All you need to know about

the Eiffel Tower
324 m 250 m2 276 m

1 430 m2

115 m

4 415 m2

57 m

125 m

Key figures

• Initial height: 312 m (to the top of the flagpole) • Current height (including antennas): 324 m • The deepest foundations: (North and West) lie 15 meters underground. In each of these foundations, four pillars of masonry are built, which bear the four uprights of each leg of the Tower, known as rafters. • Total weight: 10,100 tons • Weight of the iron structure: 7,300 tons • Space between the pillars: 1st platform: 4,415 m2 2nd inner platform: 1,430 m2 3rd inner platform: 250 m2 • Height of the platforms: 1st platform: 57 m 2nd inner platform: 115 m 3rd inner platform: 276 m • Lighting: 336 600-W projector lamps (sodium lamps). • Number of bulbs for the Sparkling Tower: 20,000 • Number of steps in the East pillar to the top: 1,665 • Number of rivets (total): 2,500,000 • Weight of paint used: 60 tons for each repainting campaign • Time required for painting: the Eiffel Tower was repainted in its entirety every seven years. • Number of elevators: From the ground to the second floor: 5 (one in the East pillar, one in the West pillar, one in the North pillar, one private elevator in the South pillar for the “Jules Verne” restaurant and one goods elevator in the South pillar). From the second floor to the top: two sets of two duolifts. • Elevator speed: 2 meters/second. • Passenger flow and capacity of the elevators North pillar: 920 persons/hour East pillar: 650 persons/hour West pillar: 650 persons/hour Duolifts: 1,140 persons/hour Jules Verne: 10 persons/ascent Goods elevator in the South pillar: 30 persons or 4 tons/ascent

• Number of persons working on the Tower: SNTE: 280 Restaurants: 240 Souvenirs: 50 Other: around 50 • Number of analogical TV stations: 6 • Number of free digital TV stations: 30 • Number of radio stations: 31 • Number of antennas: 120

Gustave Eiffel was an exceptionally gifted engineer and builder. • 1880 .Born in Dijon on December 15 to François-Alexandre Eiffel and Catherine Mélanie Moneuse. • 1863 . 1832 in Dijon. • 1875 .Viaduct over the Tardes. the observation of meteorology and especially the installation of a giant antenna for the earliest radio broadcasts. where his mother has some contacts. Opening of the Universal Exhibition. he devoted his time to operating the Tower and to various experiments in air resistance. He was responsible for the metal structures of the Bon Marché department store and the Crédit Lyonnais bank in Paris.Construction of the Bordeaux bridge.The construction of the Eiffel Tower in 1889 was his crowning achievement. His extraordinary career was marked in 1876 by the construction of the Maria Pia bridge over the River Douro in Portugal. since it was initially built to last 20 years! Biography – A few key dates • 1832 . then of his mother. He graduated from the prestigious Ecole Centrale de Paris. Gustave Eiffel withdraws from the company to devote his time to his scientific work. and the Thouars Viaduct.Construction of the Garabit Viaduct. • 1885 . • 1923 . . the cupola of the Nice observatory. he is at first condemned by the Paris Appeals Court but the verdict is overruled and the builder is cleared of all wrongdoing. Portugal.Marries Marie Gaudelet on July 8.The Maria-Pia bridge in Portugal and numerous construction projects for the Universal Exhibition of 1878.He successfully obtains his diploma from École Centrale and embarks on a career in metallurgy. Egypt and Latin America. it is because of these experiments that the Eiffel Tower is still standing.Viana and Beira-Alta bridges in Portugal. • 1857 .The Cubzac bridge and the exporting of bridges that can be dismantled in Indochina. the very impressive internal structure of the Statue of Liberty. • 1887 . • 1909 . The couple will have two more daughters and two sons. • 1868-1871 .Observatory of Nice. a builder of steam machines and equipment for the railways. Indeed. • 1843 . Romania.Designed an aeronautics laboratory near the Champde-Mars. • 1880-1884 .Death of Gustave Eiffel on December 27. the viaducts of the Brive-Tulle line. he signs on at École Centrale where he chooses to study chemistry.The Tower is completed.He is appointed head of the design department at Pauwels & Cie.Gustave Eiffel (1832 .The Western Station in Budapest.1923) Card 1 Born on December 15.Szeged bridge in Hungary. • 1850 . • 1884 .Involved in the Panama Canal corruption scandal.Internal structure of the Statue of Liberty.He enrols at the Paris college of Sainte-Barbe to prepare his entrance exam to Polytechnique. • 1883 . • 1877 . From then on. in Paris and experiments with detent apparatus. • 1855 . • 1876 . • 1882 . Having failed the exam. above all. and.Work starts on “the 300-metre high tower”. • 1890-1895 .Death of his wife. • 1879 .Various projects in Spain. Contract for the Panama Canal. • 1871-1873 .Construction of a viaduct on the CommentryGannat line.Construction on Rue Boileau in Paris of the first wind tunnel.He is recruited by Charles Nepveu. His career as an entrepreneur would come to an end with the failure of the Panama Canal project. • 1867 . • 1856 .His early childhood is spent with his maternal grandmother and at school at the Lycée in Dijon where he passed his baccalaureate.Having been a self-employed consultant engineer for a year.Birth of his daughter Claire. then by that of the Garabit Viaduct in central France in 1884 and Budapest station in Hungary. • 1889 . • 1912 . • 1858-1860 . grand equatorial cupola. he starts his own company. • 1860 .

Heinrich Hertz discovers electromagnetic waves.Clément Ader takes off aboard “Éole”. • 1886 .Louis Blériot crosses the Channel. the first Paris metro and the construction of the first rigid airship or dirigible balloon by Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin. • 1903 .First attempts to transmit hydraulic energy. Nikolaus Otto. everything was changing. • 1883 .The Universal Exhibition. • 1877 .The discovery of radioactivity in uranium salts by Henri Becquerel.The state of technology at the end of the XIXth century Card 2 The end of the XIXth century saw a considerable number of inventions that have revolutionized our lives.Émile Reynaud’s optical theatre at the Musée Grévin. Etienne Jules Marey introduces chronophotography on mobile film.Things were moving. • 1898 . • 1890 . • 1892 .The first telegraph links are set up from the Eiffel Tower.Philo Remington’s typewriter. Léon Serpollet designs the three-wheel steam-run vehicle. At the time. the ancestor to talking film.The telephone is invented by Alexander Graham Bell. • 1891 . • 1876 . • 1896 . • 1881 .Thomas Edison invents the incandescent lamp and Werner von Siemens the first electric locomotive. • 1876 . • 1904 . under the supervision of Captain Ferrié.Transparent photographic film on nitrocellulose is invented by George Eastman. the first person to detect Hertzian waves.“The photographic rifle” is invented by Etienne Jules Marey and electric lighting appears in the streets of New York.The first wireless telegraph transmission by Edouard Branly and Guglielmo Marconi. • 1884 . Pierre and Marie Curie: radium. • 1887 . • 1889 . from the telephone to car racing and the vaccine against rabies. • 1894-1903 . Jules Verne was writing his futuristic novels.Louis Pasteur invents the vaccine against rabies. is invented by Amédée Bollée.The Wright brothers take off for the first time in their biplane. Some scientific benchmark dates • 1876-1877 . • 1902 . • 1909 . France was building a colonial empire.The first telegraph link between the Panthéon and the Eiffel Tower (Eugène Ducretet and Ernest Roger). The iron filings coherer by Edouard Branly. trade was prosperous and the industrial revolution was in full swing. • 1899 .“La Rapide”. • 1882 . adapted to cars in 1894. .Construction of the Eiffel Tower begins.This period. The first engine patent was filed by Otto Diesel.The first electric street lamps appear in Paris. sometimes called “the spring of technology”.The first car races on roads.Léon Gaumont invents the chronophone.Lewis Edson Waterman invents the first practical fountain pen.The first Lumière film showing open to the public and the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen.The first wireless communication across the Channel by Guglielmo Marconi. • 1895 . crowned by Gustave Eiffel’s “Grand Iron Lady”. Maybach).Kodak arrives in France.Wilbur Wright’s flights.Santos Dumont flies over the Eiffel Tower in a dirigible. was a time of creative effervescence. a steam-run car. • 1915 . • 1900 . • 1897 .The “A” over the Champ-de-Mars symbolized the beginning of a major movement that has continued to this very day.The phonograph is invented by Charles Cros in France and then by Thomas Edison in the United States.Edouard Michelin brings in the first removable tires for bicycles.The four-stroke engine (Gottlieb Daimler. • 1888 . • 1879 . • 1885 .Paul Langevin invents sonar. • 1908 . • 1901 .

