa. ρ = 1. as in Prob. The ideal gas formula predicts:
a ≈ √(kRT) = √{1. Equation (1.85 − 42. From EES.33(461 m 2 /s2 ⋅ K)(200 + 273 K)} ≈ 539 m/s Ans.98
Estimate (a) its speed of sound.2 slug/ft þ lbf B ≈ ρ a 2 = [42.22).34. we could fit the data to the nonlinear equation of state for liquids.45 500 44. or: a 2 = ≈ ( ρ / ρa )n −1 pa dρ ρa
or. the entropy is s = 1. Raise and lower the pressure 1 kPa at the same entropy. atm: ρ. we could just take differences of the first two points:
ì (500 − 1)(2116) lbf/ft 2 ü ft m a ≈ (∆p/∆ρ ) ≈ í ≈ 3760 ≈ 1150 Ans.87E7 2 ≈ 895 MPa Ans. at 200°C and 400 kPa.45/32.77 The density of gasoline varies with pressure approximately as follows: p.0 and B ≈ 900.00716 kg/m3. (a) 3ý s s î (44.86849 kg/m3.87565 kg/m3. At p = 399 kPa. The best-fit result for gasoline (data above) is n ≈ 8.85 1000 46. Thus ∆ρ = 0. (b)
Again. (b)
. lbm/ft3: 1 42. and (b) its bulk modulus at 1 atm.872 kJ/kg·K. (b) ft
For more accuracy. so we assume that it approximates “isentropic” conditions and thus differentiate:
p dp n(B + 1)pa ≈ (B + 1)( ρ / ρa )n − B.
1.45)/32.60 1500 47. at 1 atm. Eq.

Solution: Cannon booms are finite (shock) waves and travel slightly faster than sound waves. (b) 25.0)(901)(101350 Pa)/(680 kg/m 3 )]1/2 ≈ 1040
m s Ans.7 kg/m3 and pressure 150 kPa) in water (density 998 kg/m3 and bulk modulus 2.2 s.42
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. Olson [40] gives the following approximate formula: amixture ≈ pg K l [ x ρ g + (1 − x ) ρl ][ xK l + (1 − x ) pg ]
where x is the volume fraction of gas. (a)
1. but what the heck. and subscripts l and g denote the liquid and gas.4(287)T. Solution: (a) Since x is dimensionless and K dimensions cancel between the numerator and denominator. the remaining dimensions are pressure divided by density: {amixture} = [{p}/{ρ}]1/2 = [(M/LT 2 )/(M/L3 )]1/ 2 = [L2 /T 2 ]1/ 2 = L/T Yes.002 and discuss. homogeneous Ans. T ≈ 298 K ≈ 25°C ∆t 24. (a) Ans. (a)
. T ≈ 277 K ≈ 4°C ∆t 25.2(5280)(0. assume it’s close enough to sound speed: (a) a ≈ (b) a ≈
∆x 5.1 s
Ans. Fifth Edition
And the speed of sound in gasoline is approximately.2 miles away.3048) m = = 345.
a1 atm = [(8. plot the mixture speed of sound in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2(5280)(0.4 = 1.4(287)T.1 s.79 Even a tiny amount of dissolved gas can drastically change the speed of sound of a gas-liquid mixture. K is the bulk modulus. (b)
1.2 s ∆x 5. (b) For the special case of air bubbles (density 1.8 = 1. By estimating the pressure-volume change of the mixture.2 GPa). respectively. (a) Show that the formula is dimensionally homogeneous. If the cannon is on a mountain 5.3048) m = = 333. estimate the air temperature in °C if the time difference is (a) 24.78 Sir Isaac Newton measured sound speed by timing the difference between seeing a cannon’s puff of smoke and hearing its boom.

7a of the text. [This flow is also discussed at length in Section 4. or: (2xy)dx + (x 2 − y 2 )dy = 0 2 u v x −y −2xy
As hinted.7. this equation is exact.44) leads to the differential equation:
dx dy dx dy = = 2 = . and Eq.Chapter 1 • Introduction
43
(b) For the given data. that is. Find the streamline pattern and sketch a few lines.
This represents (inviscid) flow in a series of 60° corners. [Hint: The differential equation is exact. as shown in Fig. Thus we may integrate to give the formula for streamlines:
F = x 2 y − y 3 /3 + constant Ans. (1.] Solution: Equation (1.
1. or: = u v Kxt −Kyt
. it has the form dF = (∂ F/∂ x)dx + (∂ F/∂ y)dy = 0.13 by letting the velocity components increase linearly with time:
V = Kxti − Kytj + 0k
Solution: The flow is unsteady and two-dimensional.44) still holds: Streamline: dx dy dx dy = .]
1. v = –2xy. We may check this readily by noting that ∂ /∂ y(2xy) = ∂ /∂ x(x2 − y2) = 2x = ∂ 2F/∂ x ∂ y. E4.80* A two-dimensional steady velocity field is given by u = x2 – y2. a plot of sound speed versus gas volume fraction is as follows:
The difference in air and water compressibility is so great that the speed drop-off is quite sharp.81 Repeat Ex. 1.

