You are on page 1of 63
Welding Symbols (ISO 2553) and Weld Joint Design
Welding Symbols
(ISO 2553)
and
Weld Joint Design
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Square Groove Weld Single V Groove Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Square Groove Weld
Single V Groove Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Single Bevel Groove Weld Single V Groove Weld with Broad Root Face
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Single Bevel Groove Weld
Single V Groove Weld with Broad Root Face
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Single Bevel Groove Weld with Broad Root Face Single U Groove Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Single Bevel Groove Weld with Broad Root Face
Single U Groove Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Single J Groove Weld Backing Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Single J Groove Weld
Backing Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Fillet Weld Plug / Slot Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Fillet Weld
Plug / Slot Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Spot Weld Seam Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Spot Weld
Seam Weld
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Edge Weld Surfacing
ELEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Edge Weld
Surfacing
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS Weld Profile Flat Convex Concave
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Weld Profile
Flat
Convex
Concave
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS M MR Toes blended smoothly Permanent Backing Strip Removable Backing Strip
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
M
MR
Toes blended
smoothly
Permanent
Backing Strip
Removable
Backing Strip
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS Peripheral Welds
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Peripheral Welds
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS Site welds
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Site welds
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS Tail Optional) Sequence of Information in the Tail • Process (as per ISO
SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
Tail Optional)
Sequence of Information in the Tail
• Process (as per ISO 4063)
• Acceptance Level (as per ISO 5817 or ISO 10042)
• Working Position (as per ISO 6947)
• Filler Materials (as per ISO 544 or ISO 2560 or
ISO 3581)
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Method of representation Reference Line (Continuous) Reference Line (Dashed) Arrow Line Weld
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Method of representation
Reference Line (Continuous)
Reference Line (Dashed)
Arrow
Line
Weld Joint
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Welding on the Arrow Side Arrow Side Other Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Arrow Side
Arrow Side
Other Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Welding on the Other Side Arrow Side Other Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Other Side
Arrow Side
Other Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Welding on the Other Side Arrow Other Side Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Other Side
Arrow
Other
Side
Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Welding on the Arrow Side Arrow Other Side Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on the Arrow Side
Arrow
Other
Side
Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Which is the Other Side in this case? Side B Side A
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Which is the Other Side in this case?
Side B
Side A
Side D
Side C
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Welding on both Sides Arrow Side Other Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Welding on both Sides
Arrow Side
Other Side
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Symmetric Welding on both Sides
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Symmetric Welding on both Sides
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Pointing of Arrows for Bevel and J Joints OR
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Pointing of Arrows for Bevel and J Joints
OR
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION Pointing of Arrows for Bevel and J Joints
EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
Pointing of Arrows for Bevel and J Joints
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Butt Joints l s l s
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Butt Joints
l
s
l
s
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Fillet Welds 5 z5 l 5 a5 l 5
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Fillet Welds
5
z5
l
5
a5
l
5
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Fillet Welds a a a
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Fillet Welds
a
a
a
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Intermittent Fillet Welds z n x l (e) z n x l
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Intermittent Fillet Welds
z
n
x l (e)
z
n
x l (e)
(e)
(e)
l
l
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Staggered Intermittent Fillet Welds z n x l (e) z n x
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Staggered Intermittent Fillet Welds
z
n
x l (e)
z
n
x l (e)
(e)
(e)
l
l
(e)
(e)
l
l
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Spot Weld d n (e) e e d
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Spot Weld
d n
(e)
e
e
d
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Seam Weld d n x l (e) l e d
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Seam Weld
d n x l
(e)
l
e
d
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Plug Weld d n (e) e e d