• 11. • Paul Claudel writes Tête d’Or. • Jules Verne has been writing Les Voyages Extraordinaires for 25 years. • The decline and end of Le Boulangisme. 1886 • General Boulanger is appointed Minister of War. Auguste Rodin sculpts The Kiss. Jules Verne and Rodin. • Sarah Bernhardt plays Marion Delorme. Zola. Abel Gance.Card 3 The Eiffel Tower era One century after the French Revolution. • The first labor exchange opens in Paris. Jean Cocteau. • The Americans inaugurate the Statue of “Liberty that lit the world”. the clubs and theatres. • Industry is carried by science. 1888 • William II becomes Emperor of Germany. • Death of Jules Barbey d’Aurevilly. • André Antoine founds the Free Theatre. • Emile Zola completes Les Rougon-Macquart. cultural and artistic fields. • At the end of the XIXth century. • After Les Bourgeois de Calais. • Birth of René Barthélémy.000 people in France have a telephone. the pioneer of French television. fashion reflects economic and social life. • Building of the new Bourse de Commerce is completed. • The International Congress of Astronomers decides to make the first map of the sky. known as Charlie… and of Martin Heidegger. • Benjamin Harrison is elected President of the United States. Adolf Hitler. • Improvements in means of communication (the Suez Canal opened in 1869) puts China a month away from Marseille. Philippe de Villiers de l’IsleAdam and Eugène Chevreul. Knut Hamsun pens Hunger and Paul Bourget Le disciple. and the first Panamerican Conference is held in Washington.This was the golden age of Freud. Alfred Jarry embarks on Ubu Roi. . • Foundation of the the Nabis group of artists. designed by sculptor Auguste Bartholdi (structure by Gustave Eiffel). • Foundation of the Second International. • Gustave Ferrié enters Polytechnique. • Sigmund Freud opens his practice in Vienna. 1889 • Banquet of the Mayors of France. France was booming in the scientific. and science stimulated by industry. • Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin in Arles. the bourgeoisie fills the salons in vogue. • The Impressionists show their work in New York despite never having met with success in France. Jean de Lattre de Tasssigny. • Birth of Charles Spencer Chaplin. a French chemist fascinated by the construction of the Eiffel Tower. and Japan less than 40 days away. 1887 • Sadi Carnot is elected President of the Republic. Lavishly attired.

31 French gold francs of 1889. The jacks no longer exist. He was followed by the members of the Council of Paris. 1887 and took five months. • The second floor was assembled with cranes that took the same route as the elevators. • Total weight: 10.Beginnings and construction of the Eiffel Tower Card 4 For the Universal Exhibition of 1889. 125 metres on each side and 300 meters high”. They are oriented in line with the 4 cardinal points. • The monument was inaugurated on March 31. pillars 1 and 4 required air-compressed foundations using corrugated steel caissons five meters under water. The Tower was mounted rather like a giant Meccano® with remarkable precision. Gustave Eiffel climbed the 1. including Emile Chautemps.799. 1889. The feet of the tower were set in each of these foundation ditches (four foundations in masonry.000. engineers Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier and architect Stephen Sauvestre was chosen out of a total of 107. and over 100 workers built more than 18.710 steps of the Tower to plant the French flag at its peak. They had to be positioned at a slanting angle so that they would meet the horizontal beams on the first floor. The difficulty of the assembly lay in the point of departure at the base of the truss frames. which was a major innovation at the time. The design Fifty engineers and designers produced 5. on top of which were a number of boxes of sand that emptied to regulate the slant of the truss frames. known as truss frames). the carpenters worked wonders and there was not one single fatal accident during the construction period. a date that marked the centenary of the French Revolution.000 different parts of the tower in a workshop. Another 132 workers assembed them on site. The rubble was taken away by carts drawn by horses and steam locomotives. • Assembling the first floor. • From the second to the third floor. While there was no problem building pillars 2 and 3 on the Champ-de-Mars side.100 tons.The tower would have a square base. • The metal structure weighs 7. Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel.500. • The pillars. • The deepest foundations lay just 15 meters underground.401. with the workers using only spades.038.The project proposal by entrepreneur Gustave Eiffel. which supported the four pillars. To achieve this. President of the Paris City Council.300 drawings. and riveted into position on site. has reproduced them. but the Eiffel Tower operating company. the engineers used hydraulic jacks to move each “foot” and erected an original scaffolding system.300 tons. and they are on show in the Ferrié Pavilion on the first floor of the Tower. on the edge of Paris. • Cost of construction: 7. On that day. Construction • Work on the foundations began on January 26. All of the parts were built in the Eiffel workshops in Levallois. the Journal Officiel launched a major competition to “study the possibility of erecting an iron tower on the Champ-de-Mars. when the Chrysler Building in New York topped it at 319 metres. The Eiffel Tower was the highest building in the world until 1929. • Number of iron parts: 18. Initial Current 1st floor 2nd floor 3rd floor Height 312 m 324 m 57 m 115 m 276 m 4 415 m2  1 430 m2  250 m2 Surface . • Number of rivets used: 2. Key figures for an epic • The four pillars of the Eiffel Tower stand in a square that measures 125 meters on each side. on the Seine River side.

• Between the the second and third floor: the “Edoux” hydraulic elevator did not function in winter (the gel stopped the machinery from working) and was dismounted in 1983. These elevators have offered total security to hundreds of thousands of visitors climbing the Tower for a better glimpse of Paris from its very beginning. This initial elevator technology was further modernized a decade later by Gustave Eiffel for the Universal Exposition of 1900. • South pillar: An “Otis” electric elevator has been used exclusively by customers of the Jules Verne restaurant since 1983.000 kilometers. • East and West pillars: “Fives-Lille” hydraulic elevators were installed in 1899. Their annual journeys combined are equal to two and half times around the world or more than 103. Enter into a true Jules Verne universe. The elevators today • North pillar: A “Schneider” electric elevator was installed in 1965. with the intention of coming back to the original and simple functioning machines imagined by Gustave Eiffel in collaboration with the Fives-Lille company in 1899. (It was dismounted in 1983). modernized in 1986 and 1987. modernized between the years 1994 and 1995 and then revised again in 1997. The elevators are vital to the monument and subject to some harsh treatment. a hydraulic machine that was the only one of its type in the world. they attest to the technical heritage that genius and visionary Gustave Eiffel contributed to our present day. a 4-ton freight elevator built in 1989 was revised in 2003 and then in 2007. with jacks 80 meters long. the major project of totally replacing the West pillar elevators began. where all those surprising machines are in action. five hydraulic elevators went into operation. preserved with great care.Card 5 The elevators Since the opening of the Eiffel Tower for the Universal Exhibition of 1889. Certain elevators from the early days of the Tower’s existence are still operative. replaced by new ones in 1994 and 1995. A formidable technical feat for the period as never before had engineers tackled such constraints of height and elevator loads. who start them up early in the morning before the public arrives and keep them under close surveillance whenever the Tower is open to the public. Two double-cabin electric elevators by Duolift-Otis were installed in 1983. . and revised in 1992. The public has an opportunity to discover the historical elevator equipment in a guided visit during the yearly open house event celebrating European Heritage. parts replaced and oiled. back then they were considered a great technical achievement. the electrical and computer systems. In June 1889. Eiffel Tower elevator operators handle the smooth flux of visitors. Its speed reducer was changed in 2004. In 2008. The hydraulic pump that fed the machine with water is now on display on the first floor of the Tower. along with the historical machinery behind the elevators receive the greatest care and maintenance: renovation work. • North and South pillars: “Otis” elevators carried the visitors up and down until dismounted in 1910. visitors have been able to visit the different floors of the monument via elevators. into the center of the Tower. They are constantly checked by technicians. Although today we may take these elevators for granted. and then revised in 2007. Also in service.The cabins. • East and West pillars: “Roux-Combaluzier” elevators were in service until 1897. repairs. • Between the the second and third floor: An “Edoux” elevator was put into service. 1995 and 2005. The elevators at the time of construction • Between the ground floor and the second floor: The four pillars were equipped with one or two cabins.

