‫‪CABRI® II PLUS‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺭﻳـﺎﺿﻴـﺎﺗﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴــﺔ‬

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‫مرحبـا بكـم !‬
‫ﻣﺮﺣﺒﺎ ﺑﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ‪Cabri II Plus‬‬

‫ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ "ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ" ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ‬
‫‪ Cabri II Plus‬ﻟﻼﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺜﲑ ﻟﻠﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [1‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﺼﻒ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [2‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﻲ ﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [3‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺎﱐ ﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [4‬ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺺ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [5‬ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ :‬ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻨﺪﺍﻭﺯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [6‬ﺍﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﳓﻮ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪(Texas Instruments‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬
‫ﲤﺖ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺃﻭﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺴﻖ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﻮﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻣﱪﺯ ﺑﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﻹﺩﺭﻳﺴﻲ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ‬
‫• ﺃﻛﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻣﻔﺘﺶ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﲟﺮﺍﻛﺶ‬
‫• ﺭﻭﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ‬
‫• ﻋﺰﻳﺰﺍﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺱ ﲰﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ‬
‫• ﻓﻴﻜﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻄﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ‬
‫• ﺍﳌﻌﺰﻭﺯﻱ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻣﱪﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬـﺮﺱ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪5 ..........................................‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪28 ......................................‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ‪32 ..............................................‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﻭﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ‪38 ....................................‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪44 .........................................‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪62 .........................................‬‬

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‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﲤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [3‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﺮﻣﺰ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻨﺺ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1.1‬ﻧﻘﻄـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﻘﻂ[ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﲝﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ[ ﺗﺄﺷﲑ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻂ )ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺤﲎ ) ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﺱ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻞ( ﺇﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﻘﻂ[ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ]ﻧﻘﻂ[ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﲝﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﻘﻂ[ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ]ﻧﻘﻂ[ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺸﻰﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻠﻊ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻮﺭ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﶈﻮﺭ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬
‫)ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ(‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﻘﻂ[ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫»ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ« » ‪ « à la volée‬ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻠﻤﺲ ‪ Alt‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪ 2.1‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﹼﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﻄﻮﻁ[ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺣﺮ ﳝﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﰒ ﺑﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﻧﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﲤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Alt‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﳏﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻘﺘﲔ ﻓﺎﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺗﺂﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Shift‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ‪ ،‬ﳛﺼﺮ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‪ 15°‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﳍﺎ )‪(... 90 ،75 ،60 ،45 ،30 ،15‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ( ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ )ﻣﻌﻄﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲟﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻀﻠﻊ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﲟﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲟﺤﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﺿﻠﻊ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺗـﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﻣﻨﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺼﻒ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﻭ‪ C‬ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ )‪.(BA,BC‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﲰﻜﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻄﻪ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬