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Plug Weld
d
n
(e)
e
e
d
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS Slot Weld d n x l (e) e l d
DIMENSIONING OF WELDS
Slot Weld
d
n x l
(e)
e
l
d
WELD JOINT DESIGN
WELD JOINT DESIGN
Edge Preparation - Need Poor penetration Poor strength Good penetration Good strength (100% joint efficiency)
Edge Preparation - Need
Poor penetration
Poor strength
Good penetration
Good strength
(100% joint
efficiency)
Edge Preparation Factors which influence choice of edge preparation - Thickness - Material - Welding
Edge Preparation
Factors which influence choice of edge preparation
- Thickness
- Material
- Welding process
- Extent of penetration required
- Welding distortion
- Cost
Basic Joint Types butt lap tee corner edge
Basic Joint Types
butt
lap
tee
corner
edge
Basic Weld Types Groove welds Fillet weld Plug / slot weld Spot / seam weld
Basic Weld Types
Groove welds
Fillet weld
Plug / slot weld
Spot / seam weld
Applicable Welds for Butt joint Square Groove weld V Groove weld U Groove weld Bevel
Applicable Welds for Butt joint
Square Groove weld
V Groove weld
U Groove weld
Bevel Groove weld
J Groove weld
Applicable Welds for Butt joint Double V Groove weld Double Bevel Groove weld Double U
Applicable Welds for Butt joint
Double V Groove weld
Double Bevel Groove weld
Double U Groove weld
Double J Groove weld
Applicable Welds for Tee joint
Applicable Welds for Tee joint
Applicable Welds for Lap joint Fillet weld Plug / slot weld Spot / seam weld
Applicable Welds for Lap joint
Fillet weld
Plug / slot weld
Spot / seam weld
Applicable Welds for Corner Joint
Applicable Welds for Corner Joint
Applicable Welds for Edge Joint Edge weld
Applicable Welds for Edge Joint
Edge weld
Butt joint Square Groove weld Root gap
Butt joint
Square Groove weld
Root gap
Butt joint Single V Groove weld Groove angle αααα Root face Root gap
Butt joint
Single V Groove weld
Groove angle αααα
Root face
Root gap
Weld Reinforcement Correct Excess Under reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement Minimum cost High cost Good
Weld Reinforcement
Correct
Excess
Under
reinforcement
reinforcement
reinforcement
Minimum cost
High cost
Good joint
strength
Poor joint strength
Poor joint strength
Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration Weld from face side Back gouging Back weld
Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration
Weld from face side
Back gouging
Back weld
Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration Backing weld Back gouging
Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration
Backing weld
Back gouging
Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration (welding from one side) TIG / SMAW welding Consumable
Butt joint – Complete Joint penetration
(welding from one side)
TIG / SMAW
welding
Consumable
guide
Butt Joint – Double V groove Double V groove Less weld metal Less distortion Higher
Butt Joint – Double V groove
Double V groove
Less weld metal
Less distortion
Higher edge preparation cost
Better for thickness > 20 mm
Single V groove
More weld metal
More distortion
Lower edge preparation cost
Better for thickness < 20 mm
Butt Joint – U groove Groove angle Root radius Root face Root gap Good access
Butt Joint – U groove
Groove angle
Root radius
Root face
Root gap
Good access at the root
Less weld metal
Higher edge preparation cost
Better for thickness > 40 mm
Butt Joint – Bevel groove Single bevel groove Bevel angle 40 to 50° Difficult to
Butt Joint – Bevel groove
Single bevel groove
Bevel angle 40 to 50°
Difficult to approach
the root
Weld defects
Double bevel groove
Back gouging to
remove root defects
Good weld quality
Butt Joint – J groove Good access at the root Back gouging and back welding
Butt Joint – J groove
Good access at the root
Back gouging and back welding to get good weld quality
Less weld metal
Higher edge preparation cost
Better for thickness > 40 mm
Tee Joint – Full strength joint throat = 0.707 x leg leg = 1.414 x
Tee Joint – Full strength joint
throat = 0.707 x leg
leg = 1.414 x throat
In a full strength
joint, leg = 0.75 x
thickness
leg
throat
leg
Tee Joint – Full penetration joint 45° or 60° leg = throat leg = throat
Tee Joint – Full penetration joint
45° or 60°
leg = throat
leg = throat
Tee Joint Actual throat Theoretical throat AWS D 1.1 recommendation when gap > 1.6 mm
Tee Joint
Actual throat
Theoretical throat
AWS D 1.1 recommendation when gap > 1.6 mm –
to increase leg size of fillet by the amount of gap
Lap Joint overlap AWS D 1.1 recommendation Overlap = 5 x thickness (1 inch minimum)
Lap Joint
overlap
AWS D 1.1 recommendation
Overlap = 5 x thickness (1 inch minimum)
Gap between mating faces = 1.6 mm max
Welding Position – Groove 1 G 3 G 2 G 4 G
Welding Position – Groove
1 G
3 G
2 G
4 G
Welding Position – Groove 1 G 2 G 5 G 6 G 45°
Welding Position – Groove
1 G
2 G
5 G
6 G
45°
Welding Position – Fillet 1F 2F 3F 4F
Welding Position – Fillet
1F
2F
3F
4F
Welding Position – Fillet 1F 2F 5F
Welding Position – Fillet
1F
2F
5F
Welding Positions – Groove Position Inclination of axis Rotation of face Flat Horizontal 0° to
Welding Positions – Groove
Position
Inclination of axis
Rotation of face
Flat
Horizontal
0° to 15°
0° to 15°
Overhead
0° to 80°
Vertical
15° to 80°
80° to 90°
150° to 210°
80° to 150°
210° to 280°
0° to 80°
280° to 360°
80° to 280°
0° to 360°
Welding Positions – Fillet Position Inclination of axis Rotation of face Flat Horizontal 0° to
Welding Positions – Fillet
Position
Inclination of axis
Rotation of face
Flat
Horizontal
0° to 15°
0° to 15°
Overhead
0° to 80°
Vertical
15° to 80°
80° to 90°
150° to 210°
125° to 150°
210° to 235°
0° to 125°
235° to 360°
125° to 235°
0° to 360°