and w = 0. and the mass flow between streamlines is constantly increasing.44) may be used to find the streamlines: dx dy dx dy dy = = = = tanθ . the constant must be such that:
y = yo ( x / xo )1/(1+ 2t)
Ans. where V and θ are constants.
Some streamlines are plotted on the next page and are seen to be strongly time-varying. the flow is accelerating. v = V sinθ. 1. or: ln(y) = ln(x) + constant u x(1 + 2t) v y 1 + 2t
or: y = Cx1/(1+ 2t) .
1.44
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. that is. this velocity field represents a uniform stream V moving upward at angle θ. In other words.13.44) applies with time as a parameter: dx dx dy dy 1 = = = . Find an expression for the streamlines of this flow. Sketch some.
The streamlines have exactly the same “stagnation flow” shape as in Fig.yo). Solution: Equation (1.13.82 A velocity field is given by u = V cosθ. Find the time-varying streamlines which pass through some reference point (xo.
1. where C is a constant
In order for all streamlines to pass through y = yo at x = xo . v = y. Fifth Edition
The terms K and t both vanish and leave us with the same result as in Ex.
or: xy = C
Ans. 1. However.
The streamlines are straight parallel lines which make an angle θ with the x axis.
ò dx/x = −ò dy/y.
. or: u v V cosθ V sinθ dx
Solution: y = (tanθ )x + constant
Ans. Solution: Equation (1.83* A two-dimensional unsteady velocity field is given by u = x(1 + 2t).

Chapter 1 • Introduction
45
1. or: ò = ò dt. that u did not depend upon y and v did not depend upon x.83 to find the equation of the pathline which passes through the point (xo.] Now eliminate t between these two to get a geometric expression for this particular pathline: x = x o exp{ln(y/y o ) + ln 2 (y/y o )} This pathline is shown in the sketch below. or: x = x o e t + t dt x dy dy = v = y. of the velocities:
2 dx dx = u = x(1 + 2t). yo) at t = 0. or: ò = ò (1 + 2t) dt. or: y = y o e t dt y
We have implemented the initial conditions (x.
. over time. Sketch this pathline. yo) at t = 0.84* Modify Prob. [We were very lucky. y) = (xo. 1. as planned for this problem. Solution: The pathline is computed by integration.

Opera Geometrica. Torricelli was the first to show that a zero-drag projectile formed a parabolic trajectory. Chance reading of a textbook obtained in Grenoble led him back to academic studies of mathematics. until his death in 1647. Gillespie (ed. New York. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. of the instrument which
. where h is the height of the free surface above the hole. Fifth Edition
1. Torricelli’s hydraulic studies were brief but stunning. philosophy.85-b
Report to the class on the achievements of Henri de Pitot. and Torricelli was appointed in his place as “mathematician and philosopher” by Duke Ferdinando II of Tuscany.”
1.. 1. Torricelli (1608–1647) was born in Faenza. preferring to let the students find it themselves: C. and engineering. Italy. but only for a short time. By experimenting with various liquids in closed tubes—including mercury (from mines in Tuscany)—he thereby invented the barometer. and (later) hydraulic engineering under Benedetto Castelli. His tables of trajectories for various angles and initial velocities were used by Italian artillerymen. He retired in 1756 and returned to Aramon until his death in 1771.85-a).’ He deduced his theorem that the velocity of efflux from a hole in a tank was equal to √(2gh). In 1644 he published his only known printed work. to poor parents who recognized his genius and arranged through Jesuit priests to have him study mathematics. where he spent his five happiest years. 15 vols.46
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. He also was the first to explain that winds were produced by temperature and density differences in the atmosphere and not by “evaporation. Solution: Torricelli’s biography is taken from a goldmine of information which I did not put in the references. From barometric pressure (about 30 feet of water) he was able to explain why siphons did not work if the elevation change was too large.). which made him famous as a mathematician and geometer. C. who took on Torricelli as an assistant in 1641. His work on dynamics of projectiles attracted the attention of Galileo himself.85-a Report to the class on the achievements of Evangelista Torricelli. He then took up residence in Florence. Pitot (1695–1771) was born in Aramon. described as “competent solutions to minor problems without lasting significance”not a good recommendation for tenure nowadays! His lasting contribution was the invention. France. leading Ernst Mach to proclaim him the ‘founder of hydrodynamics. Pitot’s research was apparently mediocre. He also showed that the efflux jet was parabolic and even commented on waterdroplet breakup and the effect of air resistance. astronomy. in 1735. In 1723 he became assistant to Réamur at the French Academy of Sciences and in 1740 became a civil engineer upon his appointment as a director of public works in Languedoc Province. Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Solution: The following notes are abstracted from the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (see Prob. He hated to study and entered the military instead. Galileo died one year later. In addition to many contributions to geometry and calculus. to patrician parents. 1976. He was an excellent machinist and constructed—and sold—the very finest telescope lenses in Italy.

