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|WywSB |=yxrHt VHvU


nv} w}= u=H

V H v U 'C U= xO W O t) | v } a | @= } RQ= QO xm | R } J u } Q N

|= yxrH t | @= } RQ= QO u OQ @ Q= m C=a@ D w (impact factor) Q} F-= D ?} Q



xO =iD U= u= R} t x m C U= |Q t
= | }= yX N= W lt m x @ |D vQDv }= = xrH t
| y
| = } Q CqH t OQw t QO u R= xO=iD U= x m | DqmW t XwY Nx @  |W ywS B
|tra C=Q = W D v= u t H v= Q } N= C U W v QO " O v yO u =Wv =Q xrHt R= CU= xOw@ Q=@ N= x- } QWv QO |OOaDt ?r=]t w Cq=kt `wwt  OQw|t V}B
=
Q t
xQ
- @ QO = |v=QvNU u}OvJ (Society for Scholarly Publishing) '`wwt C}ty= p}rOx@ =t= "OUQ@ Q_vx@ QQmt w xvym |F}OL O}=W xm |Qw]x@
|w=L Q=L x
- r=kt "s}v=O|t O}it Ovmi}@ u Q@ |=xR=D wDQB xm =Q |@r]t Qy GQO
x Qa =
| yK ] R= Q |m} |iQat "OW s=Hv= |m}vwQDmr= C qHt R= xO =iDU=
x- r-=Ut x@ 'u Q@ xwqa w 'CU= xQ=@ u}= QO |O}OH |=yO=yvW}B w xR=D |=yxDmv
(Project Counter)

 
u=Q= @ O =Dm %OW|t `w W Q K =w CQ =@a u}= =@ x W O | @= } RQ= u }= |=Q @ G }=Q |= yQ=}a t Ok v w l} vwQDm r= |= yxrH t | @= } RQ= sy t
Cq wYL t VRQ= u
T U= = Q @ = D O vQ=O =Q C qH t R= xO =iD U= Q= t
x @ R=} v "OR=OQB|t

'Q = L xt
- =@ Qk D "Ovv m | @= } RQ=
y , } =Q |D vQDv }= hrDN t | y = T } wQ U w

=Q Qmi u}= u=v=QvNU "OvOw@ ji=wt `w wt u}= =@ ,=Qy=_ Q =


'u= W v w u=Q= @ O =Dm " CU= |vOQtW CU= xOvQ=tW xJQy xv w'CU= xOvQ=tW CU= |vOQtW xJQy xv

| U= U= Q=R @= CQ Y w x@ xO =iD U= Q= t
'xOv }
=
| yp U QO = x m O vOQ m| t d}r@ D u}DWv}= CQ@r x@ ?wUvt
| =v@ t u }=Q @=v @ O
w ' t
O y=w N QO l} vwQDm r= C=Q =WD v= VRQ= VHv U QO
|WywSB | y= xrHt VRQ= u O}HvU Q
|= @ 1950 - yO x QN=w= QO Q}F-=D ?} Q
w Q W w = @ =y v
"O @ w O y=w N C qH t l= QD W= xQ =
- @ QO Q= WO | y| w = Q} os}tY D
QO xr=kt Qy |=R= @ x =yO=vDU= \UwDt O= OaD x@
- U=L t u
| =v@t w OW O
`= @=

s}v=wD|t =yv
R= xO=iDU= =@ xm OvOQm|t |Q=O@v=H |rta |=yO)m R= CQ=QL
x Hw D x-Ov yO u=W v ,qwta t = yO=vD U= uw J "C U= u= tR R= |YNW t xQwO
-
2 "s}vm O=tDa= O}OH =
| yQ= @= R u}= x@
xHwD \UwDt u= R}t O}=@ ,=DOa=k Q}F-=D ?} Q 'CU= xr=kt l} x@ u= QoWywSB
w CU= Q}F-=D ?} Q R= QD=RpmWt xO=iDU= Q=t
'^ =Lr |Q =}U@ R= |rw O
" yO u =Wv =Q xrHt l} O
QO x W A J Cq = =kt x@
u
Q}@aD |= @ Q |L} QY pwY= xm CU= u}= |U=U= x- r-=Ut sy OQ t w u}= QO
Q =}U@ Ow@ xOW xDiQo Q_v QO V}=Q@ xm |= x}rw= O
h y R= Q}F-=D ?} Q =t=
QWv |= @ Q |Uwmat G}=Dv CU= umtt Q=t
u}= = x= Q =
| H @ v O @ Q m "OQ= v O Hw O w ? } Q  %O W w | t xDi o u
xQ =
- @ QO  ] 4 OO
| } H -r x =k t QO " C U= xD iQ Q D=Q i
"OQw
Q @ = x@ |tra Q } R G } QO D x @ =Q |tr a C} r=a i x m C U= xD i= } |P wi v w CQ k u O =v J Q} F-= D

x@ w s}W=@ Q=t
R= xO =iDU= <wU xvwoQy u= Qov O}=@ sra py= u= wva x@ =t | =kDQ= w s=ONDU= QO |U=U= |Wkv ?} Q u}= w "OQw
|tQO OwN x]r
- U

Qt= u}= x@ |DUQO ?}DQD xm s}vm C}rwwU


- t T =UL= O}=@ u= O} =} Q u=wva u}ty QO " Ovm|t =i}= |D=k}kLD =
| yTQ @ | w =]a= w |tra =}
C- y | =a=

"s}yO@ x
% m O W w | t pk v 'Q} F-= D ? } Q x-Ovv m `= @= ' O Or} iQ= o u} Hw B pw k R= x r=k t
|= @ Q |@=} RQ= Q=R@= CQ Y w x@ ?} Q u}= xm s}OQm|tv |v}@V}B RoQy =t
C a = q ]= xU
- Uw
-t x m Ow W| t x@ U=L t | }= yxO=O |wQ R= Q} F-= D ? } Q
O xHOw@ X}YND w =]a=
QWDvt =Q  |tra C=O =vDU= x- }=tv xUUw-t u}= "OQw
|t OQo (ISI) |tr a
" }
QO w TQ @ |

'CU= |tra xrH t u=Q= y | y rR = x =kt xQ = = q]= = xm Ovm|t |= @ Q |L} QY pwY= uwJ Ovvm|t =Hx@=v xO
- =iDU= ?} Q u}= R= sO t Q
- - @ QO sRq C a |w L

