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8EQPIA KAI KPITIKH Roderick Beaton: Elaaywyrj aT1]NEOU(]1] EM1]VlxrjAoyouxv(a
Th·AO~ 7tPW't"O't"LI1tOU: AN
INTRODUCTION TO MODERN GREEK LITERATURE

IIpw't""Y) ixooC1"Y): Clarendon Press, Oxford 1994

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10

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H O"uyyparp~ 'r'ou 616A{OU a-ta ayyAlxa Ol~pXeO"e a7rO 'r'0 1990 iw~ 'r'0 1992. 2'r'oxo~ 'r'ou ~'r'av va xaAucpel rYJv 7rep{ooo P.iXPl 'r'0 1992 U7rO 'r'0
7rp{O"p.a au'r'* 'r'r;~ e7rOX*· 2rYJv 7rpa;r;, au'r'o O"Yjp.a{vel O'r'l

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XaAU7r'r'el xai rYJ Oexae'r'{a 'r'ou '80. Tea rYJv 7rClpouO"aixooO"Yj oev emxefpr;O"a va ;e7repaO"w 'r'0 XPOVlXO opw 'r'ou Aaw 'r'ou '80 xai 'r'l~ apxi~ Xpov{O"w 'r'r;v ixava
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'r'r;~ e7rop.ivr;~. Em7rAiov,

ywv(a. a7ro 'r'r;v onola au'r'o -to 616A{0 yparp'r'r;xe, xai
ava()ewp~O"el~ ae OAO 'r'0 xefp.evo, Wo-'r'e 'r'0 ''r'wpa' 0"'r'0 1995. 2uyxpovw~ 0X1 xaevoupla 'r'r;~ apx,x~~ O"UP.7rA~pwO"a, 7rapa7rop.7ri~, Yla va 7replAa6w ex7r0{r;0"Yj ~ 7re'oyparp{a),

xa7rote~ p.lxpi~

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TIEPIEXOMENA

11

't'Y)f; EMaoaf; xa, aMWV XWPWV 't'YJf; EUPW7rYJf;:Orpe&AW,Aomov, ere 7rOAAOUf; rOMa' 't'Ocra 7rOUelva: ouerxOAOva 7 xa't'ayparpouv. BiAW OfJ-Wf; va elvca a7rOAu't'Wf; erarpif; o't', YJ o'x~ fJ-ou ()ewPYJCTYJ 't'Y)f;NeoeMYJYlx~f; Aoyo't'exv{af; o,afJ-oprpwOY]xefJ-iera a7ro eruvex~ aeaAOyo fJ-e 't'ouf; fJ-a()YJ't'if; xa, 't'ouf; eruvaoiArpouf;. U,ahepef; erUfJ-60Aef; emCTYJfJ-a{vov't'a, xat a-t«; CTYJfJ-e,were'f;. Xpwer't'w eUYVWfJ-oeruvYJ re OAOUf; 't'oUf; rpOl't'YJ't'if;, 't'wv otiolcov 't"f; e fJ-e't'a7r't'uXlaxif; epyaer{ef; avov xAaoo 't'wv NeoeAAYJYlXWV1:7rOUOWVttapaxOAouoy]era, ettott-teuaa ~ e~haera. 0 POAOf; 't'OUf;, XWP{f; va elva: ouva't'o va 7rpoerolOp,er't'd xa, fJ-aA,er't'a ex 't'wv uer't'ipwv, elva: fJ-eyaAOf;. E~a'PoufJ-ivwv au't'wv, 't'wv otiolosv 0' epyaer{ef; ixouv ~oYJ oYJfJ-oer,eu't'd xa, avarpipovtca a-tu; CTY)fJ-e'Were'f;, ~()eAa va exrppaerw 't'lf; euxap,er't'{ef; fJ-ou npo; ()a 't'OUf;:A()YJva Boy,a't"oyAou, 1:orp{a BouAyapYJ, E).ivYJ navvaxaxYJ, Teospy{a Tx 61'CTY)AAe~avopa BaAaerCTY),EAevYJ KaAA,ya, ..1wvuCTYJ at/laAYJ, , K Ep'rpUAYJ M7ray,a, N,x6Aao IIe't'p67roUAO, A()avaer{a 1:ouPfJ-7ra't'Y), 'EMYJ tJhAOXU7rPOU, Sarah Ekdawi, Anthony Hirst, David Landsman, Robert Shannan Peckham, Jonathan Sherman, Karen Rhoads van Dyck, Christopher Williams. OrpdAW ax6fJ-YJva euxapler1'~erw 't'YJ Virginia Llewellyn Smith, exoo1'p,a xa't'a 't'0 7rapeAOov vou Oxford University Press, YJ 07r0{a 7rpw't'YJfJ-eev()appuye va ypat/lw iva 6,6A{0 fJ-e au't'o 1'0 ()ifJ-a, xa, 1'ov Peter Mackridge, 0 07r0{0f; aea6aere 7rOAU7rpoerex1',xa 1'0 Xe'poyparpo 1'YJf; ayyA'x* iXOOCTY)f; xat ixave xp~er'fJ-ef; 7rapa1'YJP~ere'f;.E7rmAeov, ()iAW va euxap,er1'~erw 6erouf; auvi6aAav er1'YJv7rpoe't'o'fJ-aer{a au1'* 1'YJf; iXOOCTY)f;:t'ov XapYJ BAa6,av6, 0 ' 07rO{Of;J-OU f o"UfJ-7rapaer1'aOY]xeaov e7rava7rpoerava1'oA,erfJ-61'ou OAOU6,6A{OU, a wer't'e va a7reu()uve1'a, nso 7rOAUa-tov 'EMYJva avayvwer1'YJ, 't"f; OUOuetarppaer1'p,if; fJ-0U, 't'Y)V EuayyeAfa Zoupyou xca 1'YJ Map,avva 1:7ravaxYJ, xa()wf; xa, 1'YJ Mapfa Iwavvou 7rOU dXe 1'YJ rp'AoAoy'x~ emfJ-iAe,a. 0, o7rOlef; avaxpf6elef; ~ 7rapaAdt/ielf; 6apuvouv a7roxAe,er1',xa efJ-iva.
King's College London OX:tWbPto~ 1995

vla«, 't'wv Hvouievor« IIoA''t'eui)Y,

R.B.

IIEPIEXOMENA

IIpoAoyo~

CT'tl'lV€AAl'lVLX~ exooCTlj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 15 15
18 29 36

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rlATI 'EI:EArorH' KAI OXI 'I:ETOPIA' rIA TA XPONIA TOr 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KAI I1EPIOPI:EMOI ........................... MIA rENIKH KATErerN:EEI:E H EAAHNIKH 'I1EPI90PIAKH' 8EOPH:EH

AorOTEXNIA MEPO:E TH:E ErPOIlAlKH:E: OrTE orra 'EAA:E:EON' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. Aoyo't€lVLIX yLIX evlX N
I:ETOPIKA 01 I1POTOI H ANAIITrSH I1POAErOMENA KENTPA POMANTIKOI: I10AITI:EMIKA

eo

Kpa'to~

1821-1881 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49 49 51 59 81

................................. I1PIN AIIO TO 1821 TH:E EAAHNIKH:E I10IH:EH:E ... ............................ H ANANEO:EH

TH:E I1EZOrPA\lIIA:E

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IoelX' CT't"flV€7tlZUPto 'tl'l~ KIX'tIXCT'tpOrp~~ 1881-1928 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
................................. ........... ......... (1880-1904)

99
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KAI PEAAI:EMO:E :ETHN I1EZOrPA\lIIA

............................................ PEAAI:EMO:E, :ErMBOAI:EMO:E, :EO:ElAAI:EMO:E . . .

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3, ~€ IXVIX~~'tl'lCTlj!JoLIX~elX~ €6VLX~~ 'tIXU'tO'tl'l'tIX~ 1929-1949 . . . . . v
[:ETOPlKA I1POAErOMENA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. MANI\lIE:ETO rIA TH NEA EIIOXH. TO EAE1f8EPO IINEYMA Tor 8EOTOKA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H NEA I1EZOrPMIA H I10IH:EH :ETA 1930 (1929-1936) ............................. .....................................

174 174 177 179 199 220 233 246

H I1EZOrPA\lIIA :ETH AIAPKEIA TH:E AIKTATOPIA:E KAI TH:E KATOXH:E (1936-1944) ............................................ I1OIHTE:E I1OIHTE:E Tor Tor I10AEMor: I10AEMor: H TENIA Tor '30' .................... NEE:E \lIONE:E .......................

14.

IlEPIEXOMENA 253 253 255 262
284 287

4. TIX €1tIXXOAou6IX 'tou IloAEfLoU XIXt 'tou EfLqlUALOU 1949-1967 . . .
I~TOPIKA IlPOAErOMENA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H METAIIOAEMIKH rENIA: 01 «EIIIZONTE~» I10IHTE~ . . . . . . . H rENIA Tor '30 ~TH METAIIOAEMIKH I1OIH~H . . . . . . . . . . . . I10IH~H KAI Mor~IKH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . METAIIOAEMIKH I1EZOrPAfllIA: EPMHNEIE~ Tor I1APEA80NTO~ 1960-1967: NEOI OPIZONTE~ ~TH METAIIOAEMIKH I1EZOrPAfllIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

315 326 326 330 346 355 369 373 406
427

5.

1967-1992:

A1to 't'YJ OtX'tIX'tOp(IX O''t'YJv eupw1tIXi'xYj xOWO't'YJ'tIX . . .
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....................

I~TOPIKA I1POAErOMENA :...... H AorOTEXNIA KATn AIIO TH ~TPATmTIKH 'TO MIKPO ArXNAPI': H I1OIH~H ~TA TEAH Tor 'SO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H 'EKPHSH' TH~ I1EZOrpAfllIA~. . . . . . . . .

....................

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7ttptAcxtJ-6avtt €pycx a~tcx O't6cxO'tJ-ou xcxt O'uO''tY)tJ.CX'ttx1)~ tJ-tA€'tY)~. (Excx'to "J.POVtCX 7tptv, O''ty)v t7to'X,1) 'tou Hippolyte Taine XCXt -cou Matthew Arnold, 'tcx 7tpaytJ.CX'tcx 1)'tcxv 7tOAU Otcxcpopt'ttxa). To CX7tO't€AtO'tJ.CX dvcxt o'tt Y) 7tCXpcxooO'tcxx1) tJ-oPCP1) 'tY)~ IO''top(cx~ 'ty)~ Aoyo'tt'X,vtcx~ 'tY)~ CXiiAtx1)~, ycxAAtX1)~, ytPtJ-CXVtx1)~ 1) t'tCXAtX1)~ yAWO'O'CX~ , II " " 'tttVtt »a cxV'ttxcx'tCXO''tcxutt O''tt~ tJ-tPt~ tJ.CX~CX7tOt7ttO'X07tY)O'tt~ O'uYXtXpttJ-t,~ '.. , ~, ~, , vwv 7ttpWowv Y) 1\0yo'tt'X,VtxWV' XtvY)tJ.CX'twv. E' tvCXt O''X,toOV cxouvCX'tov tvCX~ tJ-ovov 'totJ-o~ VCXxcxAU~tt t~CXV'tAY)'ttXa 'tY) AOYO'tt'X,VtCX 'tou 190u XCXt -eou 200u CXtwvcx (OY)ACX01)cxu't1) 7tOU dvcxt ypcxtJ-tJ-€vY) O''ty)V OtJ-tAOUtJ-tVY)YAWcrO'CX) XCXt 'tY)V t7ttO''tY)tJ-OVtx1) €ptUVCX 7tOU cxcpttpw6Y)Xt O't cxu't1). ~'tY)v EAAaocx, Y) IO''toptcx 'tY)~ 'vto'ttPy)~' AOyO'tt'X,VtCX~ 'tY)~ 'X,wpcx~ €'X,tt ypcxcp'ttt 7ttpt7tOU 'tptav'tcx cpoP€~. Ilpw'to~ 'to t7tt'X,t£pY)O't 0 Iaxw60~ P£~o~ NtpOUAO~ 'to 1827 XCXt 0''tY) O'UV€'X,ttcx, tJ-tO'o O''X,toov cxtWVCXcxpyonpcx, 0 AA€.~cxvopo~ P£~o~ PcxjXcx61)~, €VCX~ CX7tO 'tOU~ 7tOAUiPCXCPO'ttpou~ 7tOtY)'t€~ Y , , 'Y XCXt7tt"oypcxcpou~ 'tou xcxtpOU'K~" -eou. CXt'tCX oUO cxu'tcx tpycx cxv'tttJ-t'tW7tt"OUV 'to cxv'ttxdtJ-tvo 'tou~ U7tO 'to 7tp£O'tJ.CX'ty)~ t7to'X,1)~ 'tOU~ XCXtXCX60AOU tJ-t 'tov 'tp07tO 'tou 200u CXtwvcx.1 Movo tJ-t 'tt~ Ia-toole; -eou D. C. Hesseling O''tcx ycxAAtXa XCXt'tou HAtCX Bou'tttptoY) O''tCXtAAY)VtXa (oY)tJ-Q(jtE:utJ-€vt~ XCXtOt OUO O''ty) OtXCXt't£cx 'tou '20) ap'X,tO't vo: xcx6ttpwvt'tCXt €VCX~t7ttfIY)tJ-o~ 'tU7tO~, 7tpO~ " " T' ....' -eov 07tOtO O'UVt'tttVCXV Ot ttxoO't 'ttO'O'tPtt~ urtopu»; 'tY)~ vtotl\l\Y)VtxY)~ .. I\oyo'tt'X,v£cx~ 7tOU txoo6Y)xcxv tJ-t'tcx~u -eou 1948 XCXt -eou 198U Kcx'ta ytVtx1)
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1. BA. av'!ta~o~'X.a Iaxw~o~ Pt~o~ NepOUA~, [(J''ropla 'rwv rpafJ-J)4'rwv napa 'rOl~ vew'repoI~ 'EMYj(J'I, t~tAA1)vla&rJ U7tOOAU!J-7ttot~ N. A~~o'! ev etaaaAovtX1), A6~va 1870 I. (7tpOl'r'Y)tXOOO1): rtvtU'Y} 1827) xa~ A. R. Rangabe, Precis d'une histoire de la litterature neo-hellenique (vol. I-ll), S. Calvary, Berlin 1877. 0 NtpOUAO~ (J-t '!ov'opo '''(pafJ-!J4'!a' 7ttp~Aa!J-~avt~ xa'!a XUpIO AOyO 'r'Y) 0~0001) '!WV ~OtOlV'!wv tAA~VWVa~atpw'!ta'!Olv xat '!~tvo(J-tt '!o UAtx6 '!ou at xttpaAata !J-t '!hAOU~ «etOAo"(tot xat P1)'!optX~», «Ie-eople», «q_)tAOAO,,(tot»(J-t 'r'Y}vtWQta 'r'Y)~ (J-tAt'r'Y}C; « 'r'Y)~ ,,(AWaaac;), «Mt'!atppMtt~», «rU\latxt~ Mt'!atppM'!pttC; xat Exoo'!pttC;», «T~totw'!txa xat Mu6ta'!op~~'!a» (a7to -'!a 07totot '!o mo 7tpOatpa'!o 7tOU !J-\Il)!J-Ovtut'!at ttvat 1) !J-u6ta'!opta '!ou HAtOOWpou a7to -rov 40 atOlva !J-.x.!) xat, '!tAOC;, «Auptx~ I1o(1)C71)) (~A. ea. 165-68 a'!1)v £XOOO1)'!ou 1870). 0 Pa~a~~~ atpttpwat 7ttptaao'!tpo a7to -ro !J-tao tp,,(o '!ou at xd(J-tva t7ttO"'r'Y}!J-OVtXOU, tptAOaotptxou, 6toAo"{txoU, axo!J-1) xat ap'X.aIOAo,,(tXOU 7ttptt'X.0~vou. Mt'!a a7to OA1)au'!~ 'r'Y}V 7tOtXtAtot6t~'!wv avatptpt'!at a'!1)v 7to(1)C71)tvOl -ro !J-u6~a,!0(1)~ t!J-tpavt~t'!at !J-ovo a'!t~ , '!tAtu'!a(t~ £~t atA£Ot~.
2. D. C. Hesseling, Histoire de la litterature grecque moderne, Les Belles Lettres, Paris

1924 (ava6tWp1)C71) '!ou oAAaVOtXOu 7tpw'!o'!U7tOU, 7tOUtx06&rJxt -co 1920), HAta~ Bou'!ttpto1)~, [(J''ropla 'rYJ~ veoeAAYjvo,* Aoro'rexvla~ ana 'rwv (J.£(J'wv'rOIJIE' alwvo~ (J.£XPI 'rwv

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17

O(J-OAoyLa ~e:'X,wptO'av "t'pe:t<;: "t'OU K. 1948 xat e:yxawLaO'e: "t'l)v 1tapaywy~

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Oxford University Press, xat "t'EAo<; "t'ou Mario Vitti, 1tOU e:xoo6l)xe: xa"t'ap'X,~v O'''t'a t"t'aAtxtX "t'o 1971 xat O'''t'l) O'uvE'X,e:ta O'''t'a e:Ml)VtXtX, (J-e:avaOe:wpl)(J-EVl) EXOOO'l) "t'o 1987. 1t"t'u~l) xat 'OAe:<; au"t'E<; Ot

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Vf:W'rIXTWV xpovwv (2 'tOtJ-ot) , ExoOaEt<; ZYJXIlXYJ<;, 6~\I(x 1924 Xilt 1927. Kpt'ttx~ tJ-EAE'tYJ A tJ-E 6EtJ-Il dxoat 'tPEt<; IlXOtJ-ll ta'toptE<;, 7tOU XUXAocpopYJallv tJ-E'tIl~U 1948 Xilt 1980, E7tt'X,dpYJaE 0 rtwpyo<; KE'X,llytOyAOU, «Ot ta'toptE<; 'tY)<;VEOEAAYJVtX~<; AoyO'tE'X,Vtll<;», Mav'ra'rorpOPOi;15 (1980), aa, 5-66. ~'tt<; Ia'toptE<; 7tOU E~E'ta~Et 0 KE'X,llytOyAOU 61l 7tPE7tEt vo: 7tpoau60uv: aYJtJ-. Tallxwvtx<;, Ia'rop{a 'rrJi; Vf:Of:M'I7V'x* AOY0'rf:xv{ai; (3 't0tJ-0t), EXOOOEt<; r. Atxota, A%vtx 1981 Xtxt 060 IlAAE<;auv'totJ-o'tEpE<; E7ttaX07t~aEt<; 7tOU XUXAocpopYJatxva'tYJ OEXIlE'tttx 'tou 1980, 'twv 07tOtWV YJ 7tpoatyytaY) auyxAtVEt 7tEptaaOupo tJ-E txu't~ 'tou 7ttxpov'to<; btbAtOU: K. MYJ'tallxYJ<;, H f:M'I7V'X~ AOY0'rf:xv{a asov f:lXoa'rO aubva: 1:UV07r'r'xo o,&'ypap.p.a, ~tAt7t7t6'tY)<;, A6~vtx 1985 (tx7tO'tEAEt xPt'ttX~ 'tY)<;AOyO'tE'X,VtX~<;7ttxptxyw~<; 'tou 200u txtWVtx) xtxt M. MEPtxXA~<;,1:Urxpov'17 f:M'I7V'X~ AOY0'rf:xv{a (1945-1980). MipOi; 7rpw'ro: IIo{'I7CI'17, Itx'tIlXYJ<;, A6~vtx 1987. AVEX'tttJ-YJ'to btbAtO txvtxcpopa<;, 7tOU 7ttxpOuata~Et I tJ-EOttxCPOPE'ttxO'tp07tO 'to 7tEptE'X,OtJ-EVO xtx6tEPWtJ-tVWv Ia'rop'wv, ttVtxt YJE,aayw~ 'twv a'r'17 Vf:Of:M'I7V'X~ rp'AoAoy{a 'tou II. a. Mtxa'tpooYJtJ-~'tPYJ, 5YJ EXOOaY) MtJ-o<;, A6~vtx 1990. , KIl7tottx tx7tO 'ttx 6EWPYJ'ttxll ~YJ't~tJ-Il'ttx 'tY)<; AOyOU'X,VtX~<; ta'topttx<; aU~YJ't~6YJxtxv a'tY) «atE6~ E7tta'tYJtJ-ovtX~ ~UVIlV'tY)aY)'txcptEPWtJ-EVYJ a'tov K. 8. aYJtJ-IlPIl», 7tOU tYWE a'tov TotJ-ttx MEatxtWVtxWV Xtxt Ntwv E'AiYJvtxwV ~7tOUOWV, TtJ-~tJ-Il ~tAoAOyLtx<;, Apta'to'ttAEto IItxVE7tta't~tJ-to 8EaatxAOVtxYJ<;, 10-12 Mtx'lou 1990, 'twptx a'tov 'totJ-o ZY}T~p.a'ra ,a'rop{ai; 'rwv Vf:Of:M'I7V'xwv ypap.p.a'rwv, IItxptx'tY)PYJ't~<;, 8EaatxAOvLxYJ 1994 (bA. a'X,E'ttXa 'tt<; EtaY)~aEt<; 'twv: K. 8. aYJtJ-Ilpll, M. Vitti, r. BEAOUO~, BEVE'tttx<; A7tOa'toAtOOu Xtxt R. Beaton).

18

RODERICK

BEATON

xOV'tae:'tta~ 1940-1970. H fJ-e:AhYl 'tYJ~ Ve:oe:MYJVtX~~ Aoyo'te:xvia~ xe:pOt~e:t otapxw~ €oacpo~, OXt fJ-ovo er'ta 1tave:7tter't~fJ-ta 'tou e:erw'te:ptxOU aMa xat -eou e:~wnptxou, er'to 1tAaterto 'twv e:upw1ta"t·xwv er1touowv. Etvat erxe:oov aouva-eov 1tA€ov va 1te:ptAYJcp6d ere: €vav e:uXPYJer'to 'tOfJ-O OAOXAYJPYJ Ier'topia 'tYJ~ YJ Ve:Oe:MYJVtX~~ Aoyo'te:xvta~ a1to 'to 120 atwva w~ 'ta 1990. rta ero()apou~ 1tpax'ttxou~ AOyou~ aMa xat 6e:wPYJ'ttXOU~ dvat xatpo~ va o06e:t 'to eruv6YJfJ-a yta aMay~.3 Au'to 'to ()t()AtO Aomov oe:v eruer't~ve:'tat w~ fJ-ta 1tapaooertax~ 'Ier'topta' 'tYJ~ Ve:Oe:MYJVtX~~ Aoyo'te:xvta~. AV't16e:'ta, 1tpoere:yyt~e:t fJ-ta eruyxe:xptfJ-€vYJ xat eracpw~ xa60pterfJ-€vYJ 1te:piooo 'tYJ~ e:MYJVtX~~ Aoyo'te:xvia~, fJ-e:'tP01tO xat er'toxo xatvocpave:i~. Toero Ot otaer'taere:t~ -eou ()t()Aiou oero xat 'to avayvwer'ttxo xotvO er'to o1toio a1te:u6uvo'tav apxtxa, u1tayope:uav 'to er'toxo fJ-ta~ ye:VtX~~ avaerxo1tYJCTYJ~ -eou UAtXOU, xat OXt fJ-ta~ e:yxuXA01tatOtx~~ 1tAYJPO'tYJ'ta~. rta oAou~ au'tou~ 'tou~ AOyou~ 1tpo'tifJ-YJera, w~ 7ttO axpt()~, 'tov a1tAO 'tt'tAo Eceraywyf;.

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TYJV tota axpt()w~ 1te:piooo (1948-1981) 1tOU eruyypacpov'tav Ot 1te:pterero'te:pe:~ 't€'tOtoU 'tU1tOU Ier'topte:~ 'tYJ~ Ve:Oe:MYJVtX~~ Aoyo'te:xvia~ apxterav vo: 1tpay, '"1"1" "1"1' . fJ-a't01totouv'tat erYJfJ-aV'ttxo'ta'te:~ a/lJ\aye:~ o-ro xwpo 'tYJ~ ve:oe:/IJ\YJVtxYJ~cptAoAoyia~. CPav'ta~ofJ-at 1tW~ e:MXter'tOt avayvwer'te:~ 6a afJ-cpter()YJ'touerav , "1"1" '"I , , 'toero 'tt~ a/lJ\aye:~ oao xat 'to pOI\O 'twv I' er'toptwv ere: aU'te:~. M' e:xpt er'ttYfJ-YJ~ OfJ-W~ oe:v u1tapxe:t xa1toto €'pyo 1tOU va 'tt~ aV'ttfJ-e:'tW1tt~e:t er'to eruvoAo 'tou~ ~, 1:' , xat va ote:pe:uva 'tt~ fJ-e:'ta"u 'tou~ erxe:ere:t~. Me: xtvouvo va xa'tYJyopYJ6w o'tt U1te:pa1tAOUernUw, 6a a1to'toAtJ.~erw vo: xlX't'aypa~w w~ aMay€~ 'ta e:~~~: 1taytw6YJxe: xat e:~a1tAw6YJxe: YJ fJ-e:A€'tYJ 'tYJ~ Ve:Oe:AAYJVtX~~ Aoyo'te:xvta~, wer'te: au'tovofJ-~6YJxav Ot otacpopot 1te:ptOOOt 'tYJ~ xat ye:w~6YJxe: YJ avayxYJ otacpope:'ttXWV e:1tayye:AfJ-lX'ttxWV e:tOtxo't~'twv. 'EAa()e: 't€AO~ YJ 1tOAwerYJ 1tOU 1tpOXaAouere: 'to yAwerertxO ~~'tYJfJ-a.
3. IIpbA. KEXlXytoyAOU: «...'1) 7ttEaYj 't''I)~ tOtlX~ 't''I)~ UA'I)~ O'utJob6;)J..Et iv't'ovlX O'E tJotIX IXVIX't'P07ti) 't''I)~ xlX't'e:O''t''I)tJoiV'l)~'t'tX~'Y)~,7tpO~ Oqle:AO~ 't'OUAtXXtO''t'O't'ou 't'E:Ae:u't'lXtOUIXtWVIX't"Y)~ N e:Oe:AA'Y)Vtxi)~Aoyo't'e:XVtlX~ (1880 x.e.): O''t''Y)v IXVtXyx'Y)IXU't'i) oe:v ixouv 1XV't'IX7toxpt6e:t Ot lX~tOAoyO't'e:pe:~ IO''t'opte:~ 't''Y)~ Ne:Oe:AA'Y)Vtxi)~ Aoyo't'e:xvtlX~, XlXt qllXtVe:'t'lXto't't MO'e:t~ tJo7tOPOUV VIX 7tpOiA60uv tJoovo IX7tO ipylX OtlXqlOpe:'t'txOU O'Xe:OtIXO'tJoOU, ootJoi)~ XlXt ix't'IXaYJ~» «(Ot to''t'oPte:~», o.7t., 0'. 60). .

EI:EArOrH

:ETH NEOTEPH

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Ava~w7tupw6Yjxe: xa"t~ O'UVE7te:~ato e:VO~acpEpOV~a O'uyypacpe:te; "tYle;Aoy~ae; " y 7tap~OOO'Yle;,7tOU e:tXav 7tPOYlYOU!l-EVWc; ayvoYl6d. E7tt7tAEOV, e:xoYlAw6Ylxav oUVa!l-~XEe;e:~e:At~e:~e; 0'''t0 XWpO "tYle;AOYO"te:xv(ae;, xix~ ~o~a("te:pa "tYle;7te:~0ypacptae;, 7tpOe; VEe:e;xa"te:u6uvO'e:~~, a7to "to 1960 xa~ 7tEpa. IIpoxe:~"ta~ y~a !l-e:"taboAEe; 7tOU O'une:AEO'''t"Y)xav !l-e:"t~ "to 1948, 07to"te: 7tpw"t0e:xo06Ylxe: Yl !C7'7:0p{a "tou ~Yl!l-ap~, xa~ ava!l-0pcpwO'av sx b~6pwv "to 7te:Oto "twv VWe:AAYlV~XWV AoyO"te:xv~xwv O'7touowv. Ta 6pLI%'tou U7tO £~£'taO'Lv 7t£OLOU.To ~~"t"Y)!l-a"twv apxwv "tYle;Ve:Oe:MYlv~x~e; AoYO"te:xvtae; a7taO'XOAYlO'e:7tpoO'cpa"ta (1991) Eva O'UVEOPW 7tOU opyavw6Yjxe: O'''tYlBe:ve:'tta, X~PYl O''t~e; e:VEpye:~e:e; xa6YlYYl't~ N. M. IIava'tou y~w't~xYl' 7tpOXe:~!l-EVOU O'u~Yl'tYl6d axp~bWe; au'to 'to 6E!l-a. 0 r. II. va ~abbtOYle; 7tpo"te:~ve:we; o~axwp~O''t~xo opw !l-e:'ta~u 'tYle; !l-e:O'a~wv~x~e;xa~ "t"Y)e; ve:o'te:pYle; e:MYlV~X~e;AoYO"te:xvtae; 'tYl !l-e:'t~baO'Yl a7to 'tYl Xe:~poypacpYl O''tYlV EV'tU7tYl 7tap~ooO'Y). A v~yaye:, OYlAaO~, 'tYlV Evap~Yl 'tYle; 7te:p~ooou O''tYlV 7tpw'tYl 'tU7tW!l-EVYlEXOOO'YlAOyO't£XV~xou Xe:~!l-EVOU, pa!l-!l-Evou O''tYl '.lEa y 4 Ti'tate:e; 'to!l-Ee; O'7t~v~a e:(va~ axp~be:te;, acpou 07t0~0 xp~e:MYlV~X~yAwO'O'a. 't~p~o x~ o» e:cpap!l-0O'£~ xavde; U7t~PXe:~7t~v'ta !l-~a 7te:ptoOoe; 'j(a't~ 'tYlVo7to(a 'to 7taA~O xa~ 'to xa~voupw O'UVU7t~PXOUV 7tap~MYlAYl XUXAocpopta, y~a (Yl 7tap~oe:~y!l-CX, xe:~poypacpwv xa~ 'tU7tW!l-EVWVXe:~!l-EVWV 'tYle; Ve:Oe:MYlV~X~e; ypa!l-!l-a'te:tae; o~~pxe:O'e:'tpe:~e;7te:pt7tOUa~wve:e;). Me:yaAu'te:pYl O'Y)!l-CXO'(a o!l-we; , ..,_, 'A-", B'e:ve:'tLa e:xe:~'to yqovoe;"'6O't~ 'te: Ylxe: , a7to 't~e; l\uO'e:te;7tOU 7tp0'taVljxav O'''tYl 'to ~~'tYl!l-a U7tOO'u~~'tYlO'Yl'Ta Xpov~x~ op~a 'tYle; VW£MYlV~X~e;AoYO'te:xvtae; ..,_ , , ,..,_, '12' !1' xaI\U7t'touv e:va !l-e:yal\o eupoe;, a7tO 'to 0 we; 'tov 20' a~wva . ..:..'tYlf)~apx£~a 0 OAWV au'twv 'twv a~wvwv XPYlO'~!l-07to~~6Yjxav7tO~XtAat yAWO'O'~XO('tp07tO~ xa~ 'tU7tO~, o~acpopo7to~~6Yjxav 'ta 7tV£u!l-CX't~x~O'u!l-cppa~o!l-e:va xa~ !l-e:'tabA~6Yjxav at O'uv6~x£e; 7tapaywy~e; xa~ U7tOOOx~e; 'tou AoyO'te:xv~xou EPYOU. ~e:v dva~ Aomov ouva'tov OAO au'to 'to UA~XO vo: !l-£A£'t~'ta~ we; !l-ta. xa~ !l-0vao~x~ e:vo'tYl'ta. 0 e:7tt!l-e:p~O'!l-0e; dva~ ev !l-Epe:~O'uVE7te:~a,ava7tocpe:u'tou
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22

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Opoe;, AOmOV, NEO'tEPy) AOY0'tE'x;vta (j'tov 'tt'tAO au'tou 'tou b~bAtOU (jX07ttfJ-a 7tEptopt~Et. EMd~E~ XaAU'tEpOU, aVacpepE'ta~ (j'ty)V EMY)V~X~ AOYO't€XVta a7tO 'tY)V E7tOX~ 'tY)e; E6v~x~e; aVE~ap'tY)(jtae;.

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(J.1tOOOX~ 'tWV yAwaa~xwv X(J.t (J.ta&rj'ttXwv Ot(J.tpopwv, 01tW~ X(J.~ 'twv 1ttO tp(J.Vtpwv ytW1tOA~'t~XWV, [J.t't(J.~U 't1)~ '[J.ta(J.tWv~x~~· X(J.~'t1)~ '(J.v(J.yt\l\l1)at(J.x~~· tAA1)VtX~~ AOY0'ttxvt(J.~ U1tO01)AWvt't(J.~ X(J.t a'tou~ 060 'to[J.OU~ 'tou lpyou ApXe.; rr;.; NeoeMYjV'X~'; AOY0't'exvta.;, O.1t. . 6. Linos Politis, A History of Modem Greek Literature, Oxford University Press, 1973. H 1tpo'tIJ.a'Y) (J.u't~ 1t(J.P(J.Atttp&rjXt (J.1tO 't1)v (X(J.'t01tt\l~) tAA1)VtX~ lxooa'Y) 't'YJ~ !'3"!'opta.; -rou IIoAt't1), 1tpotp(J.vw~ yt(J.'tt 6tWp~&rjXE 1tEP~'t't~; 7. To tOto ~aXUEt yt(J. OAE~ aXEoov 't~~ Iacopie; 1tOU E~E'ta~Et 0 KEX(J.y~oyAOU. H 'tpt'to[J.1) Ia-topla 'tou Taaxwv(J. (I)A. a'Y)[J.. 2), 1) 01tOtIJ. XUXAotpop1)aE [J.E'ta 't'YJv lPEUV(J. -rou KEX(J.y~oyAou, OEV (J.1tOXAtVEtaol)(J.pa (J.1tO 't(J. XIJ.6ttpw[J.tv(J.. A~t~Et E1tta'Y)~ V(J.a'Y)[J.E~w6tt o'tt AnAOt X(J.t A[J.EP~X(J.vot aunp(J.tptt~ Exo~Awa(J.v 't1) 6EP[J.~ u1toa't~pt~~ 'tOU~ a't'YJv E1ttXpa't'YJa'Y)'t1)~ o1)[J.o't~x~~ (b'A., yt(J. 1t(J.paotty[J.!J., Philip Sherrard, The Marble Threshing Floor: Studies in Modem Greek Poetry, Denise Harvey, Athens 1982 [1tpw't1) txooa'Y): Aovotvo 1956] X(J.~ Peter Bien, Kazantzakis and the Linguistic Revolution in Greek Literature, Princeton University Press, 1972 XIJ.t Robin Fletcher, Kostes Palamas: A Great Modem Greek Poet - His Life. his Work and his Struggle for Demoticism, 'Iopu[J.!J. Kwg~ II(J.A(J.[J.Ii, A6~v(J.