L.e. finally being appointed Director one year before his death. and studied there. for water flow at heads of 0.7 to 40 cm. and Pitot correctly deduced that the stream velocity ≈ √(2gh). i. The “constant” depends primarily on the roughness of the channel bottom and sides. His chief contribution was to study the flow in open channels and rivers. 23]. M. in an 1854 paper.. [See Chap. Unfortunately. S the bottom slope.
. at higher Q. Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. France. 1.5 to 6 mm.
1.]
1. used even today.85-c Report to the class on the achievements of Antoine Chézy. where sawdust particles either “moved axially” or. and writer and published a handbook on hydraulic engineering in 1841.85-d
Report to the class on the achievements of Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen. 23]. Later. the length of the bottom and sides of the cross-section. studied engineering at the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées and then spent his entire career working for this school. Hagen noted that the difference between laminar and turbulent flow was clearly visible in the efflux jet. Hagen (1884) was born in Königsberg. The measurements indicated that the pressure drop was proportional to Q at low heads and proportional (approximately) to Q2 at higher heads.” Thus Hagen was a true pioneer in fluid mechanics experimentation. The water level in the tube rises a distance h above the surface. Poiseuille. 23].
Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. East Prussia. and lengths of 47 to 110 cm. teacher.” and in glass tubes. “came into whirling motion. resulting in a famous formula. He also showed that ∆p was approximately proportional to D−4. having among his teachers the famous mathematician Bessel. He is best known for his study in 1839 of pipe-flow resistance. for the average velocity: V ≈ const AS/P where A is the cross-section area.Chapter 1 • Introduction
47
bears his name: a glass tube bent at right angles and inserted into a moving stream with the opening facing upstream. He became an engineer. diameters of 2. This is still a basic instrument in fluid mechanics. Chézy (1718–1798) was born in Châlons-sur-Marne.85-e Report to the class on the achievements of Julius Weisbach. the French physician. and P the wetted perimeter.85-a) and also from Rouse and Ince [Ref. Solution: The following notes are abstracted from the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (see Prob. his achievements were somewhat overshadowed by the more widely publicized 1840 tube-flow studies of J. which was either “smooth or fluctuating. where “strong movements” occurred—turbulence.
1. 10 for further details.

Cambridge. gravity. secretary (1854) and president (1885) of the Royal Society of London. [see Sect.4]. Weisbach modernized the subject of fluid mechanics. knighthood (1889). which was still in print 60 years later.
1. where f was the dimensionless ‘friction factor. elasticity.85-f Report to the class on the achievements of George Gabriel Stokes. and Master of Pembroke College (1902).
. primarily on hydraulics.’ which Weisbach noted was not a constant but related to the pipe flow parameters [see Sect. meteorology. 1855) and in the Lehrbuch der Ingenieur. to a clergical family associated for generations with the Church of Ireland. the 8th of nine children of working-class parents. 10. and his discussions and drawings of flow patterns would be welcome in any 20th century textbook—see Rouse and Ince [23] for examples. Stokes (1819–1903) was born in Skreen. upon graduation in 1841. for he later became tied down with administrative duties. Germany. He was also the first to derive the “weir equation” for volume flow rate Q over a dam of crest length L:
3/2 3/2 é æ V2 ö ù 2 2 V2 ö 1/2 æ 1/2 3/2 Q ≈ Cw (2g) êç H + −ç ÷ ú ≈ Cw (2g) H ÷ 3 2g ø è 2g ø ú 3 êè ë û
where H is the upstream water head level above the dam crest and Cw is a dimensionless weir coefficient ≈ O(unity). member of Parliament (1887–1891). County Sligo. He published 15 books and 59 papers. 1845). diffraction. He studied mathematics.7] In 1860 Weisbach received the first Honorary Membership awarded by the German engineering society. and mechanics at Göttingen and Vienna and in 1931 became instructor of mathematics at Freiberg Gymnasium.48
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. In 1835 he was promoted to full professor at the Bergakademie in Freiberg. physics. A true ‘natural philosopher.85-a). acoustics.und Maschinen-Mechanik (Brunswick. he became Lucasian Professor at Cambridge. He attended Bristol College and Cambridge University and. Fifth Edition
Weisbach (1806–1871) was born near Annaberg. He was a skilled laboratory worker and summarized his results in Experimental-Hydraulik (Freiberg. His 60-year career was spent primarily at Cambridge and resulted in many honors: President of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (1859). wave mechanics. Solution: The following notes are abstracted from the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (see Prob. heat.’ Stokes systematically explored hydrodynamics. 1. Ireland. and chemistry. His primary research output was from 1840–1860. a post once held by Isaac Newton. the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. There were 13 chapters on hydraulics in this latter treatise. Weisbach was the first to write the pipe-resistance head-loss formula in modern form: hf(pipe) = f(L/D)(V2/2g). the Copley Medal (1893). In 1849. was elected Fellow of Pembroke College. 6.

