Technology ∗ Roadmapping

Abstract
The technology roadmapping method is used widely in industry to support technology strategy and planning. The approach was originally developed by Motorola more than 25 years ago, to support integrated product-technology planning. Since then the technique has been adapted and applied in a wide variety of industrial contexts, at the company and sector levels (for example, the International Semiconductor and UK Foresight Vehicle technology roadmaps). Technology roadmaps can take many forms, but generally comprise multi-layered time-based charts that enable technology developments to be aligned with market trends and drivers. This chapter provides an overview to the technology roadmapping approach, starting with an introduction to the topic of technology management. Roadmapping is a very flexible approach, and the various aims that it can support are reviewed, together with the different formats that roadmaps take and the principles for customising the method. Also important is the process that is required to develop a good roadmap, and the chapter describes a method for rapid initiation of roadmapping in the business strategy, together with some of the characteristics of good roadmaps and the systems needed for supporting their application. Case examples are included to illustrate how the approach can be applied at the sector level, based on collaborative workshops.

Introduction
Technology-driven innovation is of increasing importance to industry and nations, as a means of achieving the economic, social and environmental goals that lie at the heart of sustainable development. The effective management of technology is becoming more challenging as the cost, complexity and pace of technology change increase, in a globally competitive market. The management of technology for business and national benefit requires effective processes and systems to be put in place to ensure that investment in R&D, facilities and skills is aligned with market and industry needs, now and in the future.

________________ Prepared by Robert Phaal, Centre for Technology Management, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Technology Roadmapping

The technology roadmapping method is used widely in industry to support technology strategy and planning. The approach was originally developed by Motorola more than 25 years ago, to support integrated product-technology planning. Since then the technique has been adapted and applied in a wide variety of industrial contexts, at the company and sector levels. Technology roadmaps can take many forms, but generally comprise multi-layered time-based graphical charts that enable technology developments to be aligned with market trends and drivers. This paper provides an overview to the technology roadmapping approach, starting with an introduction to the topic of technology management. Roadmapping is a very flexible approach, and the various aims that it can support are reviewed, together with the different formats that roadmaps take and the principles for customising the method. Also important is the process that is required to develop a good roadmap, and the paper describes a method for rapid initiation of roadmapping in organisations, together with some of the characteristics of good roadmaps and the systems needed for supporting their application. A case example is included to illustrate how the approach can be applied at the sector level, based on a series of collaborative workshops. Much of this paper focuses on the management of technology from the perspective of the manager at the firm level, where many of the techniques have evolved, but it should be recognised that the principles and approaches discussed can also be applied at the sector or national level.

Technology and the management of technology
There are many published definitions of ‘technology’ (for example, Floyd 1997, Whipp 1991, Steele 1989). Examination of these definitions highlights a number of factors that characterise technology, which can be considered as a specific type of knowledge (although this knowledge may be embodied within a physical artefact, such as a machine, component, system or product). The key characteristic of technology that distinguishes it from more general knowledge types is that it is applied, focusing on the ‘know-how’ of the organisation. While technology is usually associated with science and engineering (‘hard’ technology), the processes which enable its effective application are also important - for example new product development and innovation processes, together with organisational structures and supporting knowledge networks (‘soft’ aspects of technology). Treating technology as a type of knowledge is helpful, as knowledge management concepts can be useful for more effectively managing technology (for example, Stata, 1989, Nonaka, 1991, Leonard-Barton, 1995). For instance, technological knowledge generally comprises both explicit and tacit knowledge. Explicit technological knowledge is that which has been articulated (for example in a report, procedure or user guide), together with the physical manifestations of technology (equipment). Tacit technological knowledge is that which cannot be easily articulated, and which relies on training and experience (such as welding or design skills). Similarly to ‘technology’, there are many definitions of ‘technology management’ in the literature (for example, Roussel et al., 1991, Gaynor, 1996). For the purposes of this paper the following definition is adopted, proposed by the European Institute of Technology Management (EITM)1 : "Technology management addresses the effective identification, selection, acquisition, development, exploitation and protection of technologies (product, process and
1

________________ EITM is a collaboration between a number of European universities: see http://wwwmmd.eng.cam.ac.uk/ctm/eitm/index.html

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Technology management framework (Probert et al.requirements (knowledge flows) E Technological perspective Fig. etc. Of particular importance is the dialogue and understanding that needs to be established between the commercial and technological functions in the business.. 1. Selection. organisational culture. innovation and operations. Acquisition. to achieve a balance between market ‘pull’ and technology ‘push’. This requires effective communication and knowledge management. innovation and operations). exploitation and protection of technology. Technology management addresses the processes needed to maintain a stream of products and services to the market. supported by appropriate tools and processes. including strategy development. These concepts are illustrated in Fig. It deals with all aspects of integrating technological issues into business decision making. innovation and new product development. acquisition. highlighting the dialogue that is 131 . market dynamics. These processes are not always very visible in firms. and operations management. such as strategy.Technology Roadmapping infrastructural) needed to maintain [and grow] a market position and business performance in accordance with the company’s objectives". Exploitation and Protection). The nature of these knowledge flows depends on both the internal and external context. and are typically distributed within other business processes. Figure 1: Environment Organisation Commercial perspective I Strategy Push mechanisms .capabilities (knowledge flows) Innovation Operations P Technology base S A Pull mechanisms . Healthy technology management requires establishing appropriate knowledge flows between commercial and technological perspectives in the firm. 2000). including factors such as business aims. 1 . selection. showing technology management processes (Identification. and is directly relevant to a number of business processes. business processes (strategy. q Effective technology management requires a number of management processes and the EITM definition includes the five processes proposed by Gregory (1995): identification. This definition highlights two important technology management themes: q Establishing and maintaining the linkages between technological resources and company objectives is of vital importance and represents a continuing challenge for many firms.