with all our indignation. passionate lovers of the beauty. of Rude. will have become the Paris of Monsieur Eiffel. the Louvre. Alexandre Dumas fils. creator of masterpieces. we will see stretching out like a growing ink spot the hateful shadow of the hateful column of bolted iron. For my part. During construction. which even commercial-minded America does not want. expressed his admiration as early as 1889. You. as well as a gigantic black factory chimney completely crushing with its barbaric mass Notre Dame. 1887. that public spite. Do people think that because we are engineers. we will see stretching out over the entire city. The artists* protest Letter published in Le T emps. Gustave Eiffel’s reply “I will tell you all that I think. of Pujet. writers. who love Paris so. beauty plays no part in what we build.. all the eloquence. On its streets. knowing that you will bring to that task all the energy. shines from this majestic flowering of stones. February 14. all our monuments humiliated. you and ourselves. of Barye. we will at least. in the name of French art and history under threat. but the temperature of the heated debate just kept rising. Coppée waxed lyrical on the subject.And if our cry of alarm is not heeded. is – make no mistake – the dishonor of Paris. and in every corner of the universe Paris calls forth curiosity and admiration. several personalities protested violently. Gustave Eiffel fought tooth and nail for his project. who have protected her so often from administrative devastation and the vandalism of industrial companies – you once again have the honor of defending her. “We. Without becoming hotheaded or chauvinistic. Italy. everyone says it. In the end. and the Tower inspired Gounod to write a little “concerto in the clouds”. everyone is profoundly distressed about it.” * Among the noteworthy names in the long list of signatures are those of the Paris Opera architect Charles Garnier and writers François Coppée. possess nothing comparable to ours. have voiced a protest to do us credit. Guy de Maupassant and Sully Prudhomme. still quivering with genius from so many centuries. so justly proud of their artistic heritage. and we are but a weak echo of the general opinion. Protest well predates the construction of such controversial structures as the Pompidou Center and the Louvre Pyramid. we have the right to loudly proclaim that Paris is a city without rival in the world. Sully Prudhomme. if our reasoning is not heard. Everyone feels it. the Sainte-Chapelle. astonished. and all that I hope. hereby protest with all our might. often marked by good sense and a spirit of justice. Moreover. Are we to let all that be debased? Will the city of Paris thus continue to be associated with the strange and venal imaginations of a machine-maker. architects. that we don’t at the same time do our utmost to achieve elegance? Are actual conditions . who have made her so beautiful. But time alone always proves the final judge – and in the case of the Eiffel Tower. so rightly alarmed. all you need do to fully understand what we are saying. 1887 Le Temps published a manifesto signed by “personalities from the world of arts and letters”* railing against the construction of a 300meter tower on the Champs de Mars esplanade. painters. that love for what is beautiful. ‘What? This is the horror the French have found to give us an idea of the taste they boast about?’ They will be right to mock us. of Germain Pilon. etc. the verdict has already been rendered. On February 14. until now intact. and ultimately disappearing in this staggering dream. of Paris. when foreigners come to our Exhibition. the Paris of Jean Goujon. the Tower has suffered the slings and arrows of detractors. the Arc de Triomphe. what is great. against the construction. of the useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower. that if we aim for the solid and lasting. is to imagine for a moment a dizzyingly ridiculous tower dominating Paris. has already baptized the Tower of Babel. in the very heart of our capital. Flanders. A number of persons did later change their views and make amends. sculptors. the Saint-Jacques tower. if Paris persists with the idea of dishonoring Paris. the Invalides’ dome. And for twenty years. Charles-Marie Leconte de Lisle. I believe that the Tower will have its own beauty. bringing upon itself dishonor and an ugliness that can never be corrected? Because the Eiffel Tower. in the name of French taste gone unrecognized. because the Paris of sublime gothic architecture. Germany. for example. We are leaving it to you to plead Paris’s cause.The Eiffel Tower: a subject of controversy Card 6 As is the case with many major architectural projects that today constitute part of France’s cultural heritage. all our architecture belittled. its widened boulevards. inspires in an artist such as yourself. they will cry out. the length of its admirable embankments. The soul of France. what is just. along its magnificent walks there will suddenly appear the most noble monuments ever fashioned by human genius.

of strength not always compatible with the hidden conditions of harmony? The first principle of architectural aesthetics is that the essential lines of a monument should be determined by it fitting perfectly into a setting. are going to taper up to the summit. part of the very elements that go into the construction. Similarly. I maintain that the curves of the four groin vaults of the monument. in its way? Why would what is admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris? I’ve sought an answer. there’s an attraction in things colossal.” . But what condition did I need to address in the case of the tower? Resistance to wind. and must confess have found none. Will we maintain that it’s because of their artistic value that the Pyramids have so fired the imagination of men? After all. the numerous empty spaces that are part of the plan. if not the immensity of effort and the grandeur of the result? The Tower will be the highest edifice ever raised by man – will it not therefore be grandiose as well. will bear strong witness to the constant concern of not uselessly sacrificing to violent thunderstorms surfaces that pose a danger to the stability of the edifice. are they anything other than artificial hillocks? Yet what visitor remains unmoved in their presence? Who has not returned from them filled with an admiration that is irresistible? And what is the source of this admiration. a special charm to which theories of ordinary art are hardly applicable. will give a great impression of strength and beauty. based on calculations.Well. What’s more. starting with the enormous and unused footing at the base. because they will convey to the eyes the boldness of the conception in its totality.

” Movement of the Tower top The Tower sways slightly in the wind. experimentation in physics. To “get out of the sun”. He then imagined “an automatic device sliding the length of a stretched cable between the second level of the Tower and the ground”. it moved approximately 13 centimeters from its initial position. we know that for any given surface area. He had a small wind tunnel built at the foot of the tower. In addition. by saying that the load wouldn’t be any greater than that of a house in Paris. a strategic observation post. the Eiffel Tower was used as a laboratory for scientific measurements and experiments. During the storm of 1999. Why the Eiffel Tower is made of iron What are the advantages of iron? Gustave Eiffel himself gives the answer: “First of all.Scientific and technical applications Card 7 From the time of his project proposal in 1886. the mercury manometer. I astonished more than one person who was worried about the load on the floor of the foundations. When the temperature is high. a communications base for signaling. that of the Exhibition Tower. Gustave Eiffel knew that the Tower’s service to science alone could protect it from its enemies and extend its life span.). Gustave Eiffel installed a meteorology lab on the third floor. At the beginning it was meant to last 20 years and then be destroyed! Eiffel therefore spelled out the uses he had in mind: meteorological and astronomical observation. He said: “It will be an observatory and a laboratory such as science has never had at its disposal. the Tower can lean as much as 18 centimeters. Much scientific equipment was installed (barometers.” And he concludes: “To give just one example. lightning conductors. From August to December 1909 he carried out five thousand tests.” He points out: “It’s above all in the large constructions that the metal’s resistance makes it superior to other materials. a beacon for electric light and wind studies. The scientific experiments The day after the Tower was inaugurated.That’s why.” In fact from 1889 onward. But the Tower is also affected by heat. iron is ten times more resistant than wood and 20 times more resistant than stone. Gustave Eiffel encouraged others to perform experiments on the Tower: Foucault’s pendulum. etc. that portion of the structure exposed to the sun expands more than the portion in the shade. physiology studies and radio contact (1898). from Day 1. He also had a passion for aerodynamics and performed a series of observations on falling bodies (dedicated equipment was installed from 1903 to 1905). The relative lightness of metal constructions also allows for smaller supports and foundations. its resistance. wind gauges. From the viewpoint of loads one or the other of these materials can support. all our scientists have encouraged me with such strong fellow feeling. Gustave Eiffel even built himself an office on the third floor to carry out astronomy and physiology observations. .

After wooden barracks. Thanks to Commander Ferrié.” 1921 Lucien and Sacha Guitry carry out the first experiment with a radio broadcast transmitted by the Tower. April 26. transmitting directly to the Eiffel Tower.The top of the Tower was modified over the years. Canada. including a television mast that reaches a height of 324 meters. 1929 Three times a day. 1911 Link with airplanes. 1910 Link with dirigibles. the Tower was saved from demolition thanks to the launch of wireless telegraphy. From 60 lines at the outset. 1925 • Maurice Privat launches the “Spoken Newspaper”. 1904 The Eiffel Tower transmitter enters the history books when the head of the Engineers’ Corp accepts Eiffel’s offer. it is home to several dozen antennas of all sorts. 1918 The Tower picks up the following message: “The German command agrees to the conditions of the Armistice that are imposed on it. • The first television tests carried out by Édouard Belin at the Eiffel Tower mark the beginning of a new – and brilliant – career for the Tower. 1914-1918 • The Eiffel Tower plays a key role during the war. Captain Gustave Ferrié becomes the Tower’s second “great man”. the Kléber. it becomes possible to set up an international time organization to unify the way time is measured throughout the world and to determine longitudes accurately. 1905 Links between the Eiffel Tower and the fortified towns of eastern France guaranteed in all weather. 1922 A temporary studio is set up in the Tower’s North pillar.The first experiments in television broadcasting from the Tower date from 1925 and the first regular broadcasts from 1935. May 23.” January 21. and half of that distance during the day. January 1909 First wireless telephone trials at the Eiffel Tower by Colin and Jeance. 1907-1908 A link is set up with Casablanca during the Morocco campaign. • Zeppelin alerts (Louis de Broglie works from the Eiffel Tower). to accommodate an ever-growing number of antennas. .At night the station is relayed by the cruiser. December 15. the signals are picked up at Batoum. 1910 The Eiffel Tower serves the French Navy with the first regular time signal transmission service. In 1909. The Marne taxis. In the daytime. November 5. North Africa and the Atlantic Ocean (from Iceland to Cape Verde). The military network is gradually established. an underground station is installed. 1898 First wireless telegraph link spanning the four kilometers between the Panthéon and the Eiffel Tower (Ernest Roger and Eugène Ducretet). November 10. • Mata-Hari is arrested. 1903 Gustave Eiffel allows the Minister of War to place antennas on the Tower. Georgia. 1935 First television broadcast. the Tower broadcasts the observations of 350 weather stations between Europe. Links with the La Fayette station in the USA in 1917.The history of telecommunications on the Eiffel Tower Card 8 The Tower hosted the first radiophonic experiments and played a crucial role in the beginnings of French television. Signals could be heard 5. the number rose to 441 lines in 1945. saying “I offer to take on all the costs that could result from these experiments. 1909 The Eiffel Tower’s “military radio-telegraph station” is completed. Gustave Eiffel greatly encouraged research into radio transmissions by allowing the Tower to be used as a monumental antenna.Today. and by night at Glace Bay.200 kilometers away at night.