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24

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Oe:V e:tvat Xli'tt Oe:OO!Jo€VO xat a!Joe:'ttX6Ar)'t0. T« 'te:Ae:U'tata !JotXAtO''ta 'XP0Vta Ot Ve:Oe:AAY)VtXEC, AOYOU'XytX€c, O'7tOUO€c, €oe:t~aV tOtat'te:(,o e:VOtaql€(,ov yta 'ty)V ava6e:w('Y)0'~ 'tou, xa6wc, e:7tav~A6av o-ro 7t('oO'x~vw 7taAatOU('Ot O'uYWaqle:tc, 7tOU e:tXav 7te:(,m€O'e:t O''tY)V aqltXve:ta, xat OL a7tO~e:tc, !Joac, yta 'ttc, e:~e:At~e:tC,7tOU O'UVUA€O''tY)Xav 0''t0 7ta(,e:A60v ota!Joo(,qlwvov'tat 'tw('a ex VEOU. de:v 7t(,oxe:t'tat, 6€6ata, yta 'te:Ae:O'tOtXe:c, 6€0'e:tc,. H IO''to('ta 'ty)c, AOYO'te:xvtac, alltX~e:t Xat 7t(,€7te:t va WtXqle:'tat 7ttXAt, aqlou XtX6e: via ye:VttX e:(,!JoY)ve:ue:t Joe:'to OtXO 'tY)c, ! 't('07t0 'ty)v XAY)(,OVO!JottX 'tou 7ta(,e:A60v't0c,. M€O'a O''ty)v 'te:Ae:u'tala 't(,taXOv'tae:'tla ava6e:w('~6Y)xe: e:~ OAOXA~('OU 0 't('07t0c, !Joe:-eov 07tOlO OL 'EllY)ve:c, O'UYWaqle:lC" x('mxol xat e:('e:uvY)'t€c" ota6tX~ouv xat e:(,!JoY)ve:uouv 'tY)V 7t('0O'qla'ty) IO''to(,la 'ty)c, AoYO'te:xvlac,. Ka!Jola !Joe:AE'tY)o!Jowc, oe:v Aa!Jo6tXve:t U7tO~Y) 'ty)c, OAY) 'tY)v 7tOLXtAla 'twv a7to~e:wv xat 'twv O''ttXO'e:wv, 07twc, au't€c, ota!Joo('qlw6Y)xav XtX'tw a7to 'ta via oe:oo!Jo€va. TE'tOLe:c, ava6e:w('~0'e:tc" xat tOtat'te:(,a 0 •e:!Jo7tAOU'ttO'!Jooc,',Y) Ote:u(,uvO'Y) 'tou AoYO'te:XVtxOU xavova !Joe:€('ya 'tou 190u atwva, 7tOU O'uvuAe:t'tat 'ta 'te:Ae:u'tata x('ovta, 6a !Jo7to('ouO'av va 6e:w(,Y)60uv !JoE(,OC,'tY)c, e:~€At~Y)C,7tOU !JoOAtc,7te:('tWtXqlY)xe:: ava7t('oO'a('!Jooy~ 'twv av'ttA~~e:WV !Joe:'ttX'to 't€AOC, 'tY)c, OtyAwO'O'tac,. A7to 'to 1960 xat 7t€('a au~avo'tlXv ota(,xwc, 'to e:votaql€(,ov yta 'to €('yo 'twv !Joe:ytXAWVOty)i'YJ!Joa'toy('tXqlwv 'tou 't€AOUC, 'tou 190u atwvlX: -eou Bt~uY)vou, 'tou I1a7taota~v'ty) xat 'tou Ka(,xa6t'tO'a, xat O''ty) O'uv€xe:ta yta 7tollouc, a7to 'touc, O'uY'XP0vouc, 'touc,. Au'to 'to a7tooe:tXVUouv 'toO'o OL e:7tave:xooO'e:tc, 'twv xe:t!Jo€VWV, 00'0 xat Y) oy)!JooO'te:uO'Y)e:('!Joy)ve:u'ttXWV O'XOAlWV, x('t'ttxwv !Joe:Ae:'tWV,axo!Joa xat otoax'to('tXWV ota't('t6wv O''ty)v ElltXoa xat 'toe:~w'te:('txo. Movo xa'ttX 'ty) OttX('Xe:tlXau't~c, 'tY)c, 7te:('tooou Y) a7to'tl!Joy)O'Y) 'tou €('you 'twv 't('twv au'twv O'uyy('aqlEWV -xat tXllwv 'tY)c, e:7tOX~c, 'touc,otaxw('tO''tY)xe: a7to 'ty)v 'a~wA6i'YJO'y) 'tY)c, y AWO'O'tX~c, !Joo('ql~c,. A7to 'ty) O''tty!Jo~ 7tOU ~e:7te:('tXO''tY)xe: 'to e:!Jo7tOOW'tY)c, OtyAwO'O'lac" e:x'tt!Jo~6Y)xe: xat 7t('06A~6Y)Xe: Y) txavo'tY)'ta xat 'twv 't('twv au'twv O'uyy('aqlEwv O''to Xe:t(,tO'!Joo 'tou AOYOU, aAM xat Y) Ote:(,e:uvY)O'Y)tY)c, av6('wmvY)c, u7ta('~Y)c" 7tOU e:mXe:t' ('OUV, Ota!JoEO'ou xat 7tE('a a7to 'ttc, •Y)60y('aqltXEc,' O'u!Jo6tXO'e:tc,'ty)c, e:7tOX~c,. A7to 'tY) oe:xae:'tta 'tou 1970, 0 xavovac, 'tY)c, AOYO'te:xvtac, 'tou 190u atwva Ote:u(,uv6Y)xe: axo!JoY) 7te:('tO'O'o'te:(,o. H Ilaxuraa /wtXvva 'tou Po"toY) e:7tave:~e:'ttXO''tY)xe: wc, Eva e:tooc, !Joe:'ta!JooV'tE(,vac, 7ta(,wotac, !Joe:7tovY)('~ au'toavaqlo('txo'tY)'ta. To e:vOtaqlE(,ov O''t(,Eqle:'tat e:7ttO'Y)c,xat O'e: !Jota a7to 'ttc, mo 7ta(,aywytXEC, xat 7tOAU7tAe:U('e:C,qluO'wyvw!Jote:c, 'twv y('a!Jo~'twv O''ta !JoEO'a

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RODERICK

BEATON

6~xY), 't'CX EPYCX 't'OU fJ-E 't't't'AO IIoI~Wx'rtX xtXI 7re,a. AxofJ-Y) rno EV't'U7tWO"tCXX~ EtVCXt Y) fJ-E't'1i 6livcx't'ov Em't'U'X,tCX 't'OU EfJ-7tEtptxou XCXt O"E fJ-tXpO't'EPY) EX't'CXO"y) 't'OU EYYOV07tOUAOU XCXt 't'ou KliACX, o» XCXt OEV dvcxt ouvcx't'ov va: EpfJ-Y)VEU6Et 'X,WPt~ »a AY)cp60uv U7tol.jJY) Ot VEE~ CX7tOI.jJEt~ o"'X,E't'txli fJ-E 't'0 rAWO"O"tXO Z~'t'y)fJ-CX. EVOEt~Et~ 't'Y)~ Em't'U'X,tcx~ CXU't'~~ CX7tO't'EAOUV Ot Otcxoo'X,txi~ Ex06o"Et~ 't'wv EPYWV 't'OU~ 0"'t'Y) OEXCXE't'tCX't'ou '80, CXAAIi xcxt Y) O"'t'pocp~ 't'wv VEO't'EPWV , "\' , 'I O"UyypCXcpEWV xcxt 't'wv fJ-EI\E't'Y)'t'WV 7tpO~ CXU't'CX.KCXt O"E EtPWVEtCX 't'Y)~ O"'t'oPtCX~ 't'Y)~ AOY0't'E'X,VtCX~, Ot OUO 7tpw't'Ot 't'ofJ-Ot 't'ou fJ-u6to"'t'0p~fJ-cx't'0~ 't'ou EfJ-7tEtptXOU 0 MtytX~ AVtX'rOAIX6~, 7tOU XUXAOCPOpY)O"cxv O"'t'CX 't'iAY) 't'ou 1990, EytvCXV CXfJ-Eo"W~ best-seller, EVW Y) yAWO"O"CX 't'OU~ dvcxt ivcx 'X,cxpt't'wfJ-EVO O"UVOV6UAEUfJ-CXyAWO"O"tXWV 't'U7tWV 't'Y)~ XCX6CXpEUOUO"CX~'t'ou 1890! ME'X,pt O"'t'tYfJ-~~ 7tCXpouO"tlio"'t'Y)XE Y) OtCXOtxcxO"tCX't'Y)~ O"UVE'X,OU~ CXVCX6EWPY)O"Y)~ 't'ou XCXVovcx, 7tOU Et'X,E W~ CX7tO't'EAEO"fJ-CX CX7toxcx't'cxO"'t'cx60uv AY)O"fJ-Ovo: vY)fJ-ivcx ipycx ~ vo: CXU~Y)6Et Y) CP~fJ-y) O"uyypCXcpEWV 7tOU d'X,cxv cxyvoY)6d, E~cxt't'tCX~ to"w~ 't'Y)~ o"'t'liO"Y)~ 't'OU~ 0"'t'0 rAWO"O"tXO Z~'t'y)fJ-cx xcx't'li 't'0 7tpw't'o fJ-tO"o 't'ou 200u cxtwvcx. T« 7tAEOVEX't'~fJ-CX't'cx 7tOU 7tpoixul.jJcxv CX7tO 't'Y)v E7tix't'cxO"y) 't'ou xcxvovcx EtVCXt 7tEPtO"O"O't'EPCX CX7tO 't'CX fJ-EtOVEX't'~fJ-tl't'CX - XCXt cxv't'cxVCXXAW'J't'CXt 't'00"0 o"'t'OU~ OtEupufJ-ivou~ OPt~ov't'€~ (XCXt cxmXt't'~o"Et~) 't'Y)~ Emo"'t'y)fJ-OVtX~~ fJ-EAi't'Y)~ fJ-iO"cx O"'t'CX7tCXVE7tto"'t'~fJ-tCX 00"0 XCXt (7toM m6cxvov) aso» 7tOMCX7tACXO"tCXO"fJ-o't'wv AoYO't'€'X,vtxwv 7tEptoOtXWV O"'rY)v EMliocx CX7tO 't'CX . fJ-iO"cx 't'Y)~ OEXCXE't'tCX~ 't'ou 1970. 'E'X,ouv U7tlip~Et ofJ-w~ XCXt Xli7tOtE~ CX7tWAEtE~. MOPCPE~ 7tOU EfJ-cpCXVtO"'t'Y)xcxv o"'t't~ XCX6tEPWfJ-ivE~ Io"'t'optE~ XCXt O"'t'ov 7tEptOOtXO TU7to 't'ou 7tpw't'ou fJ-tO"ou 't'ou CXtWVCX fJ-tl~ E~E't'Ii~ov't'cxt, fJ-EAE't'W'J't'CXt , E7tCXVEXotoOV't'CXt 01\0 XCXt "\' ~,~ '"\ T'E't'OtCX 7tCXPCXoEtYfJ-CX't'CXt'JCXt 't'CXXEtfJ-EVCX ~, , , Y) I\tyO't'EpO. E 't'ou McxxpuytliwY) XCXt 't'ou Wu'X,lipY). H EV't'CX~~ 't'ou~ trto» (oy)fJ-o't'txtO"'t'txo) AOYO't'E'X,VtXO xcxvovcx OCPEtAO't'CXV0"'t'Y) xp~O"Y) 't'Y)~ oy)fJ-o't'tX~~ yAWo"o"CX~, 7tcxpli 0"'t'Y) AoyO't'€'X,Vtx~ CX~tCX~ -eo doo~ 't'ou~. T« A7rop.vr;p.oveup.tX'rtX 't'ou McxxpuytliwY), 7tOU Oy)fJ-OO"tEU't'Y)XCXV7tpw't'Y) cpopli 't'o 1907, E~UI.jJW6Y)xcxv 0"'t'Y) OEXCXE't'tCX't'ou '30 0"'t'Y) 6EO"Y) 't'Y)~ 'Bt6AOU 't'ou oy)fJ-o'rtXtO"fJ-ou', o'X,t E~CXt't'tCX~ -eou 6ifJ-tl't'0~ ~ 't'Y)~ tXcxvo't'Y)'t'cx~ 't'ou O"uyypcxcpicx 't'ou~ ~ 't'wv CXV't'tA~I.jJEWV -eou, cxMIi E7tEtO~ 0 McxxpuytliwY)~ ~'t'cxv cxu't'oo£ocxx't'o~ XCXt iypCXI.jJE (~ i't'O"t 't'OUM'X,tO"'t'OV 7t£cr't'EUCXV) xcx-tEu6E£CXV 0"'t'0 tOtW~ 7tOU au't'o~ xcxt Ot O"uyxpovo£ 't'ou fJ-tAOUO"cxv. H 7tCXpouO"£cx -eou McxxpuytliwY) E~CXXOAou6Et va OtCXXptVE't'CXt XCXt O"'t'CX fJ-E't'CX7tOAEfJ-txli 7tOt~fJ-cx't'cx 't'ou ~EcpipY), 0"'t'0 A~lOv eO''r' -eou EM't'Y) xcxt O"E Epya 7tOMWV liMWV O"uyypcxcpiwv, 7tOU 't'ov otli6cxO"cxv fJ-E 't'00"0 6cxufJ-tl0"fJ-0. AMIi OEV E'X,Et XUXAO-

EILArnrH

LTH NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AOrOTEXNIA

27

cpop~cm npoO'cpa'ta fl-ta eyxup"f), O''X.OAtaO'fl-eV''f) XOOO"'f)'twv A7rop.vr;p.oveue p.a"rwv - a» xat e:~axoAou60uv vo: e:fl-cpavt~ov'tat ava'tum{)O'e:te; 'tou xe:tfl-evou, onwe; 'to anoxa'teO''t''f)O'e: xat 'to napouO'taO'e: 0 BAa'X.oyt~w"f)e; 'to 1907. Me:'t~, Aomov, 't"f)v anoxa't~O''ttXO'''f) 't"f)e; cp~fl-"f)e;a~tOAoywv 1te:~oyp~cpwv 'tou 190u atwva, "f) nap~ooO"'f) 't"f)e; ne:~0'YPacptae; O''t''f) o"f)fl-o'ttX~ y AwO'O'a, nou ex 'twv uO''tepwv (O''to npw'to fl-tO'o 'tou 200u atwva) Otxoo0fl-~6"f)xe: fl-e: 6e:fl-eAta 'ta A7rop.vr;p.oveup.a"ra 't"ou Maxpuyt~W"f) xat 't"f) Tuvalxa "rr;~ ZaxuOo~ 'tou ~OAWfl-OU, e:fl-cpavt~e:'tat 'twpa we; eva totat'te:pa aO''t"a6ee; otxo06fl-"f)fl-a. H O'ti't"tpa -eou ~OAWfl-0U otaO'w~e:'tat 'X.~P"f)O''t''f) otamO''twfl-ev''f) Aoyo"rexvlx~ a~ta 't"f)e;. To e:tOWAOofl-We; 'tou Maxpuyt~W"f) 60AWO'e: x~nwe;, o'tav 'to 1983 O"f)fl-oO'te:u't"f)xav 'ta Opap.r:t"rr:txai Oap.r:t"rr:t. ave:m't~oe:u'toe;, 0 e:tAtxptv~e; e:xnpoO'wnoe; 't"f)e; XOtv~e; AoytX~e; -eou Aaou, 0 ~pwae; 't"f)e; 0''X.e:'t"tx~e;' "OOXtfl-~e;" -eou ~e:cpep"f) 'to 1943, eytve: xanvoe;. Ka't~ napofl-Oto 't"pono, o» xat yta otacpope:'ttXOUe; Aoyoue;, oe:v e:ne~"f)O'e: "f) ne:~oypacptr:t 'tou WU'X.~P"f). Axofl-a xat To Tr:t~{ol uou, 'to fl-ovo ano 'ta 6t6Ata 'tou rtou XUXAOCPOpe:tO'e: vea exooO"'f) , e:x't"tfl-~'tat (xat nOAu O'wO''t~) yta 'tte; y AWO'O'oAoytXee; anot.¥e:te; -eou xat yta 't"f)V to''toptX~ O"'f)fl-aO'ta rcou e:t'X.av aU'tee; yta 't""f)Ve:no'X.~ rtou ota'tunw6"f)xav. ITOAu A(yo ofl-we; e:x'ttfl-~'t"at 0 W u'X.~p"f)e; O'~fl-e:pa we; Aoyo'te'X.V"f)e;. rta aU'toue; 't"oue; Aoyoue;, 0 Maxpuyt~w"f)e; xat 0 Wu'X.~p"f)e; e:~e:'t~~ov't"at O''to 60 xe:cp~Aato. Ka'ttu6u"O'tlC; O''t''f) O'u'Y'X,Po""f)Aoyo'tt'X.,,(a. H otaotxaO'ta nou ne:ptyp~CP"f)xe: O''t''f)v npo"f)youfl-e:V"f) e:vo't"f)'ta oe:" e:tvat eva cpatvofl-e:vo fl-0"aotxo. H npo0'6~x"f) O''tov xavova epywv npoye:veO''te:pwv e:tvat ~fl-e:O'a O'uvucpaO'fl-e,,"f) fl-e: 't""f)v napayw~ 'tou veou e:tOOUe;ypacp~e; xat 't"f)v unooo'X.~ nou 't"ou e:mcpuM'X.6"f)xe: xa't"~ 't""f) Ot~pxe:ta 't""f)e; totae; ne:ptooou ('X.OVOptx~ ano 'to 1960). Me: 'tpono apxe:'t~ nOAunAoxo xat ouO'xoAa a"t'X."e:uO'tfl-o O''tte; Ae:n't"Ofl-epe:tee; -eou, "f) npax'ttx~ 'twv O'uY'X,Povw" O'uyypacpewv nat~e:t x~noto POAO O''t"''f)'' e:nave:x'ttfl-"f)O"'f)'t"wv O'uyypacpewv -eou nape:A60v'toe;, 'tau't"o'X,Pova ofl-we; e:n"f)pe:~~e:'tat xat ano 't""f) ot~6e:0"'f) xat 't""f)0''t~0'''f) 'twv a"ayvwO''t"wv (xat totahe:pa . , "5:' " , 'twv reviewers ) ane:"av'tt O''t"o nape:/\"'6» T a ve:a e:t~"f) ypacp"f)e; ofl-we; noO'o o», e:nwcpe:Aouv'tat ano 't"f)" ava6~6fl-tO"'f) yta nap~oe:tyfJ-ct 'tou Bt~u"f)vou ~ 'tou Kapuw't"~x"f); 'H fl-~nwe; "f) au~"f)O"'f)'t"ou e:votacpepov'toe; yta 'toue; O'uyypacpe:te; ne:paO'fl-e"wv' oe:xae:'ttwv e:(vat ano'teAe:O'fJ-ct \ 't""f)e; Xp~O"Y)~ 't"oue; ano 'toue; O"'f)fl-e:pt'Joue;O'uyypacpe:te;;

28

RODERICK

BEATON

'01tW~ XlXt IXV OOXtfJ-!iO'Et VIX 1X1t1X'J"t'~O'EtXIXVEt~ O'E "i't'otlX

EPW't'~fJ-IX't'IX,

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YPIXCP~~ OtIXCPW't't~Et 't't~ O'UYXPOVE~ lX'J"t'tA~~Et~ ytlX 't'0 1tIXPEA60v. KlXt IXV't'tO''t'POCPW~, YJ E1tIXVEX't'tfJ-YJO'YJ 't'OU 1tIXPEA60v't'0~ 't'YJ~ VEIX~ YPIXCP~~. AOY0't'EXVtXO xavovlX Ot 1tIXPlXooO'tlXxi~ O'uyyplXcp~~. 'Exw rtlX O'UfJ-bcXMEt O''t'YJV XIX't'IXVOYJO'YJ IXU't'OV 't'0 AOYO, 't'1X EPYIX 1tOU 1tpoO''t'E6YJXIXV O''t'o

't'1X 't'EAW't'lXtlX 't'pt!iV't'1X XPOVtlX U1t!iYOV't'lXt XIX't" IXV!iyXYJ IO''t'optE~ 't'YJ~ AOyO't'EXVtlX~ ~'t'IXV 1t!iV't'O't'E 1tOAU E1ttO''t'tYfJ-~~ 't'YJ~ OtX~~ 't'OU~ E1ttyvWO'YJ 't'OU 'Xtv06VOU' IXU't'OU, O't'IXV E1ttXEtPW

O''t'YJ 6EfJ-IX't'OyplXcptlX IXU't'OU 't'OU btbAtou. CPUAIXX't'tXE~ O''t'YJV 1tP0O'EYytO'YJ 't'YJ~ XpOVtX~~ blX6t!i

0''t'0 50 XECPcXAlXto't'ou 1tIXP0'J"t'O~ btbAtOU VIX 1tIXPOUO't!iO'w XlXt VIX O'XOAt!iO'W 't'YJv 1totYJO'YJXlXt 't'YJv 1tE~OYPIXCPtlX't'YJ~ OEXIXE't'tlX~ 't'ou 't'ou

1980 XlXt 't'wv IXPXWV
OYJAIXO~,
1X1tlXt-

1990. H OtXlXwAoytlX 1tOU O'uv~6w~

1tPObcXAAE't'lXt (o't't,

't'Et't'lXt fJ-tlX OptO'fJ-EVYJ XpOVtX~ IX1tOO''t'IXO'YJ, tPOxEtfJ-EVOU VIX O'xoAt!iO'Et x!i1toto~ 1 lX'J"t'tXEtfJ-EVtXcX XlXt EYXUplX) EtVlXt IXVIX1tOO'1tIXO''t'OfJ-EpO~ 't'YJ~ XIX6tEPWfJ-ivYJ~ A1to 't'YJ O''t'tYfJ-~ 1tOU 6EWPEt't'lXt 't'O't'E YJ 'lX'J"t'txEtfJ-EVtfJ-E IXU't'E~ XlXt fJ-E IXU't'~ 't'YJV
vilX~

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YPIXCP~~ E1tYJPE!i~ouV 't'YJv IXV't'tfJ-E't'w1X1t0

XlXt 't'ou 1tlXflEA60'J"t'0~,

XO't'YJ't'IX' XlXt YJ 'EYXUpO't'YJ't'IX' 61X E~IXP't'WV't'lXt

't'YJv E~otxdwO'YJ

't't~ IXVIX~ YJ't'~O'Et~. To btbAtO IXU't'O E1ttOtWXEt VIX EtVlXt 'iyxuflo' 't't~ AIXV6cXvoUO'E~- IXV't'tA~~Et~ 't'EXVtxWV O'1tOUOWV 0''t'0 1tpw't'o
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AOY0't'EXVtlX~ XlXt 't'wv AOYO-

1990. O: '1tlXplX-

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IXXOfJ-YJ1tPIXX't'tXO~ A6yO~, ytlX 't'ov 01tOtO E1ttXEtpYJO'IX 't'YJv 1tPOO'CPIX't'WVO''t'o Xpovo 't'YJ~ VWEAA"I\vtX~~ XEtfJ-EVWV. AOYO't'EXVtlX~ 1tAYJPOCPOpouv -eov IXVIX-

1tP0O'EYYtCTYJ1toM OOO'tIXXE~' IO''t'optE~ AtyO't'EpO.9 KIX't'!i

yvwO''t'YJ EA!iXtO''t'1X ytlX 't'YJv 1tEptOtO fJ-E't'cX't'0

1960 XlXt 't'YJ O'XOAtcX~OUVIXXOfJ-IX

't'YJ Ot!iPXEtlX IXU't'~~ 't'YJ~ 1tEptOOOU 0 XIXVOVIX~ EfJ-1tAOU't'tO''t'YJ-

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1948 1tOME~ yEvti~ O'uyyplXixouv ~oYJ ouO''t'uxw~

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EI~ArorH

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EAAHNIKH

AOrOTEXNIA

29 AOYO't€-

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1930

7tIXP~YIXYIXV 't1X XIXAU't€PIX EPYIX 'tOUe; fJ.€'tcX 'to 1950.
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34

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36

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IIo').I'r'Y)t; 20 (IOUVto<; - IouAto<; 1978), 45-53, Xr:J.tElizabeth Constantinides, «Toward a definition of Greek Romanticism», Journal of Modem Greek Studies 3 (1985), 121-36.

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38

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12. BA. Gregory Jusdanis, «Is Postmodemism possible outside the "West"? The case of Greece», Byzantine and Modem Greek Studies 11 (1987), co, 69-92.
13. Ex't€\I~~ 'tou~ 6t6AtO),P(1cpt(1 (1\1(1cpipe:'t(1tX(1t a't(1 OUO (1u'ta; 6i(Jll't(1 X(1t Ot 7tta'tot 07t(1oot

taw~ Ot(1cpw\l~aou\l 7tOU 't(1 aU\loua;~w !Joe: (1u'tO\l -rov 'tp07to. 0 )'(1AAtXO(, opo(, intertextualite OtX(1t(1 aU\loie:'t(1t !Joe:t(1 0\l0(Jll't(1 't'Yj~ Julia Kristeva ~(1t -rou Roland Barthes. ' M((1 (17t0 'tt~ 7tW a(1cpe:t(, Ot(1'tU7tWo-e:t~ (1\1~xe:t a'to\l Laurent Jenny, «Strategic de la forme», Poetique, 27 (1976), ae, 257-81. A\I't(a'tot"!..(1, 0 opo(, Rezeptionsasthetik e:i\l(1t i\l(1(, veoAO)'ta!Joo(, 7tOU Ocpe:iAe:t't'Yj\l e:~&7tAWa~ -eou a'tou(, Hans Robert Jauss X(1t Wolfgang Iser. BA., e:x'to(' (17t0 't(1 xe:t!Joe:\I(1(1u'tW\I 'tW\I ouo, Rainer Warning, Rezeptionsiisthetik: Theorie und Praxis, Munich 1975.

EI~ArorH

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cpde;, o7twe; Ot O'uyypacpe:Le; 07tOUO~7tO"e: aMOU, U7t~p~aV rJ.va:yvwO''rec; "'Y)e; OtX~e; "OUe; 7tapa.OOO"Y)e; aAAa. xat a.MWV 7tapaooO'e:wv. H ava.yvwO''Y) a7to au,,~ "'Y)V a.7t0tY'Y) oe:v dvat (Jota 7ta6'Y)"tx~ OtaOtXaO'La. Ot (Joe:yaAunpOt xat 7tOAt"tO'"tXa. avw"e:pot O'uyypacpde; oe:v aO'xouv au"o~"we; 'e:7tLOpaO''Y)'. Sa 7tpi7te:t va dvat Ota"e:6e:t(JoEVoe; xat O'uyypacpEae; 7tOU U7to"(6e:,,at O"t 'e:7t'Y)pe:a.~e:"at'. Kat sx "oe; a7to "'Y)V xa"a. AE~'Y) av"typacp~, e:(vat OUO'XOAO yta Eva O'uyypacpEa »a e:LVat e:~ OAOXA~pOU 7tPW"o"u7toe; ~ e:~ OAOXA~pOU 7ta6'Y)"txoe; (Jot(Jo'Y),,~e;,o7twe; 'Y) (Joi'X,pt "wpa 'X,P~O''Y)"ou opou 'e:7t(opaO''Y)' O'''te; 7taAatO"e:pe:e; Aoyo"e:'X,VtXEe; (Joe:Ai"e:e; a.CP'Y)ve:va e:wo'Y)6d. ~OAW(Jooe;, Ka.AbOe; xat IlaAa(Joa.e;, U7tO au,,~ "'Y)V 7tpOO7t"tx~, 'Y , E"'!1' ' , av"t(Joe:"wm-,onat O''Y)(Joe:paO''''Y)V lV\aoa we; ot 7tOt'Y)"e:e; 7tOU 7te:ptO'O'onpo a7to xa.6e: a.MoV O''''Y)V e:7to'X,~ "oue; ava(Joe:"p~6'Y)xav (Joe:"te; tOle:e;, "te; AOyo"e:'X,VtXEe; "e:'X,VtXEe; xat "a opa.(Joa"a "ou P0(Joav"tO'(Jo0u, 07tWe; au"oe; sxo'Y)Aw6'Y)xe: xat O'e: a.Ma (JoEP'Y) 'Y)e; Eupw7t'Y)e;. Ou"e: (Jot(Jo~6'Y)xav ou"e: a7tEp" pttYav au"o 7tOU bP~xav: a7tAWe; ,,0 (Joe:"hpe:tYav. AXptbWe; 07tWe; Wordsworth xat Coleridge acp0(Jo0LwO'av "0'1 Kant xat "0'1 Schiller (Joe:"0 OtXO "oue; "P07tO, E"O't xat ~OAW(JoOe; O''''Y)v KEpxupa e:m'X,dp'Y)O'e: "'Y) OtX~ "ou ava.yvwO''Y) "ou Kant xat "ou Schiller. To (ow O'UVEb'Y)xat O''''Y) O''X,EO''Y) "ou Ka.AbOU (Joe:"0'1 Ugo Foscolo xat "te; 7tOAmXEe; tOle:e; "ou xW~(Joa"oe; "wv haAwv xap(Jo7tova.pwv. Ka."t 7tapo(Joow to''X,ue:t O''''Y)V7te:p(7t"wO''Y) "ou IlaAa~ xat -eou Shelley, "ou Nietzsche xat a.MwV. H O'"a.O''Y) au"wv "wv EM~VWV O'uyypacpEwv a7tEVant O''''YJv 7tpoye:vEO'np~ "oue; eupw7ta·ix~ AOyo"e:'X,VtX~ 7tapaywy~ O'uv(O'"a"at O''''Y)v ava.yvwO''Y) xat O'"a'X,uoAoY'YJ~ "'Y)e; , 0.' xat O''''Y) O'U'Jue:O''Y),O''''Y) O'uve:'X,e:ta, "ou 7tp0O'wmxou "T' "oue; e:pyou. a7to"e:Ae:O'(Joa au,,~e; "'Y)e; otaOtXaO'Lae; 6a 7tpo"e:wa »a oV0(JoaO'"e:( 'EM'Y)vtxOe; P0(JoantO'(Jooe;', yta"L, xa"a. "'Y) yvw(Jo'Y) (Jo0u, opoe; O'Y)AWVe:txa."t otacpope:"tXO a7to "'Y) O'u(Joba"tx~ e:"txi"a 7tOU oo6Y)xe: O''''Y)v e:Aa.O'O'ova 7tOL'Y)O''Y) "wv (JoEO'WV"ou 190u atwva a7to "te; IO'"opLe:e; "'Y)e; Aoyo"e:'X,vLae;. 0 'EM'Y)Vtxoe; PO(J.rJ.v"tO'(Jooe;', U7tO au,,~ "'Y)v EWota, avacpipe:"at O''''Y)v tOta("e:p'Y) e:p(Jo'Y)vda xat "'Y)v tOtaL"e:p'Y) 7tpoO'ap(Jooy~ "wv eupw7tatxwv atO'6'Y)"txwv xat 7tOAt"tO'"tXWV aV"tA~tYe:WV 0',,0 O'uyxe:XPt(JoEVO e:M'Y)VtXO 7te:ptba.MOV O'e: (Jota O'uyxe:XPt(JoEV'Y)e:7to'X,~. H

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'14, H u7to6e:0'1) 'te:x(Jol]p~wve:'t(x~(Joe:7te:p~Cl"Cl"o'te:pe:~ Ae:7t'tO(Jo&pe:~e:~ rev ~OAW(JoOe-ro y~(X R. Beaton, «0 ~OAW(JoO~ Po(J-r.tv't~xo~: O~o~(Xxe:~(J-e:v~X&~ Cl"'X.&Cl"e:~~ Kpr)'nxou x(X~ -rou 'tou II6prpupa», EMY)Y'Xa 40 (1989), aa . 133-47.

40

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!J-EAE"tY) "tY)~ EMY)VtX~e; AOY0"tE'1..vtae; 6pe6Y)xE O'''ty) OtvY) "twv 7tOAt"t"tXWV Em"taywV: a7tO "tY) !J-ta, eva !J-txpO xpa"toe; OtEXOtXEt "ty) 6EO"Y)"tou 0'''tY) OtE6v~ O'xY)v~, xat a.7t0 "tY)V aMy), Evae; aouva!J-o~ xAaoOe; ota7tpaY!J-a"tEuE"tat "to POAO "tou O'''to a!J-EptXaVtxo 7taVEmO'''t~!J-w. Au"ta "ta YEyovo"ta EtVat a7to "t"'Y) cpuO'Y) "toue; !J-EpOe; "tou 6E!J-a"t0e; 7tpO~ !J-EAe"tY). IIw "tOA!J-y)P~ o!J-we; xat mo oy)!J-wupytX~ 7tpoO'eyytO"Y) 6a ~"tav au"t~ 7tOU 6a a7tEppm"tE E~ OAOXA~pOU "toue; "tE'1..Vy)"tOU~ota'1..wptO'!J-ou~ XEV"tpOU xat 7tEpt6wptou, !J-d~ovoe; xat EAIx,O'O'OVoe;. H VEO"tEPy) EMY)VtX~ AoYO"tE'1..vta, "t"'Y)Vo7tota 7tpOO'Eyyt~Et au"to "to btbAtO, OEV EtVat OU"tE 7tEpt6wptax~ OU"t"E ~O'O'wv. AV~XEt o-ro xEnpo xat a7to"tEAEt "ty)V !J-E[~ova 7tapaooO'Y) EXEt 7tOU 7tapaYE"tat. Etvat Em7tAeOV Y) AOY0"tE'1..vta "tou a7tana'1..ou EAAY)VOcpwvou 7tAY)6uO'!J-ou, 7tOU avEP'1..E"tat O'E 15 7tEpt7tOU Exa"to!J-!J-upta av6pw7toue;. A7tO"tEAd ava7toO'7taO'''to !J-EpOe; "tY)e; O'uy'1..povY)e; e:upw7ta'ix~e; AoyO"t"E'1..vtx~~ 7tapaywy~~ xat Ot avayvwO'''tE~ "ty)~ U7tOAomy)e; Eupw7tY)e;, 7tOU OEV "tY)v yvwPt~ouv, E7tpE7tE va O'UVEtOY)"t07tOt~O'ouv "tt "toue; AEt7tEt. Av ot 'EAAY)VEe; O'uyypacpEte; OEV otaxpLeY)xav W~ EtO"Y)YYJ"te~vewv "taO'Ewv, au"to OEV ocpdAE"tat 0'''t0 o"tt dvat ~O'O'OVE~, aAAa. O'''to o"tt dvat axo!J-Y) O''1..E''ttxa. ayvwO''ro!. Iotat"tEpEe; ap'1..E~ xat tOEEe; E!J-7tVeOUv "tY)v EAAY)Vtx~ AOY0"tE'1..Vta, xat Ot 7tpObAY)~"ttO'!J-ot xat ot "tE'1..vtXee; "twv EAA~VWV AOY0"t"E'1..VWV6a !J-7topouO'av va 7tpOXaAeO'ouv "to EVOtacpEpov xat "to 6au!J-aO'!J-0 O'uyypacpewv a.AAwv "\ "E '£l t: ,"\ y",wO'O'wv. va a7to " au"ta "ta O'''tot'1..Eta, 7tOU va Er.,E"taO'''tEt' 0'''t0 6 0 xEcpa",aw, dvat Y) ~E'1..WPtO'''t~ O'Y)~O'ta 7tOU 0 EMY)vtxO~ 7tOAt"ttO'!J-O~ a7tOOtOEt O'''ty) yAWcrO'a, au"tov "to 6Y)O'aupo, a7to "tov 07tOtO a.v"tAY)O'av xat ot O'uyypacpde; "tou 200u atwva, !J-E EX7tAY)X"ttXa. O'u'1..va. a7to"tEAeO'!J-a"ta. 'Eva a.Mo acpopa. O'''ty) !J-axpObto"tY)"ta "tY)e; EMY)VtX~e; yAwO'O'ae;, O'1..t !J-ovo w~ 7tpocpoptxou !J-eO'ou EmxoWWVtae; (Ot EmO'''t~!J-OVEe; O'u!J-cpwvouv o"tt OAEe; Ot yAWO'O'Ee; 7tpo~A6av a7to !J-ta !J-axp0'1..povta otaotxaO'ta 7tOU cp"ta.VEt !J-e'1..pt "ty)V 7tpo'':O'''topta), aMa. w~ yAWcrO'ae; ypa7T:'r*. rAWO'O'a ypa7t"t~ 7tOU, ae; !J-Y) !J-ae; OtacpEuYEt, OEV E7ta\jJE 7tO"tE va dvat, "tOUAa.'1..tO'''tov O'''ta !J-a."tta au"twv 7tOU "tY) XPy)O't!J-07totOUV, !J-ta a7to "tte; OUO baO'txEe; y AWO'O'E~ "tY)e; XptO'''ttavoO'uvy)e;.
tJ-E 'tov 'tL'tAo The text and its margins: post-structuralist approaches to twentiethcentury Greek literature (eds), Pella, New York 1985. H OEU'tEP1l 1tpOULVE'tlXt IX1tO 'tOUt; (Otou<; XIX! aAAout;, 0''t1X 'tEU'X,1l -rou 1tEptoO!XOU Journal of Modern Greek Studies (John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore), guest-edited IX1tO 'tOUt; Gregory Jusdanis (1990) XIX! Karen van Dyck (1990). e#owO'lXv

44

RODERICK

BEATON

Arco

'ttC; rcOtxfA€C; 't€'X,vtxec;,

fJ.€ 'ttC; orcOt€C; m 'EMlJv€C;

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1821-1881

I~TOPIKA

IIPOAErOMENA we; IXve~ap'tl)'tou xpa'toue; IXvatJ.eO"IX0"'t1X E6vl)

H

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't"l)e; Eupw7tl)e;

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ex 7tiplXooO"ewe; IX7tO 'tte; 25 MIXP'tLOU l) O"l)tJ.IXLIX 'tl)e; E7tlXvaO"'tIXO"l)e; VIX rtsIXU'tOXPIX'topLIXe;. XpetaO"'tl)xe

1821, O'tIXV u~w6l)xe

o"'tl)v IIeAo7towl)O"o

eVlXnLov 'tl)e; XUpLlXp'X,l)e;06wtJ.lXvtx~e; paO"ouv e7t'ta

EWe; o'tou 'to VEO xpa'toe; XIX'tlXcpEpet VIX xepoLO"et ote6v~ IXVIXYVWPtO"l),XlXt tJ.ovo 'to 1832 Ot MeyaAee;
"jJJOVtlX 1X6e6IXto'tl)'tIXe; XlXt 6LIXe;

, XlXt 'tl)V opio 6'e'tl)O"l) 'twv O"uvopwv. «e 'i 't: ' " T o tJ.tXpO olXO"tl\eW 'tou '06' WVIX IXcpl)O"ee",w 1X7t0 't1X O"UVOplX'tou 7teptO"O"onpoue; 'EMl)vee; (IXV Aa60utJ.e U7tO~l) tJ.1Xe; yAWO"O"IXXlXt 'tl) 6pl)O"xetlX) 'tl)
i ' , 7tOU tJ.1Xe;lX7tlXO"'X,ol\etl)'tlXV 'twv

~uvatJ.ete; O"utJ.cpWVl)O"IXV e; 7tpOe; 'to O"UO"'tl)tJ.1X w otlXxu6EpVl)0"l)e;

(tJ.0VIXP'X,(IX)

1X7t' oooue; ~OUo"IXVtJ.EO"lX. tJ.OVl) eOlXcptX~ 7tpoO"ap'tl)O"l) 7tOU Eytve 7tptV 1X7t0 H
'i'~ 'to 'tel\oe; 'tl)e; 7tepwoou

E' 7t'tIXVl)O"WV 'to

1864. H tJ.eyaAl) XlXt eucpopl) e7tlXPXLlX'tl)e; BeO"O"lXALIXe; 7tpoo"lXp't~6l)xe O"'tl)v 'to 1881 tJ.e 'tl) 60~6etlX omAwtJ.IX'ttXWV evepyetwv tJ.e'ta 'to PwO"o'toupxtxo 7tOA€tJ.O 'tou 1877-78. H to"'tOPLIX'twv 7tpw'twv e~~v'tlX Xpovwv 'tl)e; eMl)VtX~e; lXve~lXp'tl)o"LIXe;
EMaolX eLVlXt,we; yvwO"'tov, 7tepm€'t€twOl)e;. To epyo 'tl)e; ol)tJ.WUpyLIXe;'twv lX7tlXPIXL'tl)-

' i' , 'twv 6'eO"tJ.wv ytlX 'tl) i l\€t'toupytlX"'6 evoe; e vOUe;-XplX'tOUe; O"e7tOI\U O"uv'totJ.o "jJJ0VtXO otaO"'tl)tJ.lX O€V ~'tlXV euxoAo, XlXt l) Ol)tJ.WUPyLIXtJ.tlXe;e6vtx~e; AOY0'texvLlXe; xlX't"a 'tl) otapxetlX 'tl)e; 7teptOoou lXU't~e; O"uvtO"'ta IXVlXtJ.cp(60AlX EVIXO"l)tJ.IXV'ttXO

, , ~~, , O"UO"'tIX'ttXOlXU'tl)e; 'tl)e; otlXotXlXO"tlXe;.TN'i' 0 lXU7tI\W, 7tOU optO"'tl)X€ we; l) 7tpw'tl)
e6vtx~ 7tpw'teuouO"IX xlX'ta 'tl) otapx€tlX YlXAu'tepl) 'OtJ.we; 'to 7tOAl) 'tl)e; eAeu6epl)e; EAAaolXe; XlXt ote6e'te

'tl)e; E7tlXvaO"'tIXO"l)e;, u7t~p~e l) tJ.eto"Xup~ o'X,upwO"l).