Although not really new. Kármán (1881–1963) was born in Budapest. The drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number: Stokes’ formula. ν : 1 cm2/s = 1 stoke. He remained at Aachen until 1929. A stream function for axisymmetric flow: Stokes’ stream function [see Chap. Stokes’ equations were notable for being the first to replace the mysterious French ‘molecular coefficient’ ε by the coefficient of absolute viscosity. and Saint-Venant had made derivations of the equations of motion of a viscous fluid in the 1820’s and 1830’s. Poisson. he developed a dimensionless surface-tension (capillarity) parameter [see Sect. and showed that these equations were directly analogous to the motion of elastic solids.3]. Stokes has several formulas and fields named after him: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) The equations of motion of a linear viscous fluid: the Navier-Stokes equations.85-a). It was he who named the Froude number and the Reynolds number in honor of those workers.
Solution: The following notes are abstracted from the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (see Prob. µ.4] which was later named the Weber number in his honor. Weber (1871–1951) was professor of naval mechanics at the Polytechnic Institute of Berlin. Stokes was quite unfamiliar with the French literature. who had just developed boundary layer theory. A metric (CGS) unit of kinematic viscosity. 23]. when he was named director of the newly formed Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. Kármán
.
1. 1967. 8].
1. He attended the Technical University of Budapest and in 1906 received a fellowship to Göttingen.85-h
Report to the class on the achievements of Theodor von Kármán. Boston.
Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. to distinguished and welleducated parents. A relation between the 1st and 2nd coefficients of viscosity: Stokes’ hypothesis. He received a doctorate in 1912 from Göttingen and was then appointed director of aeronautics at the Polytechnic Institute of Aachen.
Although Navier. 5. The motion of nonlinear deep-water surface waves: Stokes waves. F = 3πµVD. 4. The Wind and Beyond. He published a completely independent derivation in 1845 of the Navier-Stokes equations [see Sect. Hungary. Little-Brown. 1. using a ‘continuum-calculus’ rather than a ‘molecular’ viewpoint. where he worked for six years with Ludwig Prandtl. He clarified the principles of similitude (dimensional analysis) in the form used today. Another good reference is his ghost-written (by Lee Edson) autobiography. In a 1919 paper.85-g
Report to the class on the achievements of Moritz Weber.Chapter 1 • Introduction
49
In hydrodynamics. Flow over immersed bodies for Re << 1: Stokes flow.

Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. 5. His 1908 dissertation gave the analytic solution for the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate [see Sect. where he remained throughout his career. Blasius (1883–1970) was Ludwig Prandtl’s first graduate student at Göttingen. After World War II.316 Re d is use today. and fluid mechanics into a variety of phenomena. He conducted research from 1901–1904 at the Polytechnic Institute of Hanover and presented a seminal paper in 1904.2a]. But his first job as an engineer made him aware of the lack of correlation between theory and experiment in fluid mechanics.
1. f ≈ 0.
Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. one of Kármán’s students—these are now called Kármán vortex streets [see Fig. 23]. he gave the first demonstration that pipe-flow resistance could be nondimensionalized as a plot of friction factor versus −1/4 .
1.
. 23]. (2) new experimental techniques. He.4]. He later worked on analytical solutions of boundary layers with variable pressure gradients. His correlation. emphasizing (1) mathematical analysis based upon by physical reasoning. Shed vortices are thought to have caused the destruction by winds of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940 in Washington State. Fifth Edition
developed CalTech into a premier research center for aeronautics. the Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development. and (3) new and inspired flowvisualization schemes which greatly increased our understanding of flow phenomena. mathematics. is still Reynolds number—the first “Moody-type” chart.” He was promptly hired as professor and director of applied mechanics at the University of Gottingen. Prandtl studied engineering and received a doctorate in elasticity. Kármán was uniquely skilled in integrating physics. Kármán founded a research arm for NATO. in two papers in 1911 and 1913. 7. Ludwig Prandtl (1875–1953) is described by Rouse and Ince [23] as the father of modern fluid mechanics.85-i
Report to the class on the achievements of Paul Richard Heinrich Blasius. outlining the new concept of “boundary layer theory. Born in Munich. started a new “engineering science” of fluid mechanics.85-j Report to the class on the achievements of Ludwig Prandtl.50
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. Then. Hiemenz. His most famous paper was written in 1912 to explain the puzzling alternating vortices shed behind cylinders in a steady-flow experiment conducted by K. His leadership spurred the growth of the aerospace industry in southern California. whose renowned educational institute in Brussels is now called the Von Kármán Center. and his dozens of famous students. Kármán wrote 171 articles and 5 books and his methods had a profound influence on fluid mechanics education in the 20th century. He helped found the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Aerojet General Corporation. the son of a professor.