1953 The beginning of Eurovision: crowning of Queen Elizabeth II of England. The Tower “grows” from 300 to 318. mountaineers climb to the top and Eurovision broadcasts the exploit. Key figures • Number of analogical TV stations: 6 • Number of free digital TV stations: 18 • Number of pay digital TV stations: 30 • Number of radio stations: 31 • Number of antennas: 120 .70 meters.70 to 324 and this time from 318. 2000 After work carried out by Télédiffusion de France (TDF) on the UHF antenna the Tower “grows” again. 2005 The first broadcasts of digital terrestrial television in Paris originated from the transmitter on the Eiffel Tower. 1957 A television antenna is placed at the top of the monument. 1997 Launch of the Eiffel Tower Internet site (www. 1964 To celebrate the Tower’s 75th anniversary.

and the event is broadcast by Eurovision. throws himself off the first floor with his handmade parachute and crashes to the ground at the feet of the press. Gustave Eiffel welcomes Thomas Edison and his phonographs on the first floor. bungy-jumps from the second floor. high mass is celebrated on the first floor in the presence of the Archbishop of Paris. At 85. 1905 Le Sport organizes a championship race up the stairs to the first floor. using the vertical drop from the second floor. takes one his “inmates” for a little promenade. the oldest elephant in the world cannot make it further than the first floor. the first research is carried out on the plane wing sections used by Wright. 1944 On August 24. but has also been witness to some incredible stunts and challenges. future Mayor of Montmartre. The descent was given substantial coverage. a New Zealander. In Eiffel’s aerodynamics laboratory at the foot of the Tower. a three-colored flag.Feats and exploits on the Tower Card 9 The Eiffel Tower has inspired numerous sporting. 1912 • “Birdman”. 1939 For the Tower’s 50th anniversary. His aircraft is a “Wright”. just to the west of Paris. 1923 The journalist Pierre Labric. 1948 Bouglione. Chaptal. • An international auction is held in the Gustave Eiffel room on the first floor to sell parts of the spiral staircase that linked the second and third floors – with 12 television channels attending. Red lamps represent mercury. Voisin and Farmann. as a result of numerous plans and drawings. he hits the television antennas. in his dirigible and flies past the Eiffel Tower to win a prize. Seventyfive athletes take part in the race. Amanda Tucker and Mike MacCarthy. The prize: a bike. the tightrope walker Philippe Petit “walks” across the 700 meters that separate the Palais de Chaillot from the Tower. cycles from the first floor down to the ground on his bike. The flag is made from three bedsheets sewn together. The cup won by the “hero” is currently to be found in the cellars of the Eiffel Tower.J. 1926 The aviator Léon Collot is killed flying under the Eiffel Tower. Gustave Eiffel builds the first return flow wind tunnel.000 experiments on the resistance of wings and propellers to air. organized for a special Arte television evening. mountaineers Guido Magnone and René Desmaison climb the Tower. 1987 A. . parachutejump from the third floor without permission. The men dine together. of the eponymous circus. 12 seconds. 1934 Jacopozzi installs a clock and a thermometer along the Tower. made of wood and canvas. the Count of Lambert flies over Paris and around the Eiffel Tower for the first time in the history of aviation. 1964 To celebrate the Tower’s 75th anniversary. 1983 • Charles Coutard and Joël Descuns ride up and down the Tower on their motocross bikes. Blinded by the sun. artistic and scientific feats. 1901 On several occasions Santos-Dumont sets off from Saint-Cloud. 1889 • Le Figaro sets up a printing press on the second floor and produces its daily paper on site. • An aviation enthusiast. one Reichelt. Hackett. won by Forestier in 3 minutes. Mgr. and without authorization. a tailor based in Longjumeau. 1909 On October 18. 1995 Triathlete Yves Lossouarn breaks the record for climbing the Tower stairs on foot in 8 minutes and 51 seconds. the symbol of liberated Paris. is raised to the top of the Tower.The “Engineer of the Universe” conducted over 5. 1984 Two Britons. Visitors buying their newspaper can have their name inscribed on their copy to “certify” that they climbed the Tower. Its history is full of feats and exploits. 1989 For the centenary of the Eiffel Tower. • On September 11.

the rink welcomed more than a thousand skaters each day.200 of them accept. 1999 A golf tournament is held in Paris for the first time with the first and last hole under the Eiffel Tower. • The Eiffel Tower is decked out for the Europe Days on May 9. • The Eiffel Tower participates in the first “Nuit Blanche” organized by Paris City Hall on October 5. To celebrate the event. 10 climbers of the Paris Fire Brigade climb up to the second floor of the Eiffel Tower and abseil down from the first floor. which is illuminated for the occasion. • As part of an exhibition on the Champ-de-Mars organized by the French land army. beats his own record for climbing the steps on a VTT: 1. the most prestigious competition – climbing stairs from the ground to the first floor of the building – is held at the Eiffel Tower. Sophie Calle. 1998 • Hugues Richard breaks the record for climbing the Eiffel Tower stairs from the ground floor to the second floor on a mountainbike. nearly 700 journalists and 120 television stations from all over the world are welcomed to the Eiffel Tower. a camera set up on the roof of the Unesco building films the Eiffel Tower around the clock. 2002 • Hugues Richard breaks his own record in 1998 of climbing the Tower on his mountain-bike. 2004 • The VTT champion. • To celebrate Halloween. • Yoggi. visitors were able to put on snowshoes and follow a 300-meter trail of snow around the first floor of the monument. For this celebration of the Polar Year. • The “Three Tenors” concert at the foot of the Eiffel Tower: José Carreras. • For the Football World Cup. . • At the end of the year. 2005 On May 18. • 12th World Youth Days: the Pope pays a tribute to the Eiffel Tower in front of 300. • For the end-of-year festivities. 2007 • From June 1 to 10.300 steps! He obtained an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records for this feat. went up the stairs to the second floor in 22 minutes without setting foot on the ground. 2003 • The Eiffel Tower is decked out in colors representing Paris’s candidature to host the Olympic Games of 2012. and more than 1. • The Tower welcomes its 200 millionth visitor since it opened in 1889. Throughout the World Cup. • Johnny Hallyday gives a free concert at the foot of the Eiffel Tower for an audience of 600. at the top of the monument all night. inaugurate the 200-square-meter skating rink installed on the first floor of the Tower. • The Orchestre de Paris and the Boston Symphonic Orchestra conducted by Seiji Ozawa give a free concert on the Champde-Mars in front of the Eiffel Tower. an extraordinary vegetable garden containing 85 tons of pumpkins is installed in the Trocadéro gardens. The Paris Fire Brigade puts on a show around the Eiffel Tower by abseiling from the first floor. Taïg Khris.The event is held in aid of the people affected by the explosion at the AZF plant in Toulouse in September 2001. A giant hopscotch game is installed on the first floor. on the gallery roof. 2001 • The Spaniard Aitor Sarasua Zumeta smashes the record previously set by Hugues Richard for climbing the tower on a mountain-bike.The Eiffel Tower is in the background throughout the many hours during which the program is broadcast live on the France 2 channel.000 visitors to get a scuba diving initiation.000 pilgrims gathered on the Champ-deMars to meditate. an exceptional evening is organized on the first floor. the Tower welcomed an under-water diving pool 240-square-meters in size installed at the foot of the Tower allowing 3. a special icy bar opened and a 6-meter ice model of the Eiffel Tower decorated the first floor. The Eiffel Tower welcomes 18. twice world champion in the sport. in the reception pavilion set up for the occasion on the ground floor.000 people. the athlete Jerome Sue descended the 345 steps from the first floor to the ground floor in a wheel chair. • The set of a French fund-raising telethon is installed on the Champ-de-Mars. • French champion ice skaters. Sarah Abitbol & Stéphane Bernadis.000 people. A real success.1997 • A professional British stuntman parachute-jumps from the first floor of the Eiffel Tower.000 vine stocks painted pink is placed at the foot of the Eiffel Tower. a forest of fir trees is planted under the Eiffel Tower. Xavier Casas from Andorra. young French champion of the monocycle.The footage is used as the reference for televisions the world over. 2000 • As part of the Firemen’s World Games. with the illuminated Eiffel Tower as a backdrop. • Centenary of the Tour de France: the prologue departs from the foot of the Eiffel Tower. • An immense heart made from 5. Pyrotechnics and a light show enhance the Tower for the occasion. European flags are raised on the first floor. welcomes visitors who come to tell her stories. amazed the amateurs with his demonstrations.425 people between 6 pm and 7 am. Placido Domingo and Luciano Pavarotti sing on the Champ-de-Mars for an audience of 200. • The First International Meetings for Defense are held on the Champ-de-Mars. All the tourism professionals and partners who contributed to the success are invited. 2006 • A roller skating rink was set up on the first floor from November 18 to 20.