=
| yxO=O x =o}=B x@ =Q u
C a HQ= w = = xr=kt Qy x@ w Q
\ @ t C a = q]= p=U Qy w
OwQ |t Q=mx@ |}=yR}J |@=} RQ= |=Q@ xrHt Q}F-=D ?} Q O
"OQ= v O Hw u
w Q}@aD

x- r=kt l} xm OQm u}}aD u= D w |t 'C a= q]= u}= R= xO =iDU= =@ "O}=Ri=|t OwN R= w ( = OvU} wv
u o = x =k qFt) CU= xOWv xDiQo Q_v
w y r t, QO =yv
|= @ Q RoQy xm

ISI x =t -} v QO x m | }=y v
s m C UO) | Oa @ | y r = x =k t QO Q @ = Ov J X N = ' y = xrHt OwN Ovv=t 'Ovv=ty=v |=yR}J u}@ R}t
x=@DW= |}=yxU}=kt |=Q@ u

ISI) C (Ov w |t =iDU=


QO =Q C qHt hYv R= QDW}@ U= xDiQo Q=Qk xO =iDU= OQ t w }
|t "O W xO

("OQ=O O N - } w x =tv = x=
| H @ v O @ Q m R= Q = sra py= xm CU= p=U =yyO "OQ= vO |oR=D xr-=Ut u}=
xvwo u}= R= |m =L |rYit w xO QDUo u=oDWwv w OvQ=O xwmW Q}F-=D ?} Q
2005 p=U 'X x
- rHt |=Q@ Q}F-=D ?} Q
1 "CU= xOt
O}OB =yVywmv w =yxwmW
Cq =kt x@ ISI Cq =kt xt
- y QO 2005 p U QO = xm |}=yO=vDU= O=OaD %A
CU= Ovtxkqa R}J xty |v}a |@=} RQ= x@ x w xm |}=}vO =
" CU= xOW 2004 w 2003 | yp U QO = = X xrH - t QO x W A J O =
' Q=w v= }O QO t=

xm |YN=W C}LqY|@ x=o pY-=DUt u* =@=} RQ= xm CU}v ?HaD


X xrH B R= ' w Qw

 
2004 w 2003 | yp U QO = = - O
t QO x W A J Cq = =k t O= Oa D %
O Ovv m =iD U= Ow W| t x@ U=L t u= U
| rw xOW v xD N=v W w
A/B %Q}F-=D ?} Q
|O a w xO ? N

xW}t y = O = =}k t w C L=Q u=W r=} N = D O vQw


C UOx @

a
xO U |O a | yT "O W

\UwDt x@
- U=Lt =@ xrHt u
Q}F-=D ?} Q =
'X N p U w = xrHt l} |= @ Q O Ovvm xUwUw
" v=x

1 1385 u=DU@=D
s#
4 %Ovm|t x}HwD u}vJ =Q x}YwD u}= hw Qat | yx = =oWv=O R= |m} "Ovvm x-}=tv QO O H t C w w qHt pm QO) =
p U u
QO xDiQo w
CQ Y | yO = =vDU= O=OaD
" }
O |t CUO x@ 'p@k p=UwO |] xrHt O
u
QO x W A J Cq = =kt x@ (ISI
Q =}U @ O= Oa D O }= @ RAE =
| yC- y | =} = a= x m C U= K =w
u }= x @ 'O W= @ 1"5 = @ Q @=Q @ 2005 p U QO |= = xrH t Q} F-= D ? } Q Q o = ,qF t
u o = Ovvm |UQQ@ "Ovvm |UQQ@ |y=Dwm O
C t QO =Q xr=kt |O } R =
w 2003 | yp U QO = = xDi=} Q=WDv= x- r=kt Qy '\UwDt Qw]x@ xm CU= |vat
w w xm OvR=OQB@ |}=yxr=kt |UQQ@ x@ OvQw@Ht u}vJty
` t QO
QO ISI x =t -} w w
v QO O H t C qHt xt
- y x
- awtHt =
QO Q @ 1"5 ' xrHt u
2004
R= xmv }= R H O vQ=O v |=xQ J = u }=Q @=v @ "O vQ=O v XYN D =y v

" CU= xDiQo Q=Qk O=vDU= w


OQ t 2005 p U =
"Ovvm xO=iDU= OW=@ |@=} RQ= QO =yv
| =tvy=Q xm |}=yXN=W
? =ND v= w x}y D s=ov y QO O }= @  u= QoW ywS B] =t W u }=Q @=v @ xvwtv | y= xrHt 2003 p U QO = Q}F-=D ?} Q
QO =Q y = XN=W xvwou}= 'O}vm|t x Qa RAE x @ xm |Dq=kt New England J Med 34.8
"O}W=@ xDW=O Q_v
Nature 31.0
l} u= wvax@ ,=iQY w w u}= 'Qo}O |y=oWv=O
=Q ` t w Q
QO \ @ t u= } t QO
Science 29.2
%Ovvm|t KQ]t C}ak=w Cell 26.2
Lancet 18.3
|= @ Q =yxr=kt ? =NDv= s=ovy '|tra | y = xDWQ R= |Q =}U@ QO
::: :::

w Q =yD W= u= R} t u}}a D Q Q} = ? } Q
|= @ F- D R= ' RAE x @ x =Q= Journal of AMS 2.5
5 "OwW|t xO =iDU= =yxrHt Q=@Da=
Annals of Math 1.5
% OU} wv|t | Qo}O Q}Ot w
SIAM of App Math 1.4
Inventiones 1.3
|W ywS B | y r = x =k t |rrt r=u} @ C}t y= u}}a D RAE h y O Reine Angew Math (Crelle) 0.7
Q} = ?} Q ?ULQ@ '|@} QkD Qw]x@ sm CUO 'Q=m u}= "CU=
F-D

6 "CU= =QH= p@=k =yxrHt


O= O a D x- U }= k t ,q F t "OQ=O |Q = m W
Cq = m W= C } i } m X N= W u }=
*
Q]=N 'Ovvm|t KQ] C =k}kLD |@=} RQ= |= @ =Q yOQ = wtvyQ xm |v=Um xD@r= nvyQi w CvU "OW=@ |vat|@ CU= umtt hrDNt | y = xDWQ QO =yO=vDU=

C}i}m Q=}at (s}kDUt Qw]x@) O}=@v =yxrHt Q}F-=D ?} Q xm OvR=U|t u=Wv ' hrDN t | y = xD WQ QO ( XN
$ W O N w xrt HR=) Qo }O Q= F
x @ Q
uO m O =vD U=

Cq wYLt |= @ Q xm s}v}@|t =yOwtvyQ u}= QO |Dkw |rw '7 OW=@ xr=kt Qy wO \k i C=O =vD U= O=Oa D uD iQ o Q_ v QO ' u}vJt y "OQ=O =
|O } R | yCw = =i D