(2) turbulence modeling.
1. 23]. extended the Navier-Stokes equations (see Eqs. Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912) was born in Belfast. In 1904 he won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of argon gas. and (5) dimensional similarity. Prandtl made important contributions to (1) wing theory. Ireland. In 1868 he was appointed chair of engineering at a college which is now known as the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). of the first British committee on aeronautics. in 1909. with a result now called the Reynolds equations of turbulence. England. (3) the capillary (surface tension) instability of jets.85-l
Report to the class on the achievements of John William Strutt.
Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. electricity. (4) dimensional analysis.85-k
Report to the class on the achievements of Osborne Reynolds. He was a legendary engineering professor. He made at least five important contributions to hydrodynamics: (1) the equations of bubble dynamics in liquids. He ended his career as president. 6. Perhaps his most important paper. (4) the “heat-transfer analogy” to laminar flow. and (5) instability and transition of laminar flow. He also showed in this experiment that the viscosity was very important and led him to the dimensionless stability parameter ρVD/µ now called the Reynolds number in his honor. John William Strutt (1842–1919) was born in Essex.
. Lord Rayleigh. He taught at Cambridge most of his life and also served as president of the Royal Society.38 of the text) to time-averaged randomly fluctuating turbulent flow. now known as Rayleigh-Plesset theory. formation of vapor bubbles due to high velocity and low pressure. navigation—and developed a new hydraulics laboratory at UMIST. 23]. that is. and inherited the title Lord Rayleigh. He wrote on wide-ranging topics—mechanics. He is most famous for his work (and his textbook) on the theory of sound. in 1894.5 in the text) demonstrated transition of laminar pipe flow into turbulence. He studied at Cambridge University and was a traditional hydrodynamicist in the spirit of Euler and Stokes. 4.Chapter 1 • Introduction
51
In addition to boundary-layer theory. Reynolds also contributed to the concept of the control volume which forms the basis of integral analysis of flow (Chap. (3) supersonic flow. still performed in the undergraduate laboratory at UMIST (see Fig. 3). (2) the theory of nonlinear surface waves.
1. especially related to viscosity data for argon gas and later generalized into group theory which previewed Buckingham’s Pi Theorem. His most famous experiment. to a clerical family and studied mathematics at Cambridge University. He was the first person to demonstrate cavitation.
Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref.

Switzerland.77 of the text).77 of the text). The paper also presented. now called the Eulerian frame of reference. leaving there in 1741 to join the faculty of Berlin University. This text contained numerous ingenious drawings illustrating various flow phenomena. He studied at the University of Basel.
Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. optics. aided by a prodigious memory.36 of the text) now called Euler’s equations. Russia. 23].85-n
Report to the class on the achievements of Leonhard Euler. 11. Daniel Bernoulli never married and thus never contributed additional members to his famous family of mathematicians. and taught mathematics for a few years at St.52
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. with pressure work added only in the abstract. Daniel’s father. There he wrote. Johann. leading to Euler’s turbine equation (Eq. Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782) was born in Groningen. for which he is best known.
1. Petersburg Academy. He succeeded Daniel Bernoulli as professor of mathematics at the St. in 1754 he produced a seminal paper on the theory of reaction turbines. dealing with mathematics. and studied mathematics under Johann Bernoulli. his famous treatise Hydrodynamica. and produced a vast output of scientific papers. His famous paper of 1755 on fluid flow derived the full inviscid equations of fluid motion (Eqs. and published in 1738. Holland. Separately. He used a fixed coordinate system. Switzerland. later derived in 1755 by his friend Leonhard Euler. hydrodynamics. Leonhard Euler (1707–1783) was born in Basel. 23]. Thus he never actually derived the famous equation now bearing his name (Eq. mechanics.
. Fifth Edition
1.11 of the text). his father. for the first time. 3. He lost his sight in 1766 but continued to work. Solution: The following notes are from Rouse and Ince [Ref. Petersburg. and celestial mechanics (for which he is most famous today). the correct form of Bernoulli’s equation (Eq.85-m Report to the class on the achievements of Daniel Bernoulli. Bernoulli used energy concepts to establish proportional relations between kinetic and potential energy. 3. being a Dutch professor. 4.