‫‪ 3.1‬ﻗﻄﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﻄﻮﻁ[ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻘﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﲣﺘﺰﻝ ﰲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲰﻜﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﻋﻼﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﳛﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Shift‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌ ﹶﺔ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ‪(... 90 ،75 ،60 ،45 ،30 ،15) 15°‬‬
‫‪ 4.1‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﻄﻮﻁ[ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺣﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﳝﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Alt‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Shift‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﳏﺪﺩﺍ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺘﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻘﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﲰﻜﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻄﻪ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ 5.1‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬـﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻓﲔ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻛﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﳚﺴﺪ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﻄﻮﻁ[ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺘﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻘﺘﲔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﲔ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﲔ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺘﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﳑﺜﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲰﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 6.1‬ﻣﺜـﻠﺚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺚ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺑﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﺑﲑ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺜﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﲟﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﻓﺮﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫]ﺧﻄﻮﻁ[ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺜﺎﺙ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﻄﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳜﺘﺰﻝ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺚ ﺣﱴ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺚ‬
‫ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﲰﻜﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻄﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻠﺆﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪ 7.1‬ﻣﻀﻠـﻊ‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ‬
‫‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻧﺴﻤﻲ ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ n‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪ n‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ )‪.(n ≥3‬‬
‫‪P1P2, P2P3…Pn-1Pn, PnP1‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﻄﻮﻁ[ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻹ‪‬ﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﳎﺪﺩﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﳑﺜﻼ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﻄﻮﻁ[ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﳏﺪﺑﺔ ﻭﳒﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻪ ﻭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻪ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ )ﳏﺪﺏ ﺃﻭ ﳒﻤﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻭﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺰﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺃﺳﲔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻴﲔ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ {5}،‬ﳝﺜﻞ ﲬﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ}‪ {10/3‬ﳝﺜﻞ ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺎ ﳒﻤﻴﺎ ﺑﻌﺸﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﳏﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺮﺑﻂ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﻋﺸﺮﻱ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ‪،9 ،6 ،3 ،10 ،7 ،4 ،1‬‬
‫‪ 8 ،5 ،2‬ﰒ ‪ .1‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﲰﻜﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻂ ﺭﲰﻪ ﻭﻣﻠﺆﻩ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪ 8.1‬ﺩﺍﺋـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ[ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻫﺎ ﰒ ﺑﻨﻘﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺷﻌﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Alt‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Shift‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﳓﺼﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ )ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ‪ .(cm‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ[ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻫﺎ ﰒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺛﺖ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲰﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻂ ﺭﲰﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻠﺆﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9.1‬ﻗﻮﺱ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﳏﺪﺩ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﻭﻳﻀﻢ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫]ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ[ ﻗﻮﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺱ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺱ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ) ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺜﻐﺮﺓ( ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺱ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﻮﺱ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﻮﺱ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﲰﻜﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻂ ﺭﲰﻪ ﻭﻣﻠﺆﻩ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪ 10.1‬ﳐـﺮﻭﻃﻲ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻛﻞ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ) ﺇﻫﻠﻴﻠﺠﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺷﻼﺟﻢ ﻭﻫﺬﻟﻮﻻﺕ(‪ .‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﲢﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﲔ‬
‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ[ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺲ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻧﻘﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻘﺘﲔ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﺤﻮﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺍﲢﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﲰﻜﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻂ ﺭﲰﻪ ﻭﻣﻠﺆﻩ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 11.1‬ﳏـﻞ‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ » ﳏﻞ«‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﺎ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﳝﺜﻞ"ﳏﻞ" ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ‪ A‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺓ ‪ M‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ‪ A‬ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﳏﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﳏﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ‪ A‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺓ‬
‫‪.M‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ‪ A‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﺱ ﺃﻭ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ M‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳏﻞ‬
‫‪12‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﳏﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻨﺸﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﳏﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ‪ A‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﶈﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻏﻼﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻼﻑ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﻣﻔﻌﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻞ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [4‬ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺺ(‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﶈﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﻏﻼﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻏﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺘﺼﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻠﻐﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪ A‬ﻗﻮﺳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﶈﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻜﻴﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﳏﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﲰﻜﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻂ ﺭﲰﻪ ﻭﻣﻠﺆﻩ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻪ‬
‫)ﻏﻼﻑ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ( ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺭﲰﻪ )ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻧﻘﻂ( ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 12.1‬ﲢـﻮﻳﻼﺕ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﲢﻮﻳﻼ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺎ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻛﺎﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﻭﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪ ...‬ﻭﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺂﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﺯﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﶈﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ( ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺅﻩ ﺃﻭﻻ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ‬
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‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ‪ M‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ ،C‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ‪ M‬ﰒ ‪ .C‬ﻭﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ‪ D‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ C‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﻭﻻ ﰒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪.C‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻻ ﳛﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻘﻄﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[ ﺗﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻧﻘﻂ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﳏﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[ ﲤﺎﺛﻞ ﳏﻮﺭﻱ ﲤﺎﺛﻼ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻳﺎ ) ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ(‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻠﻊ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[ ﲤﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﲤﺎﺛﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ) ﲤﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ(‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[ ﺇﺯﺍﺣﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻹﺯﺍﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[ ﲢﺎﻛﻲ ﲢﺎﻛﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫)ﻋﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ( ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‪.‬‬

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‫ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﺎ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ( ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﲟﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬

‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ »ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ«‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﰒ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﻋﺪﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﲢﻮﻳﻼﺕ[ ﺗﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻩ ‪ O‬ﻭﻗﻮﺗﻪ ‪ k‬ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻧﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻌﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺟﺬﺭ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ‪ .k‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﻻ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺣ‪‬ﺘﺠ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﱯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 13.1‬ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻛﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻳﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎ ﻗﻄﺮﻩ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻊ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺳﺘﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ]ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ[ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﺌﺖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﳏﺠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﳒﺰ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ[ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰒ ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﲔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺳﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﱪﺯ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺴﺤﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫]ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ[ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ[ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪...‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻧﺬﺍﺭ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﺴﺠﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﺎﺑﺮﻱ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﳛﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻣﻨﺴﺠﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳚﺐ ﻣﻠﺆﻩ ﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ]ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ[‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻴﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻳﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫‪‬ﺎﺋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺺ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪.F10‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﲝﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﳏﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﻳﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﺴﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻤﻴﻠﻪ ﲟﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻠﺖ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﻭﺍﺳﻂ ‪] ،‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ...‬ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ]ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ[ ﰒ‬
‫ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳓﺼﻞ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﳏﺠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻛﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﻤﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ .Alt‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﻃﺒﻘﻨﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ Alt‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻘﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﺳﺎﻟﻔﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳍﺬﻟﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ‬
‫‪ Henri Poincaré1‬ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 14.1‬ﻋـﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﳎﺔ ﰲ ﻧﺺ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ]‪ [ 17.1‬ﻧﺺ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ﻧﺼﺎ ﻳﻀﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﻋﺪﺩ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﳛﺮﻙ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺗﻜﺒﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻐﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﺑﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻫﻮ ‪ 30,29‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﲔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ 9‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺳﻴﻌﺪﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪.±0,1‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻴﻂ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻫﻠﻴﻠﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﺱ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ‪.cm‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻫﻠﻴﻠﺞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ‪.cm2‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ ‪A‬‬