10 VywSB Q
? kwGQ= |= @ w Q 20 |WywSB \}Lt |= @ Q 70 |WywSB |a@ QO "OyO CUO x@ |]re G}=Dv CU= umtt xr=kt Q=WDv= R= TB p=U

=Q = yxO=O x m C W=O Q=_D v= u=} y=oW v=O R= u= D w |t v 'O vw W| t p = k uRw R= TB p=U u}OvJ ,=@r=e =yO=vDU= (CU=yv
R= |m} =} =
C }Q xm) =yxDWQ
Q w xDiQo Q_v = \ki =QJ 3 "OvQ}o|t w xr=kt Q=WDv=
O =Hv=|t pwkat=v pta x@ sQHq pwkat=v CkO
" t | = =kD "OvQ@v Q=mx@ =Hx@=v = J w O W QO p U wO CQ Y

=D ? =ND v= wO Q y #O }
? =U Lx @ p= U l } O
QO x W s =H v= C=O =vD U= \k i
lDlD xQ =
- @ QO |D=aq]= G =DvDU= |= @Q =yO=vDU= pm Q* =tW R= xO =iDU=
"OQ= v O |L =w x}HwD w CU= |y=wN@rO |Ow L O
|UQQ@ "CU= |= v x =ktL= Q=m '|tra C qHt w
OQ t QO X wYNx@ '=yxr=kt
w CU= xrw=J Q=}U@ C=O =vDU= Q*=tW `} RwD xm OyO|t u=Wv =yxrHt |a@ R= |Q =}U @ x m C U= u }= Q} F-= D ? } Q OQ t QO w pmW t u } QD oQR @ | rw
8 "CUq=@ Q=}U@ =kt |t =D@Uv OaD w =tW u}=
Cq R= m , O= OQ t QO Q O= OaD R= ?} Q u}= "Ovvm Q}@aD K}LY Qw]x@ =Q u
xvwoJ Ovv=O|tv Q
sO t

Q =
|= @ yO =vDU= O=OaD R= QDq=@ Q=}U@ ,=@r=e =yO=vDU= Q=tW \UwDt 'u}=Q@=v@ - @ QO
xQ = (s}kDU w x)
t Q ] @ | R} J I} y w Ov m| t C }=m L = yO=vD U= \ UwD t

"CU= |awv x- r=kt l} Q ]uw =ty 'O} wo|tv CU= QOkJ =yxr=kt R= l} Qy x@ =yO=vDU= O=OaD xmv}=

= yx r=k t l Dl D C}t y= xQ = | aq ]= x m Qw ]u=t y Q} F-= D ? } Q O w |tv Q=wv=N Qy C}atH


" } o xQ =
- @ QO | R}J =yQ=wv=N C}atH \UwDt xm
- @ QO

u}= =@ "O} wo|tv | R}J sy u=irw-t lDlD xQ =


- @ QO |rw= j} Q]x@ 'OyO|tv xD Nw t
Q= t
| D= tOk t TQO QO O }= @ |U m Q y x m C U= |Q= OW y u }=
O =
| y W u= wvax@ =yxrHt Q}F-=D ?} Q R= u =vJty QO
u= } t w u=Q wWv=O 'p L= x =@D W= u }= ?m DQ t xDN} yQ i QO
u= } t w u =} y=oW v=O x m s}v} @| t | rw "O W= @
9 "Ovvm|t O=} =yxr=kt u o = OvU} wv |}=v=wD Q@ u =DUro v= QO xm (RAE) V S | @= } RQ=
yw B = x =Q
| y t v @ QO , qF t "O vw W| t
Q}@a D <w U s y xrH t C}i} m R= |Y N= W u=wv a x @ |D L Q} F-= D ? } Q =Q O N  w |WywSB pwYLt Q=yJ Ovy=wN|t u=QoWywSB R= 'O W w |t s=Hv=
O = = x =k t C}i} m 'C r= L u } QDy @ ? } Q u }= w |t x} Yw D QoW ywS B x @ ,qwta t = yx=oW v=O QO Ovv m x Q a Q

a
QO x W A J | y r QO ' "O W u= u= } t " |Qw=O |= @

w ' C U= sy t R }=t D u }= "=Q xrH t Ow N C}i} m x v O yO| t u=W v =Q xrH t ? =NDv= O=} R Q}F-=D =@ | y= xrHt R= =Q (x =k ) |W
r t S
yw B p wYLt Q=yJ Ovvm|t

2 41 |B=}B -xQ=tW
s#
= }
O w
"OQ= v O Hw Q t
= u }= Q}@a D |= @Q |L } Q Y pw Y= s y w u }=
OQ t QO ' Q} F-= D C}i}m |wQ R= uw wyD@ |vwitU l} xQ =
- @ QO uO m Cw Q =k u}@ Cw =iD Ovv=t
Q @ = OvJ Q = xm s}vm
u= @ Q m Cw =k T U= = u}= Q@ xrHt l} VRQ= xQ
- @ QO = O}=@ "CU= (measure) u= R}t Qy \UwDt C}i}m |wQ R= w u tw t = w Qy \UwDt
QO xm |= r x =k t = }
#| v= tR xQwO
- x J | ] #O v=xOQ m Ow ruw=O =Q u
Cq =k t Q y x @ x m | vqw ] x- r=k t wO =@ |= xrH t %C U= QDy @ wO u }= R= l} O
s= m

=O
Q @ Y xm |= r x =kt =} CU= QDy@ xOW Owruw=O Q=@xO VQ =WDv= p=U u}DUNv R= l} Qy x@ xm xr=kt CU}@ =@ |= xrHt =} xOW O=vDU= Q=@ xO =yv
R= s= m O
QO | Dw=iD t | y = Vk v = yx r=k t O
#x W O ruw=O VQ w =WD v= p= U u}tHv B QO Q_ v s y V UQ B u }= M U= B w
OQ t QO xt y #C U= xO W O=vD U= Q= @ l } =y v