“The Lavender Hill Mob” by Charles Crichton • 1952 . poets.“Monsieur la souris” by Georges Lacombe • 1945 .Centre G.“Tour Eiffel idylle” by Louis Cuny • 1960 . Little by little its image became associated with Paris.“Le Divorce” by James Ivory • 2003 . Edwards. Guggenheim Museum in New York) • 1926 .“Angel-A” by Luc Besson • 2005 . Roger Lersy… .“Paris qui dort” by René Clair • 1924 . choreographers.Marc Chagall: “Paris Through the Window” (Solomon R. Museum Folkwang) • 1954 .“La course à la perruque” by Georges Hatot • 1923 . filmmakers and photographers regularly pay homage. Pompidou in Paris) • 1954 .Jean Beraud: “Entrée de l’Exposition Universelle” (Musée Carnavalet in Paris) • 1890 .“Un indien dans la ville” by H.“À l’assaut de la Tour Eiffel” by Alain Pol • 1948 .Georges Seurat: “La Tour Eiffel” (Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco) • 1889 .Robert Delaunay: “The Red Tower” (Solomon R.“Marguerite de la nuit” by Claude Autant-Lara • 1956 .“Paris jamais vu” by Albert Lamorisse (documentary) • 1980 .“Le démon de Midi” (The Demon Stirs) by MariePascale Osterrieth • 2005 .“La légende vraie de la Tour Eiffel” (TV) by Simon Brook • 2007 .“La grande course autour du monde” de B. in the 1920s it became a symbol of modernity and the avant-garde.“The Da Vinci Code” by Ron Howard • 2006 . singers.“Condorman” by Charles Jarrott (Walt Disney) and “La Tour Eiffel en otage” by Claudio Guzman • 1982 . Gino Severini. Utrillo.Paul Signac: “Seine Grenelle” (Private collection) • 1911 . Pol Bury.“Epouse-moi” by Harriet Marin • 2003 .“La Tour” by René Clair (documentary) and “Mystères de la Tour Eiffel” by Julien Duvivier • 1930 .“Le ruffian” by José Giovanni • 1984 . • 1965 .“Il fuggiasco” (The Fugitive) by Andrea Manni • 2004 .“Rush Hours 3” by Brett Rattner Paintings • 1888 .Robert Delaunay: “La ville de Paris” (MNAM Centre G. Films • 1897 .Le Douanier Rousseau: “Moi-même. Guggenheim Museum in New York) • 1910/1912 . In a just twist of fate.Nicolas de Staël: “La Tour Eiffel” (Musée de Troyes) And then there’s Raoul Dufy.“Les plus belles escroqueries du monde-Paris” de Claude Chabrol. • 1966 . Palud • 1998 .The Eiffel Tower and artists Card 10 If the Tower began its life as an attraction. Bernard Buffet.“Zazie dans le métro” by Louis Malle • 1963 .“Les uns et les autres” by Claude Lelouch and “Superman II” by Richard Lester • 1981 . Pompidou in Paris) • 1913 . portrait paysage” (Narodni Galerie in Prague) • 1890 . painters. Korber • 1968 .“The Man on the Eiffel Tower” by Burgess Meredith • 1951 . to the point where it became the city’s symbol around the world.Romaine Brooks: “Jean Cocteau” (MNAM .“La Tour Eiffel” by Jean Denis • 1942 .“An American werewolf” by Anthony Waller • 2000 .“Un idiot à Paris” by S.“Panorama pendant l’ascension de la Tour Eiffel” by Louis Lumière and “Images de L’Exposition 1900” by Georges Meliès • 1905 .“La cité foudroyée” by Luitz Morat • 1927 .“Bonjour Paris” by Jean Image (cartoon) • 1955 .“La fin du monde” by Abel Gance • 1939 .“Le chanteur de Mexico” by Richard Pottier • 1959 .“Rive droite – rive gauche” by Philippe Labro and “A View to a Kill” by John Glen • 1994 .Marc Chagall: “Champ-de-Mars” (Essen.

costumes and masques by Jean Hugo. . I followed its current. la Tour Eiffel part en balade…” • Léo Ferré: “Paris portait sa grande croix…” • Jacques Dutronc: “La Tour Eiffel a froid aux pieds…” • Pascal Obispo: “Je suis tombé pour elle…” Choreographers “Les mariés de la Tour Eiffel” by Jean Cocteau was performed for the first time the evening of June 18. Aragon. 1921. Raymond Queneau. by the Swedish ballet company of Rolf de Maré. the flock of bridges bleats this morning You’re fed up with living in Greek and Roman antiquity . Alain Afflelou and Campari have been some of the best known brands to use the icon. François Coppée. leaves below the eloquent blue falling by the water… the paver’s song Translated by Gillian O’Meara Raymond Queneau . Air France. Nina Ricci. because the Eiffel Tower ended up boring me excessively. choreography by Jean Cocteau. Guillaume Apollinaire. what magnificent rubble! This is what can be erected with theories.Poets and writers Blaise Cendrars. sets by Irène Lagut.“The Skeleton Tower” Eiffel Tower of bones Catacombs in the air Staircased tibias And at three hundred meters above the ground The antenna skull That speaks only to listen (Courir les rues . mais c’est la Tour Eiffel…” • Charles Trénet: “Y’a d’la joie. Jean Cocteau. . which he invites his friends to climb…I knew Eiffel. Darius Millaud and François Poulenc. Eiffel. who was going to work – and there was the Eiffel Tower! My God. made from every material known to man. if the theory of the law of gravity were to prove but a fabrication. Translated by Tony Baker Guillaume Apollinaire – “Zone” At last you are tired of this ancient world O shepherdess Eiffel Tower. Not only did one see it everywhere but one found it everywhere. Le Corbusier. Guy de Maupassant… Blaise Cendrars – “Tower” (1913) You are all Tower Ancient god Modern beast Solar spectrum Subject of my poem Tower World tower Tower in movement (Du monde entier) (1912-1924 NRF). . Jean Giraudoux. Since then. Citroën appeared in luminous letters. at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. meeting place of unknown travelling pigeons. Patrols were escorting this poet. on display in every window. Translated by the American scholar and critic Roger Shattuck Jean Giraudoux – “Prayer on the Eiffel Tower” The smallest wind guides me. On the very steeple of the Tower. the beautiful giraffe in lace. an inevitable. Dino Buzzati. agonizing nightmare. even for a quarter of a second. what faith its engineer had in universal gravity! Blessed Virgin. I am climbing… Translated by Randall Holden Jean Cocteau …Around the charming neck. Here is the string of iron that the wizard has thrown up to the heavens. between 1925 and 1936. …and the advertisers For many years the Eiffel Tower has been used in advertising. La Samaritaine. La vie errante (1890) Translated by Randall Holden Singers • Michel Emer: “Paris. Rather than walk back along the Seine. Jean-Paul Gaultier. Yves Saint Laurent.NRF) Guy de Maupassant – “Lassitude” I left Paris and even France. Georges Auric. Music by Germaine Tailleferre. Arthur Honegger.