‫ﻭ‪ O‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ )‪ (OA,OB‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ‪ O‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺳﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﳏﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﲔ ‪ π‬ﻭﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ‬
‫‪19‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ x+y‬ﻭ‪ x-y‬ﻭ‪ x*y‬ﻭ‪ x/y‬ﻭ‪ -x‬ﻭ‪xy‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﶈﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Abs(x), sqrt(x), cos(x), sin(x), tan(x), arcsin(x), arccos(x),‬‬
‫‪arctan(x), sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x), arcsinh(x), arccosh(x),‬‬
‫‪arctanh(x), ln(x), log(x), exp(x), min(x,y), max(x,y), ceil(x),‬‬
‫‪floor(x), round(x), sign(x), random(x,y).‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪asin, sh,‬‬

‫‪...ash, argsh‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ inv‬ﻣﺘﺒﻮﻋﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪ arcsin‬ﻧﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻳﻦ ‪ inv‬ﰒ ‪ .sin‬ﻭﳝﺘﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ‬
‫‪ inv-sqrt‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ‪ sqr‬ﻭ‪ inv-ln‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ‪ exp‬ﻭ‪ inv-log‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ‪.10 x‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻬﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻊ )‪ floor(x‬ﺃﻛﱪ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ x‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺟﻊ )‪ ceil(x‬ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ x‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺟﻊ )‪ round(x‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ ‪ x‬ﰲ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ sign(x) ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ‪ -1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 0‬ﺃﻭ ‪ +1‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪ x‬ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺎ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ )‪ random(x,y‬ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪x‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ ،y‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻈﻢ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﲢﲔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ )‪ random(x,y‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫‪20‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺪﻣﺞ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﲟﻌﺎﻳﲑ ‪ ،random‬ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ )‪random(0,1 + 0*a‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ a‬ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﳛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ = ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﻪ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﲢﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻉ ‪ 0,1 m + 2 cm‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪.12 cm‬‬
‫ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﰒ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،3*x+2*y-1‬ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑ ‪ x‬ﰒ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑ ‪ ،y‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻛﺄﺳﺎﺱ ﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻧﺺ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﻤﻪ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻧﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ]‪ [1.17‬ﻧﺺ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ )‪ f(x‬ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﰒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﶈﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﻣﺒﻴﺎﱐ ‪ ، f‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﻫﻲ )‪.y = f(x‬‬
‫‪ 15.1‬ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻛﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺗﺪﺑﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﺑﺮﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﲢﲔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ[ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﻴﺔ؟ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ[ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ؟ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺎ‬
‫ﲟﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲟﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻀﻠﻊ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﲟﺤﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﺍﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ[ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ؟ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ[ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ؟‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ[ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ؟ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ ‪ O‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪B‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺘﲔ ‪ OA‬ﻭ‪ .OB‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ[ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ؟ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺙ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻧﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ‬
‫]‪ [17.1‬ﻧﺺ(‪.‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫‪ 16.1‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻧﺺ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﳓﻮﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻢ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﲰﺎ ﻏﲑ ‪.z ،.....،b ،a‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﲢﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﳓﻮﻳﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ » ‪ « 3 * x‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ‪ .3x‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﰒ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ )‪f(x‬‬
‫ﺗﻀﻢ ‪ x‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﲤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳏﻮﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺼﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻣﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ )‪ y=f(x‬ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﲤﺜﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺧﻂ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 17.1‬ﻧـﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﻳﻀﻢ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﺎ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﲢﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪23‬‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺮﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﻧﺼﺎ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫=‪ AB‬ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻧﺺ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻀﻤﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﲢﲔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺪﳎﺔ ﻛﺄﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻧﺼﺎ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻼ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﳓﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ )‪,3.14‬‬
‫‪ .(2.07‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﳓﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺟﱪﻳﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻎ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺘﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‪ ax + by + c = 0 :‬ﺃﻭ ‪ y=ax+b‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + dx + ey + f = 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪= ±1‬‬

‫) ‪(y − y0‬‬
‫‪b2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪±‬‬

‫) ‪ ( x − x2 0‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪a‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺧﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﱪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﺭﺟﺘﻬﺎ ‪ 6‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪24‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺓ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻧﺺ ﻫﻲ ﺧﻂ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﻪ ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 18.1‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ O‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ )‪ (OA,OB‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ .O‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺷﻜﻼ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ[ ﺗﺄﺷﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ‬
‫ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲰﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻂ ﺭﲰﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﻋﻼﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 19.1‬ﳏـﺎﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ )ﺍﻷﺻﻞ( ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﲔ )ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ( ﻣﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﻣﺰﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻞ‬
‫‪25‬‬

‫ﻭﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻌﻄﺎﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﺪﺀﺍ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪﺓ ﻭﻭﺣﺪ‪‬ﺎ ‪.1cm‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﻭ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﳑﻜﻨﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﳏﻮﺭﺍﻥ؛ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬
‫•‬
‫ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰒ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪1cm‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻮﺭﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫•‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ؛ ﻧﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﰒ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[‬
‫ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﺑﺪﺀﺍ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ »ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ« ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ ،(Alt‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲰﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﻄﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 20.1‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻻﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ )ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﻜﺎﺭﺗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﻄﺒﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻧﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ) ﺩﻳﻜﺎﺭﺗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﺒﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
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‫‪ 21.1‬ﺟـﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﲜﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻌﺪ ﳉﻤﻊ ﺳﻼﺳﻞ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺟﺪﻭﻻ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻗﻴﺎﺱ[ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ؛ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ[ ﺗﺄﺷﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺗﻪ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﳝﻦ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﻧﺺ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Tab‬ﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻄﺮ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻸﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﳝﻸ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ‪1000‬ﺳﻄﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ]ﲢﺮﻳﺮ[ ﻧﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻭﻳﻠﺼﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﳎﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ®‪Microsoft‬‬
‫‪ ،Excel‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )ﻭﻳﻨﺪﺍﻭﺯ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.2‬ﺃﺛـﺮ‬
‫ُّ ﹶﲤﻜﹼﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﺛﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺃﺛﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺋﺤﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ )ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﺃﺛﺮﺍ ﳌﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ُﳝ‪‬ﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻐﲑﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2.2‬ﻣﺴـﺎﻣﲑ‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﺗﺴﻤﲑ‪/‬ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﲤﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺴﻤﺎﺭ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﻤﲑ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2.3‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬

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‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﰒ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﻩ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻼ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﺃﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ[ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﰒ ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ )ﻣﺜﻼ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4.2‬ﲢـﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺗﲔ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻭ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺷﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻩ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﳛﺪﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﰒ ﻧﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧ‪‬ﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﳕﺪﺩ ﺇﺫﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺑﻀﺎ ﺻﻐﲑﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺘﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﺾ‪ .‬ﺗﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺭﺧﺎﺀ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻣ‪‬ﻔﻌ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﰲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻨﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﲢﺮﻛﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻨﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺫﻫﺎﺑﺎ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﻋﺪﺩ )ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻧﺺ( ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ[ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﲢﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺑﺾ )ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ( ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎﺋﻪ )ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ(‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ )ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ(‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺮﻳﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﻨﻘﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﻧﺎﺑﺾ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﺑﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﺾ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﳛﺘﻔﻆ ﲟﺤﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻐﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﹸﺘﺢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 5.2‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﺩﻭﺭﺓ[ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺒﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻠﻬﺎ )ﳝﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﻊ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 6.2‬ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ )ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻨﺪﺍﻭﺯ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ F10‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺺ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺌﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
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‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻭﺇﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﺍﶈﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺨﻔﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ )ﻃﺒﻌﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻱ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ(‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺎ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫• ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ‪...‬‬
‫• ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺎ ﳏﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ[‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ F9‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻨﺪﺍﻭﺯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﲤﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [4‬ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺺ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1.3‬ﻟـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻂ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﲎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﺒﻠﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
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‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﻟﻮﻥ ﳏﺴﻮﺏ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘﻖﹺ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﺃﲪﺮ‪/‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‪/‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻥ ‪ i‬ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ]‪ [0,1‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ x‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ" ﺳﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺎﺭ" ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،2‬ﺃﻱ ‪ I=x‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ]‪ [0,1‬ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻗﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻴﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 1‬ﻭ‪ (i=2-x) 2‬ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ 7,36‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳊﺪﺓ ‪ 5,36‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3,36‬ﺃﻭ‪ 1,36‬ﺃﻭ‪ -0,64‬ﲝﻜﻢ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪) 7,36=1,36‬ﺑﺘﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ (2‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ 1,36‬ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ]‪ ، [1,2‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺫﻥ‬
‫‪ 2-1,36‬ﻳﻌﲏ ‪.-0,64‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ .0‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ )ﺃﲪﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ )‪ (0,0,0‬ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ )‪ (1,1,1‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ )‪ (1,0,0‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ )‪ (0,1,0‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ )‪(0,0,1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ )‪ (1,1,0‬ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ )‪ (1,0,1‬ﺍﻷُﺭﺟﻮﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﻮﺙ‬
‫)‪ (0,1,1‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2.3‬ﻣـﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻞﺀ‬
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‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ [ ﻣﻞﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﰒ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻞﺀ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣ‪‬ﻠﺆﻫﺎ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻞﺀ ﳏﺴﻮﺏ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﲣﺘﻠﻂ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻲ ) ‪‬ﻭ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺎﺯﺝ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ))‪ (1,1,0‬ﻭ)‪(0,1,1‬‬
‫= )‪ .((0,1,0‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺛﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3.3‬ﻟـﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﳔﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﻻ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ‪A‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4.3‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻳﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﲰﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 5.3‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﲰﻚ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ[ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻂ )ﺧﻂ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺧﻂ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻊ( ﻭﲰﻜﻪ )ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﲰﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﲰﻴﻚ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍ(‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ( ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳛﺪﺩ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺳﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﻟﻮﺝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ )ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ( ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﻘﻄﺔ[ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫"ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﺫﻛﻴﲔ" ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﲔ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﳝﺘﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﲔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 6.3‬ﺣـﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻜ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺧﻂ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻧﺺ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﳕﻄﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ[ ﺧﻂ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ 7.3‬ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺪﺩ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ +‬ﺃﻭ– ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻭﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 8.3‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪) bitmap‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ GIF‬ﺃﻭ ‪ JPG‬ﺃﻭ ‪(BMP‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﺜﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﺑﺎﻋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺿﻼﻉ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻷﺿﻼﻉ‪،‬‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﻠﺞ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﺣﲔ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ[ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻔﻌ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﲞﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﻘﺮ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﳌ‪‬ﺤﺴﺒﺎﺕ )‪ Ti83‬ﻭ‪ Ti89‬ﻭ‪ (Ti92‬ﺃﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ gif‬ﺃﻭ ‪ jpg‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .bmp‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ 9.3‬ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ "ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ"‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ )ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻚ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ"( ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬

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‫ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﻭﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪ 1.4‬ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻴﺢ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺠﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ[ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻢ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺑﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ "ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ"‬
‫ﻟﻠﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﳏﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴْﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﺧﺎﻧﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺓ ﰲ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺅﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﲝﻔﻆ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﲔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ )ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ( ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻠﻒ‪ ini.‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﻣﻠﻒ[ ﻓﺘﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ OK‬ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻃﺎﻟﺖ ﻛﻞ ﳏﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳋﺎﻧﺔ "ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﻛﺎﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ" ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘ‪‬ﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﳏﻮﺭﺍ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪ 1.1.4‬ﺍﶈـﻼﺕ‬
‫‪‬ﻳﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﳏﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‬
‫ﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﶈﻞ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﳏﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺤﲎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﺭﺳﻢ‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﳏﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻏﻼﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﲎ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺱ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﶈﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﺭﺳﻢ‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳋﺎﻧﺔ "ﻏﻼﻑ" ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2.1.4‬ﺃﳕـﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﳕﻂ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻂ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻨﻤﻄﻪ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻪ ﻭﻟﻮﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤﺢ ﳕﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﳕﻂ ﺍﳋﻂ ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻪ ﻭﳕﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﳕﻂ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﳕﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ 3.1.4‬ﻫﻨﺪﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨﻠﻖ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ‬