|= @ Q |NQ@ 'Ovvm|t ltm =yxO}= O}rwD x@ |a@ %% Ovvm|t =i}= C =k}kLD | twO R= QDy @ Q= @ xO | rw= 's } Q}o @ l qt =Q Q} F-= D ? } Q Q o = = t= 'OvDU} v
s y=Q i =
=Q pR B R= | U=U L xm
- D |a @ w O vO}i t `w w t xv}
- tR R= ` q ]= QDtm (\UwDt Qw]x@) u}=Q@=v@ w OvQ=O | QDtm |= wDLt x=Dwm | y r = x =kt $CU=
= yO Y x m Q
|Qw t |= r x =k t = }
#C U= QDty t =yv }= R= l} O
s= m " vR UO = |t Q =WD v= x= Dw m x- r=k t =
|O } R O= Oa D x m C U= QDy @ = }
"O W w | t O=vD U= =y v
x @
xm |= r x =kt =} CU= QDtyt OvR=Ov=|t u
x@ |y=ov |iO=YD Qw]x@ xOvv=wN # |vqw] x-r=kt |tm O= OaD =} s}yO
|w =U t #O t=H v=| t QoW ywS B l } |= @ |=x Q Ovv m xQ} N OQw =D UO pwY L x @ ? } Q 'C U= C}i} m Q=}a t = yO=vD U= O= Oa D O W= @ OkDa t |U m Q o =
O = p =U t x vw ou }= Ow W| t E a= @
x }O v 'xO =iD U= Q= t
= @ xrH t VRQ= uD iQ o x m |i rw-t "C U= xrH t = x =k t C}i} m VHv U
| y r |= @ Q | y=Q ,=trU t Q} F-= D
VRQ= VHvU Q
|= @ |=xO U x=Q = xm OQw
|t V}B =Q Qmi u}= w OvwW xDiQo Oy=wN@ CU= umtt 'ODUQi@ |=xrHt x@ =
A J |= @ =Q V= r Q x =kt Oy=wN|t
O = |t u=U

" vR U =Q y = xrHt xU
- }=kt xm OOa OvJ %% CUy C}i}m s}y=wN@ Qo = |rw "O W w `r]t xrHt Q}F-=D ?} Q R= xr=kt x-=Q= R= p@k

=a
, k=w Q t
= u }= = }
"C U= xOvv m x=Qt o VO N xO w =iD U= Q= t
 K q] Y= xLiY Q=Ry Qy QO =yO=vDU= O=OaD xm CU= QDrwkat 's}HvU@ =Q xrHt OwN

l}rm =yv
|wQ xm |@r=]t xt
- y R= =tW OwN =}
#OHvU|t =Q xO =iDU= u= R}t R= |YN=W '?}DQD u}= x@ "s} Q}o@ Q_v QO =Q (QD =
m =Q m Q= y R Qy QO ' QDk}kO =})

x m C U= | v=m t= '?w browsing] Q


uO m Qw t # Q O}v m| t xO =iD U= O}v m| t T U= = Q @ = yxrH t | Ov @x@ DQ "O }
| t C UOx @ =wDL t O L=w QO |tr a VRQ=

R= QDO=} R |r}N '=Q ?r]t =


|O } R Q= Okt Ov=wD@ =D OQ=O Q= k Q Q@ Q=m Q=}DN= QO
Q@ | Ov @x@ DQ = @ | Dw=iD t xH}D
- v ?r e= xLi Y Q=R y Q y QO = yO=vD U= O=Oa D

Q =
u= @ Q m R= |Q =}U @ "Ov m Ow ruw=O | v= U
x @ 'OQ=O R =} v O qt a x m
u= @ , | LO " yOO |t CUOx@ Q}F-=D ?} Q T U= =

Qo = "Ovvm|t Owruw=O pwtat Qw]x@ =Q p }= i =


|O } R O= OaD '|DvQDv}= = O
C t N = yxO=O | y= o "OQ=O O Hw w Q} F-= D ? } Q OQ t QO w sy | Qo }O C qmW t

=yv
R= xm Cio OwW|t =}
'Ovv=wNv =Q =yv
w Ovvm Owruw=O =Q =yp}=i Q =
u= @ Q m Q_v x@ OvJQy) OwW|t ?mDQt |D=y=@DW= ISI "OvDU}v O=tDa= p@=k ,qt=m

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http://www.ams.org/mrcitations/search.html
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QO ,= N= xm |=xr=ktQU QO "8
accessed June 2006). xm O}|tQ@ u}vJ | =} Q = xrHt |UQQ@
| y R= " CU= xOW =yxr=kt R= 25 \ki x@ 2004

5 V. Milman, Impact factor and how it relates to qual- " OvyO|t X}YND OwN x@ =Q yO = =vDU= R= 75 ,q wtat =yxr=kt 25 Ow L O
ity of journals, Notices of AMS 53 (2006), 351-352.
Q Q} F-= D ? } Q | y=oW v=O C= @=YD v= | a @ QO x m O W O=yvW} B =} r=D }= qF t
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(http://www.ams.org/notices/ 200603/ comm-milman.pdf
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: Last accessed June 2006). w


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10. David Goodman, Palmer School of Library and Information


6 Nature 435 (2005), 1003-1004.
Science, Long Island University,
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O
x W C =} = } Q R= x N= W wO QO | U= U= | vw oQ oO E a= @ u=t rQ B C =@ F=
Q
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|= } wQ " C U= u
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x@ Ov=wD|tv RoQy xQm " """ w ' CU= xQ@vJ OQ=O M=Q U w l} xm |= } wQ & x CU=
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|R U T L C O =@ F= |va } Q D|r m |= xH}D v
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| y

'Ovvm sUHD Ovv=wD|t |ty@t RQ] x@ \ki =Q |}=yxv}tN u}vJ Q


sO t "O m Q "CU=yxv}tN u}= |= @  Q |@ w=vD O
pw H ` v w l} |va} OQ=O |t}W
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xw o Q x @ sw Uw t |Q= @= xQR =m v=w B "O vR=OQB @ =y v
X= N QO w j}kL D x @ w Ovv m
u }= "OQw
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u= D w | t =y v
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XNWt |= @Q |y=Q OvOQm |aU |va} Ow@ xOv=t QwO u W = Q_v R= `kwt u
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| =vLv= =@ |L=wv QO O=} R |=vLv= =@ |