Technology Roadmapping needed between the commercial and technological functions in the business to support effective technology management 132 .

EIRMA. 2. and market opportunities. More recently roadmaps have been used to support national and sector ‘foresight’ initiatives: for example. 2003). many of which are available to download (although there is considerable activity at the company level. comprising a number of layers that typically include both commercial and technological perspectives. The generic roadmap is a time-based chart.org.doe.gov/aluminum/ 4 http://www. 1998. while fairly simple in structure and concept. A survey of 2.000 UK manufacturing firms (Phaal et al.see Fig.itrs. Key challenges reported by survey respondents included keeping the roadmapping process 2 ________________ http://public.foresightvehicle. showing how technology can be aligned to product and service developments. Aluminum Industry3 .uk/ 133 . Barker and Smith.Schematic technology roadmap. business strategy. as the roadmap itself. Albright and Kappel. with approximately 80% of those companies either using the technique more than once. Strauss et al. 2001). An Internet search using the term ‘technology roadmap’ will produce thousands of links. the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA)2 (Kostoff and Schaller. 1997.oit. 2000) indicates that about 10% of companies (mostly large) have applied the technology roadmapping approach. or on an ongoing basis. UK Foresight Vehicle4 (Phaal. McMillan.Technology Roadmapping Technology roadmaps Technology roadmapping represents a powerful technique for supporting technology management and planning in the firm. 1997. Figure 2: Time Market M1 M2 Product T1 P1 P2 P3 P4 Technology RD 1 T2 T3 RD 2 RD 3 RD 4 RD 5 T4 RD 6 R&D programmes Resources Capital investment / finance Supply chain Staff / skills Fig.. 2 . mostly relating to sector level initiatives. However. Groenveld .. 1995. 2002) technology roadmaps. but the most common approach is encapsulated in the generic form proposed by EIRMA (1997) . Bray and Garcia. application of the TRM approach presents considerable challenges to firms. products and technologies to be explored.htm 3 http://www. 2003. together with the linkages between the various perspectives. 1997. this is seldom published for reasons of confidentiality). represents the final distilled outputs from a strategy and planning process.net/files/1999_SIA_Roadmap/Home. 1987. The roadmap enables the evolution of markets. Roadmaps can take various forms. Roadmapping has been widely adopted in industry (Willyard and McClees.

the desire to develop effective business processes. examination of these documents also reveals the variety of approaches that can be taken. However. These documents provide useful guidance on the principles and practice of technology roadmapping. Factors that particularly hinder successful roadmapping include initiative overload. Other factors that contribute to (and hinder) successful technology roadmapping are shown in Fig. and are a useful input to the design of a roadmapping process or activity. 3 . 3.see Fig. August 2001: http://industry. For instance EIRMA (1997). Factors that are particularly important for successful roadmapping (greater than 50% response) include a clearly articulated business need. Bray & Garcia (1997).ca/epic/internet/intrm-crt. In addition. and developing a robust TRM process (20%) . and initially exploratory. More recently. distraction from short-term tasks and required data. These authors indicate that the development of an effective roadmapping process within an organisation is reliant on significant vision and commitment for what is an iterative.technology planning for business competitiveness. there is little practical support available and companies typically re-invent the process. 5 6 ________________ Australian guide to developing technology roadmaps .a strategy for success.gov.au/library/content_library/13_technology_road_mapping.Technology Roadmapping ‘alive’ on an ongoing basis (50%). Groenveld (1997). Strauss et al. based on results from the survey described above.nsf/vwGeneratedInterE/Home 134 . although there have been some efforts to share experience. (1998) and DoE (2000) summarise key technology roadmapping process steps. Many of the sector-level technology roadmaps that have been published on the Internet also provide useful guidance and examples. a number of guidance notes have been published that relate to the application of the technology roadmapping approach at the sector level. including a guide for government employees: http://strategis. starting up the TRM process (30%). Figure 3: 50 45 40 Response (%) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Starting up the TRM process Developing a robust TRM process Roll-out of the TRM process Keeping the TRM process 'alive' on an ongoing basis Other Fig.ic. in Australia5 and Canada6 . information and knowledge not being available.Technology roadmapping . In general it is necessary to customise the roadmapping approach to suit the particular circumstances for which it is intended. 4. which can be attributed to the flexibility of the roadmapping concept. as discussed later in this paper.gc.Key technology roadmapping challenges One of the reasons why organisations struggle with the application of roadmapping is that there are many specific forms of roadmap.pdf Industry Canada .. having the right people involved and commitment from senior management. which often have to be tailored to the specific needs of the firm and its business context. process.