‫ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺤﲎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺗﺪﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﱪﻧﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﳝﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻘﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4.1.4‬ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﺴﺦ‪/‬ﺇﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ bitmap‬ﻣ‪‬ﻔﻌ‪‬ﻼ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻀﻊ ﺍﳌﻠﻤﺲ ]ﲢﺮﻳﺮ[ ﻧﺴﺦ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪bitmap‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺅﻩ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻌﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﺳﺘﻮﺿﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ]‪ [6‬ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫"ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺶ" ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﲢﺖ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺶ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪‬ﺳﻬ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺰﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺸﻮﺷﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺧﻂ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﲜﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺧﻂ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 5.1.4‬ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﹸﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ )ﺃﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺣﺪﰐ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 6.1.4‬ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﳔﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪) y = ax +b‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫‪ =x‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ( ﻭ ‪ . ax +by +c = 0‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ x 2 + y 2 + ax +by +c = 0‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ‬
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‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ‪ . (x − x 0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 = R 2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻻ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺪﺑﲑ ﻻ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻔﻌ‪‬ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ y =ax +b‬ﻭ"ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ" ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﲟﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺪ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻻ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ )ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﲟﺮﻛﺰﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻻ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻴﻄﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻻ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ(‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺮﻭﻃﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫‪ ax² + bxy + cy² + dx + ey + f = 0‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﺫﺍ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ )ﺇﻫﻠﻴﻠﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﻟﻮﻝ( ﻭﳏﻮﺭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﲔ ﶈﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻜﺎﺭﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻧﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻜﺎﺭﺗﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺘﲔ ‪ x‬ﺃﻭ‪ y‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺰﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﶈﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ )‪ y=f(x‬ﺃﻭ )‪ x=f(y‬ﻭﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﺍﻧﻴﺎﺕ ‪.aijxiyj‬‬
‫‪ 2.4‬ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫‪‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﲤﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ(‪ .‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺺ ﺑﻘﻦ ﺳﺮﻱ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ]ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ[ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ‬
‫ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻭﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﰒ ﻭﺿﻊ‪ .‬ﳊﺬﻑ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﳝﲔ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻻ ﲢﻔﻆ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱃ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺳﻴ‪‬ﻄﻠﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3.4‬ﻟـﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ[ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﻩ ‪ ، cgl.‬ﻭﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺎﻻ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺛﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﻛﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺼﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺳﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ‪/‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ .cgl‬ﻭﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﱪﻧﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﳒﺰ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﺃﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪support@cabri.com‬‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻠـﻒ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫‪PC‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺷﻜﻼ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫‪Ctrl + N‬‬

‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺷﻜﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ‬

‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬

‫‪Ctrl + O‬‬

‫‪Cabri Géomètre II‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ‪ou‬‬
‫‪II Plus‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ‬

‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬

‫‪Ctrl + W‬‬

‫ﳛﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬

‫‪Ctrl + S‬‬

‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬

‫ﳛﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳚﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬
‫ﳛﻔﻆ ﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻒ‬

‫‪ HTML‬ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ‬

‫‪HTML‬‬

‫‪ PNG‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﳏﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪TI-xx‬‬

‫‪...,TI-xx, PNG,‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﶈﻔﻈﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ .‬ﲨﻴﻊ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻀﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ‪x‬ﺳﺘ‪(1m‬‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ )‪1m‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺎﺕﲤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺦ‬

‫‪Ctrl + P‬‬

‫ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ‬

‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎﺀ‬

‫‪Alt + F4‬‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﲢﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫‪PC‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻠﻐﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﳒﺰ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬

‫‪Ctrl + Z‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﺺ ﺃﻱ ﳛﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬

‫ﻗﺺ‬

‫‪Ctrl + X‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬

‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬

‫‪Ctrl + C‬‬

‫ﻳﻠﺼﻖ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻟﺼﺎﻕ‬

‫‪Ctrl + V‬‬

‫ﳝﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺢ‬

‫‪Del‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬

‫‪Ctrl + A‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﲟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﳑﻜﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬

‫‪Ctrl + F‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫‪PC‬‬

‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻭ ﳜﻔﻲ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫‪F9‬‬

‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻭ ﳜﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬

‫‪F10‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﶈﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻨﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﲤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪PC‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻐﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﺣﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﱄ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻨﺪﺍﻭﺯ ﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺴﻴﻔﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺴﻴﻔﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻻﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ ‪...1‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫‪PC‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‬

‫‪F2‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﻠﻒ ﳝ ﹶﻜَﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪F4‬‬

‫ﻃﺒﻊ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪F5‬‬

‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬

‫‪F6‬‬

‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻖ‬

‫‪F7‬‬

‫ﻳﻄﺒﻊ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .6‬ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻡ ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻧﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻴﺪﺍﻏﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺭﻓﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪47‬‬

‫‪ .7‬ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫‪PC‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻨﻤﻂ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ‪Ctrl + D‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ )ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﻜﺒﲑ(‬

‫‪Ctrl + +‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ )ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﺼﻐﲑ(‬