1834 l) tJ.e'tlXcpopa 'tl)e; 7tpw'teuoUo"lXe; O"'tl)v A6~VIX, yeyovoe; 7tOU
7tOAt'ttX~e; l) 07tOLlXO"'to'X,we O"'tl)v xlX6tE, ...... I I ,

lX7tOnAouO"e tJ.EpOe;'tl)e; wpu'tepl)e; we; XAl)pOVOtJ.ou -eou eAAl)Vtxou

pwO"l) 'tou O"uYlPovou XplX'tOUe;, O"'tlXtJ.IX'ttlX'twv 7tOl\t'twv 'tou XlXt 'tou

xoeucu,
,

7tOAt'ttO"tJ.ou 'tl)e; IXP'X,lXtO'tl)'tlXe;, O"l)tJ.aoe~e

'toO"o 'tl) ol)tJ.oY'plXcptx1j 00"0 XlXt 'tl)v 7tOAt'ttO"tJ.tx1j 7tOpeLIX-eou VEOU xpa'toue;. OO"'toO"o, 0 1X00'ttXOe;'tpo7tOe; ~w1je; 7tOU 61X0"t~0'tlXV O"'tlX 7tPO'tU7tlX 'tl)e; ou'ttx1je; Eupw7tl)e; XlXt l) UW6E'tl)0"l) 7tOAtntlXXWv XlXt 7tOAt'ttXWV 6eO"tJ.wv

50

RODERICK

BEATON

O'Y)!J.EtwO'av april atwva. Aabapo 'twv aMWv ~'tav

E~EAt~Y)xa'ta Ka60AtxOt

'ty) OtapXEta OAOXAy)pOU 'tOU OExa'tOU Eva'tOU O'E !J.ta 'X,wpa 1tOU d'X,E a1tEAW6Epw6d !J.E 'to

0 ~EVO~baO'tAta~ xat ot 1tavtO''X,upOtO'U!J.bOUAOt 'tOU, Ot 01tOtOt EX'tO~ 'tY)e; Op60oo~ta~, O'uv'to!J.a 1tpOXaAEO'av ba6ta ayavax'tY)O'Y). Movo

!J.E'ta 'tY)v E1tavaO''taO'Y) 'tou

1843 1tpO'X,WPY)O'E ~~'ty)!J.a 'tou 1tEptoptO'!J.ou 'to
(Map'ttoe; 'tEAdwO'E !J.E'ta a1to E1taVEtAy)!J.!J.EVE~ xat 'tou O''tpa'tou, 1tOU UAtXa OEU'tEPOxat 1tto

'twv E~OUO'tWV'tou baO'tAta !J.E 'tY)v 1tapa'X,wpY)O'Y)~uv'taY!J.a'to~

1844). H baO'tAEta o!J.w~ 'tou '06wva
rov avayxaO'E

ava'tapa'X,E~ EX !J.EpOU~'twv 1tOAt'tWV aAM cptAEAEU6EPO~uV'taY!J.a O'uV'tai't~xE 'to

va CPUYEta1tO 'ty) 'X,wpa 'to 1862. 'Eva

1864 !J.E'ta 'ty)v avappY)O'Y) 0''t0

6povo 'tou 6aO'tAta rEwpytOU !J.E 'tt~ MEyaAE~

A'.
EUXoAE~.

To baO'tAEto av'tt!J.E'tW1tt~E EO'W't~PtXE~ OUO''X,ipEtE~ EVW Ot O''X,iO'Et~-eou .1uva!J.Etc; OEV ~'tav

H avayvwptO'Y) -eou viou,

!J.txpou xpa'toue; EytVE a1to 'tY)v ap'X,~ U1tO opoue;, 1tpaY!J.a 1tOU Et'X,E!J.EyaAE~ O'UVi1tEtE~O'EOAY)'tY) OtapXEta 'tou oexa'tou Ot1tAw!J.a'ttXo xat 'to O''tpa'ttw'ttXO apY0'tEpa, 1tpoO'ap't~O'Et~ 1tOU iytvav eva'tou atwva vta~, 'tY)~ raAAta~ Eva'tou atwva O''tov Otxovo!J.txO, xat 'to!J.Ea. Me'X,Pt 'to 'tEAO~ 'tou atwva

Y) 'X,wpa U1tecpe:pE a1to 'to 'X,peo~ O"'touc; ~ivouc;, EVW at Eoacptxe~ O''ty)V EMaoa 1tptV a1to 'to 'teAo~ 'tou oexMou 0CPEtAov'tav xuptW~ ae Ot1tAw!J.a'ttXe~ Evipye:tE~ 'tY)c; BpE'taxat 'tY)e; PWO'ta~ xat o'X,t 't00'0 O''tt~ EMY)Vtxe~ 1tpW'tOOt tOtE~ ouva!J.Et~ xpa'touO'av 'to U1tO eAe:y'X,o 'ttC; a1toe6vou~. To At!J.aVt !J.aAtO''ta 'tou IIEtpata xa'ta

bOUAtE~, EVW 'tau'to'X,pova CPtAoOO~tE~ 'tou aAu'tpw'tOu bpE'tavtXa 't0~ xa'ta xat yaMtXa

XAEtO''tY)XE a1to 'tou~ BpE'tavou~

1850, EVW 'to 1854 xa'tEA~cp6Y) a1to
'ty) OtapxEta -cou Kpt!J.a·ixou

O''tpa'tEu!J.a'ta

1toAi!J.ou. Ot E~W'tEPtXOt 1tEptOptO'!J.Ot tOU E1ttbA~6Y)xav 0''t0 EMY)VtXO xpa1 'ty) OtapXEta 'twv O''taotwv 'ty)~ ota!J.opcpwcrY)~'tou OEV E1te'tpE1taV xat 1taAato'tEpa xat 'tY)~ Ota~EuO'Y)~, O'UVtO''touv 'to ba6!J.0 au'tovo!J.ta~ 1tOU a1tOAa!J.bavav 'ta !J.qaAUupa xpa'ty) 'ty)~ Eupw1tY)~. To at0'6y)!J.a 'tY)~ a1toyo~'twO'Y)~ ~evwv xat 'tou oexa'tou ~. au'to

xa6w~ xat !J.ta O'uvaxoAou6Y) 'taO'Y) ayavax'tY)O'Y)~ yta 'tY)V ava!J.t~Y) 'twv
'tY)v 'tau'to'X,povy) E~ap'ty)O'Y) a1to 'tY)V ~ivY) bo~6Eta Eva'tOU atwva 00'0 xat 'tou EtXOO''tou. 1tpw'ta E~~v'ta 'X,Povta 'ty)~ E6vtx~c; 6E!J.EAtWOY) ''tOt'X,Etayta 'ty) ota!J.opcpwO'y) -cou EMY)vtxOU 1tOAt'ttO'!J.ou 't00'0 O 'to x>-.t!J.a e~Y)O'av 'ta

aVE~ap'tY)O'tae; ot 'EMY)VE~ O'uyypacpdc; xat ota!J.opcpw6Y)xav Ot avayvwO''tE~

'A' 'tY)~ .... l\Oyo'tE'X,Vta~.

1:' ....., Ma 1tpo'tou, Ec.,E'taO'OU!J.E "'l' av'tEOpaO'av O''tt~ 1tpox/\ Y)1tW~

O'Ete;-eou xatpou

'toue; Etvat a1tapahY)'to

vo: EPWV~O'OU!J.E 'tY)V 1tEptOOOaxpt-

EI:EArnrH

:ETH NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AOrOTEXNIA

51

6wc; 1tP~V a1tO 'to 1821, wG''t€ va ooup.€ 't~C; 1tpou1t06eG'€~C; 1tOU €tXav ot 'EMYJV€C; y~a vo: 1tpOXwp~G'ouv G''tYJv UA01t?tYJG'YJ'twv G'X€OtWV 'touc;.

IIOAITI~MIKA

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IIPIN

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TO

1821

H ypa1t't~ AoYO't€xvta 1tpOU1t06E't€~ xa:1tot€C; 6aG'~xEC; aPXEC; xwptc; 't~C;01tOt€C; €tva~ aouva'to va U1ta:p~€t. Etva~ aG'qiaAWC; au'tovoYJ'to o't~ a1ta~'t€t UI.jJYJAO p.0pqiw't~xo €1tt1t€OO, OX~p.ovo a1to €X€tvoUC; 1tOU 'tYJv 1tapa:youv aAAa:, €1ttG'Y)C;, xa~ a1to 'to avayvwG''t~xo XotVO, xa6wc; 'ta doYJ 'tYJC; 1totYJG'YJC;xa~ 'tou p.u6~G''top~p.a't0c; G'uvEX~G'av vo: XaM~€pyouV'ta~ a1to 'to OExa'to oyooo a~wva. Kcx'ta: 'tYJ o~a:px€~a 'tou OExa'tou oyooou a~wva, 'to €MYJv~x6 avayvwG''t~x6 xo~vo ~'tav 6e6a~a 1t€PWP~G'P.EVOaAAa: xa60Aou ap.€AYJ'tEO, 01tWC; mG''to1to~d o ap~6p.0c; xa~ YJ 1totx~Ata 'twv 'tU1tWP.EVWV 6~6Atwv 1tOU €x066YJxav xuptWC; G''tYJ B€v€'tta xa~ 'tYJ B~EWYJ xa'ta: 'tYJ o~a:px€~a 'tou a~wva au'tou. To ava1t'tuyp.EVO oP.WC; p.0pqiw't~xo €1tt1t€OO xa~ 'ta 1tvwp.a't~xa: €vo~aqiepoV'ta 1tOU G'uv~6wc; 'to axoAou60uG'av 1t€PWpt~oV'tav, 1tap' oAa au'ta:, XUptWC; G'€ Op~G'P.EV€C; xO~VWV~XEC;ta:~€~C;, O~ 01tot€C; €v't01tt~ov'ta~ G'€ G'UYX€'
xptp.ev€c; y€wypaqitXEC; 1t€pwXeC;, xat 'to y€yovoc; au'to dx€ G'Y)p.av'ttXEc; €m1t'tWcr€tC; G''tYJV ava:1t'tu~YJ 'tYJC; €6v~x~c; AoYO't€xvtac; P.€'ta: 'to 1821.

0, ~avap,wn~.

'tEAOuv'tav 'tou 06wp.avtxou xpa:'touc;. 'E'tG't a:v6YJG'€ p.ta 'taAav'toux0C; xat qitA600~YJ €MYJVOqiWVYJypaqi€wxpa'tta, 1tOU 'ta 1tpovop.ta: 'tYJC; 'ta ota't~PYJG'av ~YJAO'tu1ta optG'p.ev€c; tG'xupec; otxoyev€t€C;. 'Eva a1to 'ta mo G'Y)p.av'ttxa: a~~wp.a'ta 1tOU xa'tdxav ot q,avaptw't€C; a1to 'ttC; apxec; -eou oexa'tou oyooou atwva ~'tav au'to 'tou oG'1tooa:pou, oYJAao~ 'tou qiEOuOapXtxou OtotxYJ't~ 'twv YJY€p.ov~wv 'tYJC; MOAOa6tac; xat 'tYJC; BAaxtac; G''tYJ G'YJp.€ptv~ Poup.avta. ~'ttC; AUAec; xuptWC; 'twv YJy€p.ovwv au'twv, G''to Ia:G'w xat 'to BouxoupeG''tt, uw6€'t~6YJxav xa~ G'u~YJ't~6YJxav G''ta €AAYJVtXa: 'ta 1tOAt'ttXa:, qitAOG'OqitXa: xat AOY0't€XVtxa: €votaqiepov'ta 'tou .:ltaqiw'ttG'p.ou G''tYJ .:lUG'YJ.l
1. EA. K. 0. 1l"Y](JoIXpiXc;, NgOgMYJV'XO~ t1,arpw'm]"f1-6~, EpiJ-~c;, Ae~vcx 1983· AAx"Y]C; Tcov rpw'owv, EpiJ-~c;, A6~vcx 1988· IIcxO"XiXA"y]c; K~'t"pOiJ-"Y]AtO"Y]C;, Itborpto; Mwnooa~. 0, (]"l)y'Og'OaYf1-ivg~ 'OYJ~ 6a"Axawx* (]"xit.f;YJ~ '001) 1801) ai., Mopcpw't"~x6 'IopuiJ-cx E6v~-

H op.a:oa au't~, xa'ta: 'ta 'tEAYJ 'tou 180u atwva, O€V a1top.6vo a1to UI.jJYJAOUC; a~twp.a'touxouc; 'tYJC; ExxAYJG'tac; aMa: xat

AneAou,

x~c; Tpcx7te~"Y]c;,A6~vcx 1985.

52

RODERICK

BEATON

[J.EO'W 't'OU 7to't'a[J.ou ~OUVabl] xat 't'l]<; BtEWl]<;, 07tOU XuptWe; 't'U7twvov't'av [J.E't'a~pliO'€te; a7to 't'te; !1' ' '\' '" it. ' oU't'tXEe; yI\WO'O'Ee;, xa 6" we; €7ttO'l]e; xat 7tpw't'o't'u7ta Epya a7tO ':l'aVaptW't'Ee; O'unpa~de;. 'O[J.we;, ot CPavaptwne; 6au[J.CX'i;av 7tEPtO'O'O't'EPO 't'l] yaMtx~ 7tatOEta 7tapli 't'l] YEP[J.CXvtX~,xat Ot ~tAEAEu6EpEe; tOEEe;'t'ou MOV't'EO'XtE, 't'ou PouO'O'w xat 't'ou BOA't'atpoU a7taO'xoAl]O'av O'uxvli 't'l]V EAt't' au't'~. Ot CPavaptwne; ([J.E [J.EptxEe; a~tOAoy€e; €~atpEO'€te;) we; 't'1i~l] 't'l]pouO'av XAtap~ O''t'liO'l] -7tOU OEV't'oue; EX€t O'uyxwpl]6€t €V't'€AWe;- O''t'o 'i;~'t'l][J.a 't'l]e; €6vtx~e; €7tavliO''t'aO'l]e; Evav't'tOv 't'wv 06w[J.CXvwv, l] o7tota O'€ liMa O''t'pw[J.a't'a 't'l]e; €Ml]VtX~e; xowwvtae; ouvli[J.wv€ oAoEva xat 7t€ptO'O'o't'€PO we; at't'l][J.a, a7tox't'wv't'ae; [J.€yaAUnpl] 0p[J.~ [J.€'t'li 't'l] raMtX~ E7tavliO''t'aO'l] 't'ou 1789. H O''t'liO'l] au't'~ O€V €[J.7tOOtO'€ OptO'[J.EVOUe; 7to 't'oue; CPavaptw't'€e; vo: ytvouv a ouva[J.txot 7tpoO''t'Ii't'€e; 't'wv €Ml]VtXWV ypa[J.[J.Ii't'wv xat Evae; a7to aU't'oue;, 0 P~yae; a7to -eo BEA€O''t'tVO 't'l]e; 8€0'0'aAtae; (1757-1798), ~'t'av 0 7tpw't'oe; 7tOU O'X€O£aO'EEva '7tOAt't'tXO ~6v't'ay[J.a' yta 't'l] vEa 't'1i~l] 7tOU 6a 7tPOEXU7t't'€ a7t6 't'l] btatl] ava't'po7t~ 't'l]e; 06w[J.avtx~e; au't'oxpa't'optae;. 2 I1apliMl]Aa [J.€ 't'0 7tOAt't'txO 't'ou opa[J.a, 't'0 07tolo ~'t'av ba6tli pt'i;W[J.EVO 0''t0 OExa't'O oyooo atwva, 0 P~yae; E7tat~€ O'l][J.av't'lxO POAO O''t'l]v avli7t't'u~l] 't'l]e; €6VlX~e; €Ml]VtX~e; AoYO't'€xvtae;. To 7tOtl]'t'lXO 't'ou €[J.ba't'~pw BOUplOt;, 7tOU xaAouO'€ 't'oue; U7tOOOUAw[J.EVoUe; AaoUe; O''t'a 07tAa, €tXE E7ttO'uva~6€t O''t'o '7tOAt't'lXO' -cou ·~uv't'ay[J.a' 't'ou 1797. Av 0 BOUplOt; 't'o7t06€'t"d «o» P~ya E7ttXE~aA~e; 't'l]e; 7tapliooO'l]e; 't'l]e; €AAl]VlX~e; 7ta't'plw't'lx~e; 7totl]CTr)e;, 't'a liMa 't'ou AOY0't'EXVlXIi Epya 't'ov 't'07t06€'t'ouv [J.€ aO'~liA€ta O''t'ov xaMlep')'l)[J.EVOxOO'[J.07tOA£'t'tXOxOO'[J.o 't'wv CPavaplw-twv. H [J.e't'li~paO'l) 't'wv 't'ptWV otl]')'l)[J.li1"wV 't'ou Restif de la Bretonne, Ol][J.OO'lW[J.EVl]O''t'l] Btiwl] 't'0 1790, 7tap' OAO 7tOU O€V ~'t'av l] 7tP~'t'l] wpw7tatx~ [J.U607tMO'la [J.€'t'a~paO'[J.Evl] O''t'a €AAl]vtxli, Ol][J.toUpYl]O'€ Eva bpaxubw O'up[J.o Yla a~l]y~O'€le; 7tOU aO'xoAouv't'av [J.€ 't'l] O'uYXpovl] aO''t'tx~ 'i;w~, 0 o7toloe; O'UV€XtO''t'l]X€ 060 'X.P0vta apyo't'epa a7to [J.~a O'€tpli [J.€ avwvu[J.a €pw't'lxli otl]~[J.a't'a 7tOU i~€pe 't'ov 't'£'tAo 'EplJJ'rOt; A7w'reA€0"p.a'ra. H O'UMOy~ au't'~ O'uvEbaAe O''t'l] ola[J.op~wCTr)'t'l]e; VeO€Ml]VtX~e; [J.u607tAaO'tae;. O: 060 au't'ot 'to[J.Ot 'twv apxwv 't'l]e; o€xa€'t'£ae; 't'ou 1790 7ttO''t'07tOtOUV 't'o €VOta~Epov yta [J.la liAAl] [J.op~~ avatjJux~e; 7tOU ~atv€'t'at o't't 't'l]
2. To E7tt6E'tO <llEpato<; OEV 'X.PYja~(J.o7tO~~6rp(E a7to 'tov tOto 'tov P~ya. BA. P~ya<; (<lltpato<;), H eMl']Y'X~ ol']fJ-oxpa,,{a, nu6ia, A6~va 1971 (1Yj tKO. B~tvvYj, 1797).

H E7ta~~ [J.E 't'l] ~UO'l] ~'t'av Ii[J.EO'l] xat ywo't'av

EI1:ArOrH

1:TH NEOTEPH

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AOrOTEXNIA

53

6e:wpouO'a\l Oe:OO(J-EVYJ ''t'OUC; <!>a\laptw't'tXOUC; XUXAOUC;, xat e:\lOe:'X.o(J-E\lWC;eo O lOto lO'xue: xat yta -eov e:U7t0PO 7tA'Y)6uO'(J-o 't''Y)C;KW\lO''t'a\l't't\lOU7toA'Y)C;. IIpoxe:t't'at yta 't''Y)\I 't'EX\l'Y) 't''Y)C;•e:Aacppac;' e:PW't'tx~C; 7tOt'Y)O"Y)C;, 't''Y)\I 07tOta au't'oO'xe:ola~a\l Ot xapax't'~pe:c; au't'w\I 't'W\I to''t'optW\I (J-e: Xa't'a7tA'Y)X't'tX~ euxoAla, O'e: 7totxtAla (J-E't'PW\I aMa xat O'e: 7toO'o't''Y)'t'e:c; e:\lOXA'Y)'t'tXEC; yta -eo O'uYXpo\lo at0'6'Y)'t'~pto. 'E\la XaMte:pY'YJ(J-E\lO e:\lOtacpEpO\l yta 't''Y) ·Aii.x~' 7tOl'Y)O''Y)au't'ou 't'ou 't'U7tOU cpat\le:'t'at \la OtE7te:t 't'a 7tt0 e:XAe:7t't'uO'(J-E\la srn't'e:uY(J-a't'a 't'ou A6a\laO'tou XptO''t'07tOUAOU (1772-1847), 't'ou 07tOtou 0 (J-o\laotxoc; 't'o(J-OC; 7tol'Y)O"Y)c;(Auplx&) o'Y)(J-oO'te:u't''Y)xe:0''t''Y) BtE\lVYJ -eo 1811 xat Xwpt~o't'a\l xa't" a7tOXaAU7t't'tXO 't'p07tO O''t'a «Epw't'txa» xat 't'a «Baxxtxa».3 0 XptO''t'07tOUAOC; XEPOtO'e: (J-ta 6EO''Y) 0''t''Y) \le:Oe:M'Y)\ltX~ Aoyo't'e:X\lta xuptWC; yta 't''Y)\I a7tpOXaAU7t't''Y) u7te:paO'7ttO"Y) 't''Y)C;O(J-tAOU(J-e:\I'Y)C; (J-opCp~C; 't''Y)C; yAwO'O'ac;, 7tpay(J-a yta -eo 07tOlO XEPOtO'e: 't'o O'e:~aO'(J-o 't'ou e:6vtxou 7tOt'Y)'t'~ Ato\luO'toU ~OAW(J-OU.

' i'~' " TE' 1t'ta\l'Y)O'a. Ta \I'Y)O'ta au't'a , a7to't'e:l\ouO'a\l -eo oe:U't'e:po O"Y)(J-a\l't'tXO xsa , , ~, ~, ,~ , vrpo 't'W\I ypa(J-(J-a't'w\I xa't'a 't''Y) otapxe:ta 't'ou oe:xa't'ou oyooou atW\la, xat
wc; e:x 't'ou't'ou Ae:t't'oupY'YJO'a\l e:7ttO''Y)C;xat co» olauAoc; (J-EO'W 't'ou 07tOlOU ot OU't'tXEC; tOEe:C; xat Ot AoyonX\ltxec; e:~e:Al~e:tC; eyt\la\l YVWO''t'EC;, uO''t'e:pa a7to 't'o '21, 0''t''Y)\I e:Ae:u6e:p'Y) EMaoa. A7to ye:wypacptx~ xat 7tOAt't'tx~ a7to'f'Y) 'Y) apxouO'a 't'a~'Y) 't'W\I E7t't'a\I~O'W\I bptO'xo't'a\l 7tAlJO'teO''t'e:pa 0''t''Y)\I I't'aAla xat (J-EO'W 't''Y)C;I't'aAtaC;O''t''Y)\I U7tOAOt7t'Y) ou't'tX~ xat bope:ta Eupw7t'Y), a7t' o,'t't ~'t'a\l 0''t''Y)\I KW\lO''t'a\l't't\lou7tOA'Y) ~ O''t'tC; IIapaoou\labte:c; 'Y)ye:(J-O\lle:c;. Ka't'a 't''Y) otapxe:ta 't'ou oExa't'ou oyooou atw\la xat yta (J-e:yaAo (J-epoc; 't'ou o€xa't'ou E\la't'ou, ot yO\lot 't''Y)C; e:7t't'a\l'Y)O'tax~c; aptO''t'oxpa't'tac; O'7touoa~a\l O''t'a t't'aAtXa IIa\le:7ttO''t'~(J-ta. O. (J-OPCPW(J-E\lOt0" au't'a 't'a \I'Y)O'ta yvwpt~a\l xaM 't"Y)\I apxala e:M'Y)\ltX~ ypa(J-(J-a't'e:ta xat to''t'opla, aMa (J-EO'W 't''Y)C; t't'aAtX~C; xat 't''Y)C;Aa't't\ltx~c;. Ae:\I a7to't'e:Ad AOt7tO\l EX7tA'Y)~'Y)'t'0 ye:yo\loc; o't't Ot 7tpw't'Ot (J-e:yaAOt 7tOt'Y)'t'€C; 't'W\I E7t't'a\l~O'w\I (J-e:'t'a 't''Y)\I e:M'Y)\ltX~ E7ta\laO''t'aO''Y), 0 ~OAW(J-OC; xat 0 KaAboc;, ~'t'a\l 7te:ptO'O'o't'e:po e:~OtXe:tW(J-E\lOt (J-e: 't''Y)\It't'aAtX~ 7tapa (J-e:'t''Y)yAwO'O'a 't'ouc;. 'Ho'Y) a7to 't'tC; apxec; -eou OEXa't'OU EX't'OU atw\la 't'a e:M'Y)\ltXa 't'u7toypacpda 0''t''Y) Be:\le:'t'ta dxa\l e:xowO'e:t OXt (J-O\lOapxata xd(J-e:\la aMa xat 7tOl'Y)O"Y)
3. A6ocvaO"wc; XptO"'t07tOUAOC;, At.ip,xa, e:7ttp.. E. TO"ocV'tO"avoyAou, Epp.i)c;, A6i)voc 1970.

RODERICK

BEATON

ypa.!J-!J-EVY) er't'Yj OYj!J-WOYjyAwerera.. T« 1tEptererO't'Epa. a.1tO a.U't'cX 't'a. AOY0't'EX;vtXcX Epya. dXa.v eruv't'E6Et er't'Yjv Kp~'t'Yj. 'O't'a.v E1tEerE Yj Kp~'t'Yj (1669), !J-EycXAo~ a.pt6!J-o~ !J-EAWV 't'Yj~ a.pter't'oxpa.'t'ta.~ xa.t 't'Yj~ a.va.1t't'uerero!J-EvYj~ a.er't'tx~~ 't'cX~Yj~ !J-E't'a.vcXer't'EUerE er't'a. E1t't'cXvYjera. xa.t 't'a.u't'OXpova. !J-E't'ECPEpE 't'U1tW!J-EVa. 6t6Ata. xa.t a.oYj!J-oertw't'a. XEtpOypa.cpa.. AvcX!J-Eera. er't'a. 't'EAEU't'a.ta. ~'t'a.v xa.t XEtpOypa.cpa. 't'ou Epw'roxpvrou, 0 01totO~ 't'U1tW6YjxE yta. 1tpw't'Yj cpopcX er't'Yj BEVE't'ta. 't'o 1713, !J-E 't'Yjv E1tt!J-EAEta. !J-OPcpW!J-EVOUxa.t weruvdoYj't'ou KpYj't'txoU, 1tOU XPYjert!J-01tOtYjerE, 01tW~ 0 tOto~ AEEt e-rov 1tPOAOYO 't'OU, OtcXcpopa. XEtpOypa.cpa., yta. va E7ttAE~Et 't't~ .e:yXUpO't'EPE~ ypa.cpE~. Av 't'a. E1t't'cXvYjera. 1tpOerEcpEpa.v -eov a.1ta.pa.t't'Yj't'o EVOtcX!J-Eeroer't'a.6!J-o 1tOU xpEtcXer't'YjxE »a: 1tEpcXerOUv 0 Epw'roxpl'ro~ xa.t cXMa. EPYa. 't'Yj~ KpYj't'tx~~ Ava.yEwYjerYj~ 1tpo't'ou a.pxterouv »a 't'U1twvoV't'a.t, E~a.ercpa.At~oV't'a.~ E't'ert 't'Yj OtcXpXEtcX 't'OU~, a.1tO 't'0 1700 xa.t 1tEpa. mpt1tou 't'a. vYjertcX cXpxtera.v vo: E1tt't'EAOUV !J-ta. 1ta.po!J-Ota. AEt't'OUpyta. 1tpO~ 't'Yjv a.V't't6E't'Yj o!J-w~ xa.'t'Eu6uvO'Yj. 'Eva.~ erYj!J-a.v't'tXO~ a.pt6!J-o~ AOY0't'EXVtXWV EPYWV er't'Yjv Xa.60!J-tAOU!J-EVYj EAAYjvtX~, eru!J-1tE(?tAa.!J-6a.vO!J-EVOU xa.t 't'ou EpW'rOXPl'rOU, 't'a. 01tOta. 't'U1tWVOv't'a.t er't'Yj BEVE't'ta. erE a.ME1tcXAAYjAE~ Ex06erEt~ !J-EXpt 't'a. !J-Eera. 't'OU Oixa.'t'ou EVa.'t'OU a.tWVa., cpa.tVE't'a.t Ottt otEteroUera.v EX VEOU !J-EerW 't'WV E' 1t't'a.vYjerwv 1tterW er't'ov EMYjVOCPWVO xoer!J-o, Xa.t !J-E 't'Yj 60~6Eta. 't'Yj~ 1tpOCPOPtX~~ a.1ta.yyEAta.~ Xa.t 't'OU 't'pa.YOUOtoU 1tEpa.era.V erE OAE~ 't't~ xOtVWVtXE~ 't'cX~Et~. ME -eov 't'P01tO a.u't'o Ota.oo6Yjxa.v 't'a. 1tOt~!J-a.'t'a. xa.6w~ xa.t !J-EptXcX a.1tO 't'a. E!J-!J-E't'pa. opcX!J-Il.'t'a. 1tOU dXa.v eruv't'E6d a.vcX!J-Eera. er't'o OEXa.'t'O 1tE!J-1t't'O xa.t 't'o OEXa.'t'O E6oo!J-0 a.twva. er't'Yjv Kp~'t'Yj xa.t 6p~xa.v a.1t~XYjO'Yj a' EVa. 1tOAU WpU't'EpO XOtVO erE eruyxptO'Yj !J-E Epya. 1tOU dXa.v eruV't'E6d 7tt0 1tpoercpa.'t'a.. Axo!J-Yj xa.t 't'a. 1ta.'t'PtW't'tXcX 1tOt~!J-a.'t'a. 't'OU P~ya. xa.t 't'OU ~OAW!J-OU yvwptera.v 1ta.pO!J-Ota. otcXooerYj er't't~ a.PXE~ 't'OU OEXa.'t'OU EVa.'t'OU a.tWva.. Ka.'t'cX 't'Yj OtcXpXEta. 't'OU OEXa.'t'OU oyooou a.tWva. xa.t yta. !J-EYcXAO!J-EPO~ 't'OU OEXa.'t'OU EVa.'t'OU a.U't'cx 't'a. Xd!J-EVa. 6EWPOUV't'a.v Aa.txcX ~ a.XO!J-Yjxa.t ·XUOa.ta.', E1tEtO~ ~'t'a.v ypa.!J-!J-Eva. erE EVa. yAwerertx6 tOtw!J-a. 6a.erter!J-Evo er't'Yjv O!J-tAOU!J-EVYj OtcXAEX't'O 't'Yj~ E1tOX~~ er't'Yjv Kp~'t'Yj. Twpa., 't'a. EPYa. a.u't'cx 6EWPOUV't'a.t EV't'EXVa. EPYa. 't'Yj~ uer't'EpYj~ AVa.yEWYjO'Yj~ xa.t E1ta.VEX't't!J-~6Yjxa.v a.VcXAoya..4 Ev't'ou, I , ,~ , ~ "

4. BA. 't"!1:; iyxupe:1:; e:xoooe:!1:; 't"ou Epw'roxpc'rou XIX! fJ.AAwv Epywv 't"YjI:; KpYj't"!x~1:; AVIXYEVVYjCTY)1:;fJoe: e:!alXyw~ XIX! aXOA!1X 't"ou ~'t"UA!IXVOU AAe:~{OU XIX! 'rYj1:; MfJ.p!l1X1:; A7toax{'rYj. AVlXfJoEVe:'t"IX! Yj o{YAWaCTY) EXOOCTY) ('t"ou e:AAYjV!XOU Xe:!fJoEVOU fJo€ 7tlXpfJ.AAYjAYj fJoe:'t"fJ.cpplXaYJ a't"lX lXyyAtxfJ.) 't"wv Anav'rwv 't"ou Xop't"fJ.'t"CTY) IX7tO 'rYjv Rosemary Bancroft-Marcus, 7tOU !l1X XUXAocpop~ae:! IX7tO 't"!1:; e:xoooe:!1:; Oxford University Press.