clustered into the following eight broad areas. where the approach has been widely adopted (Groenveld. 1997). A process for the rapid initiation of roadmapping in the firm is presented (T-Plan). Product planning time Description: This is by far the most common type of technology roadmap. see Fig. 2001a). and the terms ‘product’ or ‘business’ roadmapping may be more appropriate for many of its potential uses.Technology Roadmapping Figure 4: Response (%) Response (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Clear business need Desire to develop effective business processes Company culture & politics supported participation / progress Right people / functions were involved Commitment from senior management Required data / information / knowledge available Timing of initiative was appropriate Clear and effective process for developing TRM Effective tools / techniques / methods Effective facilitation / training Other Lack of clear business need Initiative overload / distraction from short-term tasks Company culture & politics impeded participation / progress Right people / functions were not involved Lack of commitment from senior management Required data / information / knowledge not available Timing of initiative was inappropriate Lack of clear and effective process for developing map Lack of effective tools / techniques / methods Lack of effective facilitation / training Other 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Success Factors Barriers to Success Fig. based on observed structure and content (Phaal et al.. together with the general requirements for supporting the process in the firm. including the range of aims that the approach can support. Technology roadmapping approaches Technology roadmapping approaches – purpose The technology roadmapping approach is very flexible. often including more than one generation of product. and the various formats that roadmaps take. Products Technologies 135 . relating to the insertion of technology into manufactured products. 4 . Examination of a set of approximately 40 roadmaps has revealed a range of different aims. The example shows how roadmaps are used to link planned technology and product developments. 5: 1.Roadmapping success factors and barriers to success This paper presents an overview of the technology roadmapping technique. Example: A Philips roadmap.

and the linkages to the skills.. Product Example: A roadmap format developed using TTechnology Migration paths Plan to support strategic business planning. rather than products. Service / capability planning time Description: Similar to Type 1 (product Triggers / issues planning). but more suited to service-based Business & enterprises. business. and is often performed at the sector or national level (‘foresight’).information systems for the manufacturing enterprise. used to investigate the Technology gap impact of technology developments on the developments business. 1998). Long-range planning time Description: Extends the planning time horizon. 5. in Market terms of supporting the evaluation of different Business opportunities or threats. skills. http://imti21. Integrated manufacturing technology roadmapping (IMTR) project . products. The Skills roadmap focuses on the development of a vision Organisation of the future business. 7 8 ________________ Several of the example roadmaps have been developed during applications of the T-Plan 'fast-start' roadmapping process IMTR (1999). 3. Capabilities to Example: A Post Office roadmap / T-Plan7 applimeet drivers cation (Brown. This roadmap focuses on organisational capabilities as the bridge between technology and the business. focusing on how technology market drivers supports organisational capabilities. technologies. by comparing the future vision with the current position. This example focuses on information systems. Gaps are identified. in terms of markets. culture. Knowledge asset planning Technology developments “Nugget” time Description: Aligning knowledge assets and Business objectives knowledge management initiatives with business Leading projects objectives. & actions Knowledge Example: This form of roadmap has been management enablers developed by the Artificial Intelligence Knowledge related processes Applications Unit at the University of Edinburgh Knowledge assets (Macintosh et al.Technology Roadmapping 2. Current 4. typically at the business Gaps level. and strategic options explored to bridge the gaps. Example: A roadmap developed within the US Integrated Manufacturing Technology Roadmapping (IMTR) Initiative8 (one of a series). 2001).org/ 136 Vision . showing how technology developments are likely to converge towards the ‘information driven seamless enterprise’ (a ‘nugget’). Strategic planning time Description: Includes a strategic dimension. etc. technologies and competences required to meet future market demands. enabling organisations to visualise their critical knowledge assets.

http://origins. Project milestones Example: A NASA roadmap (one of many) for the Key decision points Origins programme9 . showing how product and process technologies integrate to support the development of functionality in future products. 2001a): a. (e. services and business systems. in terms of how different technologies demonstrators systems technologies systems combine within products and systems. and more Project flow directly relates to project planning (for example. facilitating the integration of technology into products. relating to the management of the development programme for the NGST. 9 ________________ NASA (1997). incorporating both technical perspectives. The Module / goal component roadmap allows the evolution within each layer to be explored. or to form new technologies (often without showing the time dimension explicitly).Technology Roadmapping 6. new product development). Example: A NASA roadmap7 (Origins programme see #6). 1997). product and market. 8.Manufacturing processes dencies. such as technology. Technology roadmapping approaches – format Another factor that contributes to the variety of roadmaps that have been observed is the graphic format that has been selected for communicating the roadmap. Multiple layers time Product Description: The most common format of characteristics technology roadmap comprises a number of layers. Origins technology roadmap. R&D programmes). 7. This developments particular roadmap focuses on the management of the development programme for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST).jpl.gov/library/techroadmap/roadmapidx. focusing on a particular process area perspective (for example. showing how technology feeds into test and demonstration systems. focusing on ‘technology flow’.htm 137 . Process planning Knowledge flows Description: Supports the management of Commercial knowledge.. Example: A Philips roadmap (Groenveld. with the following eight graphic types identified. Programme planning time Description: Implementation of strategy. based on observed structure (Phaal et al. Business process Example: A type of technology roadmap. Integration planning time Knowledge flows and commercial Description: Integration and/or evolution of System / Component / Prototypes / Intechnology test subsystem service technology.g. focusing on the knowledge flows that perspective are needed to facilitate effective new product development and introduction. NPD) developed using T-Plan to support product Technical planning. to support scientific missions. together with the inter-layer depen. showing the relationships between technology development and programme phases and milestones.nasa. used to explore how the Technology universe and life within it has developed.