‫‪Ctrl + -‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬

‫‪Ctrl + U‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺷﻜﻼ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻻﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ‪Ctrl + Tab‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﲢﺪﺙ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﻄﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻧﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2.5‬ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ :4‬ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺺ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ( ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪48‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻳﻌﺎﳉﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ "ﺧﻄﻮﻁ"‬
‫ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﻄﻮﻟﺔ )ﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ‪ :‬ﳓﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻﺋﺤﺔ ﲤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻻﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺎﺕ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻴـﺎﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﲤﺪﻳﺪ‪ /‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﲤﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻭﳛﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺯﺍﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻘﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﳝﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﺺ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻘﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﳝﺪﺩ ﺗﺂﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻘﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫)ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﲢﺎﻛﻲ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ(‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻧﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ )ﺃﻭﻧﻘﻂ( ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ )ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻟﻖ(‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ(‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻠﺚ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﳏﺪﺩﺍ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﺣﲔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ‪ Alt‬ﺑﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺛﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ(‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Alt‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻻﳘﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﺚ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪50‬‬

‫ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‬

‫ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﺏ ‪ n‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ )‪.(3 ≤ n ≤ 128‬‬
‫ﻹ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺿﻼﻉ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﺿﻼﻉ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳝﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﻠﻊ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﺠﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ }‪ {n/p‬ﳝﺜﻞ ﳒﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ n‬ﺿﻠﻊ ﳓﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺧﺬ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ‪ p‬ﺭﺃﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﻊ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬

‫ﻗﻮﺱ‬
‫ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳓﺪﺩ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻗﻮﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺱ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺱ ﻭﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﲞﻤﺲ ﻧﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻩ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﳏﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬

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‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻛﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬

‫ﳏﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﳑﺜﻞ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺿﻠﻊ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺛﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ )ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﲡﺎﻫﻬﺎ(‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺿﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ‬
‫)ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺗﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻣﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻂ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ B‬ﻭ ‪ .C‬ﲢﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ‪.B‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﲔ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺘﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻫﺎ ﻭﺷﻌﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺛﻼﺙ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻂ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﻭ‪) I‬ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﻮ‪ I‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﻫﻮ ‪ (AB‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ‪I‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻄﻌﺔ )ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﻮ‪ I‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﻫﻮ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ‪I‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ‪) r‬ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﻮ ‪ I‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﻫﻮ ‪( r‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﰒ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﰒ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﳏﻼ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺮﻏﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻠﻪ ﰒ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ M‬ﺗﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﳏﻞ ‪ A‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪. M‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﱁ( ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ .6‬ﲢـﻮﻳﻼﺕ‬
‫ﲤﺎﺛﻞ ﳏﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﲤﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﲢﺎﻛﻲ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﳏﻮﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﰒ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻫﻲ ‪ -1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺘﻪ ﻫﻲ ‪ 180‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻪ‬
‫ﰒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺇﺯﺍﺣﺘﻪ ﰒ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﰒ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ )ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﺘﺤﺎﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺎﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﺃﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﰒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻛﻲ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﰒ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ O‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ O .‬ﻫﻲ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪ OB/OA .‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻭ ) ‪( AOB‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ O‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻩ ‪ O‬ﻭ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ‪.OB/OA‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺗﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﰒ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .7‬ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ .8‬ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ؟‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺎﻥ؟‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻴﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪﺍﻥ؟‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻴﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ؟‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ .O‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ‪ O‬ﰒ ‪ A‬ﰒ ‪ B‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ؟‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻰ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .9‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻃﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻴﻂ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﳏﻴﻂ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺇﻫﻠﻴﻠﺞ‪ .‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺇﻫﻠﻴﻠﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻳﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﻂ )ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ( ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ(‬

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‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﳏﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬

‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﳐﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ[ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﳏﺴﺒﺔ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﳛﺴﺐ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﰒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﻘﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Tab‬ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺳﻄﺮﺍ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﳌﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .10‬ﻧﺺ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺺ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﲑ‪ /‬ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﲑ‬
‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬

‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺺ )ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻪ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﱁ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﲢﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﺳﻢ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ )ﻗﻮﺱ ﺑﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺘﺒﻴﺚ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺮﻳﻜﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺴﻤﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ )ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ( ﺃﺛﺮ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﲢﺮﳛﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪55‬‬

‫ﲢﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬

‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﺛﺮ ﺇﺭﺧﺎﺀ ﻧﺎﺑﺾ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺪﻭﺩ ﺳﻠﻔﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺘﺒﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫ﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .11‬ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ‪ /‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ‪ /‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺯﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‪/‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻹﻋﻄﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﰒ ﻧﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺰﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ]ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ[ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﰒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ‪ /‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻟﻮﻧﺎ ﰲ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﰒ‬
‫ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﳌﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ )ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﻮﺹ‪(...‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻟﻮﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﰒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
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‫ﲰﻚ‬
‫ﺧﻂ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ‪ /‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ‬
‫ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻐﲑ ﲰﻚ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻂ ﳋﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﻘﻂ ﺍﻭ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﳛﺠﺐ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺗﻴﺐ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ‬

