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# VD for water at 20C (V in m/s, D in cm)

0.06
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6 0.8 1
2
4
6
8 10
20
40
60
100
200
400
600
1000
2000
4000 6000
10000
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1

10

1
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2
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Laminar
flow

4
|

6
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Critical
zone

8
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10
|

20
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40
|

60
|

100
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200
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600
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1000
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2000
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4000
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6000
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10000
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20000
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40000 60000
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100000
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__

Transition zone

400
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## Complete turbulence, rough pipes, R > 3500/r, 1/f = 1.14 2 log r

0.07

0.06
0.05
0.045
0.04
0.035

0.03
5.5

2hDg
DarcyWeisbach friction factor f
LV 2

## Relative roughness r ( in mm, D in mm)

D

0.025
5

0.02
0.0175
0.015

4.5

0.0125

0.01
0.008

3.5

0.006
3
0.004
0.003
2.5

2
1.8
1.6

1.4

1.2

Material

Riveted steel
Concrete
Wood stave
Cast iron
Galvanized iron
Asphalted cast iron
Commercial steel
Drawn tubing

(mm)

0.99
0.33
0.180.9
0.25
0.15
0.12
0.046
0.0015

Fluid at 20C

Water
Air (101.325 kPa)

(m2/s)

1.003e006
1.511e005

10

0.0015
0.001
0.0008
0.0006

Smooth
pipes, r __= 0
__
1/f = 2 log(R f ) 0.8

0.0004

HagenPoisseuille equation
R 2300, f = 64/R

0.0002

0.0001

Colebrook
equation, R 2300 __
__
1/f = 2 log(r /3.7 + 2.51/(R f ))

Latitude (WGS84)

## 0.0 Sea level

45.5 Standard
90.0 Sea level

0.002

g (m/s )

9.78033
9.80665
9.83219

r = 5e006
5e005

Continuity equation, Q = AV
A = D 2/4, V = 4Q /( D 2)

2e005

r = 1e006

1e005

8
6 7 8

10

Moody Diagram

5 6 7 8

10

5 6 7 8

10

5 6 7 8

10

VD
Reynolds number R (V in m/s, D in m, in m 2/s)

5 6 7 8

10

5 6 7 8

10

## Metzger & Willard, Inc.

http://www.metzgerwillard.com