Welding Symbols (ISO 2553) and Weld Joint Design

ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Square Groove Weld

Single V Groove Weld

ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Single Bevel Groove Weld

Single V Groove Weld with Broad Root Face

ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Single Bevel Groove Weld with Broad Root Face

Single U Groove Weld

ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Single J Groove Weld

Backing Weld

ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Fillet Weld

Plug / Slot Weld

ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Spot Weld

Seam Weld

ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Edge Weld

Surfacing

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Weld Profile

Flat Convex Concave

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS

M
Toes blended smoothly Permanent Backing Strip

MR
Removable Backing Strip

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Peripheral Welds

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Site welds

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Tail Optional)

Sequence of Information in the Tail • • • • Process (as per ISO 4063) Acceptance Level (as per ISO 5817 or ISO 10042) Working Position (as per ISO 6947) Filler Materials (as per ISO 544 or ISO 2560 or ISO 3581)

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Method of representation

Reference Line (Continuous) Reference Line (Dashed)

Arrow Line

Weld Joint

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Arrow Side

Arrow Side

Other Side

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Other Side

Arrow Side

Other Side

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Other Side Arrow Side

Other Side

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Arrow Side

Other Side

Arrow Side

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Which is the Other Side in this case? Side B Side A

Side C

Side D

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on both Sides

Arrow Side

Other Side

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Symmetric Welding on both Sides

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Pointing of Arrows for Bevel and J Joints

OR

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Pointing of Arrows for Bevel and J Joints

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Butt Joints

l

s

l

s

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Fillet Welds

z5

l

5 5

a5

l
5

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Fillet Welds

a

a

a

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Intermittent Fillet Welds

z z

n x l (e) n x l (e)

l

(e)

l

(e)

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Staggered Intermittent Fillet Welds

z z

n x l (e) n x l (e)

l

(e)

l (e)

(e) (e)

l

l

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Spot Weld d n (e)

e d

e

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Seam Weld d n x l (e)

l

e d

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Plug Weld d n (e)

e d

e

DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Slot Weld d n x l (e)

l

e d

WELD JOINT DESIGN

Edge Preparation - Need
Poor penetration Poor strength

Good penetration Good strength (100% joint efficiency)

Edge Preparation
Factors which influence choice of edge preparation - Thickness - Material - Welding process - Extent of penetration required - Welding distortion - Cost

Basic Joint Types
butt lap tee

corner edge

Basic Weld Types
Groove welds

Fillet weld Plug / slot weld

Spot / seam weld

Applicable Welds for Butt joint
Square Groove weld V Groove weld

Bevel Groove weld

U Groove weld

J Groove weld

Applicable Welds for Butt joint
Double V Groove weld Double Bevel Groove weld

Double U Groove weld

Double J Groove weld

Applicable Welds for Tee joint

Applicable Welds for Lap joint
Fillet weld

Plug / slot weld

Spot / seam weld

Applicable Welds for Corner Joint

Applicable Welds for Edge Joint
Edge weld

Butt joint
Square Groove weld

Root gap

Butt joint
Single V Groove weld Groove angle α

Root face Root gap

Weld Reinforcement

Correct reinforcement Minimum cost Good joint strength

Excess reinforcement High cost Poor joint strength

Under reinforcement

Poor joint strength

Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration
Weld from face side

Back gouging

Back weld

Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration

Backing weld

Back gouging

Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration (welding from one side)
TIG / SMAW welding

Consumable guide

Butt Joint – Double V groove
Double V groove Less weld metal Less distortion Higher edge preparation cost Better for thickness > 20 mm Single V groove More weld metal More distortion Lower edge preparation cost Better for thickness < 20 mm

Butt Joint – U groove
Groove angle Root radius Root face Root gap Good access at the root Less weld metal Higher edge preparation cost Better for thickness > 40 mm

Butt Joint – Bevel groove
Single bevel groove Bevel angle 40 to 50° Difficult to approach the root Weld defects Double bevel groove Back gouging to remove root defects Good weld quality

Butt Joint – J groove

Good access at the root Back gouging and back welding to get good weld quality Less weld metal Higher edge preparation cost Better for thickness > 40 mm

Tee Joint – Full strength joint
throat = 0.707 x leg leg = 1.414 x throat leg In a full strength joint, leg = 0.75 x thickness throat

leg

Tee Joint – Full penetration joint

45° or 60°

leg = throat

leg = throat

Tee Joint

Actual throat Theoretical throat

AWS D 1.1 recommendation when gap > 1.6 mm – to increase leg size of fillet by the amount of gap

Lap Joint

overlap AWS D 1.1 recommendation Overlap = 5 x thickness (1 inch minimum) Gap between mating faces = 1.6 mm max

Welding Position – Groove
1G

3G

2G 4G

Welding Position – Groove
1G 2G

5G

6G

45°

Welding Position – Fillet
1F 2F 3F

4F

Welding Position – Fillet
1F 2F

5F

Welding Positions – Groove
Position Flat Horizontal Inclination of axis 0° to 15° 0° to 15° Rotation of face 150° to 210° 80° to 150° 210° to 280° Overhead 0° to 80° 0° to 80° 280° to 360° Vertical 15° to 80° 80° to 90° 80° to 280° 0° to 360°

Welding Positions – Fillet
Position Flat Horizontal Inclination of axis 0° to 15° 0° to 15° Rotation of face 150° to 210° 125° to 150° 210° to 235° Overhead 0° to 80° 0° to 125° 235° to 360° Vertical 15° to 80° 80° to 90° 125° to 235° 0° to 360°

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