is the most powerful in the world. makes FF500. installed on the second floor. All are equipped with highpressure sodium lamps yellow-orange in color (except for eight projectors containing incandescent lamps placed at the top). memories…the very night it was inaugurated. unanimously deemed a success worldwide. 1900 The Tower’s lighting goes entirely electric: 5. After the 1914-1918 war.000 days to the year 2000”. an advertising sign. judged too costly at nearly a million francs. a torch. 1985) to light the monument. the Tower has a history that is closely linked with the history of lighting. served as the point of departure for rethinking night illumination of monuments in Paris and other major French cities. directing beams of light from the bottom toward the top) illuminate the Eiffel Tower from the interior of its structures. 1925. The name Citroën on three sides of the Tower is visible at a distance of 40 kilometers.000 kWh.000 bulbs delineate its sides in straight lines.000 bulbs. Thirty searchlights trained on the sky dress the Tower in white light while its lace of iron throws off reflections in gold. 1978 For Christmas. 1985 A new device to light the Eiffel Tower takes its inaugural bow on Decembre 31. The high-pressure sodium lamps (with a life of 6.1997 At midnight. Each evening the levels are transformed into fountains of fire. Designed by Pierre Bideau. 1907 A giant clock 6-meter high.000W. quite taken with the idea of a lightshow spectacular. The power level built into the device is 320 kW (it had been 620 kW previously). a tree of light decorates the Tower with 30. 1933 Citroën presents Parisians with a gift clock with a face 15 meters in diameter.000 available to Fernand Jacopozzi. the Mayor of Paris activates a countdown in light of “1. the Tower is lit every night with the aid of gaslights placed in balls of opaline. The first show takes place on July 4. May 1958 1.The shows. 1925-1936 André Citroën. Situated 100 meters from . Replacing the 1. By turns a sparkler.000 bulbs of different colors is installed on the monument. 336 projectors (1. the Tower becomes a beacon for aircraft in Paris (until 1974).290 projectors are installed in several holes dug into the Champ-de-Mars (used until December 31. stop in 1936. The annual consumption is 680. 1985. The total cost of installing the device was FF4 million. a Christmas tree. 1937 The Arts and Techniques Exhibition. It can be done manually or using a dusk switch that is protected against risks of untimely activation. the device is the crowning element of a restoration program for the monument approved by the city of Paris in 1980. ten thousand gaslights enhanced the gown of the Iron Lady! 1889 Two projectors on rails installed on the top floor of the Tower light the monuments of Paris. 150W. André Granet builds under the frame of the first floor platform a gigantic chandelier with 10 kilometers of fluorescent tubes in various colors. bedazzlements. tells the time in luminous numbers. During the Universal Exhibition.Card 11 Illuminations Because of its size and structure. and annual use runs to FF600. April 5. the Eiffel Tower has inspired extremely sophisticated and original lighting innovations.290 used since 1958. which would periodically emit blazes of light. a Parisian beacon. A device involving 250. The hands are multicolored rays that light in succession to tell the time. Its continuous beacon of bluewhite-red.000 hours) initially furnished by Philips and Mazda are replaced every three years. blue and red. the new projectors are installed in banks of 4 to 7 units.000. 400W. This source of illumination. Lighting the projectors takes less than 10 minutes. Spectaculars. lighting engineer. a beauty bathed in red and a fireworks theatre.

the “counter” is illuminated day and night. 2000 All year long the light counter displays “Year 2000”. The Tower went green from the ground up to the second floor in resonance with the color of the playing field. The occasion is the France-China Cultural Exchange Program: for the first time since its creation. Mayor Bertrand Delanoë throws the switch.342 projectors. Thanks to clever use of external projectors. The Tower repeated the operation on October 22. .000 lights every night for 10 minutes to mark each hour while its new beacon sweeps Paris. celebration. The plan is the same as it was in 2000: 10 minutes at the beginning of each hour from nightfall to 2 am in the summer (1 am in winter). 2000 The Eiffel Tower’s glitter takes on a blue hue for several nights to celebrate entry into the new millennium. 2006 On may 8 at midnight. and the event is broadcast live from the Champ-de-Mars on France 2 television. 2007 • February 1. weighs 50 tons. joy and prosperity. Mayor of Paris Bertrand Delanoë and the Presidents of the International Rugby Board and France’s Rugby Federation unveiled the special lighting for the World Rugby Cup. attended by the French and Chinese Ministers of Culture and the Mayors of Paris and Beijing. the Tower is bathed in red January 24-29 to mark the Chinese New Year. December 31. December 31. It is 33 meters high and 12 meters wide. The event is an international success and the images are broadcast all over the world. At midnight there begins a veritable dance of fire lasting 3 minutes 30 seconds. On this occasion the sparkling effect conceived by Pierre Bideau is revealed in all its glory. between 7:55 and 8pm.France in the Dark for 5 Minutes”. January 24.the ground on the side of the monument facing Trocadéro. an energy-saving operation showing France’s dedication to sustainable development. • The evening of September 6. 2004 The 336 Philips projectors that give the Eiffel Tower its golden look are replaced. changing the number daily at midnight. 2001 After 18 months the glittering’ effect is turned off. a pyrotechnical ballet. 2004 The Eiffel Tower is lit in red. June 21. 2003 The Eiffel Tower gets the glitter back for ten years on the occasion of Paris’s renowned Fête de la Musique. and is composed of 1. 1999 The Eiffel Tower signals the Year 2000. Also adorning the Tower was a huge illuminated goal with a 85-meter long crossbeam and a huge rugby ball 13 meters long attached to the second floor. Planned initially to last 12 months but extended due to its resounding success. July 14. The switch is thrown January 24 during a lighting ceremony at the Place Jacques Rueff in the Champ-de-Mars. Finally a giant 120-square-meter screen was made available for the public to watch the games. the Eiffel Tower lit up in blue in celebration of the 20th edition of Europe Day. and then the Eiffel Tower sparkles with 20. which lasted from September 7 to October 20. the monument is bathed in a scarlet symbol of happiness. the likes of which have never been seen. the Tower shut off its lights in respect to “Turn off Your Lights . the equipment has now given all it can give.

the paint job received its first cleaning. its reddish-brown color shaded off gradually from the base to the top. with the lightest tone at the top. the Eiffel Tower is covered in paint.000 gold francs. For the first time. Rivière. • In May 1889. this one coat alone cost 60.The previous coat was washed and a new coat of ocher-yellow paint applied. Guaranteed for one year. lightest at the top.Painting the Eiffel Tower Card 12 To protect the Iron Lady’s surface. climbers with video cameras have been monitoring the condition of the paint in those areas most difficult to access.the Eiffel Tower was given its first coat of paint in red iron ocher. Key figures behind the painting of the Eiffel Tower • Weight of paint: approximately 60 tons • Time required: 15 to 18 months • Frequency required: the Tower is entirely re-painted every 7 years. • In 1899. Nourrisson.The contractor was Mr. the stylish Lady’s attentiveness to color coordination has resulted in the need for three different shades of paint to go with the hues of the Parisian sky – darkest at the bottom. the color on display is a specific three-tone variation of bronze. • 25 painters • Cost of the 18th painting in 2001: 3 million euros A specific color Currently. . it was decided that the Eiffel Tower would be repainted every seven years. Mr. but with maintenance guaranteed for five years. Nourisson then had the second and third coats applied in linseed oil. It was adopted in 1968 after several color changes ranging from the original reddishbrown to ocher-yellow.000 gold francs. Mr. The job cost 57. In fact. Painting was completed in March 1889. The three different shades today ensure a perfectly hued complement to the color of the Paris sky. a new lead-free paint was used. in the interests of protecting the environment. A new timetable was adopted. The different coats of paint • During the construction – mainly in puddle iron with very low carbon content . The 19th painting is scheduled to begin autumn 2008 and finish at the beginning of the year 2010. • December 2001 saw the beginning of the 18th painting of the Eiffel Tower since its construction. • In 1892. • Since 1988. a glazed fourth coat was applied by the same contractor.

it opened its doors to the public. • In step with the period: Visitors could choose to stop into the English-American bar located between the South and West pillars. headed the 1930s-style construction. The theatre resumed its activities up until war broke out in 1914. which led to a complete overhaul of the Tower’s first floor. following four months of renovations the Jules Verne was redesigned by Patrick Jouin . until 1900. from snack shops to gourmet cooking. In 1996. four majestic wooden pavilions designed by Stephen Sauvestre decked the platform on the first floor. the construction of the Jules Verne restaurant on the second floor was finished.Eiffel Tower Restaurants Card 13 The history behind the Eiffel Tower restaurants is inseparable from the “Great Moments” in history from the monument’s opening to the public in 1889. who married the grand-daughter of Gustave Eiffel. On December 22. they formed one huge brasserie decorated by Slavik & Loup under the theme of hot-air balloons. relying on gas lights. Chef Alain Reix oversaw the kitchens. During the Exhibition of 1900. It was named Altitude 95. Architect Auguste Granet. In the beginning of the 80s. with the renowned Alain Ducasse helming the cuisine. it did become a short-lived restaurant again. paying homage to the literary master and spokesperson of scientific and industrial progress inspiring everyone’s lives. paying homage to the view. . Each restaurant could seat 500 persons. Food lovers meet on the first floor For the Universal Exhibition of 1889. • River Seine West side: A bar dubbed “Flamand” offered Alsatian cooking and the waitresses wore regional clothing. The “La Belle France” and “Le Parisien” became the two restaurants on the Eiffel Tower not to be missed. these restaurants were replaced when the Tower underwent major renovations. These four establishments were demolished for the International Exposition in 1937. referring to the fact that it is located 95 meters above sea level. The kitchens were located under the platform. It was then transformed into a very popular theater. Only two restaurants were built. • Champ-de-Mars East side: Visitors were offered French fare at Brébant. this time with a Dutch touch. considered a chic restaurant. and customers had privileged access via the South pillar elevator reserved exclusively for use by the restaurant. Gourmet cuisine 120 meters above the capital By 1983. one where last stood the Russian restaurant and the other filled the spot held by the previous Dutch restaurant. To be completely redone end of 2008. • Between the East and North pillars: A typical Russian restaurant welcomed visitors.Today a range of restaurants cater to the different needs and tastes.The Tower offers its visitors breathtaking seating overlooking Paris: a delight for the eyes and the taste buds. 2007. it is expected to re-open to the public beginning of 2009.