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8 41 |B=}B -xQ=tW
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2004 QO =O v m = = |r=tW pL=wU x@ l}ORv Q R
|=x } H QO xvwo u}= x@ jraDt |] ? wvH ?]k sy w OvrvwQo sy xm OvyO|t u=Wv =y|Q}oxR=Ov= u}=
= @ | y= t u }= uy B Q U w C U= QD t 3 x @ ? } Q k | y= t u }= pw ] "O W hW m u= R} t "O v=xOw @ Ow N | y = M} uO=O C UO =
R= p L QO xD WP o p= U 10 =D 5

jta sm =
| y?
QO xm OyO|t u=Wv Q
OQ=O Q= k u
|q @ QO = xm |}=ysWJ '? wvH ?]k w
OQ t QO w p U QO = uD=o}o 100 OvrvwQo w
OQ t QO M} Vy=m
R }=tD t Qo }O x @=W t = xw
| y v o R= =Q | y= t u }= xJ v
"C U= xO m Q | t | oO vR =Q = yTw v=} k= ?
K] U Rwv y xO }O B u }= "C U= w =
xO @ p U QO u D=o} o =y yO
QO R} v Q
uO o O Hw " w C U= | } wr H = x=
| y r @ QO G vQ
w I t Ow Hw Ov m| t umt t x m O v=u=Qo v u=QoW ywS B | rw OQ @|t v q= @ uQ k QO QD t 0"1 R= QDW} @
uD iQ u} @ R= E a= @ `w w t u}t y "C U= OQ ix @ QYLv t ,q t= m | y= t u }= u wv m = D "O @= } V }=R i= uQ k QO QD t l } x @ l }OR v x-Ov }
QO u= R} t u }= C U=
s =tD QO Tri VWwB |rw CU= xOW |y=t u}= QO |WW@
nQ @ | y R = Tri R= QDW} @ =Q |N } | y = xvy B *M } 'u} tR |r m uO W sQ o x m Ow @ u }= Q @ Z i Q
" CU= xDW=O OwHw Q=Ov=H u}= uO@ K]U O W w |t ?
QDa} QU \ki xv M} xm CU= xOW swrat |rw 'Ovm|t ?
V}B

QO w= x@ 'xvwo u}= xv}


- U xUi
- k QO OvtwQ}v = O
| yx vO O Hw w OUQ|t Q_vx@ =yxvyB R= | QDW}@ CaQU =@ M} =
| yxO D w w Ovm|t CmQL sy QDa} QU xmr@

=yxUwm O=
R= u v t u t= QO |= @ = Q |mWN x@ ?
R= uDN} Qo w Tiv uDW=O xov u}= =}
"Ot
Oy=wN V}B xJ ,=Oa@ Ovv=O|tv QoWywSB p=L "OvwW|t
u= QwO

"CU= xO mQ |t ltm C= QWL Q=mW =} w u JQ =} =mW Qo}O w Oy=wN xt=O= u=vJty =yM} Q w
h= ]= QO = y w ?
u W s o | k , O Q w =D@Uv u* =} QH
Q_Dv t O }= @ #O W O y=w N h}a D |t}r k= |a}@ ] C= Q}}e D Q F= Q @ = } w C i= }

** | Q = } t v T=@r "5
"O @ w O}OH | y = xDi=}

u O W | } Q t= v C}r @= k x m
| r } N D%| t r a E L= @ t x @ s= o l }
=Q | U=@ r u} rw= OvDU v=w D = yu=Om } R} i p=U t=
=Q s w r a Q= m u }= = @ w O v i= @ @ OQ=O
* xOvQB xv '|y=t xv "4

QO R w v y x D @ r= x m p m W |= xkrL (T = @ r) V Ww B u }= "O v v m l }OR v R= x m O vOQ m R= e


=Q | y= t p } U i l } |
* UQQ @ = = v Wu } Q }O
u U p = U t=
\ Uw D x m 'C U= | } Q t= v | D kw \ k i 'C U= C N= U |
* }=O D @= p L=Q t
Q_ v x @ w C U= xD W=O =Q |mW N QO Tiv D | }= v=w D QwO |r} N xD
- WP o

C=R= t w x@ xm XNWt w
G t p ] w = @ (| }= yGw t R } Q) | }= yw } wwQ m }= t |mWN QO =Q | vqw ] V } @= t m | D i= U t = D x D U v=w D| t | D L O UQ| t
|= x k r L x- r } Uw u }= "OO o x Q O y= W t O vw W Q W D v t Ow N x k r L x- L i Y x@ = x =
| y r @ w O v tw v D x- F H = @ x k r N r=? } H a Ow Hw t u }= "O }= t } B @
"O m Q Oy=wN O=H}= |U}]=vetwQDmr= G=wt= R= xO=iDU= R= =t lQO QO |@qkv= pmW x m C U= V } B =
p U u w}r}t 375 x@ jraDt |Q= O v= H xO } @ U J s y
=Q x J v
w O }
? = U L x @ p t= m D u } = QH QO O wkit |= x k r L O v=w D| t
"Ovm uWwQ QDW}@ OvQw
QO hQYD x@ =Q |mWN =D OQm ltm |Oa@ u=Qwv=H x@ xm

Q@ w (2006 ) |Q H p U = = x t x= t QO |R U = | } Q t= v p t a u }=
G= t= h=w QL v= u=m t= O vOw @ xO mQ |v} @V} B x m pkDU t p}rL D wO T U= =
=
R e
OQ=O O Hw 'u
Q w =DDU= Qw_vtx@ sUH l} Q
h= ]= QO |U}]=vetwQDmr=
R= |= xDUwB xm Ow@ R=}v =yvD =yp}rLD w C U =@ =Lt u}= uO m Q |rta Q O
|= @ " W

%O W w | L=Q ] pm W C | y = xkr L w | Rr i =
lR v | y = xr} t uD W=P o s y Q=v m R= O vw W| t xD N=v W O= B=QD D s= v = @ x m '= B w C UO *
|=Q=O u=Q=Ox Qy t s=t D
E a= @ w OQw
|t QO C mQ Lx @ u
QO =Q = yuwQDm r= xD Uw B = @ w
G= t= OQ N @ w Q 360 =D 370 u} @ C U=xOw @ | vq a = x=
| y r @ |=Q=O x m | y= t xw
|= v o

X= N s w =tD =yp}rLD u}= |wO Qy QO "OOQo|t Gwt CmQL QO ` =]kv= O=H}= |DrmU= ?}Ha u=}y=t `wv u}= QDW}@ "Ov=xOW ?aWvt V}B p=U uw}r}t
|k=@ \ki w O @ x W w O x@U=Lt =yxkrL w =yxr}t u}= | Q}oQ=Qk x-wLv w O= t w x r= @ =
| yu= wND U= uO @ w C WQO 'u =} t u }= QO & v= O xD W=O xD i= } pm W Q}}e D
O
" vQw
QO pta x@ =Q u
y = QoW}=tR
xm Ow@ xOv=t O
s= v= u t
O O}OB x@ QHvt C}=yv QO pmW u}ty "CU= |yHwD p@=k x-O}OB
O vOw @ xO=O s =H v= =Q C =@ U=L t x m | ywQ o wO u }= R= |m } 'Q@D m = QO u}vJ xF
- H uRw ptL Q xm CU= xOW
|= @ u
Oa@ =t O=
u=Q= v H QO =B w CUO
= Om} R}i "pt=m Qw]x@ xv |rw 'OvQw
QO =QH= x@ pta OvDUv=wD u} QDoQR@ O}OH p}Ui u}= "CU= w Q |mWN Q@ |D=OwHwt

a
| yu= =Q u
QO xO @ |Qw |wQ

"OvDN=U |} Qt=v xkr


- L l} |} Qt=v x
-Qm l} = x@
| H (Duke) lwO x =oWv=O p}U i x U "C U= xO W hW m u wv m = D x m C U= = yO= B=QD D x @ x}@ W | y= t