2 N FE-1. what is its internal energy rise? (a) 12.1 The absolute viscosity µ of a fluid is primarily a function of (a) density (b) temperature (c) pressure (d) velocity (e) surface tension FE-1.80 and kinematic viscosity 1. What is the average shear stress in the oil? (a) 80 Pa (b) 100 Pa (c) 125 Pa (d) 160 Pa (e) 200 Pa FE-1.10 (c) 0.67 (c) 2.3 Helium has a molecular weight of 4. x = L? (a) Uo2/L (b) 2Uo2/L (c) 3Uo2/L (d) 4Uo2/L (e) 6Uo2/L
.2 If a uniform solid body weighs 50 N in air and 30 N in water. has a one-dimensional average velocity distribution given by u ≈ Uo(1 + 2x/L). what is the bubble’s internal gage pressure? (a) −24 Pa (b) +48 Pa (c) +96 Pa (d) +192 Pa (e) −192 Pa FE-1. one moving at 4 m/s and the other fixed.7 Two parallel plates.125 (d) 1. fluid density ρ. What is its convective acceleration at the end of the contraction.6 The only possible dimensionless group which combines velocity V.0 FE-1. body size L.6 kJ/kg (b) 15.10 A steady incompressible flow.5 (d) 3.34 psia.4 An oil has a kinematic viscosity of 1. for what water velocity will bubbles form? (a) 12 mi/hr (b) 28 mi/hr (c) 36 mi/hr (d) 55 mi/hr (e) 63 mi/hr FE-1.5 N (e) 94. its specific gravity is (a) 1.25 FE-1.5 Consider a soap bubble of diameter 3 mm.8 Carbon dioxide has a specific heat ratio of 1.5 (b) 1.9 A certain water flow at 20°C has a critical cavitation number. are separated by a 5-mm-thick layer of oil of specific gravity 0.30 and a gas constant of 189 J/(kg·°C).3 N (b) 6.003. What is its dynamic (absolute) viscosity in kg/(m · s)? (a) 0.25E–4 m2/s and a specific gravity of 0. Ca ≈ 0. If pa = 1 atm and the vapor pressure is 0.0 (e) 1.8 N (d) 23.8 kJ/kg (c) 17.25. moving through a contraction section of length L.5 N (c) 11.Chapter 1 • Introduction
53
FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM PROBLEMS: Answers
FE-1. What is the weight of 2 cubic meters of helium at 1 atmosphere and 20°C? (a) 3.1 kJ/kg FE-1.08 (b) 0.5 kJ/kg (e) 25. If the surface tension coefficient is 0.0 (e) 5.80. If its temperature rises from 20°C to 45°C.072 N/m and external pressure is 0 Pa gage. and surface tension coefficient σ is: (a) Lρσ /V (b) ρVL2/σ (c) ρσ V 2/L (d) σ LV2/ρ (e) ρ LV2/σ FE-1. where Ca = 2(pa − pvap)/(ρV2).25E−4 m2/s.6 kJ/kg (d) 20. where bubbles form.

Window efficiency is rated in terms of “R value. Fifth Edition
COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEMS
C1.” which has units of ft2·hr·°F/Btu.25 per gallon. A. 120 cold days per year. how many years will it take the homeowner to make up the additional cost of the triple-pane windows from heating bill savings? Solution: (a) The function Q = fcn(∆t. (d)
Not a good investment.030 = 3 cents (6480 − 4760 Btu) 90000 Btu/gal 0.000 Btu of available energy per gallon. A typical winter equals about 120 heating days at ∆T = 45°F.54
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. and temperature difference ∆T. the temperature difference between inside and outside is 45 °F.
Thus Qlost =
(24 hr )(45°F )(3 ft ⋅ 5 ft ) = 6480 Btu 2. Each triple-pane window costs $85 more than the double-pane window. (c)
(d) Extrapolate to 20 windows.5 to obtain Q3-pane = 4760 Btu Ans. and $85 extra cost per window:
Pay−back time =
$85/window = 24 years (0. In a 24-hour period. in time period ∆t. (a) Develop and equation for window heat loss Q. or (b) triple-pane window.5 ft 2 ⋅ hr ⋅ °F /Btu
Ans. Both windows are 3 ft by 5 ft. On a given winter day. consider the heat loss through a window in a building. ∆T) must have units of Btu.4. The only combination of units which accomplishes this is:
Q=
∆t∆T A R
Ans.1 Sometimes equations can be developed and practical problems solved by knowing nothing more than the dimensions of the key parameters.4 instead of 2.25/gal 1 = $0. at $1. (a)
(b) Triple-pane window: use R = 3. using propane. How much heat is lost through the above (a) double-pane window.5 and also a triple-pane window with R = 3. Ignoring interest and inflation. how much money would a homeowner save. as a function of window area A. We are using ‘$’ and ‘windows’ as “units” in our equations!
. per window.80efficiency
Ans. R value. R. A certain manufacturer offers a double-pane window with R = 2. (b) (c) The savings. for one triple-pane window for one 24-hour period is: ∆Cost = $1.030$/window/day)(120 days/ year )
Ans. burning at 80% efficiency. in 24 hours? (c) Suppose the building is heated with propane gas. Propane has 90. For example. by installing a triple-pane rather than a double-pane window? (d) Finally. suppose the homeowner buys 20 such triple-pane windows for the house.