relating to the development of products and product families. which facilitates communication. c. This type of graph is sometimes called an ‘experience curve’. with roadmaps now forming part of corporate knowledge and business management systems. Tables time Product features & performance evolution Description: In some cases. JTEC Panel Report.edu/ep/ 138 . or layers within the roadmap. for each layer or sub-layer. http://itri. Example: A roadmap showing how a set products and technologies co-evolve (EIRMA. 2000). Bars Description: Many roadmaps are expressed in the time form of a set of ‘bars’. Graphs Technology areas & performance evolution Description: Where product or technology performance can be quantified. This type of approach is particularly suited to situations where performance can be readily quantified.e. including both product and technology performance dimensions. showing the evolution of car radio product features and technologies. are expressed as tables (i. d. Motorola has subsequently developed roadmapping to new levels.Technology Roadmapping b. entire roadmaps. Example: The ‘classic’ Motorola roadmap (Willyard Next 2 Future Products: 1 gen and McClees. 1997). Example: A Sharp roadmap10 . Example: A tabulated roadmap (EIRMA. based on a set of liquid crystal display technologies. This has the advantage of simplifying and unifying the required outputs. 1987). performance). 1997). time vs. and the development of software to support roadmapping.loyola. Electronic Manufacturing and Packaging in Japan. a roadmap can be expressed as a simple graph or plot . or if activities are clustered in specific time periods. Pictorial representations Technology areas time Products Performance Technology 2 Technology 1 Future technology Description: Some roadmaps use more creative pictorial representations to communicate technology integration and plans.g.typically one for each sub-layer. supported by software and integrated decision support systems (Bergelt. and is closely related to technology ‘S-curves’. integration of roadmaps. Sometimes metaphors are used to support the objective (e. e. Sectors & products Technology areas 10 ________________ ITRI (1995). a ‘tree’).

mid.gov/ 12 Agfa white papers (1999).nasa. Flow charts Primary business areas & crosscutting processes g. primary business areas. the disadvantage of this type is that the linkages between the layers are not generally shown. fundamental scientific questions.roadmap. While less complex. 5 . Example: A NASA roadmap11. which is typically used to relate objectives.com/whitepapers.and long-term goals. h.Characterisation of roadmaps: purpose and format ________________ NASA (1998). 1987). actions and outcomes. Example: The Motorola roadmap (Willyard and McClees. showing how the organisation’s vision can be related to its mission. Text Description: Some roadmaps are entirely or mostly text-based. Mission Vision . Single layer Description: This form is a subset of type ‘a’. Figure 5: Purpose Capability planning Strategic planning Long range planning Knowledge asset planning Programme planning Process planning Product planning Format Bars Multiple layers Table Single layer Generic TRM Text Graph Pictorial Flow Integration planning Fig. http://www. and contribution to US national priorities.Technology Roadmapping f. describing the same issues that are included in more conventional graphical roadmaps (which often have text-based reports associated with them). Example: The Agfa ‘white papers’ support understanding of the technological and market trends that will influence the sector12 . Technology plan . focusing on a single layer of the multiple layer roadmap. type ‘b’ above.agfa1to1. focusing on the technological evolution associated with a product and it’s features.html 11 139 Contribution to priorities Fundamental questions Long-term goals Near-term goals Mid-term goals Description: A particular type of pictorial representation is the flow chart. http://technologyplan. is an example of a single layer roadmap. near-.

in terms of business purpose. Support communication between technical and commercial functions. However. 3. A management guide has been written to support the application of the T-Plan approach (Phaal et al. which includes guidance on the broader application of the method. 2. in terms of both purpose and format. resulting in hybrid forms. The T-Plan process that has been developed to support the rapid initiation of roadmapping in the business comprises two main parts: a.Applications of T-Plan fast-start TRM process Sector / product Industrial coding (3 applications) Postal services (10 applications) Security / access systems Software Surface coatings Medical packaging (2 applications) Automotive sub-systems Focus / aims Product planning Integration of R&D into business. b. Table 1 . Identify important gaps in market. business planning Product planning Product planning New product development process Business reconfiguration Service development & planning 140 . 6.. Roadmaps do not always fit neatly within the categories identified above and can contain elements of more than one type. Technology roadmapping – process The T-Plan ‘fast-start’ approach has been developed as part of a three-year applied research programme. incorporating many of the techniques included in the standard approach. Standard approach. 5. which aims to: 1. product and technology intelligence. available resources and desired use (the message being communicated). Establish key linkages between technology resources and business drivers. where more than 35 roadmaps were developed in collaboration with a variety of company types in several industry sectors (see Table 1). 4. 2001b). Customised approach.Technology Roadmapping The range of roadmap types observed may be partially attributed to a lack of clear and accepted standards or protocols for their construction.. Support the start-up of company-specific TRM processes. it is considered that this also reflects the need to adapt the approach to suit the situation. Support technology strategy and planning initiatives in the firm. existing sources of information. 2000). for supporting product planning (Phaal et al. Develop a ‘first-cut’ technology roadmap.

with the final workshop bringing the layers together on a time-basis to construct the chart – see Fig. network development Innovation strategy Research priorities Innovation opportunities Business strategy and product planning Global production strategy Standard process (integrated producttechnology planning) The standard T-Plan process comprises four facilitated workshops – the first three focusing on the three key layers of the roadmap (market / business. and technology). network development New service development Corporate synergy Strategic planning Research planning. 6.Technology Roadmapping Sector / product Power transmission Railway infrastructure (3 applications) National security infrastructure Building environmental controls Road transport Technical consulting (6 applications) Automotive / aerospace Academic (2 applications) Bio-catalysis Satellite navigation Food processing Pneumatic systems Emerging technologies Automotive Retail (2 applications) Off road vehicles Focus / aims Business opportunities for new technology Capital investment planning and technology insertion Research program planning New product / service opportunity. network development Research planning. business reconfiguration Defining national research agenda. product / service. 141 . network development Research planning.