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'tOt~, xa'ttX 't1]V 1te:ptOOO 't1]~ E1tavtXO''taO'1]~ 'ta €pya au'ttX O'uyxpo'touO'av 'ta !J-ovaotxtX O'Xe:06v Aa·ixtX avayvwO'!J-a'ta 1tOU ~'tav OtaO€O't!J-a xat w~e:x 'tou'tou 1tpoO'cpe:pav 1tOAU'tt!J-1] bO~Oe:ta O''tou~ O'uyypacpe:t~, Ot 01tOLOt Oe:VOLaxaao» va 'ta XP1]O't!J-01tOt~O'ouv. Ot O'uyypacpd~ 1tOU av'tA1]O'av 1tapaywytxtX a1tO au't~v 't1]v 1taAatOnp1] 01]!J-W01] 1taptXOoO'Y) !J-iXpt xat 'to 'tiAO~ 'tou o€xa'tou €va'tou atwva ~'tav O'Xe:06v anoxAe:tO''ttxtX OO'Otiypacpav O''ta E1t'ttXv1]O'a, 01tOU 'to 'tomxo totw!J-a bptO'xO'tav axo!J-Y) xov'ttX O'e: au'to 1tOU XPY)O't!J-01towuO'av O''ty)v Kp~'t1] 060 atwve:~ 1tPW xat 01tOU 't00'0 Y) 1taptXooO'Y) 't1]~. oy)fLoO'ta~ a1tayye:Ata~ 00'0 !(at Ot opa!J-a'ttx€~ 1tapaO''ttXO'e:t~ KpY)'ttxwv ipywv ~'tav aX!J-ato'ta'te:~. H otacpoptX avtX!J-e:O'a O''tou~ "oyo'te:XVtXOU~ XUXAOU~ 'twv 10vtwv v~O'wv xat 'twv ~avaptw'tw\I fL1tOPe:tva O'UVO~tO''te:t!J-e:'tov e:~~~ 'tp01to:~'ty)v Kipxupa xat 0''tY) ZtXxuvOo dXe: ota'ty)p1]Od fLta ypa1t't~ 1taptXooO'1], 01tW~ e:1tiO'Y)~xat 1taptXooO'1] 1taptXO''taO'1]<; €!J-!J-t'tpou optX!J-a'to~, 1tOU apxt~e:t 'to Uxa'to ix'to atwva O''t1]v Kp~'t1] xat O'uve:xt~e:'tat !J-€Xpt 'to 't€AO~ 'tou o€xa'tou oyooou atwva. Au'ttX Aomov 'ta 1taAato'te:p~ 'Aai"XtX' ipya, xat e:tOtxo'te:pa 0 Ep{J)- . 't'oxP''t'o~, iAabav v€a 1tVO~ 0''tY) oe:~ae:'tLa 'tou 1830 a1to 'tov Zaxu\lOw 1toty)'t~ llwvuO'w ~OAW!J-O, 0 01totO~ O'xom!J-a e:x!J-e:'taMe:u'ty)xe: O''totXe:ta 't'Y)~ yAwO'O'a~ xat 'ty)~ O''ttxoupytX~~ 'tou~. Av'tLOe:'ta !J-e:-eov ~OAW!J-O, 'to 1818 o ~a\laptw't1]~ O'uyypacp€a~ Awvucno~ ~w'te:tVO~ o1]!J-oO'twcre: G''tY) BtiwY) -eov Neo Ep{J)'t'oxp''t'o, 01tOU 'to Kp1]'ttxo 1tOt1]!J-CX:tXe:1tapacppaO'nt 0''t1] yAwO'O'a e xat 't1] O''ttxoupyta 't1]<; t1tOX~~, e:vO'w!J-a'twvov'ta<; optO'!J-iva O'uyxpova KwvO''tav'tcvOU1tOAt'ttXa 1tOt1]!J-CX-ttXxta, 01tW~ au'ta 1tOU 1te:ptAafLbtXVov'tliv . O''tt~ OUO O'uMoyi~ OtY)YYJ!J-tX'twv yta 'tt~ 01tOte:~ !J-tA~O'a!J-e:1tpo1]youfLivw~. E1ttO'Y)~, Y) O'uve:X~c, i1tacp~ 't1]~ aptO''toxpa'tta<; 'twv 1ov(wv v~O'wv fLe: 'tY) Be:ve:'tta t~at1cptXAto:e: xtX1tOtO baO!J-oO'uvixtta~ O''ta 1tpw'to'tu1ta xe:t!J-e:va. Ta AvO)'] EUAabefa~, Eva !J-txpO CPUMtXOW1tOU t~iowO'av 'to 1708 Ot O'1tOUoaO''ti~ 'tou ~AaYYMavou EM1]VO!J-ouO'e:lou 't1]<; Btvt'tta~, 1te:ptdXe: apxato'yAWO'O'C1. C1.t AC1.'ttVtXtXe:myptX!J-!J-a'ta, O'a1tcptxi~ woi~ xat t'taAtXtX O'ovi'ta: X 0.' , vi ........ '.... XC1.vW~xat 1tot1]fLa'ta xat 1te:"a vwe:l\I\Y)vtxa."E' 1ttO'1]~, a1to , 'to 'te:1\0<; -eou o€xa'tou €bOO!J-OUw~ 'to 'tiAO~ 'tou O€xa'tou oyooou atwva 1tC1.pouO'ttXcr'ty)xav optO'!J-€VOtooxtfLwYPtXCPOt 'tou Atacpw'ttO'!J-ou. llptXY!J-a'tt, 0 Euy€vw<; BOUAyap1]<; (1716~1806) XC1.t0 NtxY)cpopo<; ee:0't6xY)~ (1731-1800), t1ttcpa\l~ !J-€AY)xat Ot OUO 't1]~ Ke:pxupa·ix~<; aptG''toxpCX'tta<;, oe:\I €1tat~a\l fLtxp0'te:po

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POAO a7tO 'tOUe; CPavaptW'te:e; O(J-OAOYOUe;'tOUe; We; 7tpOe; 'ty) (J-e:'tcXOOCTr]twv ' tOe:WV 'tOU raAAtxOU ~tarpW'ttO'(J-OU O''tOV e:MY)VOrpWVO XOO'(J-O. T€AOe;, 07tWe; e:t7ta(J-e:, U7t~p'X,e: ~0Y) (J-ta (J-txp~ 7tapcXooCTr] 7tpw'to'tU7tOU €(J-(J-e:'tpou opcX(J-a'toe; ypa(J-(J-€vou O''ta E7t'tcXVY)O'a, 7tOU ap'X,(~e:t a7tO 'ty)V aX(J-~ 'tY)e; AOYO'te:'X,v(ae; 'tY)e; KpY)'ttx~e; Avay€wY)CTr]e; O''tte; ap'X,€e; 'tOU O€Xa'tou €bOO(J-OU atWva xat rp'tcXve:t (J-€'X,Pt 'tY) ye:(J-cX'tY) ~wv'tcXvta xW(J-wo(a 0 XaCiYJ; 'tOU ~Y)(J-Y)'tp(OU rOU~€AY) (1774-1843) 7tOU ypcXrp'tY)xe: 'to 1790.6 Tlpoc 'to 't€AOe; 'tou o€xa'tou oyooou atwva Y) ZcXxuv60e; ~'tav Y) 7ta'tp(oa 'tou 7tpw'tou •e:7taVaO''tcX'ty)' 7toty)'t~ 'twv Iov(wv V~O'WV, -eou Av'twvtou Map'te:AcXoU (1754-1819), 0 07t0(0e;, aXptbWe; 07tWe; 0 P~yae; O''tte; TIapaOOUVcXbte:e; y)ye:(J-ov(e:e;, 7tpoxe:t(J-€VOU vo: ypcX~e:t 7ta'tptw'ttXOUe; O''t('X,OUe;, cXnAy), , ''>' ...... ' ' O'e: 'tY)v e:(J-7tVe:UO'Y)tou a7tO, 'to 7tapaoe:t,';;.a ' 'tY)e; r alV\txY)e; E 7taVaO''taCTr]e;. A7to 'tov (Oto e:7t(O'y)e; XUXAO 7tpoe:p'X,o't,,,£v xat 0 Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827), (J-e: (J-Y)'tPtX~ yAwO'O'a 'ty)v e:AAY)vtX~, 0 07t0(0e; o(J-we; O''tY) O'UV€'X,e:ta xa6te:pw6Y)xe: ba6(J-ta(a O''tY)V I'taA(a we; €vae; a7to 'toue; (J-qaAU'te:pOUe; AUptXOUe; , ... "'>" ... 7totY)'te:e; 'tY)e; ve:OXl\aO'tXtO''ttXy)e; 7tapaOOCTr]e;, yparponae; O''ta t'taAtxa. ' 'Evae; cXMoe; 7tOtY)'t~e; 'twv 'X,Povwv aXptbWe; 7tptv a7to 'tY)v E7taVcXO''taCTr] ~'tav 0 IWcXwY)e; BY)AapcXe; (1771-1823). ~u'X,vcX 6e:wpe:('tat CPavaptw'ty)e;, e:7te:tO~ 7t€paO'e: 'tY) ~w~ 'tou O''ty)V 7te:ptrp€pe:ta 'tY)e; e:MY)vtX~e; OtavoY)O'Y)e; 'tY)e; 06w(J-CXVtX~e;au'toxpa'top(ae; we; yta'tpoe; O''tY)V AUA~ 'tou AA~ 7taO'cX 'twv Iwavv(vwv. H y€WY)O'~ 'tou o(J-we; xat 'ta ve:avtxcX 'tOU 'X,Povta -eov 't07t06e:'touv (J-e: aO'rpcXAe:ta O''tY)V 7tapcXooCTr] 'twv Iov£wv V~O'WV. re:w~f:lY)xe: O''ta Kuf:lY)pa xat we; sx 'tou'tOU Y) 7tatoe:ta 'tOU ~'tav t'taAtX~ (O'7tOUoaO'e: O''tO TIave:mO''t~(J-tO 'tY)e; TIcXv'toba). 0 BY)AapcXe; €ypa~e: A£ya 7tot~(J-CX'ta xat anAe:( e:~(O'OU a7tO 'ty)v aypo'ttx~ 7tapcXooCTr] 'tOU oY)(J-O'ttXOU 'tpayouotou xa6we; xat a7tO 'X' 'tY)v aO''ttxY) rpavaptw'ttxY) 7tapaooCTr] 'tY)v 07tota av'tt7tpOO'W7te:Ue:t 0 ptO''tO7tOUAoe;.7 ~'ta 1814 0 BY)AapcXe; OY)(J-0O'(WO'e: 'tY) POfJ-eYJxYJ rAoa-a, 07tOU e:x6€'te:t 'tte; yAwO'O'tX€e; 'tou 6e:wp(e:e; xat OtOcXO'Xe:t€vav OY)(J-O'ttXtO'(J-O'X,wp(e; O'U(J-btbaO'(J-OUe;, xe:po(~ov'tae; €'tO't 'to 6aU(J-aO'(J-0 'tOU ~OAW(J-OU.
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6. H 'tpIXYWOLIX ElJyiva -rou 0€oowpoU Mov'tO"€H~€ oYJ(J.oO"~€u't'Y)X€ O"'tYJ B€V€'tLIX 'to 1646, YJ IXVWVU(J.YJ'tpIXYWOLIX Z~vwv ypacp'tYJx€ 0"'t'Y) Zaxuv60 (J.€'tIX~U 'tou 1682-3, O"'tYJv K€cpIXMov~a 0 IIE'tpo<; KIX'tO"lXhYJ<; EYPIXIjJ€ ouo 'tPIXYWOL€<;, Irplyiv€Ia (1720) XIX~ elJi(j'rr/1:; (1721). ~'tYJ Zaxuv60 €7tL!IYJ<; 0 ~IX()OY~IX<; POUO"(J.€AYJ<;~ ~OU(J.epA~<; ErPIXIjJ€ 'to EPYO H xW{J-wola 'rwv ..p€IJ'r0Yla'rpwv (1745). 7. Iwavvou BYJAlXpa, Ta 7rol~{J-a'ra, CP~AOAOY~X~€m(J.EA€~IX: r. AVOP€~W(J.EVO<;. 'Iopu(J.IX KWo-'t1X XIX~ EAEVYJ<; OupaVY) , A6~vlX 1995.

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IIpt'J a1to 'to'J ~a:CTY)xw(J-o 'tou 1821, Y) 'a:tOtX~ aXECTY) 'tW'J E1t'ta~aw'J , (J-a:'tY) Ba:'Ja:'tta a:tXa: ~oY) u1toa'ta:t opaa'ttXE~ aAJ...ayE~. H Ba:'Ja:'ttx~ AY)(J-oxpa'tta yvwptaa: 'to 'tEAo~ 'tY)~ (J-a:'tY)'J a:xa'tpa'ta:ta 'tou Na1toAEo'J'ta a'ty)'J haAta (1796-7), a:'Jw a'ta 1797 ot raAAot xa'tEAa6a'J 'tY)'J KEpxupa. Ka'ta 'tY) otapxa:ta 'tW'J Na1toAa:ona:tw'J 1tOAE(J-w'J'ta 'JY)ata 1ta:pt~A6a'J a'ty)'J xa't0X~ otacpopw'J ~E'JW'J oU'Ja(J-a:w'J (J-EXpt 'tY)'J xa'taAY)o.¥~ 'tOU~ a1to 'tOU~ Bpa:'ta'Jou~ 'to 1814, xat (J-€'X9t 'to 1864 ~'ta'J Bpa:'ta'Jtxo IIpo'ta:x'topa'to, yvwa'to w~ United States of the Ionian Islands, (J-a: 'ty) OtX~ 'tou aY)(J-ata. E1ttaY)(J-Y) YAwaaa 'tou IIpo'ta:x'topa'tou xa'ta 'tY)'J 1ta:ptooo 1tOU (J-(l~ a1taaxoAa:t 1tap€(J-a:t'Ja:Y) t'taAtx~, 01tW~ ~'ta'J xat a:1tt 6a:'Ja:'ttx~~ xuptapxta~. H apta'toxpa'tta ota't~pY)aa: 'ta 1ta:ptaao'ta:pa a1to 'ta 1taAta 'tY)~ 1tpo'Jo(J-ta xat 'touAaXta'to'J (J-E'X9t 'ta (J-€aa 'tou OExa'tou €'Ja'tou atw'Ja Ot 'J€Ot 'tY)~ apta'toxpa'tta~ aU'J€Xtaav 'Ja 1tY)yat'Jou'J a'ty)v haAta yta a1tOUOE~. A1to'ta:Ad, Aomov, a:tpwvda 'tY)~ ta'topta~ o'tt 0 1tpw'to~ (J-a:yaAo~ 1totY)'t~~ (J-a:'ta 'tY)'J E1ta'Jaa'taay), 0 01toto~ €x'to'ta: 6a:wp~6Y)xa: 0 a:6vtxo~ 1tOty)'t~~ 'ty)~ 'Ja:o'ta:pY)~ EAAaoa~, 0 AtO'Juato~ !:oAw(J-o~, ~'ta'J xa6' oAY)'ty) otapxa:ta 'tY)~ a:v~AtxY)~ ~w~~ 'tou U1t~XOO~ 'tou 6pa:'ta'Jtxou !:'t€(J-(J-a'to~. 8

'tY) otapxa:ta 'tou o€xa'tou oyooou atwva, 1tap' 01,.0 1tOU a:tvat 1ttO ota:a1tap(J-E'Jo, tOtat-ta:pa a1to ya:wypacptx~ a1too.¥Y), a:nou'tot~ otaopa(J-a'ttaa: a:~taou CTY)(J-a'J'ttxopol,.o a'ty) ota(J-oPCPwCTY) a:AAY)'JtXW'J toAt'tta(J-txwv opt~onw'J a'to OExa'to €'Ja'to 'tW'J 1 atwva. A1to XOtvw'JtX~ a1t0o.¥Y)1tpoxa:t'tat yta 'tY)'J ava1t'tuaao(J-a:'JY) a:(J-1tOptx~ aa'ttx~ 'ta~Y). A1to ya:wypacptx~ a1too.¥Y), CTY)(J-a:twvou(J-a: ~ 'ta~Y) au't~ o'tt av6Y)aa: xuptW~ a'ta a:(J-1toptxa xE'J'tpa E~W a1to 'tY)V 06w(J-avtx~ au'toxpa, , 'A 'topta, a'tt~ yvwa'ta:~'........" a:N\Y)'Jtxa:~ 1tapotxta:~ 'tY)~ O~ oY)aaou, 'tOU .n(J-a'ta:p'J'ta(J-, 'tOU IIaptatOu, 'tOU Aovot'Jou, 01tW~ a:1ttCTY)~at a'ta 'to't€: xoa(J-01toAt'ttxa x xi'J'tpa 'ty)~ BtEWY)~ xat 'tY)~ Ba:'Ja:'tta~. A ',I a:~atpEaou(J-a: 'tY)'J mp£1t'twaY) 'tou " , " F oseo I0, 0 01tOtO~ Y)'tav a:X1ta'tpta(J-a:'Jo~ yta 1t'Ja:u(J-a'ttXOU~ 1tapa yta a:(J-1tOPtXOU~ AOyou~, Y) o(J-aoa au't~ aU'JE6aAa: a:AaXta'ta a'tY) Aoyo'ta:X'Jta au't~ xa6' au't~. A1to 'tY)'J aAAY) (J-a:pta, ot o(J-oya:va:£~E(J-1tOpOt'ty)~ Ataa1topa~ aa:
8. IIpiXytJ-a'!t, (J-tlXe:1ttCTYJ(J-YJ IXt"Y]aij '!ou YPIX(J-(J-EVY) IXYYAtxiXijp6e: 1tpoarplX'!lX a'!o a'!lX rpw~ a'!lX xpMtxiX IXP"Xoe:t1X (Public Record Office)'!l)~ AYYA(IX~, ~A. R. Beaton - E. KIXAAtyiX, «0 ~tov{Jato~ :EoAW(J-O~ 1X1te:u6uvo(J-e:vo~a'!ov ~pe:'!IXVtXO6povo: ivlX iXyvwa'!o xe:t(J-e:vo '!ou a'!lX lXyyAtxiX», EAA-f)YIXa 43 (1993), 361-79.

H AtlXa1topa. To 'tp€'to 'X€'J'tpo' 'tY)~ a:AAY)'JtX~~1t(ltoda~ xa'ta

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eruyxpto"YJ fJ-e: 'toue; aMOUe; 'EM'Y)Ve:e; bpterXOV'tcxv CXU't~ 't'Y)V e:7tOX~ ere: er'te:VO'te:p'Y) e:7tCXCP~ fJ-e: 't'Y) erUyXpov'Y) OU'ttx~ 7tcxtodcx XCXt totcxtnpcx fJ-e: 'tte; XOtvwvtxee; XCXt 7tOAt'ttXee; cxMcxyee; 'tou uer'te:pou oexcx'tou oyooou CXtwvcx. Me: 't'Y)V tOpuC1'Y) ~Ater'tcx 't'Y)e; q,tAtX~e; E'tcxtpdcxe; er't'Y)v OO'Y)erero 'to 1814 XCXt fJ-e: 't'Y) opcxer't'Y)pto7tot'Y)er'Y) terxupwv ofJ-aowv 7tte:C1'Y)e;7tOU 7tpow6Y)ercxv 'to e:AA'Y)vtXO ~~'t'Y)fJ-cx ere: OA'Y) 't'Y)v Eupw7t'Y) xcx'ta 't'Y) otapxe:tcx 't'Y)e; E7tcxvaer'tcxer'Y)e;, ot efJ-7topot 't'Y)e; Atcxer7topae; cxvafJ-e:ercx er'toue; fJ-opCPwfJ-eVOue; 'EM'Y)Ve:e; 't'Y)e; e:7tOx~e; E7tCXt~CXV'to er'Y)fJ-cxv'ttxo'te:po POAO 6E'tOv'tcxe; 'tcx 7tve:ufJ-cx'ttxa 6e:fJ-eAtcx er't'Y) o'Y)fJ-tOupytcx 'tou VEOU xpa'toue;. ~e: eruyxpter'Y) fJ-aAter'tcx fJ-e: 'toue; q,CXVCXptw'te:e; xcxt 't'Y)v cxpter'toxpcx'ttCX 'twv E7t'tcxv~erwv CX7toxofJ-tercxv XCXt 'tcx 7te:ptereronpcx OCPEA'Y)CX7tO 't'Y)v e:7tt'tuXtCX 't'Y)e; 7tpoer7ta6e:tae; 'toue;. Ex'toe; CX7tO't'Y) erUfJ-bOA~ 'twv e:fJ-7t'OPWV 't'Y)e; Atcxer7topae; er't'Y)v XCX6tEPWC1'Y)'tou VEOU xpa'toue;, 'Y) er'Y)fJ-cxertcx't'Y)e; erufJ-bOA~e; 'twv ofJ-oye:vwv 't'Y)e; Atcxer7topae; er't'Y)v cxva7t'tu~'Y) 't'Y)e; Ve:Oe:M'Y)VtX~e; AOY0'te:xvtCXe; ytve:'tCXt 7ttO opcx't~ er'to 7tpoerw7to 'tou AocxfJ-av'ttOu Kopcx~ (1748-1833). rovoe; OtXOYEVe:tCXe; 't'Y)e; ~fJ-Upv'Y)e; fJ-e: e:fJ-7toptxa erufJ-cpEpoV'tCX, fJ-e:'ta CX7tO EVCXcx'tuxee; ~e:Xtv'Y)fJ-cx aso» e:fJ-7tOptxO xoerfJ-o 'tou AfJ-C1'te:pv'tcxfJ-, er7touocxere: Icx'tptx~ e-ro MOV7te:AAtE 't'Y)e; rCXMtCXe; XCXt bcx6fJ-tcxtcx xcx'top6were: vo: xcx6te:pw6d we; AOytOe; XCXt fJ-~Ae:'t'Y)'t~e; 'twv xACXertxWV YPcxfJ-fJ-a'twv o-ro I1cxptert, 07tOU xcxt 7tCXPEfJ-e:tVe:ytCX 'to U7tOAOt7tO 't'Y)e; fJ-CXxpoxpov'Y)e; tw~e; 'tou. 0 Kopcx~e; 6e:wpouere: 't'Y) otaooer'Y) 't'Y)e; 7tCXtoe:tCXe;'to xcxAunpo fJ-EerO 7tOU 6cx fJ-7topouere: va bO'Y)6~ere:t 'toue; eufJ-7tMptW'te:e; -eou er't'Y) fJ-e:MOV'ttX~ 'toue; cxve:~cxp't'Y)ertcx XCXt ~'tcxv e:7ttC1'Y)e;CX7tO 'toue; 7tpw'toue; 'EM 'Y)ve:e; AoytOUe; 7tOU opcxfJ-cx'tter't'Y)xe: 't'Y)V IX.ve:~cxP't'Y)'t07tot'Y)er'Y) 't'Y)e; EMaocxe; fJ-e: 't'Y) fJ-opcp~ e:voe; E6voue;-xpa'touc;, 'to 07tOtO Opt~e:'tCXt fJ-e: opoue; 7tOU cxvayov'tcxt er'tov 1. G. Herder, O'Y)ACXO~fJ-e: XPt't~PtCX 't'Y) yAWcrercx xcxt 'tte; 7tcxpcxooere:te; 'tou. Te ypcx7t'ta 'tou Kopcx~ 7tpOe; 't'Y)v xcx'te:66uvC1'Y) cxu't~ dvcxt 7tafJ-7tOMCX, tOtCXt'te:pcx Ot e:7tter'toAEe; 'tou. Kcx'ta't'Y)v 7te:ptOOO 't'Y)e; e:xer'tpcx'te:tcx.e; 'tou NCX7tOAEOV'tCX er't'Y)v AVCX'tOAtX~ Me:eroy~to, XCXt 7taAt fJ-e:'ta 'to 1821, 0 Kopcx~e; EypCX?,e: fJ-e:ptxa e:v60uertwo'Y) 7tcx'tptw'ttxa 7tOt~fJ-cx'tcx er'to ucpoe; -eou P~ycx XCXt 'tou MCXp'tEAaOU, 'tcx 07tOtCX o'Y)fJ-0erte:l),.'Y)XCXVXCXt OtcxfJ-Otpaer't'Y)xcxv cxvwvufJ-cx ~ fJ-e: ?,e:UOWVUfJ-o: Oer'toero, 0 Kopcx~e; dvcxt 7te:pterero'te:po yvwer'toe; ytCX 'tcx OOXtfJ-tCX XCXt 'tte; e:7tter'toAEe; 'tou erxe:'ttxa fJ-e: 't'Y)v xAcx.ertx~ AoyonXVtcx, 't'Y)v 7tOAt'ttX~ XCXt 't'Y)v 'Y)6tx~ fJ-~'tcxppu6fJ-tC1'Y) 't'Y)e; e:M'Y)vtx~e; yAWcrercxe;, 'tcx 07tOtCX XUXAocpop'Y)ercxv ere: e:1ttXop'Y)youfJ-e:ve:e; e:x06ere:te; fJ-e: er'toxo 't'Y)v e:updcx XUXAOCPOptCX 'toue; er'tov e:M'Y)VOcpwvo xOcrfJ-o. Ot tOEe:e; -eou XCXt 'Y) e:7ttOPCXC1'Y) tOU aerx'Y)ere: o' cxu'to 'to 'te:Ae:U'tcxto ~~'t'Y)fJ-CX 6cx eru~'Y)'t'Y)60uv er'to 7

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60 xEcpcXAato xat YJ O'UtJ-bOA~ 'tou O''tYJv E~eAt~YJ 'tYJ~ EAAYJVtX~~ 1tE~oypacpia~ 6a E~E'taO''td 1tapaxcX'tw, 0''t0 1tapov xEcpcXAato.9

01 I1POTOI EAAHNIKH~

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A1tO 'ta 'tpia xeV'tpa 1tatoEia~ 1tOU 1tEptypcXljJatJ-E O''tYJv 1tPOYJYOUtJ-EVYJ VOE 'tYJ'ta, 'ta E1t'tcXvYJO'a ~'tav 'ta 1tpw'ta 1tOU utJ-VYJO'av 'tYJv x~pu~YJ 'tYJ~ EAAYJVtx~~ E1tavcXO''taO'YJ~ O''tYJv 1toiYJO'YJ, tJ-E 'ta OtacpopE'ttxcX E1tt'tEuytJ-a'ta 'tou ~tovuO'iou ~OAWtJ-OU (1798-1857) xat 'tou Avopia KcXAbOU (17921869), 'ta lPovta axotJ-YJ 'tYJ~ E1tavcXO''taO'YJ~. 0 ~OAWtJ-O~ ~'tav yovo~ aptO''toxpa'ttx~~ otXoyeVEta~ 'tYJ~ Zaxuv60u. ME'tcX 'tYJv E1tt0''tPOCP~ 'tou a1to 'tYJv haAia (1818) oYJtJ-OO'iWO'E'tYJ tJ-ovaotx~ EV ~w~ 1totYJ'ttX~ 'tou O'UMoy~, Rime Improvvisate (Kepxupa 1822), tJ-ta O'EtPcX1totYJtJ-cX'twv 1tOU, 01tW~ cpaiVE'tat xat a1to -eov 'tt'tAO, ~'tav ypatJ-tJ-eva O''ta t'taAtXcX, 'tYJ yAwO'O'a 'tYJ~ 1tatoda~ 'tou. Aiyo 1tPW a1to au't~ 'tYJ oYJtJ-oO'iwO'YJ cpaivE'tat 1tW~ 0 ~OAWtJ-o~ dlE 1tcXpEt O'UVEtOYJ'tcX'tYJv a1tocpaO'YJ va acptEpw6Ei O''tYJv XaMtepYEta EVO~ 1tOtYJ'ttXOU tOtwtJ-a'to~ O''taEAAYJVtxcX. To tJ-eyE60~ au'tou -eou qlEtP~tJ-a'to~ xa'taOEtXVuE'tat a1to 'ta OtaO'w6EV'ta lEtpoypacpcX -eou, 'ta o1toia .... ' , r ".... '.... a1toxaI\U1t'touv 'to yEyOVO~ O'tt 0 1tOtYJ'tYJ~ O'E OI\YJ 'tYJV U1tOI\Ot7tYJ Y' ~WYJ 'tou 1tpOEbatvE O'E O'lEOtcXO'tJ-a'ta 1totYJtJ-cX'twv O'lOAtcX~ov'ta~ 'tYJV 'tElvYJ 'tou O''tYJV t'taAtX~ yAwO'O'a 'twv O'1tOUOWV 'tou, 1tpo'tou 'ta ~avaypcXljJEt tJ-E tJ-EYcXAO X01tO xat tJ-E a'tEAEtw'tE~ ava6Ewp~O'Et~ O'E EMYJVtXOU~ O''tiloU~, yta 'tou~ o1toiou~ 6autJ-cXO''tYJXE a1to 1totYJ'te~ xat XPt'ttXOU~ ~oYJ a1to 'ta tJ-eO'a 'tou oExa'tou Eva'tou atwva.1O
9. TIX 1te:ptaao'te:plX yplX1t'ta 'tou KoplX~ auyxe:'J'tpwftrJxlX'J IX1tO-rov r. BIXAi'tlX (AolX~'J'ttO~ KOplX~~, Arrav'ra 'ra rrpw'ro'rurra ipya [4 'tOfJ-ot: IXpt6fJ-. A1-2, B1-2], dwptxo~, A6~'J1X 1964). to. rtlX 1toMa XPO'JtlX 'YJ1ttO XP'YJa'ttx~ ixoOO'Y] 'tou ~OAWfJ-OU ~'tIX'J: Arrav'ra, e:1ttfJ-iAe:tlX - Cl"'YJfJ-E:tWae:t.; AL'JOU I1oAt't'YJ, 'tOfJ-o,; 1tpw'to~ IIoI~fJ.a'ra, 1948' oe:u'te:po~ IIe'&: xal l'raAlx&:, 1955' IIap&:p'rrJfJ.a, haAlx&:, fJ-e:'taljlplXCl"'YJ I1oAt't'YJ fJ-e: aU'Je:pYlXaLIXr. N. 110A. ALT'Y),rAwaaapto, 1960 ('IxlXpo~, A6~'JIX). 0 'tPL'tO'; XlXt fJ-e:YIXAU'te:pO~tofJ-O~, 'YJAM17AO' ypaq;{a, 1tpoa't€ftrJxe: a't'YJ ae:tpa 'to 1991 fJ-e:'ta 'to 6a'JIX't0 'tou A. I10ALT'Y). nIX WJ. e:x'ttfJ-~aoufJ-e: T'Y) 1jlUCl"'Y) XlXt 'to fJ-iye:60~ 'tW'J ouaXOAtw'J 1tOU 1tlXpOUaLIX1;IX'J ipylX 'tou ~OAWfJ-OU 't1X aT'Y)'J xlX'taa'tlXCl"'YJ1tOU 6pLaxo'J'tIX'J O'tIX'J 1ti61X'Je: 0 1tOt'YJ't~~, e:L'JlXt1X1tlXplXt't'YJ'tO 1X'JIXIjle:p'JIX 60ufJ-e: a'to 1tOAU'ttfJ-O ytlX 't'YJ'J ipe:u'JlX ipyo 1tOU e:x06ftrJxe: e:1tLCl"'YJ~ 'to'J AL'JO I10AL't'YJ: IX1tO dtO'Juato~ ~OAWfJ-O~, AU'roypaq;a ipya, A' ~W'tO'tU1tLe:~, B' Tu1toyplXljltx~ fJ-e:'tIXYPIXIjl~I1IX(

60

RODERICK

BEATON

Tel d.)'Yl'm<.tX 7tort)!J.el'tel 'tou ~OAW!J.OU 't'Y]e; Oe:Xele:'tLele; 'tou 1820 !J.7tOpe:L Vel 'tel ~e:xwpL(m xelvde; G'e: AUplXtX, 7tOMtX el7tO 'tel 07tOLel u!J.vouv 't'Y]v l' ' , O!J.0p(j)lel Xell 't'Y]v el)"Jo't'Y]'tel vsorv XOPl'tG'lWV, Xell G'e: 7tellXVlOlClplXe:e; G'el'tlpEe; 7tOU dXelv we; G''toxo 'tOUe; !J.EA'Y]'tou tX!J.e:G'ou XUXAOU 'tou 7tOl'Y]'t~. Kell Ol OUO XCl't'Y]yopLe:e; elV'tAOUV el7tO 'tel AelixtX elG''tlxtX 'tPelYOUOlel 't'Y]e; Zelxuv60u, 'tle; Xelv'ttXoe:e;. ElOlXO'tEPel, 'Y](j)~!J.'Y]-eou ~OAW!J.OU oleloo6'Y]XE G''t'Y]v EMtXOel, 7tOU EVel 't!J.~!J.el 't'Y]e; dXe: !J.oAle; el7te:Ae:u6e:pw6d, elMtX Xell G''to e:~W'te:plXO, !J.e: 't'Y] O'Y]!J.OG'Le:uG''Y] IIelpLG'l 'to 1825 'tou 'Tuvo» eu; 'rf)v EAeu()ep{av G''t0 (EPYO 7tOU yptX(j)'t'Y]xe: 'to 1823), Xell ALyoue; !J.~ve:e; elpyo'te:Pel 'tU7tw6'Y'jxe: Xell G''to 'tU7t0YPel(j)e:LO 7tOU dXe: 7tpoG'(j)el'tel lopu6d G''t0 Me:G'OAOYYL ~'to 7to('Y]!J.el elu'to, G'e: 158 o!J.OLOXel'ttXA'Y]X'tel 'te:'tptXG''tlXel, 'Y]EAe:u6e:PLel 7tPOG'W7t07tOl'Y]!J.iv'Y] we; E>e:tX7tPObelLVe:l ~elVtX el7tO 'tel XOXelAel 'twv elPXel(wv EM~VWV, 07tOU e:LXE (j)UAelXlG''te:( el7tO 'to 'tEAoe; 't'Y]e; XAelG'lX~e; elPXellO't'Y]'tele;, Xell 7to'te: bAOG'Up~ 7tO'tE 'tpu(j)e:p~ 6EAye:'tell tXAAO'te: !J.e: 'tle; v(xe:e; 'twv e:7telVelG''tel't'Y]!J.Evwv EM~VWV G''t'Y]v TpmoAl'tG'tX Xell G''to Me:G'OAOYYl, tXMO'te: !J.E 'tle; tXOoAe:e; e:A7t(OEe; 7tOU (j)'tEpOUYl~elV G''tel G''t~6'Y'j 'twv ve:elPWV XOpl'tG'lWV 't'Y]e; Kop(v60u Xell, 'tiAOe;, !J.e: 'tle; 'te:Ae:'tOupy(e:e; 't'Y]e; Op6ooo~'Y]e; EXxA'Y]G'Lele;. O. 7tpw'te:e; G''tpO(j)Ee; elu'tou 'tou 7tOl~!J.Cl'tOe; !J.e:A07tOl~6'Y'jXelV el7tO -eov NlXOAelO MtXv't~elpo 'to 1865 Xell el7tO'tEAe:G'elV -eov e:6VlXO u!J.vo 't'Y]e; EMtXOele;.l1
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Ve:7ttO"'t~(JoW 0e:0"0"IXAOV(XYJ<;, 19(4). ~YJ(J-IXV'ttx~ e:1t(O"YJ<;e:CVlXtXlXt YJ EXOOO"Y): ~WWo"IOU ~oAW(JoOU, JIo,~p.(n/% XIX' JIe'&, e:7tt(JoEAe:tlX - e:to"IXYWYE<; ~'tUAtIXVO<; AAe:~(OU, ~'tty(Jo~, Ae~vlX 1994, YJ 01t011X O"uyxe:v'tpwve:t «'t1X 1tA~PYJ 1tOt~(J-IX'tIX, XlXt 1X1t0 't1X iJ.AAIX 't1X 't(Jo~(J-IX't1X e:xdvlX 1tOU IX1tO'te:AOUV OPYIXVW(JoEVIXO"UVOAIX» (0". 17). 0 'to(Joo<; e:1tto"y)C; 1te:ptAIX(Jo6iJ.ve:t 'to O"Y)(J-IXV'ttXO 1te:~oypiJ.cpYJ(J-IX 'tou ~OAW(JoOU H yuv/%{x/% 'rr)t; Zaxu{)ot; xlX6w<; XlXt 'tOY Ll,&AOYO, (J-!X~( (Joe: (JotlX e:7ttAOy~ 1X1t0 t'tIXAtxiJ. ~'X,e:OtM(J-IX't1X 'twv 1totYJ~'twv XlXt E7ttO"'tOAEC;, 0"'t1X t'tIXAtXiJ. ot 1te:PtO"O"o'te:pe:C;, 1tOU O"uvOOe:UOV'tlXt 1X1t0 e:AAYJvtX~ (Joe:'tiJ.cpplXo"y). H EXOOO"Y)-rou AAe:~tOU 61X0"t~e:'tlXt ae (JotlX e:~IXV'tAYJ'ttX~ e:1tIXVe:~E't1XO"YJtwv 'X,e:tpoypiJ.cpwv IXxoAou6wv'tlXC; IXUO"'tYJPiJ.cptAO' AOytX~ (Joe:6000AOY(1X XlXt 1tlXpOUO"tiJ.~e:t EVIX •O"uyxe:V'tPW(JoEVO' ~OAW(JoO, (JotXp0'te:pYJC; EX'tIXO"Y)C;. H EXOOO"Y) e:CVlXte:u'X.PYJO"'tYJXlXt rno XIX'tIXVOYJ't~ at: O"UyxptO"YJ (Joe: iJ.AAe:C; e:xoooe:tC; 1tOU IXXOAou60uO"IXV 't1X t'X,vYJ 'tY)C; 1tpw'tYJ<; O"uyxe:v'tpw'ttX~<; EXOOo"y)C; -rou IIXxw60u llOAUAiJ. (1859). lllXp' OAO 1tOU OptO"(JoEVot oe:v e:tVlXt e:U'X,lXptO"'tYJ(JoEVOt(Joe: 'ttc; 1tlXpIXAdljle:tc; 1tOtYJ~'twv XlXt 1X1tQ(j1tlXo"~'tWV «(JotlX 'tE'tOtlX 1tiXplX't~PYJo"y) O"Y)(Joe:tWVe:'tlXt1tlXplXxa'tw) ~ 1tpOUtvouv e:VIXAAIXX'ttxEC; AUO"e:tC; ae O"uyXe:XPt(JoEVIX 1tp06A~(J-IX'tIX, oe:v U1tiJ.p'X,e:t IX(J-cpt60AtIX o'tt YJ EXOOO"Y) -eou AAe:~tOu 1X~(~e:t VIXytve:t YJ 'X.PYJO"'ttX~ EXOOo"y) 1tOU 61X 'X.PYJO"t(Joo1tote:hlXt ytlX 1toM!J, 'X.P0VtlX. 'OAIX 't1X IX1tOO"1tiJ.O"(JoIX't1X 1X1t0 'tOY ~OAW(JoO O"'to 1tlXpOV 6t6AtO 1tPOEP'X,OV'tlXt 1X1t0 'tYJv EXOOO"Y)AAe:~tOU, IXAAiJ. 1tpOC; Ote:UXOAUVo"y) 'tou IXVlXyvWa'tYJ OtOOV'tlXt ot 'to(JoOt XlXt Ot O"e:AtOe:<;'tYJC; EXOOO"Y)C; llOAt'tYJ. H EXOOo"y) 'tou AAe:~(OU e:7tt1tP00"6E'tWC; 1te:ptAIX(Jo6iJ.ve:t (JotlX e:~lXtpe:'ttXiJ. e:vYJ(Joe:PW(JoEVYJ E7ttAOy~ Bt6AWYPIXCP(IX<;, O"'tY)v ·01t0(1X 1tIXPIX1tE(Jo1te:'tlXt 0 IXVlXyvWO"'tYJC;. 11. H 1tpw'tY) OYJ(JoOO"tEUo"y) IXU'tOU -eou 1tot~(J-IX'to<; EytVe: 0"'t0 1tIXPiJ.p'tYJ(J-IX -rou oe:u'te:pou

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!J-€,),a.AO EtJYO 'tou ~OAW!J-OU 1tOU oY)!J-oc1t€un)lte:
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o~a.tJXe:~IX'tY)C; ~w~c; 'tou ~'tIXV 'to AUtJ~XO 1tOLY)!J-IX Eu;

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1ttJOC; 'tY) !J-otJCP~XIXt 'to ucpoc;, IXU'tO 'to 1tOLY)!J-IXIXxoAou6e:i 'O'tIXV ECP'tIXO'IXV'tIX VEIX ytIX 'to 6a.vIX't0 'tou ~OAW!J-OC; AEye:'tIX~ 1tWC; 1t~oY)~e: 1ta.vw xIX6o'tIXv 1tm~!J-IX'toc;,

M7rtX'poY 1tOU YtJa.cp'tY)xe: 'to 1824 XIX~ oY)!J-oO'te:u'tY)xe: 'to e:1to!J-e:vo E'tOC;. Oc; O''te:va. -eov 'Yp.yo.
M 1ta.~tJov e-ro Me:O'OAOYYL, 0 O''ttJocp~ 'tou O''to 'ttJIX1tE~~ 'ty)C; 'tIXbEtJVIXC; 01tOU

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A€u(kpltX, Yla Afyo 7rtX'-f€ ya X'!'U7rtXt; p.€ '!'o Cl'1ta(}f' '!'wpa O'lp.wcr€ xa, xAtX'-f€ €It; '!'OU M 7rtXcpOY '!'O xopp.{_12
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H e:CP~IXA'ttX~ O'a.'tttJIX es 1te:~o H yuya(xa '!'Y)t; ZtXxu(}Ot; XIXt 'to e:mx%tJIX!J-IX't~xo 1toiY)!J-IX 0 AtXp.7rpot; OtIXotJIX!J-IX'ti~ov'tIXt !J-e:
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~OAW!J-OC; a.tJ'X,tO'e:VIX OOUAe:Ue:t 'tIX EtJYIX IXU'ta. O'tIXV IXXO!J-Y) !J-IXtVO'tIXV 0 XIX~ O'UVE'X,tO'IXV 'tov IX1tIXO''X,OAOUV VIX XIXt O''tY)V 1ttJW't€UOUO'IX 'twv E1t'tIX-

e:6vtxoc; IXYWVIXC; O''ty)V Ile:Ao1towy)O'o, v~O'wv, 'tY)V KEtJXUtJIX, 'to

!J-e:'ta. 'tY) !J-e:'tIXXO!J-~O'~'tou IX1tO 'tY) Za.xuv60

1828.