9 1385 u=DU@=D
s#
* |DU } R `wvD x=Q QO |wQW}B "7 QO p t= m | } Q t= v C r= L R= =Q V Ww B O vOQ @ Q= m x @ x m | }= y? } Qk D QO =y v

h QLv t ? wr] t | wL v x @ =Q = yGw t R } Q xkr L u }= p= L Q y x @ = t= "OQw


|t
OvwWv xO}O |} Qt Qwv QO xm |}=yT=@r CN=U =D Rwvy OwHw u}= =@ Q |t
"O m
| y = pU v O=OD t= R= Gw N Q = @ x vwo J xD i= }V }=Rw v = x w xmv }=
| y v o xQ =
- @ QO
|= @ Q |} Qt=v T=@r u}= R= xO =iDU= u=mt= CQ Y w Qy x@ "s} Q=O xrY=i =yp=U
u= Ov J C a = q ]= O vQ} o| t V} B w
QO O N |= @ =Q Q x v= o =O H | Q}U t 'u}W} B
$CU} Qov uwQ}@ x@ u=wD|tv u
pN=O R= =Q} R 'OQ=Ov OwHw |UwU=H C=}rta
R }=t D x @ x m |r t=w a xD WP o x= t 12 QO C =k}kL D "s } Q=O v Q=}D N= QO |O } R =
xD N= U Q=m W
=Q O vw W| t QHv t C=O H tw w Q }= U u} @ QO O }O H = xw
| y v o

p=Ut QDy@ syi QO =Q Tm}twvS Vv=O |}=v=wD sy R=@ C =k}kLD u}= "CU=
M U= B =}v @ V UQ B l } x @ Ov m| t = =t v |r t=m D | U=v WCU } R
OQR x
- mr ?}U x@ qD@t u=Q=t}@ |=Q@ |O}t= x- vRwQ "6
|O w u }

O |t O}OB xvwoJ |DU} R `wvD %OyO|t


" }

V t QO w |oD i= } R }=t D p t= a u}}a D x @ w |t


u= D C =k}kL D u }= xrt H R=
|Q = t } @ `w v l } R= xm =
|O } R O= i= |= @ Q Q |@wN = Q @ N 'x D WP o p= U
| y
-

Qo }O R= =Q x vw o u }= x m C Uw B Q Du WwQ n vQ Q =
"O m xQ W= = } Q O wr i |r L= U u U x @ xDU @=w uw} U=Q vSO w = =}
Qq m t OQR - xm r ?} U
s= vx @ | }=v} @ x-Ov y= m

QO O}Dw rmwv l} Q}}eD p}rO x@ =yvD Ovm|t X}NWD p@=k V}=yxO=wv=Nsy New England xrH - t ' Q@Dm )= QO "CW=O x=Qtyx@ 'OvQ@|t GvQ (AMD)
xm OyO|t u=Wv Qo}O C =k}kLD "CU= xOt
O}OB 1% u}DQwmwvqt x-OvQ}o uS
u =Wv xm OQm QWDvt =Q |v}r=@ |}=tR
Q=m wO G}=Dv Journal of Medicine
=D@Uv Q=kvt uOt
O}OB Ea=@
, T wDm =m x-QyU QO u}rwOwtr=m uS s}_vD sOa l} QO , } =@ QkD =Q |}=v}@ 'Ranibizumab  |wQ=O =@ u=tQO xm OvO=O|t

" CU=xO}OQo xOvQB u}= QO Ovr@ V }=R i= 'C U= w Q


? ] t s i Q x AMD Q O
m D| H s i Q x @ qD@ t u=Q =t} @ sw U
=
| yu tQO = Q }= U "Ov m| t C}@F D =Q Qo }O u=Q =t} @ ?r e= C}a w w xO=O

uD iQ C UO R= " Ovv m Ov )m =Q AMD C i QW} B =yv D Ov v=w D| t xO W O} }-= D


w |a}@ ] Q} e | vw N jw a Q O WQ R= | W= v AMD w Q
? ] t s i QO Q | }=v} @
" CU= (sWJ x}m@
- W) u}D |RmQt x}
- L=v 'Qqwm =t QO =yv
R= `}=t (CWv) GwQN

Cw =iD t = xw
| y v o |wQ Q @ xa r=] t = @ 1930 - yO x Q N=w= R= u= OvtW v=O
Q =}U@ |DL *
Cw =iD xm OvOw@ xDi=} QO xw}t xW
- B w pFt
`= v= O=
u=Q= v H R= |a@
| y = pU v QO hrDN t | vS x=o }= H Ov J = } wO u} @ QO | vS | r=w D | R H
'|DU } R x-O}J} B | yx= Ov }=Q i | ] w= s xw
'xO= v N y - v o wO V R} t
R= p Y= L
C =}L x- t=O= Q =}v
|= @ R w |v} DwQB pwYLt O}rwD
OQ t QO p qDN= O=H}= Ea=@
O W s=H v= xD WP o p= U w w u}t y x- t=O= x m | D=k}kL D "OOQ o| t
AMD
QO ` t QO
=y v
"OvDU y R} v | Qo }O xv}
- tR QO C iQW} B p= L QO ' u =kkL t
wO QO x w}t xW
- B hrDN t x
- vw o wO QO u =Um} uS l} | Q}oQ=Qk xm O=O u =Wv
|Q =t}@ x@ OQi | qD@= O=OaDU= Q@ xm =Q uS u}OvJ xDWPo s}v w p U = l} |]
w |t =yv
pY=L x- oQwO pUv qDN= Q Ea=@ =iDt x=o}=H
VEGF
"O W R= QO p Rw @ Cw
uS ' yuS= u }= R= |m } "O v=xOQ m Q=m W
'O vQ=P o| t Q} F-= D |tW J
|m} x}
QO uS - rw= - xNUv P
h L w u W O ha=t R= |W=v Ov=wD|t xO}OB u}=
R} v | vw N jw a Q O WQ s}_v D x @ x m = | t |v} DwQ B Qo }O
OR U uS l } &C U=
O = xvwo
" W @ wO u}= R=
xar=]t w
OQ t =Q |}=yuS |D=k}kLD xw o Q u}OvJ 'u}= Q@ xw qa "Ovm|t ltm
x @ | @ w N x @ x oQwO x- vw o 'xD iQ o CQ Y Cw =k}kL D R= OQ t w l} QO xD@ r= OvQ=O Vkv ? =yDr= u=} QH QO xm Ovvm|t Om =Q |}=yu} DwQB xm Ov=xO=O Q=Qk
= @ |r t=m D | U=v W CU } R u=YYND t u wS x= t QO " yO O | t x t=O= <=k @ u}}aD "OvwW |Di=@ ?}U
Ea=@ CU= umtt OvwWv pQDvm |DUQO x@ Qo = w