including planning and facilitation of workshops. Application of the T-Plan approach in a wide range of organizational and strategic contexts has enabled the flexibility of the roadmapping method to be explored. and follow-up actions. q The graphical format that is selected to present information and communicate the roadmap. in terms of: q The wide range of aims that roadmapping can contribute towards. Customising the process Technology roadmapping is an inherently flexible technique.Technology Roadmapping Figure 6: time Planning • Objectives • Scope • People • Schedule Workshop 1 Market • Performance dimensions • Market / business drivers • Grouping • Prioritisation • SWOT • Gaps Business / Market Product / Service Technology Workshop 2 Product • Product feature concepts • Grouping • Impact ranking • Product strategy • Gaps time Product features The process results in a ‘first-cut’ roadmap. and to span levels of the roadmap • Milestones • Product charting • Technology charting • Resources • Gaps • Way forward Fig. which the roadmap and roadmapping process need to integrate with. which can be adapted to fit the particular application. define structure and ‘language’. illustrates the different layers and sub-layers that can be used to define the roadmap 142 . q The timeframe covered by the roadmap (past and future). 7. q The set of existing processes. The approach can (and should) be customized to suit the particular application. 6 . in terms of layers and sub-layers. Simple linked analysis grids are used to identify and assess the relationships between the various layers and sub-layers in the roadmap. tools and information sources in the firm. q The process that is followed to develop and maintain the roadmap/s. q The structure of the roadmap.T-Plan: standard process steps. based on observations of many roadmaps. together with identification of key knowledge gaps and and implementation factors Workshop 3 Technology • Technology solutions • Grouping • Impact ranking • Gaps Technology Roadmap Business / Market Product / Service Product features Business / Market drivers Workshop 4 Charting Implementation • Implementation plan • Tasks (gaps) • Integration Technology solutions Technology Analysis Grids Analysis grids are used to gather data. The generalised roadmap shown if Fig. showing linked analysis grids Also important are the parallel management activities. in terms of roadmap architecture and the process for developing the roadmap. process co-ordination.

which continues until the parties agree a plan that makes sense to all involved: q Context – the nature of the issue that triggered interest in roadmapping needs to be explored and articulated. 7 . The multi-layered generic architecture allows key aspects of knowledge about the business to be captured. As well as the overt business aims. where both the roadmap architecture and roadmapping process need to be considered in parallel. together with any constraints that will affect the approach adopted. the process is creative. As with all design activities. Aims: the set of goals and objectives that it is hoped to achieve with roadmapping. Focus: the focal issue that is driving the need to roadmap. – 143 . what is being considered. strategic issues to be identified.Generalised technology roadmap architecture Customisation needs to be considered during the planning phase. effort and money. Alignment of ‘know-why’ (purpose). ‘know-what’ (delivery). at the heart of which is a design activity. ‘know-how’ (resources) and ‘knowwhen’ (time) allows a balance between market pull and technology push to be achieved. in the long. and what is not). organizational goals are also typically included. structured and shared. such as the desire to improve communication and to understand how the roadmapping approach can be used to support ongoing strategic activities in the firm. as a basis for focusing discussion. Figure 7: Layers connect: Past Market / Customers / Competitors / Environment / Industry / Business / Trends / Drivers / Threats / Objectives / Milestones / Strategy Now Plans Future Vision Time (know-when) ‘purpose’ (know-why) Products / Services / Applications / Services / Capabilities / Performance / Features / Components / Families / Processes / Systems / Platforms / Opportunities / Requirements / Risks M ar ke t Pu ll ‘delivery’ (know-what) Technology / Competences / Knowledge Te ch no log yp us h ‘resources’ (know-how) Other resources: Skills / Partnerships / Suppliers / Facilities / Infrastructure / Organisation / Standards / Science / Finance / R&D Projects Fig.e. which can be tailored to fit the particular context. and actions agreed. including the following considerations: – – – Scope: defining the boundaries of the domain of interest (i. in terms of people. Resources: the level of resource that the organization is willing to contribute. iterative and non-linear in nature.and short-term. The following checklist is used in T-Plan applications.Technology Roadmapping structure.