water film thickness h. as shown.
. Do you think our assumption of negligible air resistance was a good one? Solution: (a) The skate bottom and the melted ice are like two parallel plates:
τ =µ
V µVLW .3 m)(0. and of width b into the paper. (c)
We could coast to the next town on ice skates! It appears that our assumption of negligible air drag was grossly incorrect. W = 5 mm.3 Two thin flat plates are tilted at an angle α and placed in a tank of known surface tension Y and contact angle θ. so that he or she skates on a thin film of water between the blade and the ice. (a) Find an expression for total friction force F on the bottom of the blade as a function of skater velocity V. or: V = Vo e = −ò V mh
−2 µ LW t mh . (a) What is the total z-directed force. moving at constant speed Vo.
X = ò V dt =
0
∞
Vo mh 2 µ LW
Ans.Chapter 1 • Introduction
55
C1.005 m)
Ans. and h = 0.0001 m) = 7460 m (!) 2(1. (a)
(b) Use F = ma to find the stopping distance:
ΣFx = − F = −
2 µVLW dV = ma x = m h dt
(the ‘2’ is for two blades) Separate and integrate once to find the velocity.2 When a person ice-skates. suddenly stands stiffly with skates pointed directly forward and allows herself to coast to a stop. F =τ A = h h
Ans. h. find an expression for Y in terms of the other variables. (b) Suppose a skater of mass m. (b)
(c) Apply our specific numerical values to a 100-kg (!) person:
X=
(4. C1. how far will she travel (on two blades) before she stops? Give the answer X as a function of (Vo. W). blade length L.788 E−3 kg/m ⋅ s)(0. L = 30 cm. acting on the liquid column between plates? (b) If the liquid density is ρ. At the free surface of the liquid in the tank. the ice surface actually melts beneath the blades. due to surface tension.1 mm. m = 100 kg. m. the two plates are a distance L apart. water viscosity µ. and blade width W. Neglecting air resistance.0 m/s)(100 kg)(0. once again to find the distance traveled:
ò
dV 2 µ LW dt . (c) Compute X for the case Vo = 4 m/s. µ. L.

4 Oil of viscosity µ and density ρ drains steadily down the side of a tall. as shown.
Ans. Fifth Edition
Solution: (a) Considering the right side of the liquid column. There are two plates. the surface tension acts tangent to the local surface. Set W equal to F and solve for U = [ρgbh(L − h tanα)]/[2 cos(θ − α)] C1. wide vertical plate. The film is fully developed. (b)
.56
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. (a) (b) The vertical force in (a) above holds up the entire weight of the liquid column between plates. This force has magnitude F = Yb. that is. Assume that the atmosphere offers no shear resistance to the film surface. its thickness δ and velocity profile w(x) are independent of distance z down the plate. as shown. the total z-directed force on the liquid column is Fvertical = 2Yb cos(θ – α) Ans. as shown. (a) Sketch the approximate shape of the velocity profile w(x). Its vertical component is F cos(θ − α). along the dashed line at right. which is W = ρg{bh(L − h tanα)}. Therefore. keeping in mind the boundary conditions. that is.

î LT þ î CLQ þ î{C}( L )( L3 /T ) þ î LT {C} þ
therefore {C} = {1} Dimensionless Ans. (small) diameter D = L. (a) Verify that C is dimensionless. τ wall = − µ dw |wall dx
Solve this equality for the fluid viscosity:
µ=
− ρ gδ ( dw/ dx )wall
Ans. where C is a constant.Chapter 1 • Introduction
57
(b) Suppose film thickness d is measured. (b)
C1.0 0. Solution: (a) The velocity profile must be such that there is no slip (w = 0) at the wall and no shear (dw/dx = 0) at the film surface. Find an expression for µ as a function of ρ. 6). (dw/dx)wall. (dw/dx)wall.091
40. The pressure drop is held constant at ∆p = 5 kPa. (a)
.
T. The following data are for water flowing through a 2-mm-diameter tube which is 1 meter long.0 0. L/min:
10. along with the slope of the velocity profile at the wall. Ans.179
70. This is shown at right. pressure drop ∆p. determine an average value of C by accounting for the variation with temperature of the viscosity of water. (a) (b) Consider a freebody of any vertical length H of film. as at right. Note that both w and (dw/dx)wall will be negative as shown. with a laser-Doppler anemometer (Chap. δ. the weight of the film must exactly balance the shear force on the wall:
W = ρ g(Hδ b) =τ wall (Hb). the formula for viscosity is µ = D4∆p/(CLQ). and g.292
(b) Using proper SI units. Solution: (a) Check the dimensions of the formula and solve for {C}:
4 4 −1 −2 ì M ü ì D ∆p ü ì L ( ML T ) ü ì M ü = {µ} = í ý = í ý í ý=í ý. For length L.0 0. and (low) volume flow rate Q.5 Viscosity can be measured by flow through a thin-bore or capillary tube if the flow rate is low. Since there is no acceleration (fully developed film). °C: Q.