=
| yQ= v w xm xoQwO O=R l} w= s
'xO= v N y | y v=w B R= Cw = x Q =iDt x- vwo wO V R}t
QO O i Q = }
xmv }= w
OQ t QO | Q} os}tY D QO l WR B x @ Ov v=w D| t = yuS u }=
\ w] N KQ ] u}v J "O vOQw
C UOx @ =Q OQ=O V }= yp= @ |wQ Q @ R tQ k w OQR =}
'u
`@D x@ w Q}N =} CUy AMD x @ qD@= ^ =Lr =
R= |O } R Q]N Z Qat
w | t E a= @ C U= P Q} e |t }O k x- vw o Q = = Q @ |o vQ =yu=O}Um = |Dv
QDW}@ QYt uwJty xOvvm Q}oW}B = O x@ R=}v

a
O W w ?= H |= @ ' yp @ |wQ w h | C t= k=

O
" yO xt=O= | Oa@ | y = pUv O}rwD x@ =D
xO i= = H Q ]O w x@ O}OH x-vwo u}= " Ovm ltm 'Q}N =} OQ=O Q =o}U p=taDU= sOa

10 41 |B=}B -xQ=tW
s#
*** x_ = i L sw=OD "9 * Qwv |=yC}OwOLt CUmW "8

\@ |o vwo J C U= KQ] t ? =Y a= swr a QO x m |ty t p =U t R= |m } w = ypwr U u=tD N= U R= | D Q u WwQ Q } wY D OvDU v=w D p=U t= u= U=v WCU } R
'xv} tR u }= QO ? r= H Cq =tD L= R= |m } "C U= Re t \ Uw D O }O H C= ] NQ = | y = C }OwOL t R= | B wm UwQm} t |Qw =v i u }= O
QO " vQw
C UOx @ = yu} DwQ B
= w
| yuwQ v u t C ] DQ= =} = =@ xm CU= ( O
C t R=QO C} wkD) LTP s=v x@ | Ov}=Qi | U=v WCU } R C a t = w w |v} a C =@ F= w O W w |t ? =vD H= l}D B= x=
|= } B

l} LTP x m O vQ=O xO } k a u= Y Y N D t R= |Q = } U @ "O v m| t C } w k D =Q


s}v R= QDmJwm |}=}W= Ov=wD|tv |rwtat A wmUwQm}t l} "OO o Q |t umtt
p =U t= "C U= xO w@ v u= U
`w w t u }= C =@ F= | rw C U= x_ i= L sU} v=m t
X}NWD =Q O @Q |t Q=mx@ =yv
uO m Q uWwQ |= @ Q xm =Q |= xaW= =} Qwv w
G t p ] w
O
" t
CUOx@ Q_v u}= O}}-=D QO |O OaDt Oy=wW "CU= QDtwv=v 200 Ow L O |rwtat Qwv |= @ Q= Q Okt u}= "OyO
|wQ V}=tR
=@ xm OW hWm |v=tR 1970 - yO x p}=w= QO LTP Ov}=Qi
stimulated emission = x | | =t =kkL xD P p s v @ WwQ v r
u t' W o } Qw
QO

E a= @ |m } QDm r= | r=wD t =m } QL D =] k l } x m O W swra t = yVw oQ N


Q STED =YD = ( O l QL p}U = |y ) depletion
C R= Q
|= @ =Q ,=Q N= } x W } D o |R U D

x_i=L x@ xm Ret R= |= x}L=v) At=mwB}y QO =yuwQwv u}@ Cq =YD= C} wkD


=ypwm} Rw s=v x@ |@Ya |=ypwrU QO OwHwt R} Q Q=}U@ |=ypwUBm -xOy=Wt
u}= R= `v=t xm |}=ywQ=O Qo = O=O u =Wv | Oa@ C =ar=]t "OwW|t ( OQ=O \@ Q
p k= v Vk v x m =
|=xO t " vO=O Q= k xO O Q =iD U= OQ t w |U B=v} U | (= y xJ @=@ L)
"O Ww |tv p}mWD O}OH Q =
C= ] N 'O W xO=O u= w w}L l} x@ OvwW|t Ov}=Qi
x}rN D '| rwr U <=W e x @ p wm } Rw p =Y D= s=ov y 'Ov m| t =i }= =Q |@Y a
OvvmpYDt x@ pwm} Rw u} DwQB l} xm OvO=O u=Wv Q u}= w |t
*
x
- uwQO xw o "O W

|=x_Lr |Q=mDUO "10 x m O W KQ] t xO }= u }= u }=Q @=v @ "O v= t| t| k= @ xO}@U J <=W e w p wm } Rw


OH t x}y D x @ R=} v wma t Ov }=Q i | ] O }O H pwm } Rw Q} opm W s=ov y
|rHD uOW hkwDt Ea=@ xm RNA l w
J m | yp = wmrwt R= | Y= N w
`= v=
O - 'T |

l} =@ =Q = yu} DwQ B =y v
xO y=W t u }= s=H v= Q CU} v \}L t
|= @ " R= u} DwQ B
Q} N= =
| yp U QO = x Hw D w
OQ t Q =}U @ = w
C a t R= w O vOQ o| t =y vS | NQ @
xR=
- O u} QDW}@ =D
v= =Q |UQQ@ OQ t - vw x wtv w OvOQm |Q= o v P x =Wv CvUQwri =
xO
- t
O }O H `w v u=kkL t "CU} v =vFD U= u} @ u }= QO R} v 2006 p U " v=xO @ = O w
R}r V@=D CLD 'Ovmv =HD Q=Umv= OL x]kv xDN}ov=Q@ V@=D xm |vmtt
=} Piwi-interacting RNA u= wva =@ =Q =yRNA xDUO u}= R= | Qo}O
Q Rw R= -