13

'to{JoOU't1]C; auAAoy-f]c; 7tpocpoptX~C;01]{Joo'ttX~C; 7tOt1]alJC;'tou Claude Fauriel, Chants populaires de la Grece moderne (Paris, 1825), 7tOUU7t~p~~ 1] 7tpw't1] a'to ~tOOC;t"l]C;auAAoy-f] 1] ' 07tOtll o1]{Jooat~u't"l]x~ 'tU7tw6rjx~, 07tWC;Xllt 1] U7tOAot7t1] uAAoy~, {Jo~ Xllt a YIlAAtx~ {Jo~'tacpPIlalJ. H EXOOalJ -rou M~aoAoyytOU ~'tIlV EVil OAtyoaEAtOOcpuAAaoto {Jo~{Jo~'tacpPllalJ a'tll t'tIlAtxa. rtll {JotllCpw'tollvlla'tIl'ttx~ IlVIl'tU7tWalJ 6A. ~tovuatoc; ~OAW{JoOC;, 'rfJ-VO~ e'~ TYJV EAeU(}ep{av, Ia'toptx~ Xllt E6voAOytX~ E'tlltp~tll 't1]C; EAAaooc;, A6~vll 1971. 12. ~'tpocp~ 1 (EXO. AA~~lou, a. 123, EXO. lloAI't1]C;, 'to{Jo. 1, a. 101). 13. rtll {Jotll7tA~P1]EXOOalJ 'twv 'tptWV otllaw6Ev'twV ~xooxwv 'tou EPYOUH Tovalxa 'rYJ~ Zchw(}o~, 6A. ~tovuatoC; ~oAw{Jo6c;, H Tuvalxa 'rYJ~ Z&:xu(}o~, opafJ-a TOU .:lCOVUc7COU Iep0fJ-ovaxou eYX&:TOIXOU eu; ~WXA~c7' Zaxuv(}ou, ~7tt{Jo. . Tallv'taavoYAou, BtX~Alltll ~1]E {Joo'ttx~ Bt6Ato6~x1], HpaXA~to 1991. H EXOOalJ AA~~lou 6Ilal"~'tllt e-ro 7tpw'to 7tA~P~C; ax~otlla{Jo!l Xllt 7t~ptAIl{Jo6av~t A~7t'tO{Jo~p~tllx~ aU"~'t1]alJ 'twv ~xoo'ttxwv 7tp06A1]~'tWV (~OAW{JoOU, IIo'~fJ-!lTa xa: IIe'&:, aa . 481-504). H xAaatX~ xMap't~alJ 'twv ll7toa7taa~'twv a'tov A&:fJ-7rpo 6plax~'tat a't"l]v EXOOalJ 'tou llOAt't"l] ('to{Jo. 1, ao, 157-96). 0 AA~~lou {Jo~'tllxtv1]a~oAa ~xdva 'ta 't{Jo~{Jo!l't1l 7tOUIlPXtxa ypacp't1]xav co» IlU'tOV0{Jo!l 7tot~{Jo!l'ta xat

62

RODERICK

BEATON

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7totl)O"r) E~tO'WVE'tat fJ-E 'to «(Xu60flfJ-l)'t0 ~E'X,EtAtO'fJ-a to''X,uflwV at0'6l)fJ-a.'twv». Ot Ota'tU7tWO'Ete; fJ-a.AtO''ta aU'tEe; 'tOU ~OAWfJ-OU xat 'tOU Ka.AbOU a7tOXaAU7t'tOUV 7tOOO O''tEVa. O'UVOEOEfJ-EVl)EtVat l) 7tOtl)'ttX~ Xat 'tWV OUO fJ-E 'tOV EUflw7ta'ixo P OfJ-aV't'tO'fJ-O .18 O. aUO''tl)flEe; 'tE'X,VtXEe; 'tOU VEOXAaO'tXtO'fJ-0U U7tl)flE'tOUV, O'ufJ-<pwva fJ-E a.MEe; aXOfJ-l) EVOEt~Ete;, EVa O'obaflo'tEflo O'X07tO O''tl)V 7tOtl)O"r) 'tou Ka.AbOU a7t' 0, 'tt O''to fJ-EYaAu'tEflo fJ-Efloe; 'tl)e; 7tOtl)O"r)e; 'tou OExa'tOU oyooou atwva O''tl)V EUflW7tl), a7t' 07tOU 'tte; Et'X,E aV't'A~O'Et. 0 0''t0'X,0e; aU'toe; -eov 't07t06E't'et, 7tafla.Ml)Aa fJ-E-eov vEaVtXO ~OAWfJ-O, O''tl)V a<pE'tl)flta 'tou P0fJ-av'ttXOU xtv~fJ-a'toe;. Au'to <patVE'tat afJ-EO'We; a7to -eov 'tt'tAO Doi~.0 Ka.Aboe;xpl)O'tfJ-07totEt 7tOAU aXfltbEO''tEfla xat wflu'tEfla -eov 01'0, fJ-E ba6u'tEflEe; 7tflOEX'ta.~ ~" O'Ete; xat ota<poflE'ttXO '" 'tflO7tO O'E O'UYXfltO"r)fJ-E'toue; ou'ttXOUe; O'uyxpOVOue; -eou, yta 'toue; 07totOUe; O'uv~6we; O'~fJ-atVE a7tAa. Eva O'uyxtvl)O'taxa. <pofl'ttO'fJ-Evo XOfJ-fJ-a.'t't, O'u'X,va. fJ-E 7tEflt't'e'X,vl) O''tt'X,ouflytX~ fJ-0fl<P~. 0 Ka.AbOe;, a7to 'tl)V a.Ml) fJ-Eflta., 'X,fll)O'tfJ-07tOtEt we; 7tflOAoyo O''t'l) AtJpct Eva E7ttYflafJ-fJ-a 'tou afl'X,atou AUfltxOU 7totl)'t~ IItvOa.flOU, 'to 07tOtO fJ-ae; 6ufJ-t~Et o'tt l) O''tl)V EMa.oa xa'ta. 'tov EX'tO atwva 7t.X. ~'tav Evae; EtOtXOe; 'tU7tOe; E~atflE'ttxa. E7tE~EflyaO'fJ-Evou a.0'fJ-Ct't0e;, fJ-ta O'UV6EO"r) EtOtXa. 7tflOe; 'ttfJ-~v 'twv Vtxl)'twv O''touc; OAufJ-7ttaXOuc; xat a.MOUC; aywvEC;. Ot WOEC;'tou IItvoa.floU XPl)O'tfJ-O, 6"\' , ' , , 7tOtOUV 'tl) fJ-U ol\oyta yta va 'tovtO'ouv 'ttC; a» 6flW7ttVEC;aflE'tEe; 7tOU Ot afl'X,atot 'EMl)VEe; E7ttOtW~av va 7tflOw6~0'0uv fJ-E 'tOUC; aywVEe;, xat 7tOU afl'X,txa. ,~ ~, "\' ,~ , "\ " , ooovio» fJ-E 'tl) O'UVOoEta I\uflac; xa'ta 'tl) otaflxEta 'tl)C; 'tEI\E'tl)C; 07tOU a7tEVEtfJ-av O''tOUe; VtXl)'tEC; 'to oa.<pVtVO 0''t'e<pa.Vt.19 M7tOfloufJ-E E'tO't va av'ttAl)<p60ufJ-E yta'tt Ot WOEC; 'tou Ka.AbOU Etvat

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18. BA. ~V't"tO"'t"ot'X.~: «E1ttO"l]IJ-EtwO"tC;», O"'t"ov 't"OIJ-o Q&x1 (ixo. Pontani, 0". 173), ~OAWIJ-OC;: «Tj ~PIJ-OVt~ 't"ot) O"'t"t'X.ot)OEV EtV~t 7tpcXy~ OAO IJ-Tj'X.~vtXO, ~AM EtV~t ~E'X.EtAto"~ 't"TjC;~t)'X.~C;» «(~TjIJ-dWo"EC; 't"0t) 7totTj't"~», 'Tuvo; e,~ 'rf}v E"AeuOep{av, txo. AAE~tOt), 0". 121' txo. IIoAt't"Tj, 't"oIJ-. A', 0". 99), William Wordsworth, «Preface» e-rov 7tpOAoyo 't"TjC;Odl't"EPTjC; tXOOO"l]C; 't"wv Lyrical [JaUads (1800). To 7tEptE'X.0IJ-EVO't"wv O"'X.0AtWVx~t 't"wv OUO 7totTj't"wv 1XCp0pcX O"'t"TjVE~~YTJO"l]/U7tepcXa7ttCTf] 't"wv IJ-E't"ptXWV 't"U7tWV rrou Ot~AiyOt)V, EVW 0 7tpOAOYOC;. 't"ou Wordsworth EtV~t, 0"' tV~ IJ-EYcXAOIJ-tpOC;, IJ-t~ t)7tEpcXO"7ttO"l]'t"TjC;IJ-opcp~c; x~t.:rYJC; 6E~'t"OAoyt~C; 't"wv 7tOtTj!J-cX't"wv't"ot) tOtot) X~t 't"0t) Coleridge. 19. IIoAM t'X.ot)v YP~CPUt yt~ 't"~ AEyOIJ-EV~ po~V't"tXcX ~ XA~O"tXcX O"'t"ot'X.d~ O"'t"Tjv 7totTjO"l] 't"ot) KcXA60t). ft~ IJ-tcXAE7t't"OIJ-e:ptO"upTj ~VcXAt)O"l]'t"ot) 7tWC; 0 KcXA60c; 'X.PTjO"tIJ-07tOte:t O"E IJ-t~ wo~ 't"0t) XAMtXtC; IJ-VEte:C;x~t oOIJ-tXtC; ~'X.tC; reou 7tpOtp'X.ov't"~t ~7tO 't"Tjv ~p'X.~I~ 7tOITjO"l] 6A. I. N. IIepto"t)vcXxTjC;, «H wo~ E,~ MOUaa~ 't"ot) A. KcXA60t)), ,1w8wvr;, ~t: AOAOyI(J. 14 (1985), 1-37.

66

RODERICK

BEATON

1tAOUO'te:e; O'e: 1X\llXqJofl€e; O''tl) AUfllX XlXt 'to oaqJ\lt\lO O''te:qJa\lt, XlXt ytlX'tL Ot (JoU6oAoytX€e; XlXt m U1tOAOme:e; XAIXO'tX€e; (Jo\le:Le:e;e:L\llXt 't00'0 €XOl)Ae:e; IXMa XlXt ytlX'tL e:yxw(Jota~o\l'tlXt Ot IXqJl)fll)(JoE\le:e;Ewme:e;. A \I 0 ITL\lolXfloe; €I}IXMe: ytlX \l1X u(Jo\l~O'e:t 'tl) \lLXl) 'tW\I 1X6Al)'tW\I O''toue; lXyw\le:e; XlXt ytlX \l1X e:yxw(JotaO'e:t 't1X l)6txa XlXt qJuO'txa XlXfllXx'tl)fltO''ttxa -eou \ltxl)'t~, 0 KaAboe; e:mXe:Lfll)O'e: \l1X xa\le:t 'to LOtO 1tflay(Jo1X (Joe: 'toue; \ltxl)'t€e; aso» Ayw\l1X ytlX 'tl)\I 1X1te:Ae:U6EflwO'l) 'tou 't01tOU 'tou (ytlX'tL 1tLO''te:ue: (Joe:1ta60e; O''tl) (Joe:MO\l'ttX~ \lLXl) 'tW\I IXYW\ltO''tW\I), e:yxw(Jota~onlXe; xlX'ta 1tlXflo(JoOtO 'tflO1tO 'tte; IXflXIXLe:e;Xfle:'t€e; XlXt I O'U\lOEO\l'tae; 'tte; (Joe: 'to 1tlXflo\l. Oe; '\ltxl)'t~flte:e; WO€e;' OtlXqJOfle:'ttXOU 'tU1tOU, IXqJte:flW(JoE\le:e;O'e: (JotlXU1tO6e:0'l) O'OblXflo'te:fll) 1X1t0 'tl)\I 1X6Al)'ttX~ OtaXfltO'l), 't1X 1tOt~(JoIX't1X 'tou KaAbou e:mxIXAOU\I'tlXt €\l1X IXflXIXLO(Joon€AO ytlX €\lIX\I ul}l)Ao'te:flo O''tOXo 1X1t0 IXU'tO\l 1tOU ~'tIX\I 0 \le:OXAIXO'tXOe; otaxoO'(Jooe;. ITlXfl' OAO 1tOU m otaqJofle:e; 1tfloO'1ta6e:te:e; 'tou e:txoO''tou IXtW\l1XytlX 'tl)\I lX1toxlX'taO''tIXO''Y) 'tou KaAbOU e:moLW~IX\I \l1X OtIXXWflLO'ou\I 'tte; AUfltXEe; 1X\lIXAIX(Jo1tEe; 'tte; 'tOA(J.l)flEe; (Joe:'tlXqJOfl€e; 1X1t0 XlXt 'to u1t0'tt6€(Joe:\l0 bafloe; 'tl)e; \le:OXAIXO'tx~e; fll)'tofltX~e;, 20 'to e:1the:uy(Jo1X 'tW\I fJowv 1tflaY(JoIX'tt bIXO'L~e:'tlXt e:~LO'OUXlXt O''tte; OUO 1tAe:ufl€e;. H OAl) O'UMl)I}l) t' " ' " " t ' 't'Y)e; IXr.,W1tml)O'l)e; svoc Xl\lXO'tXOU (JoO\l'te:I\OU XIX't1X 'te:'tOW\I e:r.,lXtfle:'ttXIX 1tflW'to'tU1tO 'tflO1tO Oe:\I e:L\llXtAtYO'te:flO 'tOA(Jol)fl~ 1tfla~l) 1X1t0 'tte; AUfltX€e; O''tty(Jo€e; 'tte; 01tOLe:e; IX1tO(JoO\lWO'IX\IJoe:'tlXye:\lEO''te:flm 1tOtl)'t€e; XlXt e:\lLO'te: e:\I€1t\le:UO'IX\IXlXt ( 'tOUe; LOtOUe;. Me: 'tl) oO(Jo~ XlXt 'tte; 1X\llXqJoflEe;'toue; e:\lO'w(J.IX'tW\lOU\I E(Jo(Joe:O'IX -eov e:6\1txO Ayw\llX, O'uyxflL\lou\I XlXt IXnmlXfllXbaMou\I -cov 1tOAe:(JoO0''tl)\I EMaolX (Joe:'toue; 1X6Al)'ttxOue; IXYW\le:e;, ytlX 'toue; 01tOLOUe; Ot IXflXIXLm 'EMl)\le:e; 61Xu~O''tl)XIX\I 't00'0 1tOAU 0''tl)\I e:1t0X~ 1tOU €YfllXl}e: 0 KaAboe;, XlXt (Joe:IXU'tO\l -eov 'tflO1tO U1tObaMe:'tlXt 1X1t0 -eov LOW 'to\l KaAbo OXt (JoO\lOl) e:Ae:u6e:flLIXIXMa XlXt l) LOtlXl) 1tOLl)O"Y)1X\lIXO''tIXL\le:'tlXt,~ (Joe:'t1X AOrtlX 'tou ~OAW(JoOU «1X1t' 't1X XOXIXAIX bYIXA(JoE\ll) 'tW\I EM~\lW\I 't1X te:fla».

TIX 1tflw'tlX b~(JoIX't1X ytlX 'tl) ol)(JowuflYLIX (JotlXe;xIX6IXfla e:uOtaxflt'tl)e; 'e:6\1tx~e; AoYO'te:X\lLIXe;' ytlX 'to \le:OO'UO''tIX'tO xfla'toe; €yt\lIX\I, 01tWe; e:LOIX(Joe:, €~W 1X1t0 't1X
20. IIw lX~to(rrl!J.dw'tlX dVlXt 't1X OOXt(J.tlX'tou ~tcpipYJ (<<IIpoAoyoC; ytlX (J.tlXixoOOl) 'twv LlOXlfJ-iC;, 4YJ txo., 'to(J.. A', 'Ixapoc;, A6~vlX 1981, aa . 179-210) XlXt 'tou EAu'tY) (<<H IXAYJ6tv~ cpuatoyvw(J.tlX XlXt YJ Auptx~ 'tOA(J.YJ'tou AvoptlX KaA60u», AYoIX't'Gt Xap't'IGt, 2YJ txo., 'IxlXpoc;, A~vlX 1987, ca. 47-112), 't1X 07tOtlX ypacp'tY)xlXv IXvt~ap'tYJ't1X 'to tVIX IX7tO 'to aAAo, xlX'ta 'tY) OtapXttlX (J.tlXC; AAYJC;7ttptooou t6vtxwv 7ttPt7tt'tttWV (1941-2). a

Dowy»,

EI~ArnrH

~TH

NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AOrOTEXNIA

67

CTUVOP(X 'tOU xpa'tou~

(xU'tOU. ~'t1)V 7tp(Xyp.(X'nxo't1)'t(X 0 ~OAWP.O~ 7tO'tE oev evw 1) AUCT"Y) 7tOU e7tEAe~e 0 KaAbo~ X(Xt

't(X~tOe~e CT't1)VeAeu6e(1) EMao(X,

7tOU 7teptypacpe't(Xt x(X'ta CTUYXtV1)'ttXO 'tp07tO CT'tO ypap.p.(X 'tOU CT'tOV Lafayette, 7tOU 7tpOAoyt~et 'to oeu'tepo 'top.o 'twv (XAAa (xu'to xpa't1)CTe p.ovo p.eptxou~ 7tAW exetv1) 't1) xpovta. (xu'tou~ Ilme~

{JOWY (1826),

~'t(xv vex p.e't(Xbd CT'tO N (xu-

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acpt~~ 'tou

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'tOU~ Atyou~

p.~ve~ 7tOU E~1)CTeCT't1)V eAeu6e(1)

oev p.7topoup.e vex 'to op.w~ oev ~(Xv(Xyu-

~Epoup.e, ecpoCTovoev u7tapxet ptCTeCT't1)V(X7teAw6epwp.Ev1) Me 't1)V emAo~ E6vou~, x(x'ta
WCT'tOCTO

EAAao(X X(Xt (X7tO 'to'te oev ~(Xvayp(X~e 7tO(1)CT"Y). 'tou N (XU7tAtOUw~ 7tpw't1)~ 7tpw'teuouCT(x~ 'tou X(Xt 't1)V e~a7tAwCT"Y)CTxe'ttX~~ etp~'t1) v(Xup.(XXt(X CT'tO N(Xu(XptvO (Xv(X7tocpwx't(X,
x(X6w~

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V1)~ x(xt CT't(X6epo't1)'t(X~ p.e'ta '7tOAt'ttCTP.tXO xevo'

(1827), EV(X

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To xevo (Xu'to x(XAucp61)xe, x(xt p.aAtCT't(X Il(Xp(X-

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p.e p.t(X (J.ovo (X7tO 'tt~ op.aoe~ 7tOU (XV(XcpEp(Xp.e t(01)7 Au'to CTUVE(1)yt(X 7toMou~ AOyoU~. Me'ta 'to ~ECT7t(X-

'tou~ <I>(xv(xPtW'tE~ 't1)~ KWVCT't(XV'ttVOU7tOA1)~ X(Xt 'twv

oouVabtWV 1)yep.ovtwv. 'twv yoptOU

ex6po7tp(X~tWv 'to 1821 X(Xt 't1)v eX'tEAeCT1) 'tou Il(X'tptapX1) r(1)E', (Xv~p.ep(X 'to IlaCTX(X 'tou 1822, cpaV1Jxe o'tt 't(X 7tpovop.t(X 't1)~ 7tvwp.(X'ttX~~ eAt't CT't1)V06wp.(xvtx~ ~'t1)v (Xu'toxP(X'topt(X oev e7tpoxet7tp(Xyp.(X'ttxo't1)'t(X,
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x(x'ta 't1) otapxet(X

'tou oex(X'tou ev(X'tou (XtWV(x, X(xt 7tON\ot (x7tO (Xu'tou~ 7tOU ,_,OUCT(XV eyp(XX(Xt b(xCTtAeW CTuv~6t~(Xv vex 7t1)Y(XtVOEPXOV't(XtCT't1)VKWVCT't(Xm vEm XUptW~ <I>(Xv(XPtW'tE~7tOU ~p6(Xv CT'tO N(Xu'to CT't1)VA6~v(X yt(X vex X(XAU~OUV 'to 7tOAt'ttCTP.tXO xevo,
'

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x(X'ta 't1) otapxet(X 'tou OEX(X'tOU EV(X'tOU(Xtwv(x, 'tou

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oe-

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21. «Je quitte la France avec regret; mon devoir m' appelle dans rna patrie, pour exposer un coeur de plus au fer des Musulmans ... » (<<AuGeneral Lafayette», EXO.Pontani, a. 174).

68

RODERICK

BEATON

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25. BA. tOtlX(,;e:plXr. Be:AOUO~C;, ..1. l:oAwp.6.;: Pop.ay'rcx~ 7to{Y)~ xac 7tocY)'rcx~,O, H:pp.aycxi.; 7tY)yi.;, rvWa-t), Ae~vlX 1989, XlXt ALvoc; TIoAL'tYjC;, rupw avov l:oAwp.6. Me:Ai're:.; xac apOpa (1938-1982), oe:unpYj ixoo(jYj e:7tlXu~Yj!JoiVYj, MIET, Ae~vlX 1985. 26. BA. il. ~oAw!Jo6c;, IIoc~p.a'ra xac ue», ixo. AAe:~Lou, ao . 203-229, 231-275, 279-308. TIX Ooxt!JotlX'tou K. TIIXAIX!JoIl 'tov ~oAw!Jo6 Il(]XYj(]IXV!Joe:YIlAYj ytlX e:7tLOplX(jYj (]'to ~~'tYj!J-IXXlXt ixouv ~IXVlXxuxAoq)Op~(]e:t!Joe:e:t(]lXywy~ rou M. K. XIX't~YjytlXxou!Jo~ 'to 1970 (Ep!Jo~c;, AO~VIX).

72

RODERICK

BEATON

"'YJ~ e:~ooou "ou Me:O'OAoyytOU, "O'J A1tptAto "ou 1826, xat axoAou60uO'e: 1te:pt1tOU "0 (Oto ucpo~ (J-e: "a 1tP0'YJyou(J-e:'Ja 1ta"ptw"txa 1tot~(J-a"a "ou. 'O(J-W~, a1to "0 1833 "0 to'''OptXO au"o ye:yo'Jo~ e:('X,e: e:'J"a'X,6d O'e: €'Ja oe:u"e:po 1tOAU otacpope:"tXO O''X,e:o(aO'(J-a"ou 1tot~(J-a"o~, O'e: (J-ta AUptX~ Ote:pe:u'J'YJO"YJ'YJ~ 1tapaoo~o"'YJ"a~ " "ou "(,,AOU -eou. A1t'YJ'X,w'J"a~ cpa'Je:pa "O'J ~(Me:p, ot 1tOAtoPXOU(J-e:'Jotxa"otxot "ou Me:O'OAoyytOU U1tObaMOnat O'e:(J-ta "e:Atx~ ooxt(J-aO'ta a1t€'Jant O'''t~ o(J-oPCPt€~ "'YJ~ cpuO"YJ~1tOU "ou~ 1te:ptbaAAOU'J, yta v« xa"acp€pou'J ot ~u'X,€~ "ou~ va e:m"u'X,0u'J "'YJ'J 1tpay(J-a"tx~ e:Ae:u6e:pta, a1tap'Jou(J-e:'Je:~ oAa "a y~t'Ja 1tpaytJ-ll"a:
Maye(J.1X YJ q;U(Tt~ XI ovelpo O''rYJv o(J.opq;Ia XIXI XapYJ' YJ (J.IXUPYJrr€'rplX OAOXPUO'"Y)XIXI 'r0 !epo xop'rapl. Me X{Ale~ 6puO'e~ xuve'rIXI, rre()avel (J.e X{Ale~ yAwO'O'e~ xpaivei:
27 •

«Tmoio;

O'~(J.eplX X{Ale~

q;oP€~ rre()lX{vel».

AMa

xat e:"O't "P01t01tote:t "O'J acp'YJP'YJ(J-e:'Jo ota'X,wptO'(J-0 (J-e:"a"u ~u'X,~~ xat O'w(J-a"o~ 1tOU bP~Xe: O'''O'J ~tMe:p xat O'''ou~ re:ptJ-ll'Jou~ Po(J-antxou~. I1ap' OAO 1tOU ou"e: 0'''0 O''X,e:otaO'(J-a au"o aMa ou"e: xat 0'''0 e:1tO(J-e:'Jo(J-e:"a a1tO o€xa 'X,Po'Jta o ~OAW(J-O~ ot€ypa~e: (J-e: xa6apo"'YJ"a "0 "€AO~ "ou 1tot~(J-a"o~ "ou, oe:'J 6a ~"a'J aO',,0'X,0 va oe:'X,,,ou(J-e:1tW~ (J-e:baO"YJ "a a1toO'1taO'tJ-ll"a 1tOU €'X,0u(J-e:O''''YJ ota6e:0'~ tJ-ll~ oe:'J u1tap'X,e:t 'aMo~' XOO'(J-o~. ~"ou~ EAeu()epou~ JIoAWPXYJ(J.€VOU~ "0 toa'JtXO "'YJ~ a1tOAu,,'YJ~ e:Ae:u6e:pta~ e:m"uy'X,a'Je:"at (J-O'Jo O'''O'J u1tapx"o XOO'(J-0' ~a'J (J-e:,,€WPOt a'Ja(J-e:O'a 'i 'I O'e: oUO 1tOI\OU~, ant(J-e:"w1tot (J-e: "'YJ'J 0(J-0pcpta xat "'YJ .... w'J"a'Jta '"'YJ~ a'Jot~ta"tx'YJ~ cpuO''YJ~acpe:'Jo~ xat (J-e: "t~ xa"aO'"pe:1t"tX€~ oU'Ja(J-e:t~ "ou e:'X, 6pou i i' 6 'I acpe:"e:pou, ot 1tOI\Wpx'YJ(J-e:'JOtxa"al\'YJYou'J »o: uO'taO'ou'J "'YJ IoW'YJ"ou~ W~ 1tpa~'YJ 'YJPwtX~~ antO'"aO"YJ~. A'JaAoyo 1tA€y(J-a 6e:(J-a"w'J 1tapa"'YJpd"at O'''O'J KpYJ'rlxo (1tOU 'X,P0'JoAoyd"at O'"a 1833) xat O'''O'J JIOpq;UplX (1849). ~"o 1tPW"O, ~pwa~ "ou "(,,AOU 1tapouO'ta~e:"at va: xOAu(J-1ta uO'"e:pa a1to 'Jauayw (J-ta "ptxu(J-two'YJ 'Ju'X,,,a, baO'''w'J"a~ O'"a 'X,€pta "ou "'YJ'J appabw'JtaO'"txta "oU. I1po"ou xa"acp€pe:t va O'Wae:t "'YJ'J 'xopaO'ta' au,,~, bA€1te:t €'Ja opa(J-a, e:'Jw 'YJ "PtI I I I ~ I ~I I I I I I I I

6 au"o'J, o» 'to'"a"at,

o ~OAW(J-O~, 01tW~ xat 1tOMOt aMOt

'EM'YJ'Je:~ O'uyypacpe:t~ (J-e:"a a1t'
t'

°

27. ~xe:otaO"~ B', e:vo'n)'!a II, O"'!tXOt10-13 (Exo. AAe:~tOU,0". 259, exo. IIoAtnJ<;, '!OfJ-. 1, 0". 217).

EI~ArorH

~TH NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AOrOTEXNIA

73
fLOPCP~aVaOUE'tat 'tEAtxli

xUfLLa yaA1)VEUEt xat av'ttxa'to1t'tptO'fLo 61i"Et' aywvwv O''t1)v xapotli

fLta at6Epta 'tou

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'tOV 'ota-

-eou cpEyyaptou

O''ta vEpli.

IIEptyplicpE'tat

w~ '6EIi',

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fLli'tatwv

'tou EVaV'tLOV'tWV Toupxwv

O''t1)V 1ta'tpLOa 'tOU 't1)V Kp~'t1).

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'tou E~acpaVtO''t€L, acp~VEt 1tLO'W't1)~ EVaV a1tEpLypa1t'ta y01)'tEUEt Xat 'tOV W6EL E~W

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a1tO

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»a

't1)v axOAOuXOO'fLo o'tt

6~O'EL To 1tO(1)fLlX 'tEAEtWVEt fLE 't1)V EmO''tpocp~ O''tov 1tpaYfLa'ttxo 't1)~ xa'tatYLoa~ O''t1)V ax't~, dvat VEXP~: yta xat 'tou vauaYLou,

xa6w~

0 K(1)'ttxo~

axoUfL1t1i 't1)V xO(1)

va

otamO''twO'Et, O''tov 'tEAw'taLo

O''tL''I.O-eou 1tot~fLa'to~,

AaAou~evo, 7rouA{, CP{J)v~,oev elva: va 'ralpla'ee lCF{J)~ CFw,e'ra, CF'IT} ~xo~ 7rOUva 'rou ~ola'et" oe yr; oev elva: A6yea· ~Xo~ Ae7r'r6~. ~6Ae~ elv' e'rCFeouva'r6~
0

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0

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Me aopaxve, xai ~' exave CFuxva v' ava'YJ'r~CF{J) , , 1 'IT} aapxa ~ou va X{J)peCF'r{J) va 'rov axrou ()' yea YJCF{J). 'E7rac/le 'reAo~, XI aaelaCFev YJ CPUCFI~ YJ c/lux~ ~ou, xi 7rOUeCF'reva~e XI eyl6~eCFev eu()u~ OX 'rYJv xaA~ uou: xa: 'reAO~ cp()av{J)CF'rOyeaA6 'rYJv appab{J)veaCF~evYJ, 'rYjv am()wv{J) ~e xapa, XI ~'rave 7re()a~evYJ.28
~'t0 1to(1)fLa au'to xat O''tov

't0~ EVO~ 'AyyAou o ~oAWfLo~
Y'

O''tpa'ttw't1)

JI6pcpupa, 01tOU 1tapouO'tli~E'tat xa6w~ XOAUfL1t1i O''tt~ ax'tE~
~avli
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..,(1) xat

6' ava'to~,

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,

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1"

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,

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,

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'tLfL1)fLa 't1)~ oAo't1)'ta~, cpaWE'tat

ota"l.WptO'fLwV 01tOU 6aO'L~E'tat 1) x(61)fLEptV~

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, .... afLE'taXI\1)'ta

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A" U'tO

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, 1) CF1)fLaO'ta 'tou

28. Evo"lJ"lX V, en 43-5, 50, 53-8 (€xo. AAE~tou, a. 229), A1toa1tlXa[JolX XXII, a". 46-7, 52, 55-60 (€xo. TIoAt"lJ, "o(Jo.A', ea. 205-6).