6
. and (b) including the bottom friction. to evaluate C. ÷ ∆R è ∆R ø
M ∆R 2πΩR3 L
Ans.98E−6 0. (a)
(b) Now add in the moment of the (variable) shear stresses on the bottom of the cylinder:
æ Ωr ö 2π r dr Mbottom = ò rτ dA = ò r ç µ è ∆R ÷ ø
0 R
=
2πΩµ 2πΩµ R 4 3 r dr = 4 ∆R ∆R ò 0
R
Thus Mtotal
2πΩµ R3 L 2πΩµ R 4 = + 4 ∆R ∆R M ∆R 2π Ω R3 ( L + R/4) Ans. (b)
Solve for µ =
Fig.
T. and ∆p = 5000 Pa.6
The estimated value of C = 40. Solution: (a) The fluid in the annular region has the same shear stress analysis as Prob.3
40.3. 4) is C = 128/π = 40. Fifth Edition
(b) Use the given data.6 ± 0.657E−3 40.74. Assume a linear velocity distribution in the gaps.307E−3 40. with values of µwater from Table A. with L = 1 m. The theoretical value (Chap.6 shears the fluid in a narrow clearance.6 The rotating-cylinder viscometer in Fig.49:
M = ò R dF = ò ( R)(τ ) dA or: µ =
2π
ò
0
ΩR3 L æ ΩR ö Rçµ RL d θ = 2 πµ .0 1. as shown. °C: Q. D = 0.9
70. kg/m-s: C = D4∆p/(µLQ):
3
10.52E−6 1. find an expression for µ by (a) neglecting.
C1. Convert the flow rate from L/min to m3/s.58
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics.1.87E−6 0.0 2. If the driving torque M is measured. m /s: µwater. C1. 1.405E−3 40.0 4.002 m. C1. ∆r.

The Stormer formula is
t = Aµ /(W − B)
where A and B are constants which are determined by calibrating the device with a known fluid.0 0.003 1.015 gives du/dy ≈ 314 s .94
0.
Method 1: Use a Newton-Raphson three-point derivative estimate. (b)
C1. τ ≈ 68 Pa Differentiating this polynomial at y = 0.29
0.015 m: du/dy |y =0 ≈ [3(8. The result is
u ≈ 656.94)]/(2{0.84 56
1. (a) Ans. The time t to turn the shaft a given number of revolutions (usually 5) is measured and correlated with viscosity.015 8. C1.23 15
0.99) − (3. Instead of being driven at constant Ω. (a)
(b) at y = 0.75)]/(2{0.46
Using your best interpolating skills.8 A mechanical device. Here are calibration data for a Stormer viscometer tested in glycerol. using a weight of 50 N:
µ. τ ≈ 33 Pa
−1
Ans.104 kg/m ⋅ s) ≈ 70 Pa Ans. m/s:
0.15 77
. sec:
0.99
0.8y 2 − 699163y3
Differentiating this polynomial at y = 0 gives du/dy ≈ 656. Solution: For SAE10W oil. read µ = 0.7 SAE 10W oil at 20°C flows past a flat surface. Thus
(a) at y = 0: du/dy | y =0 ≈ [ −3(0.4(b). as in Fig.2 s −1 .3. a cord is wrapped around the shaft and attached to a falling weight W. The velocity profile u(y) is measured. with the following results:
y.012 7. kg/m·s: t. 1.003}) = 670 s−1
Then τ = µ (du/dy) = (670 s−1 )(0. At three equally-spaced points. and (b) at y = 15 mm.006 3.29) + (5.Chapter 1 • Introduction
59
C1.75
0. 1].57 38
0.003}) = 328 s−1
Then τ = µ (du/dy) = (328 s−1 )(0. which uses the rotating cylinder of Fig.009 5.34 23
0. m: u.00) + 4(1.104 kg/m ⋅ s) ≈ 34 Pa Ans. du/dy|yo ≈ (−3uo + 4u1 − u2 )/(2∆y). is the Stormer viscometer [Ref.104 kg/m·s.46) − 4(7.2y + 4339.6. estimate the shear stress in the oil (a) at the wall (y = 0). from Table A. 27 of Chap.0
0. We need to estimate the derivative (du/dy) at the two values of y. then compute τ = µ(du/dy). (b)
Method 2: Type the six data points into Excel and run a cubic “trendline” fit.

to the values
A ≈ 3000 and B ≈ 3. W − B 100 N − 3. [Hint: The data are not very sensitive to the value of B. Fifth Edition
(a) Find reasonable values of A and B to fit this calibration data.5 Ans. (b)
.42
kg m⋅s
Ans. the values of A and B should nevertheless be the same:
t = 44 s ≈ Aµ 3000 µ = . with a standard deviation of about 0. Estimate the viscosity of this fluid.5
solve for µ new fluid ≈ 1. (a)
(b) With a new fluid and a new weight.] (b) A more viscous fluid is tested with a 100-N weight and the measured time is 44 s.17 s in the value of t.60
Solutions Manual • Fluid Mechanics. Solution: (a) The data fit well.