000 kWh of heating and air conditioning are also required every year. they use: • 4 tons of dusters and cleaning cloths.000 m3 of drinking water and 705. carry out a variety of jobs. the equivalent of a village of some 100 homes. cleaning and maintenance teams. Every year. while those on the top floor are supplied from pressurized water tanks. etc. To prevent fire. technical jobs involve many different professions: electricians. photographers. office staff. etc. maîtres d’hôtel. the monument is equipped with a 800-point surveillance system. the Eiffel Tower reduced its consumption of electricity by 40%. mechanics.000 bin bags. The reception staff. • Over 80 kilometers of electric cables cover the entire structure. operations behind the scenes resemble those in a well-oiled industrial plant. Consumption • Electricity consumption: 7. In case of a breakdown. Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel. • 400 liters of detergents. locksmiths. i. The Eiffel Tower is the world’s most visited entrance-paying monument. Meanwhile.000 are needed when the Tower sparkles at night.The Eiffel Tower behind the scenes Card 14 The Eiffel Tower is open 365 days a year. Cleaning Specialist teams ensure the daily cleaning of the Tower. Jobs in the Tower The people who work for the Eiffel Tower operating company. cooks. • 10. • 25. three 1600 kW generators automatically take over. all multilingual. a job that often requires scaling the Tower. In 2007. So that nearly 7 million visitors can be welcomed in the best conditions. • More than 100 different models of lamp.000 kWh for the illuminations. But the Tower also has shops with sales staff. thanks to over 100 cameras – over one-third of which are infrared for nighttime surveillance – positioned throughout the monument. including 580. . a whole network of sprinklers. plumbers.e 10. computer technicians. Electricians replace the bulbs regularly. joiners.8 million kWh per year. restaurants and their waiters. guide and inform visitors who come from all over the world.000 bulbs light the Tower. • The Tower is equipped with 19 different transformers.000 doses of a variety of cleaning products. painters. Security and surveillance A security post monitors the Tower and its visitors around the clock. 20. The French electricity utility EDF provides the Tower with electricity at 20 kW. • Another surprising consumption figure is the 2 tons of paper used every year to print the tickets for visitors. Fire hydrants on the first two floors are fed by a water pipe that starts on the ground. and over 150 extinguishers of all sorts. • 60. security staff. a post office and its employees.

1963 In September. the czarevitch. Prime Minister. the Eiffel Tower attracts high society. Since 1998. 1953 The Tower receives its 25-millionth visitor.O. the Coliseum and the Statue of Liberty. the King of Portugal and the Egyptian princes. 1985 • In June. 1962 • Edith Piaf sings on the Tower during a gala to launch the film “The Longest Day” by D. inaugurates the new pavilion on the first floor. attends a ministerial press lunch. 1983 • Mireille Mathieu is hostess to the 100-millionth visitor to the Tower. Many others follow in their footsteps: Oscar II of Sweden. the first cosmonaut. from the Eiffel Tower. the Tower celebrated the fact that it has welcomed over 200 million visitors in 114 years. He is 20 years old. Royalty. 1900 Archduke Charles Ferdinand of Austria is delighted by the speed of the elevators and the marvelous terrace on the second floor… 1921 The future Emperor of Japan takes a walk on the Eiffel Tower during his first visit to Europe. Mayor of Paris. 1997 • In April. Leopold II of Belgium. 1964 In May. in France on official invitation. • In June. the Eiffel Tower stirs the curiosity and evokes admiration. pays an informal visit. Creighton and L. Queen Sirikit of Thailand. international celebrities. accompanied by Madame Bernadette Chirac.Card 15 Visitors In 2003. 1982 Jacques Chirac. 1966 Charles Aznavour and Georges Brassens sing on the Tower to mark the launch of the world campaign against hunger. the Leaning Tower of Pisa. As with the Pyramids. strollers – these “Eiffel Tower citizens” all form part of the history of one of the capital’s most astounding jewels. J. tourists. Japan’s royal family.Yuri Gagarin. George I of Greece. Maurice Chevalier and 74 other Parisians born in 1889 celebrate their birthday on the monument. wife of the President of the French Republic. the Acropolis. Rajiv Gandhi and François Mitterrand watch a show given by the MELA intercultural festival to celebrate the Year of India in France. Brandenstein. 1968 Georges Pompidou. the Tower reaches the age of 75. invited to France by General de Gaulle. visit the Eiffel Tower. Shamon). The year it opens. Sarah Bernhardt puts in quite an appearance. over 6 million people have visited the monument each year! The Iron Lady is receiving! 1889 Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales are the first crowned heads to ascend the monument. Alexis Weissenberg gives a piano recital on the first floor. 1889 Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph at the Eiffel Tower. • In September. stars. 1970 Valéry Giscard d’Estaing receives an African delegation on the Tower. 1939 A gala dinner to mark the 50th anniversary of the monument brings together the Duke of Windsor and the Ambassadors of Spain and Poland. . • In August. the Shah of Iran. who wins an automobile. three astronauts from the space shuttle Discovery (D. 1993 The 150-millionth visitor. President Dwight Eisenhower comes with his wife and grandchildren. Zanuck.

President of the Armenian Republic.inaugurates the “Thailand. 2007 • Private visit by American actor Pierce Brosnan. 2001 attacks on New York.The four dine in the Jules Verne restaurant on the Tower’s second floor. pays her first visit to the Eiffel Tower and has a photo session on the third floor. 1998 Michel Platini is received at the Eiffel Tower. 2004 The President of China.) • In October. it’s astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien’s turn to be received at the Tower. celebrating 50 years of reign. With him is France’s President Jacques Chirac and Madame Bernadette Chirac. The event is chosen by Thailand to close the Jubilee festivities of King Bhumibol. located on the first floor. . the great grandson of Buffalo Bill. 2002 Officers of the Fire Department of New York. former President of Russia. are received at the Eiffel Tower. • In May. • Private visit by the American singer Michael Jackson. Hu Jintao. accompanied by his wife. performing some spectacular scenes from the film “Rush Hour 3”. Madame Chirac gives a press conference in the Gustave Eiffel room on the takings of the “small coins campaign” alongside the campaign’s spokesman. 2001 A visit from Mr. • In June. 100 days before the World Cup. heroes of the September 11. wife of the Russian President. 2000 • Bill Cody Garlow. as his grandfather had 111 years earlier. visits the Eiffel Tower. • Ludmila Poutine. Robert Kotcharian. Private visit from Boris Yeltsin. 1999 Three Nobel Prize Winners are invited to the Eiffel Tower on the invitation of Unesco. visit the monument. accompanied by the crew members of the American shuttle Atlantis. 2006 • Actors Jackie Chan and Chris Tucker were filmed on location at the Tower. and have been known to take tiny Eiffel Towers with them on their missions. judo champion David Douillet. French astronaut Claudie André-Deshays and the Russian crew of the Cassiopée mission. back from the Mir space station. (French astronauts often come to the monument. treasures of artisans” exhibition. pays a visit to the Eiffel Tower.

• 2003 . explorers and even penguins – is installed on the first floor platform. 36 Views of the Tower”: exhibit of the André Juillard’s drawings. • 1998 .Foundation Mona Bismarck • 1999 .“The Eiffel Tower is 100” .The Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai on show at the Eiffel Tower: a tour of Chinese culture and gastronomy.“The State of Invention.“Craziness and creativity”: this exhibition presented on the first floor platform shows the “craziest” projects that have marked the life of the Eiffel Tower. . Niu Weiping.“Hungary and the Eiffel Tower” and “New Edition of the years 1886-1887: Illustrations and the inauguration of the exhibit Les Années 1886-1887” • 1988 .“The Eiffel Tower Welcomes Space” • 1986 .“100 Year anniversary of the Garabit viaduct” • 1985 .“The Eiffel Tower in Celebration”: this exhibition set up in the Ferrié Room. • 2007 – The Eiffel Tower in Film Posters • 2007 – Inuits in the 21st Century. a tour of force” .“Wojtek Korsak.“The Story of Iron” • 1997 . City of Dijon • 1982 .“Lovers of the Eiffel Tower” • 1984 .“The Eiffel Tower and the Advent of French Cinema 1889-1929” • 1996 . Polar Fauna and the Threatening Climatic Changes • 2008 . • 1999 .“Imagine the Eiffel Tower” • 1991 . Musée en Herbe Gustave Eiffel. Postal Museum • 1983 . from Babel to our time” • 1992 . the earliest of any card depicting the Eiffel Tower.Mâcon Saint Alban • 1984 .Vintage Postcard Exhibition» • 2003 . was lifted into position between the first and second floors. sleigh. 1906”: an exhibition devoted to Robert Delaunay is held at the Centre Georges Pompidou.From Impressionism to Abstraction. • 2000-2004 .Jules Verne: Visionary of Unknown Worlds”: the “From earth to the moon” shell is reproduced on the first floor and the elevator machinery becomes the Nautilus gangways. • 1995 .Card 16 Exhibitions Exhibitions at the Eiffel Tower • 1982 . • 2002 .“The City of Paris: Its Museums and Their Patrons” • 1985 . The exhibit includes his famous “Eiffel Tower” series of paintings.“Eiffel” . Among the oldest cards is a “Libonis” by the eponymous engraver.The Parisian Chronicles: 70 years of daily life in Paris From the Collections of the Roger-Viollet Agency Exhibitions held in France in collaboration with the Eiffel Tower • 1981 .“The Extraordinary Life and Works of Gustave Eiffel” Levallois-Perret • 1989 .“Robert Delaunay .“Towers of the World. The installation is opened by the President of the Republic Jacques Chirac. • 2000 .“The Unique and Manifold Tower”.“Siüdmak: Fantasy Universe”: the Polish painter Siudmak shows some 40 of his works in the Ferrié Pavilion.Levallois Perret “The Eiffel Tower and the Universal Exhibition” – Musée d’Orsay “TheTour Eiffel. • 1993 . postmarked August 21.A tribute to the 50th anniversary of the French Polar Expeditions.“Visions of Europe”: the Eiffel Tower celebrates Europe by presenting the works – paintings. as part of the France-China Cultural Exchange Program.“The Eiffel Tower in 1900.1 tons. A major postcard competition is organized for the occasion.“World Encounters” • 1994 . during the times of Gustave Eiffel” • 1990 .“André Juillard. sculptures and photographs – of 50 artists from 30 European capitals. made from aluminum pellets mounted on to a 300 m2 net weighing 2. 1889. by the Presidents of the two towers: Mr. The inaugural lunch is held at the Eiffel Tower and brings together the curators of the world’s finest museums. Deputy Mayor of Paris. A giant portrait of Jules Verne. an ice floe setting – with tracked vehicle. The operation cemented the partnership agreement signed in December 2003.“All about the Eiffel Tower or the life and adventures of the Eiffel Tower as told by children”. and Mrs. Tours and Detours”: photo exhibit.“Before the Year 2000 . • 2004 . Jean-Bernard Bros.“Gustave Eiffel and His Times”. traces all the exceptional events celebrated by the monument from its opening to the Year 2000 spectacular.