74

RODERICK

BEATON

XpU7t'ttXOU XIXt U7tObA"Y)'ttXOU 'te:'tpciO''tt'X.ou 'to 07totO 0''t"Y)'J ixooO'"Y) 'tou IIoAuAci, 07tOU 6IXO'£~e:'tIXt "Y) EXOOO''Yj 'tOU IIoAi't"Y), otIX6ci~e:'tlXt Wt; "Y)IXP'X.~ 'tOU IIoprpupa: aypu7L"YY) aou ~'t'~ffr;xe; 't'Plyupou' aAAa Oe;y ixe;I ouya(J-Y) 7L"ape;~ (J-axpla xai 7L"ipa, (J-axpla '7L"0 't'Y)Y IIapaoe;I~o, xal au a' e;~i 'xe;I<; (J-ipo<;' (J-i~a a-ta ~'t'~()Ia aou 't" axou<;, KaAi, ya AaX't'ap"e;I;29
7L"aY't"

H KOAaO'"f}

'07twt; ot 'e:Ae:Uee:pm 7tOAWPX"Y)!J-E'JOt' 'tOU 0!J-W'JU!J-OU 7tm~!J-IX'tot;, E'tO't XIXt 0 O''tPIX'ttW't"Y)t; -XOAU!J-7t"Y)'t~t; 7te:pt6ciMe:'tIXl IX7tO 'ttt; O!J-OpcptEt; 't"Y)t; <PU~t; 0''t"Y)'J rno e:tP"Y)'JtX~ XIXt Yo"Y)'te:U'ttX~ WpIX. KIXt o!J-wt; "Y) iotlX "Y) <PuO'"Y)7tOU 'tou 'YAUXO!J-tAcie:t' wO'n 'JIX ~U7t'J~O'e:t !J-EO'IX 'tou 't"Y)'J EWOtIX 'tou IIIXpIXoe:tO'ou, 'X.wpcie:t XIXt 'to'J ''tiyp"Y) 'tou 7te:Myou': -eov XIXP'X.IXptIX7tOU eIX 'tou e:mned xat eIX 'to'J e:~O'J'tWO'e:t. KIXt !J-o'JO'J IXcpOU 0 ~PWIXt; O'U'Je:to"Y)'to7tm~O'e:t, !J-e: 't"Y)'J e:7t£6e:0'"Y)'tou XIXP'X.IXptIX, xal 't'I<; OUO IX'J'ttee:'te:t; 7tAe:UPEt; 7tOU 7tIXpouO'tci~e:t "Y) <I>u~, IIapcioe:t~ot; XIXt KOAIX~ !J-IX~t:

29. Ot ao:tx.m ~uo:o( ao:YJv txoorJYj AAe~(ou evotx.oiJ-tvw~ auvtao:ouv O:YJv7tW pt~tx~ Otw:pop07tOtYJ~ o:ou ~7tO o:YJv7t~PIXOOrJYj 7tOUoYJiJ-wupYYJae0 IIoAUAa~, x~ew~ iJ-7t~tvouv ox.t ao:YJv~px.~ -eou IIoprpupa ~MfJ. ae tv~ ~voAoxA~pwo:o 7to(YJ~ iJ-e o:ov o:tO:Ao«h~At~ 1848» (7tpbA. IIoA(o;YJ~, o:OiJ-. 1, a. 251). T~ e7ttx.etp~~o:~ o:ou AAe~tou dv~t 7tetao:txIX: ~) OOOV ~rpOplXo:t~ x~e~pIX AoYtxt~ ouaxoAte~ 7tOU 7tPOXU7to:ouv~7tO O:YJvevawiJ-&o:wa~ o:ou~ o-rov IIoprpupa, X~t b) ax.eo:txa iJ-e o:YJV (aax.eo:YJ iJ-e o:YJV ~px.tX~ aUMYJo.jJYJ IIoprpupa) tao:oo:ou PtX~ 7teplao:~rJYj 7tOU 7tpoxlXAtae ~uo:ou~ o:ou~ ao:tx.ou~ (txo. AAe~tou, ac, 280-3, 291-4). A7to O:YJvfJ.MYJ iJ-eptfJ., 0:0 Yeyovo~ oo:t 0 ~oAWiJ-o~ (7tporp~vw~) X~t oAm Ot ~v~yvWau~ (~arp~Aw~), ~7tO o:ov X~tpO O:YJ~txoorJYj~ -rou IIoAUAa iJ-t'X.Pt O:YJV txoorJYj AAe~{ou 7tOU oYJiJ-oateuO:YJxeyt~ 7tpwo:YJ rpopa 0:0 1986 (IIaJ..fp.rfYjcT'roy 3, aa . 11-34), auv~et~~v v~ Ot~bfJ.~ouv 0:0 7to(YJ~ apx.{~oyo:a:~ a7to o:ou<; o:taaepet<; auo:ou<; ao:tx.ou<;, ~<; eiJ-7toot~et »a o:ou<; ~7toa7tfJ.aouiJ-e evo:eAw<; (bA. e7ttrJYj~R. Beaton, «0 ~OAWiJ-O~po~vo:txo~: m ot~xetfUVtXt<; ax.taet<; o:ou KpYjo:,xOIJ xat o:ou IIoprpupa», EAAYjY'Xa 40 (1989), 133-47, bA. a. 144 xat U7torJYjiJ-.).A~t~et va 7tpoat~et x~vd~ eow 0:0 et~ -rou 7t~fJ.oo~ou tao~uytou o:wv ~vo:teio:wv, 7tpfJ.YiJ-a7tOU auvtao:fJ. e7ttrJYj<;eeiJ-eAtaXO ao:mx.do o:ou IIoprpupa. 30.0 IIoprpupar;, e-e. 31 (txo. AAe~tou, a. 308), A7toa7taaiJ-aVII, ao:. 2 (txo. IIoAhYJ, o:oiJ-. A', a. 255). H exoox.~ o:ou 7tm~~o:o<; 7tOU e7ttx.etpeto:~t eow evtax.ueo:at axoiJ-YJ ~7tO 0:0 to:aAtxo 7tpoax.eo{aa~ -rou 7tot~~o:o~, iJ-e «o» O:{O:Ao om (Xop,xo'), 0:0 07tOtOoY)IJ.oateuet C o AAe~tOU ~~t iJ-e o:ov II6prpupa. Exd YJxptatiJ-YJ ao:tYiJ-~ rou 7tOt~iJ-~O:o~o:po7to7totdo:at w~ t~~~ (fUo:fJ.r:pparJYj AAe~tou): «To eappo~ t7tao.jJe iJ-ovo ~~t fU O:YJ ~. ~w~ ... 'Eva~ 7tapfJ.oetao~

EILAfOfH

LTH NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AOfOTEXNIA

75
Y) 07tOtCl 7tAEOV

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a. 306'

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76

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YVWPLO'fUX XaL 'tWV OUO O!l-tXOWV "f.XOAWV 1tO'tE ~aVtX O€V EOWO'€ tXMa Epya ~ !l-€ 'to U'-J;l]AOl]6LXO xaL aL0'6l]'tLXO €1tL1t€OO 'twv 1tOLl]!l-tX'tWV'tou "f.oAW!l-OU, a1to 'tL~ O€Xa€'tL€~ -cou 1830 xaL 'tou 1840. AV'tL6€'ta, 0 navayLw'tl]~ "f.ou'tO'o~ O''tl] V€aVLX~ O'UAAoy~ -cou H KdJ&:pa €mAEY€L »o: axoAou6~0'€L 'tl]v tXOOAl] nxvLx~ 'twv Gray xaL Lamartine, !l-La 't€XVLX~ 1tOU €UXOAa 1tEpaO'€ O''tl] O''tLXOUpyLx~ pwO''to'tl]'ta, 'tl]v Wp€La yxtX!l-a !l-E'tPWV xaL pU6!l-LXWVO'Xl]!l-tX'twv, 'tl]v a1tOuO'La 6€fUX'tLX~~ 1tPW'to'tU1tLa~ ~ 0'06ap0'tl]'ta~, 1tOU xapax'tl]pL~OUV 'tl] <PavapLw'ttXl] 1tOLl]O'l] 'tou Oixa-rou oyooou atwva. H AUptX~ 1tOLl]O'l] 'tl]~ 1t€ptooou, 't00'0 O''tl]v A6~va 00'0 xat O''ta E1t'ttXvl]O'a, xuptapx€i'tat a1to €pw'ttx~ 1tOLl]O'l] xat €A€y€L€~ xa6w~ xat a1to 1tOtl]!l-tX'tta acpt€pw!l-Eva O''tt~ €1tOXE~, totainpa 'tl]v tXVOt~l], €VW !l-axpoO'x€AEO''t€pa 1tOt~!l-a'ta, !l-€ 1ta'tptw'tLXtX 6E!l-a'ta XUpLW~, d't€ acpl]YllfUX'ttXtX €i't€ opa!l-a'ttXtX, €!l-cpav£~ov'tat xat O''ta OUO 1tOAL'ttO'!l-tXtXxEv'tpa.33 Av l] AUptx~ 1tOLl]O'l] 'twv !l-EO'WV'tou oExa'tou Eva'tou atwva cpa£v€'tat o'tt tXxatpa avaopo!l-€i 1tpO~ 'tl] V€OXAaO'tX~ !l-0PCPtX~ auO''tl]po'tl]'ta 'tou O''tLXOUxat 'tl]V 1t€PWPtO'!l-EVl] 6€!l-a'toAoyia, O''tov €txoO''to atwva Ot Xpt'ttxoi EXOUV1tpoO'tX'-J;€tO'€ 1tOMtX a1to 'ta !l-axpoO'X€AEO''t€pa 1tOt~!l-a'ta 'tl]~ €1tOX~~ 'tl]V xa'tl]yopLa yta 1tpoO'1toil]O'l] xat '-J;UXPo'tl]'ta, O''totx€ia 1tOU 6PLO'xov'tat 6E6ata O'€ O'u!l-cpwvta 1t€PtO'O'o't€PO !l-€ 'tl]V 1tOtl]'ttX~ 'tou vwxAaO'tXtO'!l-0U 'tou oExa'tou oyooou atwva 1taptX !l-€ 'ta PO!l-av'ttxa- yvwptO'!l-a'ta 1tOU otamO''twO'a!l-€ O''tl]V €M l]VtX~ 1tOtl]O'l] 'ta 1tpw'ta xpovta !l-€'ttX 'tl]V a1t€Aw6EpWO'l]. KtX1to't€ EXOUV 1tapaMl]AtO''t€t !l-€ 'tl]V €Ml]VtX~ apXt't€x'tOVtX~ 'tl]~ tOta~
33. O~ auY"/.20VfX,CltV60AoytE:~ 'te:tvouv VcltCltv't~7tpoaw7tE:uouv't1)v 7tpw't1) XClt't1)yoptCit :t~ e bapo~ 't1)~ OE:U'tE:P1)~·IICltpCltoE:ty(JlX'tCit 't1)~ OE:u'tE:P1)~xCIt't1)yoptClt~auv~a'touv ot •E:mxot' 'X.E:tptafJ-ot'tou AywvClt Clt7tO-rov AA€~CltVOPO ~ou'tao, H TOl.)pxop.axo~ EMa~ (1850), ME:CfOAOYYWY -eou ZCltAoxWa'tClt,'to 07tOto x€potaE: 'to 7tpw'to bPCltbe:tOe-rov E:'t~ato OtCltywv~afJ-o 7tO(1)a1)~ 'tou 1851, 0 AYI~ M'f)ya~ '!'Ol.) OprpaYlo'f) (1861), XCitt.:1WyrJO'OI.) CAOI.)~ T rou PCltYXCltb~(1863). To 'tE:Ae:U'tCittO e:tVClt~ o CltVaM'PPo xa~ 7tpOXE:t'tCittytClt fJ-tCit7tatyvtw(1) m Cltva(1)fJ-toupyta aP'X.ClttoufJ-u60u. r~a fJ-~a aUY"/.2ov1) a7toljJ1) a'X.E:'ttxa fJ-E:au'ta 'ta 7tO~~(JlX'tCit bA. a1)(JlXpa~, lavopla, aa . 204-20. rta 'to 7to(1)(JlX'tou Payxab~ bA. M. Vitti, «~1)fJ-e:tw(JlX e-ro .:1WyrJCfOI.) CAOI.)~ T 'tou PayxCltb~», E7ttfJ-E:'tpo B', a'tov 'tofJ-o 'tou tOtoU, IOE:OAOYIX~ Ae:I'!'oIJPYla '!"f)~ e:M'f)YIX~~ 'f)fJoyparp{a~, 21) €xo., K€opo~, A6~va 1980, aa. 141-52 (7tCltPCltAe:t7tE:'tCitt Clt7tO't1)v 31) €xo. 1991) xa~ 't1)v E:7tavE:x'ttfJ-1)a1) -eou D. Ricks: «A. R. Rangavis: The Voyage of Dionysus», EM'f)YIXa 38 (1987), 89-97. ~'X.E:'t~xa fJ-E:'t1) a1)(JlXata 'twv E:'t~atwv 7tOt1)'t~xwv o~aywv~afJ-wv, 7tOU auv~a'touaav a1)(JlXv't~xo E:6v~xo yE:Yovo~ avafJ-E:aa a'ta €'t1) 1851 XCitt1877, bA. Vitti, Iavopia; ae, 220-1, P. Moullas, Les concours
poetiques d l' Universite d' Athenes, ue, Athens 1989. 1851-1877, Archives Historiques de la Jeunesse Greq-

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80
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82

RODERICK

BEATON

e:M'Y)VtxOu xpa'tOue;, ~'tav axop.'Y) 7ttO 1te:pL1tAOXa. IIOMOt a1to 'toue; P.e:Ae:'t'Y)'tee; 'twv a1tap'x}~V 't'Y)e; 1te:~oypa<ptae; O''tO Ve:oO'uO''ta'to e:AA'Y)VtXO xphoe; 6e:wpouv o'tt 'Y) Ve:Oe:M'Y)VtX~ 1te:~oypa<pta apxi~e:t p.e: 'to to''toptXO p.u6tO''top'Y)p.a, xa6we; 'to veo' e:tOOe;e<p'taO'e: a1to 't'Y) ou'ttx~ Eupw1t'Y) O''ta <p'te:pa 'tou tOtou Pop.av'ttO'p.ou, 0 o1totoe; AEye:'tat O'tt dXe: 'ava6pe~e:t' 't'Y)V 'IIaAat4 A61)va'Lx~ "f.xoA~' 't'Y)e; 1tO('Y)O"Y)e;. "f.up.<pwva p.e: au't~v 't'Y)Va1tO~'Y), 'Y) 01to(a e:7ttXpa't'Y)O'e: 1toAAa XPOVta, Ot 1tpO'Y)youp.e:Ve:e;OOxtp.ee; 'tou dooue; 1tOU dXav 0''t'Y) ota6e:0'~ 'toue; Ot O'uyypa<pde; 'tou p.u6tO''top~p.a'toe; xa'ta 'ta 1tpw'ta 'X.P0vta 'tou Ux(J.'tou eva'tou atwva ~'tav axop.'Y) AtyO'te:pe:e; a1tO O,'tt O''t'Y)V ene:xv'Y) 1tO('Y)O''Y), xat 'Y) 'e:1ttopaO''Y), 1tOU xup(We; aO'x~6'Y)xe: 1tavw O''to veo e:M'Y)VtXO e:(00e; 't'Y)e; 1te:~oypa<p(ae; 1tpo~A6e: a1to 'to pop.av'ttXO to''toptXO p.u6tO''top'Y)p.a 'tou OUWA'te:p "f.XW't ."2 'Ho'Y) a1tO 'ta 'teA'Y) 't'Y)e;oe:xae:'tiae; 'tou 1980 'Y)O'up.ba'ttX~ au't~ e:txova apxtO'e: va e:1tave:x'ttp.cX'tat pt~txa, xat au'to 00~Y'YJ0'e: O'e: OUO O"Y)p.av'ttxa a1to'te:AeO'p.a'ta: IIpw'tov, 1te:ptO'O'o'te:pa O''totXeLa e:tvat O'~p.e:pa yvwO''ta yta 'ta 1te:~oypa<ptxa e:to'Y)1tOU XUXAo<p0p'Y)O'av O''ta e:M'Y)vtXa avap.e:O'a O''to Oixa'to eboop.o atwva xat O''tte; apxee; 'tou Uxa'tou eva'tou, yta 'ta o1tota a1tooe:ix't'Y)xe: ave:1tapX~e; 0 1taAato'te:poe; xapax't'Y)ptO'p.oe; we; 'AciLxa avayvwO'p.a'ta'. ~e:u'te:pov, avave:w61)xe: 'to e:vota<pepov yta 'ta iota 'ta xdp.e:va 'twv p.u6tO''top'Y)p.a'twv 1tOU o'Y)p.oO'te:u't'Y)xav avap.e:O'a O''ta 1835 xat O''ta 1850, xat 'Y) O'Xe:'ttX~ epe:uva aO'xoA~6'Y)xe: p.e: eva p.e:yaAU'te:po 6e:p.a'ttxo e:upoe; O'e: O'uyxPtO''Y) p.e: 6,'tt eLxe: e:7tt0''Y)p.av6d p.eXpt 'to'te:Y
42. H ll1toljiYj au't~ u1toa'tYjpt~e:'taL a'tL<; €yxupe:<; Ia'topte:<; 'tYj<; AoYO'te:xvta<; xaL at: e:LOLX€<; (Joe:A€'te:<; 'to (Jou6La'topYj(Joa, YLa 01tw<; 'tou A1tOa'toAou ~axtvYj, To uJ"roptxo fJ-uf}tO''roPYJfJ-Cl., 6~va 1957 (mav€xooaYj 'to 1981)- IICl.ACl.to'repoe IIe'oypatpot, A A6~va 1973 (e:1taV€xooaYj, Ea'tta 1982). 0 Vitti (IO''ropECI., ae, 259-67) a1tOOtOeL €~€xouaa aYj(Joaata c-xo» eavo BUxCl. 'tou II. KaAALyll aAAIl, €x'to<; a1to au'to 'to a'toLXe:to, O€V €X€L oLacpope'tLx~ ll1toljiYj a1to 'tYjv xpa'toooa aV"'CtAYjIjiYj. 43. Ka'taAu'tYj<; YLa OA€<; au't€<; 'tL<; €~€At~€L<;cpatV€'taL 1tW<; ~'tav Yj €xooaYj 'twv (Jou6La'topYj(Jo&'twv 'tou rpYjyoptou IIaAaLOAOyou (6A. 1tapaxlX'tw). KaL 'ta ouo ~Yj't~(JoC1.'ta avaAUov'taL €x't€vw<; a1to 'tOY AAXYj AyyiAou a'tYjv €Laayw~ 'tou o-ro rpYjyOpLO<;IIaAaLoAOyO<;, 0 IIoAurrCl.fJY)t;, e:m(Jo.A. AyyiAou, Ep(Jo~<; (NEB), A~va 1989 (6A. e:1ttaYj<; rpYjyOpLO<; IIaAaLOAOyo<;, 0 Zwypatpot;, €Laayw~ A. Ayy€AOU, 'Iopu(JoC1. Wu'ta K xaL EA€VYj<;OUPIXVYj,A6~va 1989). ~X€'tLXIX (Joe'ta A€yo(Jo€VaAa'tXIX avayvWu(JoC1.'ta 6A. AAXYj<; Ayy€AOU, ELaayw~, Giulio Cesare dalla Croce: 0 Mrrep'roA8ot; XCl.t 0 Mrrep'ro)..8Evot;, Ep(Jo~c;(NEB), A6~va 1988, opLa(Jo€Va (Jo€A€~(JoC1.'ta fLwpyou Ke:XaYLOyAou, 'ta o1tota 'tou 'tOVt~ouv 'ta 1tpoYjyou(Jo€va'tYj<; 1t€~oypacpta<; rou o€xa'tou €va'tou aLwva xaL €LOLxo't€pa 'tL<; eAAYjvLxi<; (Joe:'taCPPlXaeL<; apa6Lx~<; xaL 1tepaLx~<; (Jou601tAaata<;,xa6wc; e1ttaYj<;xaL V€o't€P€<;

EI~ArorH

~TH NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AOrOTEXNIA

83

fJ-U6tCT'toprHJ.a 1tOU e:fJ-cpaVtCT'trp(.e: ;''tY)v ave:~tXp'tY)'tY) EAAtXOa ~'tav 0 Aiavb'po<; 'tou IIavaytw'tY) ~OU'tCTOU, 't?V 01tOtO ~oY) CTuvav't~CTafJ-e: we; 1tOty)'t~ (oY)fJ-0CTte:u'ty)xe: CT'tO NaU1tAto 'to 1834).11 Au'to Aot1tOV 'to pOfJ-aV'ttxo e:mCT'toAtXO fJ-U6tCT'topY)fJ-a, 'to 01tOtO XPWCT'ttXe:t 1toAAtX CT'tOV rxat'te: xat CT'tOVFoscolo, aV'tt1tpOCTW1te:Ue:t fJ-ta a1to 'tte; 1tOMEe; 'tau'toxpove:e; acpe:'tY)pte:e; 'tY)e; e:MY)VtX~e; fJ-U6tCT'toptoypacptae;. To 1tpwtfJ-o'te:po xat YVWCT'tO'te:pO 1tpw'to'tU1tO acp~j"Y)fJ-a CTe:1te:~o AOYO e:tvat Y) CTUMOy~ 'tptwv Oty)j"Y)~'twv 1tOU OY)fJ-OCTte:u'tY)xav fJ-e: 'ta apXtxtX 1. K. CT't'Y)BtEWY) 'to 1792 fJ-e: 'tov 'tt'tAO 'Epw'ro<; A7ro'r.::AiO"~a'ra.!15 Kat 'ta 'tpta opyavwvov'tat we; fJ-ta CTe:tptXav'tt6ECTe:WV. 0 Epw'tae; e:tvat, 01tWe; u1tovod xat 0 'tt'tAOe;, 'to fJ-ovaotxo 6EfJ-a 1tOU 'ta e:vwve:t. Oe; 1tapaoe:tYfJ-a'ttxEe; tCT'topte:e;, xa6e:fJ-ttX a1to au'tEe; Ote:pe:uVtX xat a1to Eva otacpope:'ttXO 'a1to'tEAe:CTfJ-a' 1tOU fJ-1topd »o: EXe:t Y) 1topda 'tou Epw'ta' OY)A. 'tov ytXfJ-o, 'tY)V aU'tox'tovta xat 'ty)V aVtXppwCTY),

To 1tpw'to

ClVClO'Y]fJ.tOupy{ee; 7tClACltO-repOU eM'Y]VtXOU UAtXOU, 07tWe; dVClt 0 ,1tyev* Axp{Tl7<; ere 7te~o AOYO (bA. r. KeXClytOYAOU, «1790-1800: yiw'Y]C1'Y], ClVClbLWC1'Y], Cl\lCl'tpOcpooo't'Y]C1'Y]~ e7tClVeX'tLfJ.'Y]C1'Y] 't'Y]e; eM'Y]vtX~e; epw'ttX~e; 7tAClerfJ.Cl'ttX~e; 7te~oypClcpLCle;», l:uyxptlTY)/Comparaison, 'tofJ.. 2-3 (1991), aa. 53-62' 'tou (OtoU, «NeoeM'Y]VtXIl Aoyo'texvtxll ACl'ixll btbAtCl: 7tpOXClYPClfJ.fJ.Cl'toAoytXa-etOoAoytXa XClt btbAtoYPClcptXIl ~'Y]'t~fJ.Cl'tCl», Eml7'rr;p.oVtx~ Em:Tl7P{aa ~t}..Ol7orptX~<;:xo}"~<; Ilavemo-irplo» eel7l7a}..ov{xr;<; (TfJ.~fJ.Cl iDtioAoYLCle;), l 'tofJ.. 1 (1991). MtCl xp~ertfJ.'Y] Clv6oAOYLCl 7tClpiXe'tClt Cl7tO 'tOY rtllYV'Y] Mo'terto, EMr;Vtx~ m:I;oyparpca, 1600-1821, rp'Y]yop'Y]e;, A6~VCl 1990. H 7tClpIlM'Y]A'Y] ClYClViwC1'Y]'tou evotClcpi'tClpX'ttXIl poV'toe; ytCl 'tCl LOtCl 'tCl xdfJ.evCl 'twv fJ.u6ter'top'Y]~'twv 'twv ClPXWV 'tou oeXCl'tOU eyCl'tou CltWVCl XClt 'Y] Cl7tOppt..y'Y] 'tou 7tClACltO-repOU XClpClX't'Y]ptcrfJ.oU 'toue; we; «ter'toptxll fJ.u6ter'top~fJ.Cl'tcl» XpovoAoyd'tat Cl7tO 't'Y]v ClVClXIlAU..y'Y]'tou IIo}..una()~, fJ.e iVCl Ilp6po 'tou Nilerou BClyevll, 'to 07to{o efJ.CPClv(c;'t'Y]xe er't'Y]v «KCl6'Y]fJ.eptY~» 'to 1988: «Or ClPXic; 't'Y]e; 7te~oypClcpLCle; fJ.Cle;», 'tWpcl er'tov 'tofJ.o 'tou LOtOu, H etpwvtx~ y}"W!7l7a. Kpt'rtxe<; p.e}"he<; yta 'rr; veoeMr;Vtx~ ypap.p.a'rela (~'ttyfJ.~' A6~VCl 1994), ao . 187-98. BA. e7tLC1'Y]e;: 't'Y]v eterClywy~ 'tou 1\.. AyyeAou o-rov IIo}..una()~, o.7t: r. iDClpLvou-MClAClfJ.Cl'tllp'Y], «"EM'Y]vtXOe; ZtAbAllertOe;;": 0 IIo}..una()~<; rou I'p, ITClACltoAOYOU», er'tov 'tOfJ.o Eml7'rr;p.oVtX~ EneTl7pEoa Tl7<; ~t}..Ol7orptx~<; l:xo}"~<; 'rou Aptl7'ro're}"dou Ilavema-trplou ee17l7a}..oVCXr;<;, 1991, 'tOfJ.. 1, ae, 297324' 'tCl QUO Ilp6pCl 't'Y]e; ~ocpLCle; N'tevLC1'Y]: «rtCl 'tte; ClPxee; 't'Y]e; 7te~oypClcpLCle; fJ.Cle;», 0 IIo}..[Tl7<; 109 (1990), 55-63' «O. Clpxie; 'tou eAA'Y]VtXOU ter'toptxOU fJ.u6ter't0p~fJ.Cl'tOe;», ,1tabcil;w 291 (1992), 28-34, XClt totClhepCl 'to btbALO 't'Y]e; LOtCle;, To eMr;VtXO t17'roptx6 p.u()tl7'ropr;p.a xat 0 Sir Walter Scott (1830-1880), KCler'tClVtW't'Y]e;, A6~VCl 1994. 44. flev u7tllpxet eruyxp0V'Y] ixooC1'Y] ClU'tOU rou epyou, ex'toe; Cl7tO 'tOY 7tPOAOYO 'tou IT. fl. MCler'tpoo'Y]fJ.~'tP'Y], IIpo}..oyot veoeMr;VtXWV p.u()tl7'ropr;p.a'rwv (1830-1930), Kwver'tClV'ttVLO'Y]e;,0eererClAovLx'Y] 1975, aa, 89-92). 45. I.K., 'Epw'ro<; Ano'reMI7p.a'ra. Ia-ioplai r;()txoepw'rtxac, e7ttfJ.. M. Vitti; OouereriCle;, A6~VCl 1989.

84

RODERICK

BEATON

anta'tOtxa. O. ta'topte:e; e:xcp€pov'tat a'tYJv a1tAYj yAWaaa, oao dvat ae: 0' , , ........' ' ,~ ve:aY) »a Xptve:t xave:te;, 'tou xal\l\te:pYYJ(J.e:vou aa'ttxou , .... AOYOU 'tYJe; 1te:ptOoOU, xat e:tvat a~tOaY)(J.e:tw'tYJ YJ a1touata e:~w'te:ptXWV aCPYJYYJ(J.a'ttxwv Ae:1t'tO(J.e:pe:tWV (a1touata 1tOU e:1tt'tdve:'tat (J.e:'tYJ axtaypacpYJaYJ 'twv xapax'tYjpwv xat 'tY)v 1te:ptypacpYj 'tou 1te:pt6aAAonoe;, 1tpay(J.a'ta 1tOU e-ro o€xa'to €va'to atwva 6e:wpouv'tav a1tapakYJ'ta). IIpay(J.a'tt, YJ XapYJ au't,wv 'twv OtYJYYJ(J.a'twv auvLa'ta'tat a'tYJv acpYJYYJ(J.a'ttx1j 'toue; auyxpo'tYJaY), a'tYJv a1tOxAe:ta'ttx1j auyx€V'tpwaY) c-ro 6€(J.a -eou €pw'ta xat a'tYJ (J.e:Ae:'tYJ(J.€VYJ xa6YJ(J.e:ptvo'tYJ'ta 'twv 6tO'ttxwv xa'taa'taae:wv 'tYJe; ~w1je; 1tOU ava1tapta'touv. 'Eva 1tpoYJyou(J.e:vo 1tOU dXe: a'tYJ ota6e:a1j 'tou 0 avwvu(J.oe; auyypacp€ae; Yj'tav YJ e:Ae:66e:pYJ (J.e:'tcX.cppaaYJa1to 'tov P1jya 'twv 'tptWV e:pw'ttxwv ta'toptwv 'tou Restif de la Bretonne, 1tOU oYJ(J.oate:u'tYJxav a'tYJ Bt€vvYJ (J.e: 'tov 'tt'tAO

l:,xoAdo

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EpCZCi'rWY (1790).46

H e:(J.cpcX.vtaY) 'twv OUO au'twv oYJ(J.oate:uae:wv aU(J.1tt1t'tE:t (J.e: 'tYJv e:1taV€xooaY) 'te:aacX.pwv apxatwv xat (J.e:aatwvtXWV e:MYJVtXWV (J.u6ta'topYJ(J.cX.'twv ae: 1te:~o AOYO, xat oe:v e:LVat aacpaAWe; xa60AOu 'tuxaLa. Ot e:xooae:te; aU't€e; 'tu1tw6YJxav (J.e:'ta~u 'tou 1790 xat 'tou 1793 a1to 'EMYJve:e; e:xoo'te:e;. IIpoopt~ov'tav yta iva e:MYJvtxO avayvwa'ttxo XOtVO xat oXt we; xAaatXa xe:t(J.e:va yta aXOAtX€e; avcX.yxe:e;. ~e:v 6a €1tpe:1te: (J.aAta'ta va ~e:xva(J.e: o'tt YJ ypa1t't1j YAwaaa (J.e: 'tY)v 01tota 1j'tav e:~Otxe:tw(J.€VOt Ot cI>avaptw'te:e; 'tYJe; 1te:ptOOOu aU't1je; 1j'tav YJ apxata. Ilptv a1tO 'tYJ oYJ(J.oatwaYJ -eou 'Epw'roc; An:o'rgUCif1-CZ'ra, 'ta AlOI01tlXa 'tou HAtOOWPOu ('tou 't€'tap'tou atwva (J..X.) xat 'to €pyo 'tou owO€xa'tou atwva YCif1-~YYJxal YCif1-YJy{ac;-cou Eua'tcX.6tOu Maxpe:(J.60At'tYJ e:LXav 1joYJ oYJ(J.oatw'td xat ota6cX.~ov'tav a1tO 'to LOtOaxpte' m.' 0' , Qwe; 'l'avaptw'ttXO avayvwa'ttxo '" XOtVO, c-ro 01tOtO a1tWvuvov'tav Ot ve:e:e; ta'topte:e;.47 IIap' OAO 1tOU Ot V€e:e; ta'topLe:e; 1j'tav 1tOAU otacpope:'ttX€e; a1tO e:xe:tve:e; 1tOU 1tpoYJy1j6YJx~v, YJ acpoatwaYJ 'tou avwvu(J.ou auyypacp€a e-ro 6€(J.a 'tou €pw'ta xat YJ (J.e:Ae:'tYJ(J.€VYJ a1touata e:~w'te:ptXWV opw(J.e:vwv e:voe:XO(J.€VWe; e:xcppcX.~e:t'ta ata6Y)'ttxcX. a1tO'te:A€a(J.t:X'ta (J.tae; •avcX.yvwaY)e;', xat
46. P~ya~, l:XOAelOV 'rwv N'reAlxt%'rwV EpaO"'rwv, €1ttfl-. II. }:. ma'!a~, Epfl-~~ (NEB), A6~'Ja 1971. 47. Ta '!Eaa€pa au'!a a'J'!ta'!otXou'J a'!t~ apxaL€<; fl-u()ta,!0pL€~, HAt6owpo~ (1790), A6yyo~ (1792) xat 2€'Jorpw'J 0 ErpEato<; (1793) fIoIX~L '!o EPYO '!OU OWO£XMOUatw'Ja fI-€ YO"p.~YY)xal YO"p.r;v{a, '!ou Eua'!a()wu Maxp€fl-60AL'tY) (1791). BA. 1\. AYYEAou 1989: 33, o 01tOLO<; 1tpo'!d'J€t '!'Y]au'Jo€(1'YjfI-€ '!o EPYO '!ou P~ya xat '!a 'Epw'rO, Ar:o'reAeO"p.a'ra, xwp(~ 6f1-w~ xat va 1tpoXwpd a€ aua'tY)fl-a'!tx~ a'Ja1t'!u~'Y] '!'Y]C; tp6'!aa~<; rou. 1

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EIl:ArOrH

l:TH NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AorOTEXNIA

85

mo O'UYX€Xp~fJ-ewX 'rl]~ fJ-U(hO''rOptlX~ Y(jfJ.~YrJ xat y (jfJ.rJy{a~!'8 'rOU owoexlX, 'rOU IX~WVIX. Av l] IXVIXVeWO'l]'rOU €VO~lXcpepono~ y~1X 'r0 IXPXlXtO fJ-Ue~O''rOpl]fJ-1X(fJ-IX",t fJ-€ 'r0 fJ-OVIXO~XObU",IXV'r~VO o~6;ooxo 'rOU O'€ 1t€",O AOyO) O'UVebIXA€ O''rl]V IXVIX",WOYOVl]O'l]'rl]~ €Ml]V~X~~ 1t€"'0YPIXCPLIX~XIX'r6; 'rl] O€XIX€'rLIX'rou 1790, o 1t1X'rP~W'rl]~ XIX~ 1t1X~OIXYWYO~ AOIXfJ-6;v'rw~ KoplX~~ 'rl]v €1tofJ-€Vl] O€XIX€'r£1X fJ-€ 1t€Pl]CP6;V~1XIXv~yy€~A€ -eo €too~ W~ €mvol]O'l] 'rl]~ €Ml]V~O''r~X~~ IXPXIX~O'rl]'rIX~ - XIX~ 'r0 b6;1t'r~O'e! 0 1tpw'ro~ 'rofJ-o~ 'rl]~ €xoo'r~x~~ O'€~p&~ «EAAl]V~X~ B~bA~Oe~Xl]» 'rwv IlPXlXtWV EM~VWV O'uyyplXcpewv €£X€ ol]AWfJ-evO O''r0XO: 'rl]v 6;vooo -eou 1tVWfJ-IX'r~XOU €m1teoou 'rwv U1tOOOuAwfJ-evwv EAA~vwv. 'H 'rIXV IXcp~€pwfJ-evo~ O''r1XAd1wrctxa 'rou HA~OOWpou XIX~ Ol]fJ-OO'~€U'rl]X€ fJ-€ €x'r€V~ 1tPOAOYO 'rou KoplX~ -eo 1804. ~'rl]v €~O'lXyWy~ IXU'r~ 0 KoplX~~ CT'l]fJ-€~WV€~'r~, 1tlXp' OAO 1tOU 'r0 doo~, 'r0 01t0£0 ~'rIXV YVWO''rO O''rl] r IXM£IX o 'rl]~ €1tOX~~ 'rou W~ roman, ~'rIXV Ol]fJ-WUpYlJfJ-1X'rwv IXPXlXtWV EM~VWV, xlXvevlX~ €~OoAoy~xo~ opo~ O€V dX€ 1to're U1t&p~€~ O''r1X€Ml]V~X&. 0 opo~ 1tOU 1tpo'r€W€ 0 KoplX~~ y~1X 1tpw'rl] cpop6; ~'rIXV fJ.U()tO''r0p{lX. 0 opo~ IXU'rO~ dX€ fJ-€Y&Al] o~&ooCT'l] O'€ OAl] 'rl] O~6;PX€~1X 'rou 1tpw'rou fJ-~O'OU 'rou oexMou evlX'rou IX~WVIX,1tpo'rou Y€V~xeu'r€t 0 'rwp~vo~ opo~ fJ.U()tO''rOPrJfJ.ti,9 W~ 1t1XpIXMIX~ 'rou 1tp0l]YOUfJ-€vou. Em1tAeOV, 0 KoplX~~ 1tpOXWpl]O'€ op£",OV'rIX~ -eo €tOO~ 'r0 01tOtO 1X1t00£0€'r1X~ fJ-€ -eov opo IXU'rO, XIX~ 0 OP~O'fJ-~ 'rou bIXO't",€'rIX~ O'nv& O''rl]V &1t0~l] 'rou Pierre Daniel Huet, 'rou 01tOLOU -eo epyo Traite de I' origine des romans (1670) ~'rIXV IX1tO 't~~ 1tpw'r€~ eupw1tlXixe~ 1tpoO'1t6;6€~€~ VIX 0~€pwvl]60uv O~ IXpxe~ 'rou O'UYxpovou fJ-Ue~O''r0p~fJ-IX'ro~ O''rOV IXPXlXtO €Ml]V~XO X6O'fJ-0. ~UfJ-48. 49. BA. A. O"'X,€'ttXIl R. Beaton, A6~\l1X Kopa~<;, 1996,