The number of participants involved in the workshop/s depends on the specific context. q Participants – the people that need to be involved in the process and workshop/s. apart from the direct business benefits that arise from its application. q Preparatory work – activities that need to be performed prior to the workshop/s need to be identified and agreed. to 144 . with the knowledge and expertise necessary to develop a well-founded and credible roadmap. in terms of the planning horizon and key milestones. in terms of: – Timeframe: the chronological aspects of the roadmap (horizontal axis).and long-term. q Workshop venue and scheduling – a suitable date and venue is needed for the workshop/s. make decisions. integrating device for carrying the business strategy and planning process forward. The process includes a ‘macro’ level. – q Process – the staged set of activities needed to build roadmap content. and during the development and application of TPlan workshop groups ranged in size from 5 to 35 participants. representing both commercial and technical perspectives. with the need to break into sub-groups (with plenary feedback) if the group size exceeds about 10. in terms of the broad steps needed in the short-. but very important. 8). built into the roadmap template. if that is deemed appropriate. preparing briefing documents and facilitation materials. Layers: the structure of the vertical axis of the roadmap. or incorporated after the workshop in the context of an ongoing roadmapping process. Typically a multifunctional team is needed. step on the way towards implementing roadmapping in a more complete and beneficial way. and consideration given to what information should be supplied to participants prior to the workshop. others have taken roadmapping forward to form a significant part of their strategy and planning processes. booking an appropriate venue. which is closely related to how the business is structured and viewed (physically and conceptually). Roadmapping can become the focal. large enough to allow participatory roadmapping activity by the group/s. While some organisations choose to use the method for particular situations on a oneoff basis. is that the value of the method can be assessed quickly and economically. q Information sources – it is important that the roadmapping activity takes account of available information. The learning that is gained by this initial application provides confidence about how to best take the process forward within the organisation. identify and agree actions and maintain the roadmap in the future. Relevant information should be assessed prior to the workshop. Key issues include deciding where the boundaries of the roadmapping process should lie. The key benefit of the fast-start T-Plan approach. in terms of broad layers and sub-layers. The agenda and facilitation approach adopted will vary depending on group size. medium. Taking the process further The development of an initial roadmap is the first. as well as a ‘micro’ level. although there is a practical limit as to the quantity of data that can be accommodated in a workshop environment. bringing together the market / commercial and technological knowledge in the organisation (Fig. and also whether past events and activities should be included.Technology Roadmapping q Architecture – the structure of the roadmap. such as inviting participants. handed out at the workshop. associated with the short-term and in particular the agenda that will guide the workshop/s.

at least once a year. 8 – Roadmaps integrate commercial and technological knowledge (EIRMA. In practice. it may be desired to facilitate the adoption of the method in other parts of the organisation. or perhaps linked to budget or strategy cycles. communicated. spreadsheet and graphics packages are suitable for the initial development of a roadmap. A further issue to consider if the roadmapping method is to be used on an ongoing and more widespread basis is that of software for supporting the development.Technology Roadmapping what extent the method should be adopted. where the requirement for roadmaps is prescribed by senior management – the particular format may or may not be specified. but more 145 . The initial first-cut roadmap produced by the T-Plan process must be captured. There are two key challenges to overcome if roadmapping is to be adopted widely within a company: q Keeping the roadmap alive: the full value of roadmapping can be gained only if the information that it contains is current and kept up-to-date as events unfold. but also in terms of ensuring that resources are made available (budget. where the benefits of using the method are communicated and support provided for application of the method where a potential fit with a business issue / problem is identified. workshops scheduled and barriers removed. Simple word processing. and how to integrate it with other systems and processes. in terms of enthusiasm for use of the method. Bottom-up (‘organic’). researched and updated. q Roll-out: once the first roadmap is developed in an organisation. dissemination and upkeep of roadmaps. 1997) In either case senior management support is important. time and facilitation). this means updating the roadmap on a periodic basis. which requires careful consideration of the process and systems needed to facilitate this. storage. Figure 8: Market Information Product-Market analysis Product-Technology Options Evaluation Technology Assessment Identification of Technology Available / Feasible / Possible Where are the boundaries of the roadmapping process? Roadmap Creation Defined Targets Project Proposals Fig. stored. Essentially there are two approaches to rolling-out the method: – – Top-down.

The software should be able to ‘grow’ with the company as its use of roadmapping expands and matures. q Software should define a common architecture for building roadmaps in the firm. which require input from various perspectives in the firm. choice of graphical representation. Roadmap elements should be dynamically linked (within roadmaps and between roadmaps). distributed participation in the development of roadmaps. such as the analysis grids used in the T-Plan method and portfolio project selection matrices is desirable. Case example – Foresight Vehicle technology roadmap An Internet search using the term “technology roadmap” will provide many examples of sector-level roadmaps.). There is scope for creative approaches to the development of effective software-user interfaces. and on a time basis.) can be defined in terms of their position in the layers. which are a useful resource for those embarking on a technology 13 ________________ The authors are aware of two dedicated technology roadmapping software systems: Geneva Vision Strategist developed by The Learning Trust (an enterprise solution used by Motorola and other large organisations): http://www. linkages.Technology Roadmapping sophisticated software would be beneficial if the process is to be taken forward13 . Inclusion of additional management ‘tools’. at any level of ‘granularity’ in the firm. notes and supplementary information. and users should not expect that software alone will result in good roadmaps. owing to its simplicity and flexibility. etc. definition of roadmapping objects.navy. q The software should support management of the data that is associated with the roadmap.com. and the supporting software should reflect this. critical paths. annotations. enabling data sharing and linkage. together with linkages to other business and management information systems.onr. the development of good roadmaps typically requires multifunctional workshops. such as the use of electronic whiteboard and brainstorming technology. The software should provide support for the development of individual roadmaps. together with methods for managing the complexity of the data for the user (e. proving facilities for importing and exporting data. The layered structure allows for a hierarchy of roadmaps to be developed. including data mining (‘drill-down’) and analysis. q The software should cater for both ‘novice’ and advanced users. Roadmapping objects (bars. Software that is developed to support roadmapping should aim to provide the following types of functions: q The multi-layer roadmap structure is recommended as the primary way of working with roadmapping data. The software should support multi-user. q One of the strengths of the roadmapping approach is its support for integration of information. and Graphical Modelling System (GMS) developed by the US Office of Naval Research (ONR): http://www.mil/gms/gms. linkages. q Software should fit in with the human process that is a key benefit of the technique. etc. in terms of setting up the layered structure.learningtrust. q The software should be as customisable as possible. multiple perspectives on the data.g. which requires specification of appropriate protocols and templates. as well as support for enterprise-wide roadmapping (scalability). the roadmapping process and supporting software can form a central element of knowledge and information management systems in the firm. so that the effects of changes to roadmaps can be readily determined. In its broadest sense. processes and methods in the firm. and inclusion of annotations.asp 146 . The role of software is to support the roadmapping process.