‫‪ .12‬ﳏﺴـﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﶈﺴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﶈﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻧﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ )ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﳏﺮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ( ﺃﻭ ﰎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪.‬‬

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‫ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳚﺐ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ )ﻧﻨﻘﺮ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬
.(‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻀﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬.‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﲢﲔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬
‫ ﻧﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‬.‫ﺍﶈﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺍﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
:‫ﻻﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻝ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬
Fonction

Syntaxe

Arc Cosinus

ARCCOS(x), arccos, acos, ArcCos

Arc Cosinus Hyperbolique

ARGCH(x), argch, ArgCh; Arccosh

Arc Sinus

ARCSIN(x), arcsin, asin, ArcSin

Arc Sinus Hyperbolique

ARGSH(x), argsh, ArgSh, arcsinh

Arc Tangente

ARCTAN(x), arctan, atan, ArcTan

Arc Tangente Hyperbolique

ARGTH(x), argth, ArgTh, arctanh

Arrondi (entier le plus proche)

ROUND(x), round, Round

Carré

SQR(x), sqr, Sqr, Sq

Cosinus

COS(x), cos, Cos

Cosinus Hyperbolique

COSH(x), cosh, CosH, ch

58

Fonction

Syntaxe

Exponentielle

EXP(x), exp, Exp

Logarithme de base 10

log10(x), Log10, lg, log

Logarithme népérien

LN(x), ln, Ln

Maximum de a et b

MAX(a ,b), max, Max

Minimum de a et b

MIN(a ,b), min, Min

Nombre aléatoire entre 0 et 1

Random (a ,b), random (a ,b), Rand (a ,b), rand (a ,b)

Pi (π)

π, ∏, pi, Pi

Plus petit entier ≥ x

CEIL(x), ceil, Ceil

Plus grand entier ≤ x

FLOOR(x), floor, Floor

Puissances de 10

10^x

Racine Carrée

SQRT(x), sqrt, Sqrt, SqRt,

Signe (-1 si x < 0, +1 si x > 0, 0
si x=0)

Signe(x), signe, sign

Sinus

SIN(x), sin, Sin

Sinus Hyperbolique

SINH(x), sinh, SinH, sh

Tangente

TAN(x), tan, Tan

Tangente Hyperbolique

TANH(x), tanh, TanH, th

Valeur absolue

ABS(x), abs, Abs

59

‫‪ 5.3‬ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﻩ‪/‬ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺅﻩ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ]ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ[ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ‪.F9‬‬
‫ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻣﻔﻌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﳛﲔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺳﺘﺘﻄﺎﻝ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ]ﻧﻘﻂ[ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﳛﲔ‬
‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ )ﻟﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﳕﻂ‪ ،‬ﺣﺠﻢ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ ]ﻣﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ[ ﻣﻔﻌﻼ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻹﺣﺪﻯ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﺘﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ، ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻞﺀ ﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ )ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻮﺩ(‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍ ﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺼﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‬

‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻭﲰﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ‬

‫ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ )ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻊ( ﺍﳌﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ‬

‫ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ‬
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‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻳﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‪ .‬ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ"‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻜﺎﺭﰐ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﱯ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﱯ ﺑﺎﳉﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﱯ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﺠﺰﺓ ﺑﻜﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪ II‬ﺑﻠﻮﺱ‬
‫ﰲ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﻱ ‪II‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Ctrl+A‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ﰒ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ]ﲢﺮﻳﺮ[ﻧﺴﺦ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ]ﲢﺮﻳﺮ[ﺇﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﻜﻞ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ )ﺑﻴﺘﻤﺎﺏ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﳏﻮﺭ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ‪/‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺻﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﻤﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ )ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻴﺎﺩﺓ(‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﻴﺖ ﻭﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻈﻬﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻴﺘﺎﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﱎ ﰲ ﺻﻨﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺠﻬﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﲢﺖ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﻲ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻬﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻴﺘﻤﺎﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﻔﺮﺓ ‪ .Postscript‬ﻧﻄﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫‪) Postscript‬ﻣـﺜﻼ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Postscript‬ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻝ ‪ ،(Adobe‬ﻭﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﳓﺼﻞ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ )ﻣﺜﻼ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻻ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻩ ﻣﻴﺘﺎﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻨﺪﺍﻭﺯ(‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ‪ Postscript‬ﻣﻌﻠﺒﺎ ﳓﻮ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﻜﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) Ghostscript‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﳎﺎﻧﺎ( ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ]ﲢﺮﻳﺮ[ﻧﺴﺦ ﰒ ]ﲢﺮﻳﺮ[ﺇﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﺎﻓﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﱪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‪.‬‬

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