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cpwva AOmOV fJ-E 'tOV Kopa~, o» 'tpo1t01tOL'Y]60uv EAacpptX Ot OPOt 'tOU Huet, , , o opo~ fJ-u6 to''topta' vOEt'tat w~:
«TtAa.cr't~V, a.AAa. m6a.v~v tcr'topta.v EPW'ttXWV Tta.6'Y)!Jh'twv, ypa.!J.!J.EV'Y)V EV'tExvwc, xa.t opa.!J.a.'ttxwc" wc, ETtt 'to TtAEtcr'tOV EtC, TtE~OV AOyOV». 50

MOAOVO'tt EM'Y]VtXO fJ-u6tO''tOP'Y]fJ-a 'to 1804 OEV U1t~PXE, a~i~Et va 0"Y]fJ-Etw6e:i o'tt 0 opo~ 1tOU XP'Y]O'tfJ-01tOi'Y]O'E· Kopa~~ yta 'tov EM'Y]VtO''ttxo 1tpoopofJ-o 0 YEvtXEU't'Y]XE avtXfJ-EO'a O''tOU~ 'EM'Y]VE~ fJ-u6tO''toptOyPtXcpou~ O''tt~ OEXa.E'tiE~ 1tOU axoAou6'Y]O'av. E1tmA€OV, fJ-1tOpOUfJ-E »o: O'UfJ-1tEPtXvOUfJ-E o'tt EXe:tVOt 1tOU tXpXtO'av »a XP'Y]O'tfJ-01tOtouv -eov opo 'to 1tpw'to fJ-tO'o 'tou O€xa'tou €va'tou atwva, aVE~tXp't'Y]'ta a1to 'to o» ~'tav E~OtXEtWfJ-€VOt ~ OXt fJ-E 't'Y]v EtO'aywy~ , , ~~~, , , 'tou K'opa'Y] O''ta A()' 'IOTClxa, o» xat 'Y]'tav e:upEW~ otaoe:oOfJ-Ev'Y], 1tPE1tEt E1ttO"Y]~»a av'ttA~cp6'Y]xav au'tov -eov OptO'fJ-o, 0 01totO~ ota'tU1tW6'Y]XE apxtxtX yta »a 1tEPtYPtX~Et 'to apxaio EM'Y]vtXO fJ-u6tO''top'Y]fJ-a.51 IltXv'tw~, 01tW~ xat vtX 'xouv 'ta 1tptXYfJ-a'ta, 'ta O'xoAta 'tou Kopa~ yta 'tov HAtOOWpO anmp0O'W1tEUOUV fJ-ta 1tt0 O"Y]fJ-antx~ O'UfJ-60A~ O''t'Y]v E~€At~'Y] 'tou EAA'Y]vtxoU fJ-u6tO''top~fJ.IX't0~ a1to o,'tt 'to €pyo -eou IIa7ra'rpeXa~, 'to o1toio Evio'te: €XEt xapax't'Y]pt0'6Ei W~ 'to 1tpw'to VEOEM'Y]vtXO fJ-u6tO''toP'Y]fJ-a. To €pyo au'to a1tO'tEAEi'tat a1to fJ-ta O'EtptX fJ-U601tAaO''ttxWv E1ttO''tOAWV, Ot 01tOiE~ O'Y]fJ-OO'tEu't'Y]xav W~ IlpoAEyofJ-Eva O''tt~ 't€O'O'EPEt~ 1tPW'tE~ pa~woiE~ 't'Y]~ IA,a~a~,xat XUXAocpop'Y]O'av o-ro IlapiO't (1811, 1817, 1818, 1820). O, 't€O'O'EPEt~ E1ttO''tOA€~, ot 01tOiE~ 1tEptyptXcpouv 't'Y] yvwptfJ-ia 'tou acp'Y]Y'YJ't~ fJ-E €vav EUCPU~ aMtX a1taioEu'to 1ta1ttX EVO~ XWptOU 0''t'Y] Xio, €XOUV xa6aptX ~~ , , ~, ~ '1: ' , otoax'ttxo O'X01tO, xat oEV u1tapxouv EVOEt"Et~ 1tOU va 1ttO''t01tOtouv O'tt 0 iotO~ 0 Kopa~~ 'tt~ E~EMfJ-6ave: w~ tXO'x'Y]O"Y] 0''t0 e:ioo~ 1tOU e:tXe: O'XOAttXO'e:t
50. TIpoAOYOC; O"'t'Y)vexooCTr) 'twv Adjlomxwy 'tou HAtoOWPOU, Ao. KOpIX~C;, A;oraY't"a, e:7tt(Jo. r. BIXAe'tIXC;, 't6(Jo. A2, 0". 833. BA. O"uyxpmx6; 'tYJv 6;1toljiYJ 'tou Pierre Daniel Huet, Traite de I' origine des romans (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler 1966: 4: «... ce que I' on appelle proprement Romans sont de fictions d'aventures le plaisir & l'instruction des Lecteurs». amoureuses, ecrites en Prose avec art, pour

51. 0 I. TIt't~t1ttOC; 1tp6;YIJ-IX'tt 1tIXpIX1te(Jo1te:t "'tov KopIX~ O"'tYJv1tpOX~pu~YJ (1834) 'tou O (Jou6tO"'top~IJ-IX't6c; 'tou (H Opq;ay~ 't"Y]~ X{ou), 'to 01tOtO e:(JotpIXVtO"'t'Y)Xe: 1839 (1\. AyyeAou 'to 1989: 25). Ot IXOe:AtpOt~ou'tO"Ot, e:voow ~o"IXV tpot'tYJ'tic; dXIXv 1tIXpOUO"tIXO"Ut "'tov KopIX~ O (Joe:e:1ttCTr)(JoYJ O"UO"'tIX'ttX~e:mO"'toA~, 'to 1820 O"'to TIIXptat. 0 TIIXAIXtoA6yOC;O"1touoa.ae: e:1ttCTr)C; O"'to TIrxptO"t XIXt dVIXt 1tOAU m6IXvov 6'tt ~p6e: O"e:e:1tIXtp~ (Joe:'tov XUXAO -eou KopIX~ (IXU't., 1989: 25-6).

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vwpt~e:pex. 0 tOWe;. (Ae; O'l]!J.e:twO'ou!J.e: O~t ~o •e:PW~tXO O'~otXe:tO', ~o onoto 0 tOwe; 0 Kopex.~e;, ex.xoAou6wnex.e; ~ov Huet, O'u!J.ne:ptEAex.6e:O'~ov OptO'!J.o ~ou !J.u6tO'~op~!J.ct.~0e;, ex.nouO'ta:~e:t e:VnAWe; ex.no ex.U~cX~ex. OtOex.X~tXcXxd!J.e:vex.). ITex.p' OAex.ex.U~cX,ot ~EO'O'e:pe:te;npoAoYOt Ol]!J.oO'te:U~l]Xex.V!J.ex.~twe; ~O!J.Oe;!J.OVO !J.e:~cX-eo 6cXvex.~0~ou Kopex.~ xex.t ~o~e: EAex.6ex.v-cov ~t~AO IIa:;ra,"pixa~ (ex.no -cov npw~ex.ywVtO'~~ ~ou EpyOU). 52 Ae; e:mO'~pE'-\JOU!J.e:O!J.We;O'~o N ex.UnAW -eou 1834 xex.t ~ov Aiavb'po, EPYO rcou, nex.pe:!J.nm~onwe;, ~ex.tPtcX~e:tne:ptcpl]!J.ex.O'~ov OptO'!J.o ~ou Kopex.~ ytex. ~o !J.u6tO'~6pl]!J.ex.. (_[)ex.tve:~ex.t e:ntO'l]e; xex.6ex.pcX,ex.no ~ov npoAoyo ~ou ~ou~O'ou, O~t o tOWe; 6e:wpouO'e: -eov e:ex.u~o ~ou xex.wo~o!J.o O'~v e:xnA~pwO'l] !J.tex.e; x.vcXyxl]e; e rrou ex.pycX~ yp~yopex. ~o 'lEO E6voe; e:npoxe:t~O vex. VtwO'e:t:
«Etc; 'tY)V avaye:vvwp.EVY)V EAAeXoa 'tOAP.WP.e:V Y)p.e:tC;npw'tot va owO'wp.e:v w; 'to xowov -rov Aiavopov. EU'tu'X,e:tC;, o» e:tC;'tY)v 000',1, 'tY)v onoiav e:ve:'X,apeX~ap.e:v, towp.e:v p.e:'t' OAtyov eXMOUC;OOxtP.W'tEpOUC; O'uyypacpe:tc; p.u6tO''toptWV» .53 Tov Aiavb'po ex.XOAoU6l]O'e:, EVex.'X,Povo ex.pyo~e:pex. (1835), ~o EPYO 0 E~6p,(no~ ,"ou 1831, ypex.!J.!J.EVOex.no -eov AAE~ex.VOpO~ou~O'o, ex.Oe:AcpO ~ou ITex.vex.ytW~l], xex.t Ol]!J.OO'tW!J.EVOO'~l] VEex.npw~e:uouO'ex., ~l]v A~vex.. Kex.~cX nlv ne:ptooo nou !J.e:O'oAex.6e:tJ.E'X,Pt-eo 1850 e:!J.cpex.VtO'~l]xex.v Atyonpo OEXex. ! -eo cXMex. !J.u6tO'~op~!J.ct.~ex., nOMcX ex.no ~ex. onotex. Ol]!J.oO'te:u~l]xex.v O'e: O'uvExe:te:e; xex.t oe:v O'w~ov~ex.t OAex..54 To mo ex.~WO'l]!J.e:tw~O,00'0'1 ex.cpopcxex.u~cx~ex.npw~ex. !J.u6tO'~op~!J.ex.~ex.~l]e; Ne:o~e:pl]e; EMcXoex.e;, dvex.t l] !J.e:ycXAl]nOtXtAtex. ~oue;. 0 ITex.vex.ytW~l]e; ~ou~O'oe; ~on06e:~e:t ~o !J.u6tO'~opl]!J.cX -eou O'~l]V e:vooxwpex. -eou PO!J.ex.v~tXOU
52. A. KoplX~~, 0 IIa7':l%'rpixa~, f:7ttfJ-. A. AyyfAou, EpfJ-~~ (NEB), A6~vlX 1978' 0"fJfJ-0atf:U'tl]x,f: ytlX 7tpw'r"fJ <poP!X fJ-f: IXU'tOV 'tov 'tL'tAO 'to 1842. Ot yvwfJ-f:~ dVlXt 1XX,0fJ-"fJ otXlXafJ-€vf:~ aXf:'ttx,!X fJ-f: 'tl] <pUO"'f]X,lXt 't"fJ O"'f]!J.IXaLIX rou IIa7ra'rpixa. 0 mo 7tp6a<pIX'tO~ f:7ttfJ-f:A"fJ't~~ -rou ipyou U7tOa'tl]pL~f:t 6f:p~ 't"fJv !X7tolji"fJ o'tt 7tpOX,f:t'tlXt ytlX fJ-u6ta'top"fJ!J.IX, f:VW IXpyo'tf:PIX OtlX'tU7tW6"t]X,IXV7tt0 Ota'tIXx,'ttx,E~ IX7tOIjif:t~ (A. AyyEAou, EtalXYw~ .a'tov IIoAu7ra(t/;, o.7t., 0'0'. 30-1' 7tp6A. MtX!XA"fJ~ M6axo~, «llofJ-~ X,lXt u<po~ a'tovpa7ra'rpixa» a'tov 'tofJ-. IIpax'r,xa lJuveop{ou: ((Kopaf;~ xa, Xlo;», OfJ-~Pf:tOV IIvEU!J.IX'ttx,ov KEV'tpOV, A6~vlX 1984, 'tofJ-. 1, 0'0'. 169-86). rtlX fJ-tlX IXv'tL6f:'t"fJ !X7t01ji"fJ6A. Vitti (EtaIXYwy~ a'to 'Epw'ro~ A7ro'reUa-p.a'ra, o.7t., a. 11). 53. MIXO''tpoo''fJfJ-~'tP''fJ~, IIpoAoyo, 1975: 89. 54. AAE~IXVOpO~ ~ou'tao~, 0 E~op,a-'ro~ 'rou 1831, f:taIXYw~ AOUX,LIXIlpoUAtlX, 'Iopu!J.IX KWa't1X X,lXt EAEV"fJ~ OUp!XV"f], A6~vlX 1994.

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axofJ-YJ mo cpaVEp~ (no OEU"EPO fJ-u6tO'"oPYJfJ-a "ou nt,,~t7tLOU 0 II{()r;xo~ Sou() ~ Ta ~()r; TOUaubvo«, 1tOU OYJfJ-OO'tEU"YJXE 1848, "0 01tOLOO'a"tpL~Et "0 "00'0 "t~ O'"a.O'Et~ "WV EUpW1taLWV 1tEPtYJYYJ"WVW~ 1tpO~ "YJV EAAa.Oa, 00'0 xat "t~ a~tWcrEt~ "YJ~ VEoO'uO'"a"YJ~ aO'''tx~~ "a.~YJ~ "YJ~ A6~va~, fJ-E a1tO"€AEO'fJ-a xat Ot OUO OfJ-a.OE~va cpaLVE"at O"t m6YJxL",oUV.58 '01tW~ 6a 1tEpLfJ-EVE xave:£~, Ot 1tEptO'O'O"EPOt a1tO "OU~ O'uyypacpd~ au"OU~, ot 01tOLOt1ta.VW a1t' OAa 1tEtpafJ-a"L~OV"av fJ-E€va ELOO~'X,WPL~ 1tPOYJYOUfJ-EVO O'''YJVEO"EpYJyAwO'O'a, a.nAYJO'av xa"a. 1tOMOU~ "P01tOU~ a1tO "0 1tapa.OEtYfJ-a "WV wpw1taixwv fJ-u6tO'"oPYJfJ-(hwv 1tOU 0YJfJ-0O'tEunlxav xa"a. "YJ ~ otapXEta "OU oExa"ou oyoou atwva xat 1tal\atO"Epa. T 0 fJ-ovaotXO xorvo VYJfJ-!% 1tOU Ota"p€'X,Et "a €pya au"a. dvat YJ Otaxa~~ Em6ufJ-La "WV O'uyypacp€WV "ou~ vo: 1tEtpafJ-a"tO'"ouv xat m6avw~ va a~t01tOt~O'OUV "a 6EfJ-€Ata 1tOU 1tPOO'cpEpE"0 ap'X,aLO xat "0 fJ-EO'atWVtxo EMYJVtXOfJ-u6tO'''OPYJfJ-a,a1tYJ'X,~O'Et~"WV 01tOLWVaVt'X,VEUOV"at O'E OAa O''X,E06v "a fJ-u6tO'"op~fJ-!%"a 1tOU O'YJfJ-EtWcrafJ-E. H EtO'ayw~ "ou to'''OptXOU fJ-u6tO'"op~fJ-!%"0~ €ytVE O'''YJVEAAa.Oa xa"a. "ov LOtO"P01tO xat W~ fJ-€PO~"wv LOtWV 1tEtpafJ-!%"tO'fJ-wv. 0 AA€~avopo~ PL~O~ Payxa6~~, 0 "PL"O~ a1tO "ou~ .pavaptW"E~ 1tOtYJ"€~ "OV 01tOLOavacp€pafJ-E 1tapa1ta.vw, O'"pa.CPYJXE xa.1tW~ xa6uO'npYJfJ-€va 0'''0 fJ-u6tO'"OpYJfJ-!%.59 Cp~fJ-YJ H "ou Payxa6~ W~ fJ-u6tO'''OptOypa.cpou Eopatw6YJxE "0 1850 fJ-E "ov Au()ev-rr; TOU Mopiw~. AV"Awv"a~ "YJv 1tAOX~ "ou a1to "0 ypafJ-fJ-€vo O'E oYJfJ-woYJ yAwO'O'a €fJ-fJ-E"POXpOYtXOY TOUMopiw~ "OU O€XMOU "€,,ap"ou atwva xat,
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58. l1uo lX\I(xo"1]floocm:oott~IXU'tOU 'tou €pyou tflo(j)IXV!a't""1jXIXV XIX'tri 't"1] OtriPXttlX 'tou 1995. H 1tpw't"1] 1ttptAlXflobrivtt tx'ttV~ ttalXyw~ 'tou l1"1]flo~'tP"1] T(,tOblX, bA. O""rJflo. To 55.
xdflotVO 1tlXpouatri~t'tlXt t1ttO""rJ~ XlXt at riAA"1] €xooa"1], flot aUV01t'ttX~ ttalXYwy~ 'tou Nriaou BlXytvri, IX1tO'tt~ txo6att~ Nt(j)€A"1]. BA. t1ttO""rJ~Nriao~ BlXytvri~, «0 m!TrJxo~ 20u6», a'tov 'tOfloo H ttpWVIX~ y}"rlxr(1'IX, O.1t., aa . 199-225. 59. IltptaaonplX IX1tOttxoat Ot"1]~floIX'tlXXlXt flou6ta'top~floIX'tlX'tou PIXYXlXb~ 'XROVOAOyouv'tlXt XIX'tri 't"1]v 1ttptOOO 1847-53, floOAOVO'tt VIX flotxPO Ot~Y"1JfloIX, € 1tOU o"1]flooattu't""1jxt'to 1836 ~ 'to 1837 ("1] €xooO""rJ AIXV6rivtt), 't01t06tnt 'tov PIXYXlXb~ IXvriflotalX a'tou~ 1tpw'tou~ auyyplX(j)d~ 1tOUIX1t01tttpri!TrJXIXV ooxtflolXa'ttxri VIX IXP1..taouvVIXypri(j)ouv 'to ttOO~ IXU'tO1tptV IX1tO 't""1jotxat'ttlX 'tou 1840 (bA. 1t.'X.. ~1X'X.tV"1J~ 1982: 30-1, BaA€'tIX~ 1983). TiaatplX Ot"1]~floIX'tri 'tou 't""1j~1ttptooou IXVIXO"1]flo0attU't""1jxIXV 'X.wpt~ t1tIXPX~ ttalXYw~ XlXt 'X.wpt~ oU'tt XIXV 'XR0VOAoytt~ (AAi~lXvopo~ Pt~O~ PIXYXlXb~~, ilrYJ~fJoIX'rIX, t1ttflo. K. KIX(j)IXV'trip"1]~, OOUaa€IX~, A6~vlX 1988) XlXt 'to flotXpo flou6ta'tOp"1]floIX, 1tOUOtIXOplXfloIX'tt~t'tlXt a't"1] Btx'twptlXv~ AYYAtlX, tx06!TrJxt floIX~tflot €VIXtx'ttV€~ OOXtflotO t1ttflo€AttlX 'tou T. KlXytlXA~ (''r}..OUfJoUflot fJoaouO": 0 61x'rwpIIXvo<; A. P. PIXYXIX6~<;, Nt(j)€A"1], A~vlX 1991). BA. A. XIX't~01tOUAOU, «H XPt'ttx~ ytIX 't"1]v 1X(j)"1]Y"1JfloIX'ttX~ 1tt~oYPIX(j)tlX 'tou A. P. PIXYXlXb~ (1860-1916)), MIXv'rIX'rorpopo<; 37-38 (1993-4), 71-93, 01tOU XlXt "1] a'X.t'ttx~ btbAtOYPIX(j)tlX.

90

RODERICK

BEATON

67tW~ OfJ-OAOye:L0 LOW~, e:fJ-nve:uerfJ-~vo~ er"t'Y)XP~O"'Y)-eou ter"toptXOU UAtxOU ano "to napeloe:tYfJ-a "tOU OUWA"te:p ~XW"t, 0 Payxa6~~ er"to fJ-u6ter"top'Y)fJ-a au"to e:yxatVLaere: ~va unO-e:LOO~, "to onOLOnap~fJ-e:tve: e:~atpe:"ttxel O'Y)fJ-O<ptA~~J-~XPt f "tt~ apXE~ "t'Y)~oe:xae:"tLa~ "tou 1880.60 Ka"tel "t'Y)otelpxe:ta "t'Y)~ne:ptooou au"t~~ ter"toptxel fJ-u6ter"t0p~fJ-a"ta, "til. onoLa e:x"tuALererOnat er"t'Y)vne:pLooo "t'Y)~ 06wfJ-avtx~~ xuptapXta~, ypel<p"t'Y)xav ano "tou~ Kwver"tanLvo PelfJ-<Po, ~"t~<pavo 3EVO xat ano -eov AAE~avopo IIanaotafJ-elv"t'Y) ("til. npw"ta Epya "tou), -eov onoto 6a eruvav"t~eroufJ-e: ~avel, au"t~ "t'Y)<pOpel fJ-e:ota<pope:"ttX~ tOto"t'Y)"ta, er"to e:nofJ-e:vo xe:<pelAaw. Evota<pEpov npoxaAe:L "to ye:yovo~ o"tt "to npw"to fJ-u6ter"top'Y)fJ-a "tou 3EVOU, 0 L1'&bOAO'; ev Toupxia (1851), o'Y)fJ-oerte:u"t'Y)xe: pw"ta n er"ta ayyAtXel (AOVOLVO) xat apyo"te:pa er"ta e:M'Y)Vtxel. IIapel "t'Y)v e:ntopaO"'Y) xat "t'Y)v e:m"tuxta nou e:tXe: 0 AuOhrr;.; 'rou Mopiw.;, 0 Payxa6~~ otE6e:"te: nOAunAe:upo "taA~v"to yta vo: ne:pwpter"te:L ere: Eva fJ-ovo e:LOO~. 'Eva "/..P0vo apyo"te:pa (1851), o'Y)fJ-oerte:uere:"tov lJup.boAatoyp&<po, fJ-ta pe:aAter"ttX~ ter"topLa oOAonAoxLa~, aywvLa~ xat pOfJ-elv"t~ou, nou fJ-OAOVO"tt<paLve:"tat o"tt elerx'Y)ere:AtY0"te:p'Y) e:ntopaer'Y) ere: erXEO"'Y) J-e: -rov AuOif v'rr; 'rou Mopiw.;, a~t~e:t va eruyxa"taAe:x6e:t er"t'Y) xope:La "twv eruva<pwv fJ-u6ter"top'Y)fJ-el"twv "tou Collins xat "tou Poe, xat fJ-e:"ta~u "twv npw"twv 'aer"tuvOfJ-tXWV' fJ-u6ter"top'Y)fJ-el"twv rrou ypel<p"t'Y)xav no"tE. 61 IIauAo~ KaMtyel~ (1814-1896) xa"tayo"tav ano "t'Y)~fJ-Upv'Y), a)')"el onw~ m ne:pterero"te:pot A6Y)vatm AoYWt "tou xatflou "tou e:LXe:ernouoelere:t er"t'Y) ou"ttX~ Eupwn'Y), xat eruyxe:xptfJ-Eva er"t'Y)re:pfJ-avta. 0 B&vo.; BUxa.; dvat "to fJ-ovaotxo "tou fJ-u6ter"top'Y)fJ-a.62 0 ofJ-wvufJ-o~ ~pwa~ e:Lvat Eva~ ano 060 aoe:A<pou~, 0 onoLo~ er"t'Y)v apx~ "t'Y)~ ter"topta~ e:tvat fJ-txpoxaAAte:pY'Yl"t~~ xaAoxelya60~ xat xwpk <PtAOOO~te:~. 0 aoe:A<po~ -eou, 0 Telero~, eruyxe:v"tpwve:t

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60. 0 AufJiv'r1}t; 't"ou Mopiwt;, e:tO"txywyfj A. ~tx"x'(VY)~,'IopufUot KWa't"tx Xtxt EA€VY)~ OupaVl) , A6~vtx 1989. fttx P1]'t"Ot)~ U1ttxtVty!Joou~ O"'t"ovScott ~o"tx O"'t"oxe:£!Joe:voXtxt yttx 't"1] ye:VtX~ O"UAA1]Iji1] !Jou6tO"'t"op~fUot't"0~, x. ~tx"X.(v1]~, IIaAr.lIo't"e:poe 7re:'orp&~oe, 0"0".42-47. -rou s Ae:v e:!Vtxt txA~6e:ta 1tav't"w~ o't"t 't"o to"'t"optXO !Jou6tO"'t"oP1]fUot xupeapxd O"'t"1]ve:AA1]vtx~ 1te:~0ypacp(a, axo!Jo1] Xtxt xa't"a 't"1] oe:xae:'t"ta 't"ou 1860, 1tOU 1] 1tapaywrYl 't"ou e:(oou~ ~'t"av !Joe:yaA1], 1ttxp' OAO 1tOU au't"~ 1] a1tolji1] 6e:wpe:!'t"at XOtVO~ 't"01tO~ o"'t"t~ IO"'t"opte:~ 't"1]~ Ve:Oe:AA1]vtX~~ Aoyo't"e:"X.v(a~. H a1tolji1] txu't"~ 6a 1tP€1te:t »a ava6e:wp1]6e:( !Joe:'t"a 't"1]v e:VOe:Ae:"X.~ €pe:uva 't"1]~ N't"e:vtO"l] (To e:AA1)vexo eO"'t"opex6p.ufJeO"'t"op1)(J.a,bA. O"l]!Jo.43). 61. Ava't"u1tw61]xe: 1ta!Jo1tOAAe:~cpoP€~ 't"a 't"e:Ae:u't"ata -x.povta "X.wp(~ e:1tt!Jo€Ae:ta,e:tO"aywyfj, O""X.oAtaX't"A., ae 1tP0"X.e:tPE~e:x06O"e:t~. 62. Ava!Joe:O"ao"'t"t~u1tap"X.ouo"E~ e:1tavEx06O"e:tc;O"uvtO"'t"a't"atau't"~ -eou IopufUot't"o~ KWO"'t"a xat EA€V1]~ OupaVY) , !Joe:e:tO"aywyfj 't"ou E. N. Xwpacpa.

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63, nGt 'to 6e(.l-« 'tou xOtvwvtxou pe:GtAta(Joou(JoeaGta'tov €Javo BMxa GA, Vitti, Iavopia, 0.1t., ca. 261-3, EtaGtywy~ c-eo 'Epw'ro,; Arco're:Map.a'ra, 0.1t" ae, 29-36, xa6w<; XGttTI]v e:taayw~ 'tou Xwpaq>a. 0 Atvo<; IIoAtTI]<; aXOAta~e:t 'tY) axeO'Y) 'tou (Jou6ta'top~(.I-«'to<;(JoE: 'to PO(.l-«v'tta(Joo8ta'tu1twvov'ta<; evav 1te:pte:pyo taxupta(Joo axe:'ttxa (Joe: I] pe:GtAtT a'ttx~ -rou Gtxptbe:ta: «1tavw Gt1t' oAa ... 8taypaq>ov'tat, XWpt<;pO(.l-«V'ttX~aAAOtwO'Y), t e~oxot O xapGtx't~pe:<; -rou 8avou xat TI]<; Euq>poauVY)<;,1tOU e:tvat ao» Eva xO(Jo~'tt ~Aa(.l-« (Joeaa a' au'tov -rov xoo(Joo 'tY)<; xGtXOPt~tXta<;xat TI]<; xaxta<;» (Irj'rop{a 'rY)'; Ne:Oe:M7}VIX/;'; AOY0're:xvla.;, Mopq>w'ttXO 'I8pu(.l-« E6vtx~C; Tpa1tE~Y)<;,2Y) Ex8., A6~va 1979, a. 181).

92
cn:(J.vov XlXl m XIX?IXX't'~?c:<;

RODERICK

BEATON

't'OU sv yeVC:l c:U'(?IX(J.(J.m, 1X1mXOV(~oV't'C:<; U1tO 't''Y)V OAIX dXC: 't'l IXVW-

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Me: 'to ipyo au'to, 0 KaMtyac; XWptC; a!Jocpt60Ata 1tpoa1ta6Y)ae: »o: e:Axuae:t 'tY)v 1tpoaox~ -eou xowou a'ttC; 1tpaY!Joa'ttxiC; xowwvtxiC; aotxte:c; 1tOU 1tapouata~o\l'tat a'to !Jou6ta'topy)!Joa, e:A1tt~ov'tac; O'tt i'tat 6a xa'tacpe:pve: vo: 'ttC; !Joe:'tptaae:L 0 a'toxoc; au 't OC; 61twc; xat !Joe:ptxic; aMe:c; 1t'tuXic; 'tou , !Jou6ta'top~!Joa'toc;, !Joac; e:m'tpi1touv va auyxptvou!Joe: -eov KaAAtya !Joe: 'tov N'ttxe:vc;. AMa a'ty)v EMaoa 1tptv a1tO 'tY) oe:xae:'tta -eou 1880 oe:v U1t~PXe: 6i6ata xavivac; e:1tayye:¥a'ttac; auyypacpeac; 01tWC; ~'tav a'tY)v AYYAta 0 N 'ttxe:vC;, xat 1tap' OAO 'tov 1tAOU'tO 'twv ne:pta'ta'ttxwv xat 'tY) yopyo'tY)'ta 'ty)C; acp~YY)aY)c; 'tou Bayou BAix(X, 'to e:axe:!Jo!Joiva 1te:Pt'te:xvo ucpoc; !J-(X~t!Joe: 'ty)v apxa"t~ouaa YAwaaa, 1tOU 'ty) XPy)at!Joo1towuaav e:upewc; xa'ta 'ty)v 1te:ptOOOau't~, a'ta6Yjxav e:!Jo1toota a'tY) !J-(X~tx~ 1tpOaAY)..jJY) apY) a'tY)v o1tota x o N'ttxe:vc; 1toMic; cpopic; xa'top6wae: va !Joe:'tptaae:t 'ta xQtvwvtxa oe:tva 1tOU 1tapouata~e: a'ta 6t6Ata 'tou. H IUmaa(X IwaYV(X -rou E!Jo!Joavou~A Po"toY) (1836-1904) e:tvat 'to !Joovo e:MY)vtxO !Jou6ta'topY)!Joa 'tou Oixa'tou iva.'tou atwva 1tOU 6p~xe: !Jota ia'tw xat !Joi'tpta 6eCTY)a'tov e:upw1ta·';xo AoYO'te:xvtxO xavova. 65 To ipyo, 1tOU ouaxoAa e:v'taaae:'tat ae: e:tOOAoytxec; xa'tY)yopte:c;, e:x'tuAtaae:'tat xwpoxpovtxa !Joaxpta a1to 'ty) auyxpovy) EAAaoa xat e:tvat ypa!Jo!Joevo !Joe:1tA~PY) aotacpopta a1tiva\l'tt a'ttC; 1te:ptaao'te:pe:c; acpY)YY)!Joa'ttxic; aU!Jo6aae:tc; 'tY)c; ertoX~c;. H IUmaa(X IwaYV(X a1to'te:Ae:t eva a1to 'ta Atya xW!Jotxa apta'toupy~!Joa'ta 'tY)C;ve:oe:MY)vtx~C; AoYO'tE:xvtac;. 0 tOWC;0 Po"toY)c; 'ta~toe:..jJe: 1tOAU a'ty) ou'ttx~ Eupw1tY), 01tOU, 01tWC; 0 KaMtyac;, 'te:Ae:tWae: 'ttC; a1touoec; 'tou, xat iypa..jJe: !Joovo eva !Jou6ta'topy)!J-(X, e:vw eypa..jJe: xPt'ttx~ xat 1tOAU apyo'te:pa !Joe:ptxa oty)~!Joa'ta. 66 0 Po"toY)C; a1tO 'ty)v apx~ ~e:xwa !Joe:1te:pmatX'ttx~
64. 8avot; BAix/%t; (e:7tt(Jo. XWPIXCP&:), a. 68. 65. H IXP'X,t>(~ €xoo<Tt) €'X,e:l IXVIX7tlXplX'X,6d PW't0YPlXcptX&:,(Joe:7tpOAOYO 'tou T. Boupv&: C XlXt (Joe:-rov 7tpOAOYO 'tou Potoy), xlX6w<; XlXt IX7tOrr7tM(J-IX't1X1X7t0 'tY) OtIX(J.&:'X,Y) IXXOAOU7tOU 6Y)ae: (Potoy)<; 1971). MtlX ve:o'te:PlJ €XOO<Tt) !Joe:(J-IXxp&:e:talXywn 'tou A. AyyiAou XlXt (Joe: , aU(Jo7tAlJpW(J-IX'tlXO UAtXO, oY)(Jotoupyd ouaxoAte:<; a't'Y)v IXV&:YVW<Tt) AOyW 'ty)<; 'tU7toypIXCPtX~<; 't'Y)<;e:(Jocpavt<Tt)<;!Ep(Jo~<; (NEB), A6~vlX 1988. BA. e:7tt<Tt)<;A6Y)va re:wpYlXna, E{J-p.aVOU~A Poioy/t;: y/ ttopeia npo; 't'YJv ((IIa7rlljlj/% Iwavv/%», la'to<;, A6~vlX 1993. 66. TIX l1rr/%v't/% 'tou Po·toy), ae 5 'to(Joou<;, e:7tt(Joe:A~6Y)Xe: A. AyytAOu (Ep(Jo~<;, A6~vlX 0

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ota6e:0''Y) a1t€Vlxv't't O''t'ov avayV(~O''t''Y) xat, axoAou6wv't'a~ -eov Byron, O'Y)AWve:t O't't oe:v e:t'X.e:1tpoypatJ-tJ-a't'tO'e:t 't't1to't'a e:x't'O~ a1tO tJ-ta otaO'x€oaO''Y) 't''Y)~ O''t'tytJ-~~. To 6€tJ-a 't''Y)~ lIa7rtO'CTa; IWcZvva; aV't'Ae:t't'at a1to 't''Y)Va1toxpucp'Y) 6WtJ-oAo'X.ta 't''Y)~ tJ-e:O'atwvtx~~ to''t'opta~ (0 Po"fo'Y)~ 1tapa6€'t'e:t 1tOMa O''X.e:'t'txa O''t'ot'X.e:ta O'e: e:x't'e:v~ 1tPOAOYO 1tOU a1to't'e:Ae:t tJ-€PO~ 't'ou 1te:tpa'X.'t'tXOU 1tat'X.vtOtoU 't'ou tJ-u6tO''t'op~tJ-a't'0~), O'utJ-cpwva tJ-e: 't''Y)V o1tota 0 IIa1ta~ 't'ou €va't'ou atwva, Iwaw'Y)~ H', ~'t'av O''t''Y)V1tpaytJ-MtXo't''Y)'t'a yuvatxa. rupw a1to au't'o -eo tJ-ovaotxo ye:yovo~, 0 Po"to'Y)~ 1tA€xe:t 't''Y)Va1tt6av'Y) to''t'opta 't'ou: 't''Y)Vw~ ex 6autJ-a't'0~ Y€W'Y)O''Y)'t''Y)~ 'Y)pwtoa~ ('Y) tJ-'Y)'t'€pa 't''Y)~ e:t'X.e:6taO''t'e:t a1tO OUO rO't'60u~ tJ-t0'60cpopou~ O''t't~ 0'X.6e:~ 't'ou P~vou, e:vw 0 '1ta't'€pa~' 't"Y)~ e:t'X.e: ~0'Y) e:uvou'X.tO''t'e:O, 't'a 1tpw't'a 't''Y)~ 6au(J.Ct't'a, 't''Y) pOtJ-av't'tx~ e:pw't'tX~ O''X.€O''Y) 't''Y)~ tJ-e:€va ve:apo tJ-ova'X.o tJ-e:'t'ov 01toto 6a ~~O'e:t 1tOM€~ 1te:pm€'t'Ete:~ 1tpo't'ou 't'ov e:yxa't'aAe:tljJe:t yta UIjJ'Y)AO't'e:pe:~aO''X.oAte:~, 't'a 't'a~tota 't''Y)~ 0''t''Y) Bu~aV't'tv~ EMaoa xat, 't'€AO~, 't''Y)v acpt~~ 't''Y)~ 0''t''Y) PWtJ-'Y), 't''Y) O''X.€CT'Y) tJ-e: -eov 't''Y)~ aP'X.t6aAatJ-'Y)1tOAO 't''Y)~ xat -eo 6ava't'0 't''Y)~ (xa't'a 't'ov 't'oxe:'t'O!), 1tOU CP€pve:t €va 6autJ-a't'ouPYO 't'€AO~ O''t't~ O'utJ-CPoP€~ m 01tOte:~ e:t'X.av 1tA~~e:t 't''Y)v 1tOA'Y). 'OAa aU't'a A€yoV't'at tJ-e: au6aoe:ta, tJ-' €va xotJ-ljJo xat 1te:pt't'e:'X.vo P'Y)'t'optXO ucpo~ 't'o 01toto oe:v €'X.e:t 't'o otJ-mo 't'ou O''t'a e:M'Y)VtXa. Lltav6t~e:'t'at tJ-aAtO''t'a tJ-e: €~u1tve:~, 1tAayte:~ 1tapa't''Y)p~O'e:t~ 1tpO~ 't'ov ava)'VwO''t''Y), 1tOU xa't'appt1t't'ouv 't''Y) O'utJ-6aO''Y) 't''Y)~ aA'Y)60cpave:ta~ O''t''Y)v o1tota 6aO't~e:'t'at OAOXA'Y)pO -eo pe:aAtO''t'tXO tJ-u6tO''t'OP'Y)tJ-a 't'ou 190u atwva. O. xPt't'txot oe:v e:tvat OAm O'utJ-cpwvm w~ 1tpO~ 't''Y)cpuO''Y)xat 't'o O'X01tO au't'ou -cou tJ-u6tO''t'op~tJ-a't'0~, axotJ-'Y) xat o» tJ-1tOpe:t va 6e:wpe:hat tJ-u6tO''t'OP'Y)tJ-a. Ot ap'X.€~ OtJ-w~ 't''Y)~ e:M'Y)VtX~~ ExxA'Y)O'ta~ oe:v ap')"Y)O'av vo: 't'o xa't'aotxaO'ouv xat v« a1tat't'~eouv a1tO -eo xpa't'o~ va e:m6aAe:t xupwO'e:t~ O''t'o O'uyypacp€a 't'ouY H av't'topaCT'Y) au't'~ xat 'Y) e:1taxoAou6'Y) e:upe:ta~ o'Y)tJ-oO'to't''Y)'t'a~ otatJ-a'X.'Y), 1tOU ~€O'1taO'e:O''t't~ a6'Y)varx€~ e:CP'Y)tJ-e:ptoe:~,6€6ata e:~aO'cpaAtO'av yta 't'ov Po·to'Y) -eo tJ-e:yaAo ava)'VwO''t'txO xmvo 1tOU Ot€cpuye: 't'ou KaMtya. Po"fo'Y)~ tJ-1tOpe:t 6€6ata va XP'Y)O'ttJ-01tOte:t 't''Y)v to''t'opta 't'ou w~ 1tpocpaO''Y), oe:v 'X.wpa OtJ-w~ atJ-cpt60Ata O't't O''t''Y)v 1tpaytJ-a't'txo't''Y)'t'a O''t'O'X.o~ 't'ou

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nIX (J-tlXauvlXYwy~ opta(J-€VWV IX1tO '!IX 1ttO O"Y)(J-IXv'!txa'!ou xpt'!txa auv'!o(J-IX tip6pIX e:1tt(J-.A. Ayy€AOU, Ep(J-~<; (NEB), A6~vlX 1986. TIX AqJ'Y)YY;/A-a"a '!ou poroy) IXVIX'!U1tW6Y)XIXV'X,wptC; e:talXywy-lj a'!Y) ae:tpa «H 1te:~oYPIXCPtx-lj(J-IXC;1tlXptiOOo"y)), Ne:cp€AY), Ae-ljVIX 1988. 67. To xd(J-e:vo '!Y)C; ~UVOOtX~<; EYXUXAtOU '!Y)<; 31Y)c; MlXp'c-tou 1866 IXvlXoY)(J-oate:ue:'!lXt a'!Y)v e:talXYwy-l) '!ou A. Ayy€AOU a'!Y)v €xooO"Y) '!ou Ep(J--Ij: 44-5.