=} U x- r= J l } = @ x=Qt y Qo }O T r= B l } =iD U= = @ TB U "O vO=O Q=Q k


O =Wt "Ov=xOQm hWm =ypiRNA
x R= xO
w=
u= v H |wQ Q@ xDiQo *
CQ Y Q w =}U@ C= y

Ovw=W} wN =@ ,=U=U= =ypiRNA xm OyO|t u=Wv u=Uv= xrtH R= w hrDNt


\ =k v O L = D =Q Cv UQwr i \ =k v V @= D OvDU v=w D '\ Uw QO (dark hole)
x vwt v Cv UQwr i K] U Q =@ Ov yO V y= m u WwQ R } Q Q=}U @
C@=kQ p=L QO Rwvy u= OvtWv=O "Ov=Cw=iDt lJwm | y = RNA O N w l}ORv
QO QO VR=O B w

O
" vQw
CUOx@ QDtwv=v xO OvJ Kw w =@ | } Q wYD C}=yv
QO | Qo}O | yu = =mt |wHDUH w =yv
x@ `H=Q | QDW}@ C a = q]= uDi=} |= @ Q
Q
xw o 4 xD WP o u=DU @= D QO Q @= u} rw= "OvDU y Ov W= @ u=WatH D pL t x m uO @ u= w v a = @ | Q DxO = U x
- w } W R= xO = i D U= = @ | Q o }O xw Q o

Q_ v l } R= " vO mO Q h} Yw D OOaD t Cq =k t QO =Q = ypiRNA u=kkL t R= u =m t u}}a D) photoactivated localization microscopy


xm Piwi =
| yuS " O}UQ|tv Q_v x@ Q=_Dv= R= QwO u= OvJ =ypiRNA hWm |L =w Q} w=YD PALM =YD x = ( w = O l QL
Q N= xr} x @ } Q v @ x W } D C=QP - Uw @

w w = yuS
s U t R= |=xO= v N w= x @ jraD t O vw W| t pYD t =y v
x @ = ypiRNA |Q v w =@ =yvD xm |DvUQwri =
| yQ= o v P x =Wv R= =yv
"OvQw
CUOx@ =yu} DwQB R=

w = ymiRNA pF t Qo }O l Jw m =
| y RNAx m OvDU y Argonaute x @ V @= D = @ u=kkL t "O vOQ m xO =iD U= O vw W| t xDN}o v=Q @ u}a t w
G t p ] w =@

Q@ u= OvtWv=O "OvwW|t pQDvm w=


xO= v N u}ty | yuS= Qo}O \ w siRNAU D p wmrwt l} OvDUv=wD u}}=B Q=}U@ T =}kt QO =
X N G t p ] w w u}= =@ |Q R}r

QO =Q s QBU= | yp = wrU |Q=Oyov w OWQ | y = Ov}=Qi Piwi uS xm OvQw=@ u}= QO =Q sy@t | } Q wYD Rwvy pwmrwt u}= xD@r= "Ovvm uWwQ O
=Q x W |Q= ou P =Wv

Ovvm|t s}_vD
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u=Q= v H R= |Q =}U@ xm
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= t= O yO| t u=W v A wm UwQm} t Q } R

|Y=N C}@=PH u=U=vWCU} R |=Q@ =ypiRNA RQ=@ |=y|oS} w |NQ@ Ovvm u}}aD QDtwv=v OL =D
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22 p ] @ w = xU}=kt QO =yv
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xR= v= QO yx = w}W u}= xmv}=


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| y

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'srat C}@ QD x=oWv=O '|r=tH =


Q}ra
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| yxw oP Q |DN} QOwN Q
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'O m Q QyW x=oWv=O 'OwQ xr}B |t=UL =v=}D=D s}kt "1


Innite sums as linear combinations of digamma func- 'TQ t O C}@ QD x=oWv=O '| Qk=@ OtLt O}U
tions. " l}UqmQ}e =
| yp t -} O x Q_v
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Elsner-type approximation formulas for Euler's con-
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stant.
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Q QyW x=oWv=O '|irN


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QO}tL

' u} wRk ( )|v}t


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|Wy=m xkr
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Q}ra "l} SwrwB wD Q
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Q
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15 1385 u=DU@=D
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OO
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Formal verication of network protocols. %u=Q =mty


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"u=QyD |mWRB swra x=oWv=O w x =oWywSB '|Ow Qovr |a}]t x@ RwQ %

'u= QyD x=oWv=O 'u =}@=Qy= xO}=y


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applications.
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On the b-chromatic number of graphs.

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Q 
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Linkage oating. "u |Q= |S r

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learning automata: a proposal. "u= QyD |mWRB swra x=oWv=O w x =oWywSB '|Q v= |w = Oyt Q@m =|ra %

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|}=Q=m =@ = O
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=
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Fuzzy proportional dierentiated service.
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x @ xrt L QO | v=w D p=vo} U p}rL D Cy H |= @ Q O }O H = sD } Qwo r= x- =Q=


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|R Up t 'u O =} wQUN THQv %Q=mty Ckw xQ=B u}kkLt 

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Numerical simulation of the stochastic dynamics of in-
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clusions in biomembranes in presence of surface tension.
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| @= D - r

Charge transport through thiophen bithiol molecule as a


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molecular wire.
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'Q vs B x 'xO=RQ =iY =
Q}ra
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'u= 'xO=R| OtLt =
QOtLt
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tronic properties of Pr at R and Ba sites in RBa2 C u3 O.
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= Xkv xa
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'|O QHDUO O}Lw O}tL Spin ip eect on electrical transport in magnetic quan-
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a magnetic-quantum wire.
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Projective modules: some old and new results.

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Formalism of e ective eld theory.
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Repulsively bound atom pairs in an optical lattice. 'x =oWywSB '| Q}W@ |rw

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'x=oWywSB 'u=O=OLQwB|t} Qm xt}yi Very special relativity and the neutrino mass.
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bon nanotube. - New results from non-accelerator neutrino experi-
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Cell in the presence of electric eld. - High energy neutrinos from the sun,
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past and future.
A water lm motor.
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Void algorithms. Maxwellian plasma.

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Search for atmospheric features of transiting exoplanets. Unstable coupled-mode structures in a one-dimensional
Raman free-electron laser (I,II).
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Space-(time) from the viewpoint of dynamical cellular


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networks(dcn) model of quantum gravity.
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jects.
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Nano-clusters and nano-defects of diamond.

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String cosmology (I,II,III).


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Fundamenta Informaticae
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 From process theory to process algebra |tra ^ =Lr R=IFIP/TC2 ACM/SIGSOFT V =t u w =Q } y }=

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C a |= @ Q
 Process algebras in action "O}vm `wHQ http://cs.ipm.ac.ir/FSEN07

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