Panama.Moern Art Museum.The Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai welcomes the Eiffel Tower for a week. Chris Hinchcliffe Sweden • 1986 . . with a photo exhibition and an introduction to French gastronomy.Madrid.New York.“The Eiffel Tower.“La Torre Eiffel” . Hamamatsu. Library of the Institut Henri Poincaré. Takasaki .“An Eiffel Tower high in colors” .Hankyu. a 100-year message” . • 2004 . USA • 1992 .• 2001-2002 . Spain • 1987 .“The Eiffel Tower. • 2003 . Portugal • 1988/1989 .Eiffel Sveriges Tekniska Museum.Caracas.Mexico • 1993 . The Eiffel Tower on the banks of the River Arno”. a tour de force” .Lisbon. 2004 .“The 72 scientists on the Eiffel Tower”. The city of Florence devotes a major exhibition to the Eiffel Tower.“La Torre Eiffel en Mexico” . Morioka. Osaka .Tokyo and Osaka.“Gustave Eiffel . Japan .Matsuhushi. Gunma.“Gustave Eiffel y su obra – La Torre Eiffel Hoy” .The Eiffel Tower Tour on show in Florence.Iwate Kenmin Kaikan Museum. Iwate • 1989 . Umeda.Venezuela • 1999 .Centre Georges Pompidou. entitled “From Tuscany to the Europe of Gustave Eiffel. Shizuoka .De Europa hacia América” . Exhibitions outside France • 1985 .Eiffel at the Franco-Portuguese Institute .

ISBN 2-213-61204-8 Gustave Eiffel • DESCHODT (Eric) Editions Flammarion . Regnery Gateway. index ISBN2-221-06488-7 The Tallest tower : Eiffel and the Belle Epoque • HARRISS Washington. (out of print) La Tour de Monsieur Eiffel • LEMOINE (Bertrand) Paris. bibliogr. . ..1 : Textes . : ill. (out of print) La Tour Eiffel • LANOUX (Armand) Textes et documents rassemblés par Viviane Hamy Paris.143 p ISBN 2-0820-0800-2 36 Vues de la Tour Eiffel • JUILLARD (André) Editions Christian Debois .2 vol.T.2002 Works on Gustave Eiffel Eiffel le magicien du fer • PONCETTON (François) Paris. Lemercier. 1984 . Tignol. 1984 . 1990 .MARTIN (André) Paris. Robert Laffont.143 p. 1989 -162 p. Gustave Eiffel • BERMOND (Daniel) Editions Perrin . Works on the Eiffel Tower La Tour Eiffel de 300 mètres à l’Exposition universelle de 1889 • NANSOUTY (Max de) Paris. Denoël... : photos ISBN 2-86754-055-0 / 2-02-011428-3 La sentinelle de Paris • DENKER (Winnie) . Université de Lille III. (available in several languages) La naissance de la Tour Eiffel • HERON (Jean-Olivier) Editions Actes Sud Junior . 1955 . ISBN 2-85956-303-2 (out of print) La Tour de 300 mètres • BURES (Charles de) Lausanne. T. bibliogr.. Maisonneuve et Larose. La Différence. (out of print) . (out of print) Histoire de la Tour Eiffel • BRAIBANT (Charles) Paris. 1986 .2 : Planches (out of print) La Tour en 1900 Paris. bibliogr. :ill. (out of print) L’Architecture métallique Paris..2000 Les rendez-vous de la Tour Eiffel • MORGANE (Carole) Editions Cherche Midi . Graphite.124 p.113 p. ill. ill.2000 La Tour Eiffel cent ans de sollicitude • SEITZ ( Frédéric) Editions Belin . 1989 . ISBN 2-86774-001-0 (currently out of print) Gustave Eiffel • LOYRETTE (Henri) Paris. : ill.635 p.2002 .159 p. ill.111 p. La Tour Eiffel superstar • LANDON (François) Paris. André Delcour. 1989 256 p. 1988 . 1900 .112 p. 1998 . Plon.225 p. index.. Editions Ouest France.198 p.502 p. :ill. 1989 .136 p . 1889 . Ramsay. :ill.: ill. (out of print) LaT our Eiffel présentée par le Corbusier… • CORDAT (Charles) Paris. biblio. un voyage immobile • LUBLINER (Jean-Paul) Editions du Collectionneur .2002 La Tour Eiffel – Tours et détours • KORSAK (Wojtek) Editions Plastic .159 p. 1902 . 1980 -191 p :ill. :ill. 1996 . index ISBN 0-89526-764-0 (out of print) La Tour Eiffel • Lille. CNP/Seuil. 1989 . 2003 .Card 17 Bibliography Works by Gustave Eiffel La Tour de 300 mètres Paris.79 p. 1964 .Département Pygmalion . 2002 .354 p.127 p. ISBN 2-207-23563-7 (out of print) Quid de la Tour Eiffel • FREMY (Dominique) Paris. 1982 .191 p.CARACALLA (Jean-Paul) Paris. Eiffel • CARMONA (Michel) Editions Fayard.30 p. 1939 .2001 La Tour Eiffel • GAILLARD (Marc) Editions Flammarion . Gallimard.294 p. La Tour Eiffel • DES CARS (Jean) .Les Contes des Métamorphoses 2000 Tour Eiffel. : ill. Editions de Minuit. (Découvertes Architecture) ISBN 2-07-053083 La Tour Eiffel • BARTHES (Roland) . Recueil d’articles et conférences rédigés par Gustave Eiffel ISBN 2-7068-1189-7 Numerous works on air resistance and meteorology. Editions de la Tournelle.SAGAN (Françoise) Robert Laffont.254 p. Hazan.2002 . : ill. : ill.252 p. (out of print) La vie et l’oeuvre extraordinaires de Monsieur Gustave Eiffel ingénieur • MARREY (Bernard) Paris. Payot. Revue des Sciences humaines n°218 La Fantastique histoire de la T our Eiffel • LEMOINE (Bertrand) Rennes. Masson. ISBN 2 228-00150-3 Gustave Eiffel • LEMOINE (Bertrand) Paris. biblio. 1989 . :ill.

.............. Card 10 Illuminations .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Summary Gustave Eiffel (1832 -1923) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Card 11 Painting the Eiffel Tower ..................................................................................................................... Card 12 Eiffel Tower Restaurants ................................................................................................Card 8 Feats and exploits on the Tower ....................................................................................Card 5 The Eiffel Tower: a subject of controversy ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Card 14 Visitors ........................................................................... Card 15 Exhibitions ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Card 3 Beginnings and construction of the Eiffel Tower .......Card 1 The state of technology at the end of the XIXth century .................................. Card 16 Bibliography .................Card 7 The history of telecommunications on the Eiffel Tower ...........................................................................................................................................................................Card 2 The Eiffel Tower era ........................................Card 9 The Eiffel Tower and artists ................................ Card 13 The Eiffel Tower behind the scenes ....................................Card 6 Scientific and technical applications ...................................................................................Card 4 The elevators ............................................................................................................ Card 17 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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