1978).

94

RODERICK

BEATON

ovyypacpea ~'tav ev (J-epet 'Y] eAA'Y]vtx~ ExxA'Y]O'ta, 07tWe; e7ttO''Y]e;xat 'Y] U7tOXPt'ttX~ eUO'ebeta 'tou xatpou 'tou. H O'7touoato't'Y]'ta o(J-we; 'tou (J-u6tO''top~(J-(X.'toe; au'tou U7tepbatVet au'toue; 'toue; O''tOxoue;. IIpw'ta a7to OAa 'Y] emAoy~ evoe; to''toptxOU 6€(J-(X.'toe;(J-e 7tpo6eO''Y] va oe:(~et, o7twe; otax~pu~e 0 tOwe;, 7tWe; xat 'to 7tapeA6ov ~'tav, e~tO'ou (J-e 'to ~apov, eV'teAwe; ~6AW xat otecp6ap(J-€vo, xat evoexo(J-€VWe; xat 7teptO'O'o'tepo, emotwxet va (J-e'tpt~O'et 'tov ev60uO'taO'(J-o 7tOU u7t~pxe 'to'te a7t€vav'tt O''tO U7tO-e:tooe; 'tou to''toptxou (J-U6tO''top~(J-a'toe; 7tOU bptO'xo'tav O''tO a7toyew 't'Y]e; 06~ae; 'tou. Em7tpo0'6e'twe;, O''ta e7tetO'oota 0''t'Y] (J-€O''Y]'tou (J-u6tO''t0p~(J-(X.'toe;, 7tOU otaopa(J-a'tt~ouv 't'Y] pO(J-aV'ttx~ O'xeO''Y]'t'Y]e;Iw~wae; (J-e 'to veapo (J-ovaxo ~pou(J-ev'tw, 7tat~et (J-e 'tte; 7tpoO'ooxtee; 'tou avayvwO''t'Y], baO'tO'(J-evee; ~o'Y], a7tO 'to 'Epcno; Ano-re'MO'p.a.-ra. (1792), O''tte; O'u(J-b~O'ete; 'tou pO(J-~v't~ou. Kat, 't€AOe;, omue; emO"Y](J-~v6'Y]xe 7tpoO'cpa'ta, OAO 'to 7tatxvtot (J-e 'toue; wcpuete; U7taMy(J-Oue;, 7tOU a7tw6uvov'tat c-rov avayvwO''t'Y], U7toO'x~7t'tov'tae; 'tte; O'u(J-b~O'ete; 't'Y]e; peaAtO''ttX~e; acp~Y'YlO"Y]e;, 7tpoavayyeAAet xa't~ evav O'Xeoov atwva vwpt'tepa 't'Y]V 7tept'texv'Y] au'toavacpoptxo't'Y]'ta xat 't'Y]V 7tapwota O''to eAA'Y]vtxo xat 7tayxoO'(J-to (J-u6tO''top'Y](J-a xa't~ 'tov etxoO''to atwva.68 Ta xapax't'Y]ptO''ttx~ au't~ 't'Y]e; Ilaraaaa; Iwavva.~ etvat e(J-cpav~ O''tO O'uV'to(J-o a7toxatpe'ttO'(J-o 'tou ~pou(J-ev'twu, o'tav 'Y] Iw~wa exet ~o'Y] cpuyet yta vo: ytvet II~7tae;. Me't~ a7to (J-eptxee; (J-epee; mxpou au'tomx'ttp(J-ou xat 6p~vou, 0 ~pou(J-€v'ttOe; ~U7tV~ eva 7tpWt xat bA€7tet (J-ta o(J-opcp'Y]bOO'x07tOUAa va 7tepv~: «6EWPWV au't-Y)v 0 <PPOuIJ-€v'twe; 'ton xlX'ta 7tpw'tov "t)0"6av6"t) O'tt 7tA"t)V't"t)e; Iwavvae; U7t1jpxov xat aAAat Ete; -eov xOO"IJ-ovyuvatXEe;. H 6Epa7tEta au'tou "t)ouva'to 1jo"t) »a. 6EWP"t)61j we; Pt~tx1j. Ou'tw ota 'tou 6auIJ-a'toe; -eou Aytou YUIJ-vw6de; -eou avo1j'tou 7ta6oue; -rou xat axp"t)O"'toe; 1jo"t) wv "t)IJ-tvwe; 1jpwe; IJ-u6to"'top1j~'toe; xa6tO"'ta'to a7tO 't"t)e; O"'ttYIJ-1je;Exdv"t)e; XP"t)O"tIJ-w'ta'tov 't"t)e; xotvwvtae; IJ-€AOe;,Mav Xa1"aMl']AOC;, a» €~"t) O"1jIJ-Epov,vo: e;aO'x~O'l'] owV01j7t01:E , €v'ttIJ-ov E7tayyEA~, va YEtV"t)ypaIJ-IJ-a'toxolJ-tO"'t1je;, xa'taO"x07tOe;, 60uAEU't1je;, 7tpotxo61jpae; 1j 6EO"OOtWx't"t)e;,va: xpa't1j 'ta xa'taO"'ttxa Xtou EIJ-7tOpOU 'toue; 1j 7tooae; ayXOVt~OIJ-EVOU xa'taotxou. AMa xa'ta 't"t)v E7tOx1jv eXEtv"t)v 'ta Kupee eAil']O'ov 1jO"av "t) xaAAt'tEpa 'tEXV"t) xat xaAWe; 7tOtWv EIJ-EtvExaAoYEpOe; we; , 7tpO'tEpOV 0 <PpouIJ-€V1:We;». 69
68. BA. e:tOtxo'te:paIl. T"tOba~, «H Ildtuaaa IwavvlZ xat 0 pOAO~'tou ava"{'lwo"TI]», a'tov 'top.o MeTa TYJY IZ,aOrjT'x~, rvWa-rj, A6Yjva 1987, aa . 259-82. 69. H Ilanuraa IwavvlZ (e:mp.. T. Boupva~), o.n., ac, 224-5.

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95

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a.V't"tX't"U7tO e-ro €AA"Y)VtXO (J-u6tO''t"op"Y)(J-a. a.7tO 't""Y) O€xa.€'t"ta. 't"ou 1880 xa.t €cp€~~e;. To 7tpw't"o dva.tH 0''rpa'r1w'r1x~ ~w~ ev EAAa81, 7tOU o"Y)(J-oO't€u't""Y)X€ 0''t""Y)Pou(J-a.Vta. 't"0 1870-1. H OtOpa.'t"tX~ xa.t a.u't"06tOypa.cptX~ a.u't"~ a.cp~'Y"YJO'"Y)fxO'x"Y)O'€ €AfxXtO''t""y) €7ttOpa.O'"Y) O''t"ov xa.tpO 't""Y)e;xa.t a.va.O'up6Y)X€ a.7tO 't""Y)v a.cpfxv€ta.(J-ovo (J-€'t"fx 't"o ~d)'t"€po 7ta.yxoO'(J-w 7tOA€(J-0.70 H (j'rpa'r1w'r'x~ ~w~ ev EAAa8, xa.t 0 Aoux~c; Aapac; (1879)71 't"OU ~"Y)(J-"Y)'t"PtOUBtXEAa. (18351908) Ot"y)youv't"a.t a.A"Y)6tv€e; to''t"opt€e;, xa.t we; €X 't"ou't"ou 6a. (J-7tOpouO'€ xa.vde; so: Ota.'t"U7twO'€t xfx7tot€e; a.v't"tpp~O'€te; o» xa.t xa.'t"fx 7toO'o a.v~xouv o-ro €tOoe; 't"ou (J-u6tO''t"op~(J-r:J.'t"0e;. Ka.t 't"a. OUO EXOUV 6€wp"Y)6d, a.7tO 't"te; IO''t"opt€e; 't""Y)e; VW€M"Y)Vtx~e; AOY0't"€XVta.e; 't"wv 't"€AW't"a.twv 7t€V~V't"a. Xpovwv, we; (J-ova.Otxot O'X€OOV 7tpoopo(J-m €voe; AtyO't"€PO P"Y)'t"optxou ucpoue; xa.t (J-ta.e; yAwO'O'a.e; 7tA"Y)O'tEO''t"Ep"y)e; O''t""Y)vO(J-tAOU(J-€V"Y)'t""Y)e;€7tOx~e;. 0 Aoux~c; Aapac;, 't"ou 07totOU "Y) opaO'"Y) €X't"uAtO'O'€'t"a.t xa.'t"fx 't""Y) otfxpx€ta. 't"ou a.7t€Aw6€pw't"txou A ywva. (o(J-we; 7tptV va y€w"Y)6d 0 O'uyypa.cpEa.e;), (J-7topd vo: 6€wp"Y)6d iva. a.7tO 't"a. 't"€A€U't"a.ta. 'to''t"optxfx (J-u6tO''t"op~(J-a.'t"a.' 't"ou OEXa.'t"OU EVa.'t"OU a.twva., (j't"a. 07tOta. 0 a.A"Y)6tvoe; "Y)pMO'(J-Oe; O€V cpa.tV€'t"a.t »a EYX€t't"a.t O''t"te; "y)pMXEe; 7tpfx~€te; a.Mfx 0''t""Y)O'UV€O'"Y), 't""Y)V7tpovo"Y)'t"txo't""Y)'t"a. xa.t -eo xoupfxyw 7tOU 6€'t"ouv 't"a. 6€(J-€Ata. yta. 't"o (J-€MOV't"tXO €(J-7tOpw. Ka.6we; (J-fxAtO''t"a. OptO'(J-EVa. a.7tO 't"a. Xa.pa.x't""Y)ptO''t"txfx yta. 't"a. 07tOta. Ota.Xptvov't"a.t 't"a. OUO a.u't"fx EPYa. €V't"07tt~oV't"a.t xa.t O'€ 7tPM(J-O't"€p€e; (J-U607tAa.O'i€e;, 07tWe; 0''t"0 'Epw'roc; A1ro'reU(j(J-a'ra xa.t O''t"a. OUO (J-u6tO''t"op~(J-a.'t"a. 't"ou rp"Y)yop(ou IIa.Aa.wAoyou, "Y)to''t"optX~ 0'"Y)(J-a.0'(a. 't""Y)e;E'rpa'r'w'r'x~c; ~w~c; sv . EAAa8, xa.t 't"ou Aoux~ Aapa a.~wAoyd't"a.t Ota.cpop€'t"txfx. IIpox€t't"a.t yta. 't"a. 7tpw't"a. (J-u6tO''t"op~(J-a.'t"a. O''t"a. €M"Y)vtxfx 07tOU "Y)€O'X€(J-(J-€V"Y)a.7tAo7toi"y)O'"y) 't""Y)e; yAWO'O'a.e; xa.t 't"ou ucpoue; a.v't"a.va.xAfx 't"ov xa.tvoupyw O''t"0Xo -eou V't"OXU(J-a.v't"a.(p. To VW€M"Y)VtXO (J-u6tO''t"op"Y)(J-a. O''t"a. 7tpw't"a. 't"ou O''t"fxota. (a.xoAou6wV't"a.e; (O'we; 't"te; a.7tO~€te; 't"ou Kopa.~) dX€ 7tA~p"Y) €7tiyvwO'"Y) 't"wv opiwv (J-€'t"a.~u y€yovo't"wv xa.t (J-U607tAa.O'ia.e;. H a.7to(J-v"Y)(J-ovw(J-a.'t"oypa.cp(a. fxv6"Y)0'€ O''t"a. x.pOVta. 7tOU a.XOAOtJe"y)O'a.V 't""Y)VE7ta.vfxO''t"a.O'"y), xa.6we; Ot 7t€ptO'O'o't"€pm a.7tO 't"oue; O'"Y)(J-a.V't"txo't"€pOUe; O'uyypa.cpde; -eou dooue; Eypa.cpa.V a.7to(J-v"Y)(J-OV€U70. cfltAOA0"YtX~ EXOOa1], e:mIl-EAe:tlXM. Vitti, Epll-~<:; (NEB), A6~'J1X1977. IIp6A. XlXt Vitti, HOoyparpta (3Yj EXO,), IIII. 46-9. 71. cfltAOA0"YtX~ EXOOa1], e:mIl-EAe:tlX M. .:l("IIIX, Epll-~<:; (NEB), A6~'J1X1991.

96

RODERICK

BEATON

!J.(l/t'a, !J.OAOVO't't 1toMa. a1tO au't'a. 0YJ!J.oO'tetmlxav 1tOAU apyonpa. To 1tt0 yvwO''t'o 1tapa.oetY!J.a au't'ou 't'ou 't'U1tOUacp~YYJO'Y)e; etvat Ta ATrop.vr;p.oveup.a_'ra 't'ou Maxpuyta.wYJ, 't'a o1tota a.O'xYJO'av e1ttopaO'Y) O''t'YJAOY0't'e'Xyta !J.ovo !J.e't'a. 't'YJoYJ!J.oO'teuO'~'t'oue; 't'o 1907. rta 1tpw't'YJ cpopa. O''t'YJoexae't'ta 't'ou 1870 't'a opta !J.e't'a~u yeyovo't'oe; xat !J.u601tAaO'tae; O'x01tt!J.we; O'uy"l.,i.ov't'at, xa6we; 0 avwvu!J.oe; O'uyypacp€ae; 't'YJe;lJ'rpa'r'w'r'x~~ 'w~~ sv EMa~, xat 0 BtX€Aae; ut06e't'ouv !J.eptXEe; a1to 't'te; 't'e'X,vtX€e; 't'YJe; !J.U601tAl.XO'tae; , 0. ' "'I, 0.' 'T' '!1' 0.' 1tpoxet!J.evou va acpYJYYJuouv!J.ta al\YJutvYJto''t'opta. e't'OtOu etooue; !J.uutO''t'opYJ!J.a~'t'av a.yvwO''t'o 1tptv, aAAa., 01tWe; 6a oou!J.e, €1tat~e O'Y)IJa'J't'tXOPOAO 0''t'0 eMYJvtXO !J.u6tO''t'oPYJ!J.a't'ou etxoO''t'ou atwva. IIpo't'ou XAetO'ou!J.e au't'o 't'0 xecpa.AatO, 6a 1tp€1tet va avacpep60u!J.e O''t'o !J.u6tO''t'oPYJIJa't'wv E1t't'av~O'wv, ~ xaAunpa O''t'YJv€Mett.¥~ 't'ou. 72 'OAa 't'a !J.u6tO''t'op~!J.a't'a 't'a o1tota O'u~YJ't'~6YJxav EWe; 't'wpa oYJ!J.oO'teu't'YJxavO''t'YJV 1tpw't'euouO'a 't'ou eMYJVtxOU xpa.'t'oue; (1tpw't'a O''t'o NaU1tAtO, !J.e't'a. O''t'YJV A6~va), xat Ot 1tpoO'1ta.6etee; 1tOUEytvav va eyxa6topu6et !J.ta 1tapa.ooO'YJO''t'o dooe; oev bP~xav 1tapa. eAa.'X,tO''t'YJ a1t~'X,YJO'YJ a.Ma 1tOAt't'tO'!J.txa.xEv't'pa O''t'a 't'YJe;e1to'X,~e;, 't'YJVKEpxupa xat 't'a E1t't'a.vYJO'a. Exet YJ1te~oypacpta 1teptoptO''t'YJxe O''t'YJO'a.'t'tpa aMa., av't'tee't'a a1to 't'YJO'a.'t'tpa -eou Po"t0YJ, YJO'a.'t'tpa 't'wv E1t't'av~O'wv 1tO't'E oev EAabe 't'YJ !J.opCp~!J.u6tO''t'op~!J.a't'0e; ~ otYJY~!J.a't'oe;. H a't'eA~e; ecptaA't'tX~ O'a.'t'tpa -eou AtovuO'(ou 1:.oAW!J.0U,H Tuvalxa 'rY]~ Zaxu(Jo~, O'acpwe; aV't't1tp0O'w1teuet !J.ta 1tpoO'1ta.6eta !J.u601tAaO''t'tX~e; 1te~oypacp(ae;, wO''t'oO'o oev etvat euxptvEe; a1to 't'a otaO'w~o!J.eva a1toO'1ta.O'!J.a't'a xat 't'te; otaoo'X,tX€e; e1te~epyaO'tee; 1tota 6a ~'t'av YJ 't'eAtX~ 't'YJe;!J.opCp~xat 't'0 eupoe; 't'YJe;.0 AvopEae; AaO'xapa.'t'oe; xat a.Mot 1tOU €ypat.¥av O'a.'t'tpa O'e 1te~o AOYO, Eypacpav 0" Eva ,etooe; 1taAato't'epo a1to -eo !J.u6tO''t'oPYJIJa xat cpatve't'at 1tWe; 1tO't'E oev ooxt!J.aO'av va 1tetpa!J.a't'tO''t'ouv 1tpOe; au't'~ 'rYJV xa't'eu6uvO'Y). H a1toO'1taO'!J.a't'tx~ aU't'obtOypacpta 't'YJe;EAtO'a.be't' Mou't'~a.vMap't'tv€yxou (1801-1832) ypa.cp't'YJxe Atyo 1tptv a1to 't'o 6a.va't'0 't'YJe;aMa. oYJ!J.oO'teu't'YJxeJ.tO'oatwva apyo't'epa, xat !J.eptXEe;cpop€e; avacpipe't'at we; €va ! 1tpWt!J.o (xat O'1ta.Vto) odY!J.a yuvatxetou !J.u6tO''t'op~IJa't'0e; au't'~ 't'YJV1tep(o00.73 Movo 0 1:.1tUpLOWV Za!J.1t€AtOe; (1815-1881), 1tOU dvat 1teptO'O'onpo
72. BA. o~!:~ooLx6't!:pllt yLIlt 'to 6E!J-Ilt lltu't6: t:.. nL6bllt~, A telling absence: the novel in the Ionian Islands. Journal of Mediterranean Studies, 'tbtJ.. 4, 't"euX. 1 (1994), 73-82. 73. EALCl"tXb!:'t Mou't~tXv- MIltP'tLVEyXOU, AI.J't"o6IOrpa~{a, !:7tL(J-. K. IIopqlupYj~, A6~vllt 1956 (7tpw'tYj ExOOCl"Yj 1881).

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IIEZOrPA<I>IA

H via au'to7te:7tote'YJeTr] 'twv a(,xwv 't'YJe;oe:x,ae:'ttae; 'tou 1880 6('Yjx,e: 't('07tOUe;
AoYO'te:xvtx,Yje; ix,cp('aeTr]e; 7tOU ex 7tpw't'YJe; ol.jJe:we; cpatvov'tat aV'ttcpa'ttx,ot. A7to 't'YJ p.ta 7tAe:u('~, O'uYi'Pacpde;, p.e:'tacp(,aO''tie; x,at x,('t'ttX,Ot O''t(,~CP'YJx,av O''t'YJv Eu('w7t'YJ x,at e:tOtx,o'te:('a 0''t'YJ r aAAta, a7t' 07tOU x,at 7t(,oi(,xe:'tat 'to UAtX,O 7tOU 7ta(,ouO'taO'av O''tO e:M'YJVtX,OavayvwO''ttx,o X,Otvo. A7to 't'YJv ~M'YJ p.e:('t~, 'to e:votacpi('ov ~(,XtO'e: vo: x,a'te:u6uve:'tat p.e: via iV'taO''YJ x,at a7tocpaO'tO''ttx,o't'YJ'ta 7t('0e; so» e:v't07ttO'p.o, -eov o('tO'p.o x,at 't'YJV7te:('ty('acpYj e:x,dvwv 'twv 7t'tUXwv 't'YJe; e:M'YJVtx,Yje; ~wYje; 7tOU 7ta('ip.e:vav ap.oAUV'te:e; a7to 't'YJV e:u('w7taixYj e:7tto('aeTr]. ~'YJAW'ttX,Ot 't'YJe; 7t('w't'YJe; 't~0''YJe; dvat x,at ot 7te:t(,ap.a'ttO'p.ot O''t'YJVav'tt-(,op.aV'ttx,Yj 7tOt'YJ'ttx,Yj 'tou yaMtx,ou IIa('vaO'O'tx,ou xivYjp.a'toe; (ovop.~O''t'YJx,e: i'tO't a7to p.ta av60Aoyta 'tou 1866) p.e: e:x,7t('oO'w7tOUe; O''t'YJv EM~oa 'toue; Ntx,o Kap.7t~ (1857-1932), re:w('ytO ~('oO'tv'YJ (18591951) x,at KwO''tYj IIaAap.~ (1859-1943), x,a6we; x,at 't'YJ p.e:'t~cp('aO''YJ O''ta e:AA'YJVtX,~ -eou p.u6tO''to(,Yjp.a'toe; Nawi (1879) 'tou EP.tA ZOA~. H p.e:'t~cp('aO''YJau'tYj ('tou ~. Kap.7tou('oy AOU) 7t('OX,~Ae:O'e: iV'tove:e; aV'tto('~O'e:te;, 07twe; x,at 'YJ ex 'te:vYje; x,at 7ta6taO'p.ev'YJ e:tO'aywyYj 7tOU 7t('o0'6e:0'e: 0 A i"YJO'tAaOe; rtawtw't'YJe; O''t'YJV OAOx,A'YJ(,wp.ev'YJex,ooO''YJ 'tou 1880, 'YJ o7tota O'uvtO''touO'e: e:7ttp.ova 't'YJv wp.Yj (,e:aAtO''ttx,Yj a7te:tx,ovtO''YJ 't'YJe; ~wYje;, O''t'YJv o7tota 0 ZOA~ e:tXe: owO'e:t 'to ovop.a 'va'tou(,aAtO'p.oe;' _4 ~'YJAW'ttX,Yj 't'YJe; oe:u'te:(,'YJe; 't~0''YJe; dvat 'YJ avacpo('~ O''tov 7ta(,aooO'tax,o 't('07tO ~wYje; 't'YJe; e:M'YJVtx,Yje; u7tat6('ou, 7tOU 7te(,aO'e: e:7ttO''YJe;x,at O''t'YJv 7tot'YJeTr] 'tou ~('oO'tv'YJ, we; eva o('tO'p.evo 6a6p.o x,at O''t'YJv 7tOt'YJeTr] 'tou IIaAa~, x,at e:tvat 7ttO cpave:('Yj O''to e('yo 'tou KWO''ta K('UO''t~M'YJ (18681894). IIoM~ a7to 'ta 7totYjp.a'ta 'tou 'te:Ae:u'tatOu dvat p.tp.YjO'e:te; 'tou 7ta('aooO'tax,ou 0'YJp.o'ttx,ou 't('ayouotOu. H tota au'tYj O''t('ocpYj 7t('0e; 't'YJV 7ta(,aooO'tax,Yj e:M'YJVtX,Yj~wYj x,at 'ta e6tp.a e:tvat ax,op.'YJ 7ttO cpave:('Yj O''t'YJV 7t('w'toe:p.cpavt~op.e:v'YJ e:7ttO''tYjp.'YJ 't'YJe; Aaoy(,acptae;, 7tOU a('Xt~e:t p.e: -eov 4.
xa6{1:(]'a, A'.IIXOY){lOO"LEUE'tIXL "'tO'l 'to{lo O

II. ~.

MIXO"'tpOOY){l~'tPy)C;,

((0 Zrrreavoc;»
1980,
0"0".

1:01)

Kap-

ELO"IXYWyfj-Xe:L{lE'IO-YAwO"O"apLO, KIXPOIX{lt'tO"IX, AaY)'I1X

239-263.

------------------------------------------------------------

EI~AnlrH

~TH NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AorOTEXNIA

103

1tPW't01tOpO Aa.oypa~o NtXOAa.O IIoA('t"t] (1852-1921) a't"t] OEXa.E't(a. 't'ou 1870 xa.t 1tOU fJ-E 't"t] aEtpa 't"t]~ aax"t]aE xa.60pta'ttx~ E1t(opa.a"t] a'tou~ 1tE~oypa~ou~, w~ 'to 'tEAO~ 'tou a.twva., oaov a.~opa a't"t]v E1ttAoy~ 't'''t]~ 6EfJ-a.'toAoy(a.~ 'tOU~. MOAOVO'tt xa.t Ot OUO a.U'tE~ 'tao"Et~ ~a.(VE'ta.t »a E(Va.t a.v'tt~a.'ttXE~ fJ-E'ta.~U 'tOU~, o» xOt'ta~Et xa.vd~ a.1t0 fJ-ta. a.ua't"t]pa AOytX~ 01t'ttX~ ywv(a., 6a. ~'ta.v a06a.po Aa60~ yta. -eov ta't'optxo 't"t]~ AoyO'tE'XY(a.~ vo: 1tp00"1ta.6~o"Et vo: Ota.AE~Et a.vafJ-Eaa 'tou~. IIpaYfJ-a.'tt, Ot O"uyypa.~E(~ 1tOU EXa.Va.V xa'tt 'tE'tOW, EhE O"'tPE~OfJ-EVOt .1tOXAEta'ttXa 1tpO~ 'to E~W'tEPtXO, d'tE a.1tOXAEta a'ttxa O"'tt~ 'p(~E~' 'tou~, E(Va.t Exdvat 1tOU O"~fJ-Epa.6EWPOUV'ta.t EAaO"O"ovE~ ~ xa.6a.pa 'ta'toptxOU' EVOta.~EpOV'tO~: 0 1tOt"t]'t~~ N(xo~ Ka.fJ-1ta~" ~ at aurrpa.~d~ 'twv 'EtOuMta.xwv' Ot"t]Y"t]fJ-a'twv 't"t]~ EM"t]vtx~~ u1ta.(6pou, 01tW~ or. Apoa(v"t]~ (a'ta. Ot"t]Y~fJ-a.'ta. 't"t]~ OEXa.E't(a.~ 'tou 1880), 0 Xp. Xp"t]a'to6a.a(A"t]~ xa.t 0 A. E~'ta.AtW't"t]~.6 Ta. 1tt0 O""t]fJ-ll.v'ttxaAOYO'tEJ..Vtxa E1tt'tEUYfJ-a.'ta. 'twv OEXa.E'ttWV 'tou 1880 xa.t -eou 1890 O"UV'tEAoUV'ta.tfJ-EO"a.a.1t0 'ta. ota.a'ta.upOufJ-EVa. PEUfJ-a.'t'a.'twv 060 a.V't(6E'tWV a.u'twv 'taO"Ewv: 'ta. Ot"t]Y~fJ-a.'ta. 'tou Bt~u"t]vou, 'tou IIa.1ta.ota.fJ-av't"t] xa.t -cou Ka.pxa.6('taa., xa.t A(yo a.pyO'tEPa. 't"t]v wptfJ-"t] 1to("t]a"t] 'tou IIa.Aa.fJ-a. 'OAOt 'tou~ a.~W1tOWUV 'tt~ ouva.'tO't"t]'tE~ 1tOU 1tpOa~Epouv Ot 1tpoa~a.'tot vEO'tEptafJ-o( a.1t0 'to E~W'tEPtXO,
5. H CJY](J.IXO"lcx Kcx(J-7tCX 'tou dvcxt xcx6rxpli 'to"'toptX~' ytcx'tl €tO"~y(J.y£ -rov I1(J.pv(J.O"O"tO"(J-o, (Parnasse) O"'tYJv EMlio(J. X(J.t 1i00xYJO"£O(J-OAOYYJ(J-tVYJ !:1ttOp(J.CJY] "'tov I1(J.A(J.(J-Ii. 0 nwpyo.:; O 0€(J-!:AYJ':;, yplicpov't(J.':; 'to 1963, 't01t06!:'td x(J.'t1i !:VOt(J.!p€pov't(J.'tP01tO -rov K(J.(J-1tIi, 1t(J.pIiAAYJA(J.(J-!: 'tov N'toppo X(J.t -rov Pliv'to (1978: 11-12), 'twv o1tolwv Ot v!:o't!:ptO"(J-ol O"'tt':; cxP'X,€':; 'tYJ':; o!:x(J.!:'tt(J.':; -rou 1930 x(J.p1to!popYJO"(J.v0"'t(J. €PY(J. IiMWV 1tOtYJ'twv. (rtWpyo.:; 0t(J-!:AYJ':;, H vewTepr; 7ro!r;u~ {MZq, 'to(J-. 1, KwvO"'t(J.V'ttVtoYJ':;, 0!:0"0"(J.AovtXYJ1978' 1YJ oYJ(J-oO"t!:uCJY] 1963: 11-12). 6. Tcx ovo(J.IX't(J. A(J.(J-blivov't(J.t (J.1t0 (J-t(J. Ata't(J. O"U"'(Yp(J.!p€WV,'tOU':; 01totou.:; YJ EA€VYJ I1oAt'tOU- M(J.p(J.IXptvou, O"'tYJv xPt'ttX~ 'tYJ':; yt(J. 'to bt()AtO 'tou rtlivvYJ I1(J.1t(J.xwO"'ta, To 7repIOOCXO«Ea-da» xac TO llc~YYJp.a, EX1tato!:u't~Pt(J. KwO"'t€(J.- rd'tova, A6~v(J. 1982, 6!:wpd w.:; XUptw.:; YJ60ypa!pou.:; O"€ (J.v'ttOt(J.O"'tOA 1tpot; 'tOUt; v(J.'tOUP(J.AtO"'t€t;~ P!:(J.AtO"'ttt; O"uy~ yp(J.!p!:t.:; 'tYJ':; 1t!:ptooou, 0"'tYJ 'X,opd(J. 'twv 01tOtWV 1t!:PtA(J.(J-blivov't(J.t OA(J.'t(J. (J-!:yli)_(J.OVO(J.IX't(J. (IIapo!)ufa, I1(J.v!:1ttO"'t~(J-to A6Yjvwv, ~tAOO"O!ptX~ 'i.'X,OA~ 3 [1985]: 123-52, CJY](J-.147). H otaxptCJY] (J.u't~ (J.O"!p(J.AWt; to"'X,u!:t (J.Ma, x(J.'ta 'tYJ yvw(J-YJ (J-ou, (J-t'X,Pt €VO.:; b(J.6(J-ou. El't!: 0 opo.:; (YJ60YP(J.!pI(J.) 6(J. 1tP€1t!:t V(J. !:yx(J.'t(J.A!:t!p6d !:V't!:AWC; (01tWt; 1tpo'ta6Yjx!:, yt(J. 1t(J.plio!:ty(J-(J., (J.1t0 -eov XptO"'to!popo MYJAtWVYJ: «I1(J.1t(J.Ot(J.(J-liv'tYJt;X(J.t YJ60YP(J.!pia ~ YJ60YP(J.!pia.:;(J.v(J.iP!:O"tt;», rpap,p.aTa xal Tixve.:;, Iavoulipto.:; 1992: 5-22), ~ 6a 1tPt1t!:t V(J. 1t!:ptA(J.(J-bav!:t OAO!)q 'tOU':; p!:aAtO"'tt':; O"uyypa!pe:i.:; au't~t; 't1)t; 1t€ptooou. H OtX~ (J-ou 1tpo'tI(J-YJCJY] vat yta d 'tYJ o£u't!:PYJ AUCJY], 61tw,:; 6(J. cpavd 1t(J.p(J.xli'tw.

104

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7. To m:p!e:'X,otJ-e:\lo IXU't"OU -eou 1te:ptOO!XOU XIX! 1) OPIXO"'t"1)P!O't"1)'t"IX O!IXOO'X,!XW\I 't"W\I e:xoo't"W\I 't"ou O"u~1)'t"OU\I't"IX! O!e:~oo!xa IX1tO rov r!aw1) IIIX1tIXxWa't"IX, To 7repcoOcxo «Ern/IX» XIX' TO L1,~Yl7p.a, O.1t., A6~\l1X 1982. r!IX tJ-!IX XP!'t"!X~ IXU't"OU't"ou tpyou XIX! tJ-e:p!xiC; 1tpo't"aae:!c; y!IX 't"1) tpuO"Y)'t"Y)C;e:AA1)\I!X~C; pe:IXA!o"'t"!X~C;1te:~oypIXtptIXC;'t"Y)C;1te:P!OOOU, bA. IIoAt't"OU-MIXPtJ-IXP!VOU,o.1t., 0"0". 123-52. 8. EA. EA€\l1) IIoAt't"ou-MIXptJ-IXp!Vou, «H e:tp1)tJ-e:ptOIXPal.maya; (1878-89) XIX! 1) O"UtJ-bOA~ 't"1)C;0"'t"1)\1IX\lIXVEWO"Y) 't"1)C;\le:Oe:AA1)\I!X~C;AoYO't"e:'X,VtlXC;»,IapvaO"O"o; 21/2 (1979): I 235-57. 9. IIoAt't"ou-MIXPtJ-IXP!\lOU (xpmx~ O"'t"O\lIIIX1tIXxWa't"IX), o.1t., 0". 145.

EI~ArnrH

~TH

NEOTEPH

EAAHNIKH

AOrOTEXNIA

105

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