Technology Roadmapping roadmapping initiative. 11). key issues and uncertainties Evolution of required and desired functional performance of road transport system Technology and research Required and desired technological response. providing input data and also in terms of the approaches that have been adopted in terms of roadmapping processes and roadmap architectures. The process. technological and infrastructural systems that can either enable or hinder progress towards these goals. with the specific aim of defining the research challenges for the next round of funding. focused on the automotive sector (and road vehicles in particular). involving more than 400 organisations and sponsoring collaborative research worth more than £80million. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and other Government Departments. The Foresight Vehicle consortium has been active for more than five years. The goal is to stimulate applied research that will contribute to the economic. A systems approach was adopted (see Fig. involved a total of 10 workshops over a period of 10 months. in terms of the trends and drivers. 8). and also the road transport system. drivers. The Foresight Vehicle14 an industry-academic network that is supported by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). and reflecting the political. economic and environmental goals that form the three cornerstones of sustainable development. social and environmental goals of industry and government in the UK. A technology roadmapping initiative was undertaken in 2001-2 (Phaal. The Foresight Vehicle technology roadmap example below illustrates one possible approach. The technology roadmap architecture is shown in Fig. 2002) to stimulate the network (drawing in new members). 10. and the roadmapping process is illustrated in Fig. The technology layer of the roadmap was structured in terms of the five Technology Group areas that form the core activities of the Foresight Vehicle consortium (see Fig. which resulted in publication of version 1. 9. which needs to account for the social. recognising that the road vehicle forms part of a much larger system. These six themes (‘STEEPI’) were used to structure the top two layers of the roadmap.0 of the roadmap (available to download from the Foresight Vehicle web site). Figure 9: Now +5 years +10 years +15 years +20 years Vision Trends and drivers Performance measures and targets Market / industry trends. 9 – Foresight Vehicle technology roadmap architecture 147 . with more than 130 participants from 60 organisations. including research needs Fig.

as wealth enables social and environmental goals to be achieved. policy and infrastructure Political Infrastructural Technological Technology. The approach adopted is illustrated in Fig. showing one of the 28 ‘rich picture’ roadmaps (for the __________________ 14 http://www. electronics and telematics (ASSET) Advanced structures and materials (FASMAT) Design and manufacturing Processes (DMaP) Co-ordination. universities and government.uk/ 148 . 10 – Foresight Vehicle technology roadmap process Figure 11: Society. sensors. electric and alternatively fuelled vehicles (HEV) Consultation Advanced software. Economic goals are crucial. policy and infrastructure are different from the above three themes. economy and the environment Social Social. data collection. in that activities here can either enable or constrain progress towards the primary social. 12 and 13. A total of 28 ‘rich picture’ roadmaps form the core of the report (Appendices). economic and environmental goals Fig. For this reason the report was written in such as to minimise bias and ‘interpretation’. economic and environmental drivers reflect the three cornerstones of sustainable development. facilitation.org. with the main body of the report comprising a successive series of higher level summaries of the detailed content in the appendices.Technology Roadmapping Figure 10: Engine and powertrain (E&PT) Market and industry trends and drivers Road transport system performance measures and targets Hybrid. For these reasons it may be more appropriate to term this a technology ‘landscape’ rather than a ‘roadmap’.foresightvehicle. tables and simplified graphics. The overall goal must be to meet social aspirations while ensuring that the environmental burden of production and consumption is managed. 11 – Foresight Vehicle systems view The Foresight Vehicle technology roadmap is intended to act as a resource of the many different stakeholders involved in the network. presenting the information that had been gathered during workshops and subsequent Internet-based research in an objective fashion. Economic Environmental Technology. analysis and structuring of information Synthesis Reporting Planning Fig. including companies. associated with the various sub-layers of the roadmap. including text.

149 .Technology Roadmapping social trends and drivers theme). electric and alternatively fuelled technology theme). and also one of the summary graphical roadmaps (for the hybrid.

39.37. ‘sporty’ or Trend towards stakeholder groups. mainly in South East 2016: 25% increase in number of UK households.40. compared to 1995 1 2017 2022 Vision 2031: 57% i ncrease in UK road traffic. compared to 19% in 1998. compared to 199680. leading to new fuel and power systems. electric and alternatively fuelled vehicle technology development. 1. industry and the environment Hybrid.40 1999: UK ‘leads’ paid employment (9.000 deaths and experience Increasing 1. that meet the needs of society. at an estimated owning households cost of£13. safe.3bn (40. electric and alternatively fuelled vehicle technology 150 . such as hydrogen and fuel cells. and with fuel cells as auxiliary power units Development of electrics. crime. to 61 million1.40 Health. life. transport compared to 19961 for all 2022: 70% increase in journey times in many UK cities 199680 Growth in personal mobility (70% of Individual ‘time drivers use car for leisure day trips every week or month.3% rural land use predicted to change to urban land use39. clean 2031: 40% increase convenient. 80% of growth due to single person households. 12 – Social trends and drivers ‘rich picture’ roadmap Figure 13: 2002 Hybrid.40.5-5. increasing demand for travel1. cost of 66 and residential roads vehicle-related More residential traffic calming schemes crime £6bn 46. and development of fuels and infrastructure 2007 2012 2017 2022 Hydrogen fuel cell technology and infrastructure becoming viable on a large scale ? Vision Sustainable vehicle fuel and engine systems. after which it will decline to 57 73 million by 2050 2030: 22. dual carriageways working 2.103 75% of all journeys are under 5 miles and 45% are less than 2 miles31 Nearly one third of UK households do not have a car (13 million people)31 2007 2012 2010: Passenger numbers through UK airports increase by 50%30 2015: 150% increase in international air traffic. reliable.27% of UK population over retirement age.39. electric & alternatively fuelled vehicles Increasing variety and use of hybrid.Technology Roadmapping Figure 12: 2002 80-85% of journeys by car 39. pension costs rise from 4.40 2021: Households in South-east forecast to grow by 19% on 2001 levels41 2016: 4 million (25%) increase in housing (80% single-person). describe their cars as career with different needs ‘fun’) 42 ’ for Balance between ‘downsizing from transport People and jobs global. multi-fuel and alternatively fuelled vehicle technologies.7 million injuries in vehicle-related concern about EU. economic and environmental goals Continuous improvement in terms of range.47 and pedestrianisationof town centres Demand to 2000: reduce deaths 3. 13 – Summary graphical roadmap for hybrid.40 41 and safety region Key: Mobility & congestion Shift in social attitudes to speeding 2012: Bicycle 2010: 20-50% increase in European journeys 31 road passenger and double haulage traffic13. representing a crime each year.3%.5% of GDP 1. safety & security Lifestyle & attitudes Demographics Fig.103 Cheap.9 million in 73 world in vehicle 1984 to 12.67.39. in bus / coach comfortable vehicle miles. safety and performance Pilot trials and local fuel Development of legislation and standards distribution infrastructure development trucks and buses first 50kW fuel cells and subsystems Use of hydrogen in IC engines.40 2007: working at home becoming common (currently more than 66% of European organisations with more than 500 employees already practice teleworking ) 28.25. electronics and battery systems for new engine and powertrain systems 200kW fuel cells and subsystems for heavy vehicles Fig.000 roads serious injuries in 20% of carUK.500 road traffic Between 8 and and injuries on deaths and 40.5%).39.80 Frustration with congestion and public 2010: 10% increase transport continues ? (journey time no longer predictable) in bus passenger journeys 30 2010: 50% increase in rail passenger miles30 Legal issues and frameworks ? Shift from car ownership to car access ? Increased use of car pools ? New working / living patterns Social attitudes towards road transport and the environment? 2010: 25% of UK workforce teleworkingat least two days per week57 Younger generation more IT-literate 2015: 400 mill ion people live in megaci tiesof more than 10 mill ion i nhabitants57 2030: population in the UK is forecast to increase by 3. which satisfy future social. 50% expect to be budget’ for 42 travel making more by 2020) Journey times increasing (70% longer remains constant ? 67 by 2016 in peak travel periods) Vehicles sold increasingly as ‘lifestyle ’ choices ? Increasing complexity of lives ? Increasing female vehicle purchase / ownership (women are more likely to Many different ‘stylish ’ .2 million in 1999) theft (twice global More than half of drivers exceed speed Increasing mobile average at limits on motorways. security cost of 2% of GDP) depending on 8.67 Continued growth of cities and towns. 100% increase in domestic. national improved system have moved out of and local lifestyle ? the city and town solutions ? UK car-centric centres 103 culture Increasing Increasing proportion of women in leisure time39. electric.

q Software has an important role to play in supporting the application of roadmapping in the enterprise. providing companies have the information. ‘knowwhen’. product. that each application is a learning experience. q The generic roadmapping approach has great potential for supporting business strategy and planning beyond its product and technology planning origins. and that a flexible approach. and ‘know-where’. which is important for ensuring that technological. product and commercial perspectives in the firm. and the long-term vision. ‘know-how’. providing an opportunity for sharing information and perspectives. such as ‘know-why’.Technology Roadmapping Summary Technology roadmaps clearly have great potential for supporting the development and implementation of business. The main benefit of the first roadmap that is developed is likely to be the communication that is associated with the process. It should be recognised that it is not a ‘black box’ methodology. The following general characteristics of technology roadmaps have been identified: q Many of the benefits of roadmapping are derived from the roadmapping process. process and tools to produce them. The roadmapping process provides a very effective means for supporting communication across functional boundaries in the organisation. product and technology strategy. q Roadmaps should explicitly show the time dimension. Roadmaps provide a means of charting a migration path between the current state of the business (for each layer). Typically these layers relate to key knowledge-related dimensions in the business. and the roadmap should be supported by appropriate documentation. Several iterations may be required before the full benefits of the approach are achieved. adapted to the particular circumstances being considered. together with the linkages between the layers. business and market developments are synchronised effectively. and needs to be integrated with the human aspects of roadmapping. q Roadmaps should be expressed in a graphical form. the graphical representation is a highly synthesised and condensed form. and reflects fundamental aspects of the business and issues being considered. service. The structure that is adopted for defining the layers and sub-layers of the roadmap is important. However. 151 . reflecting the integration of technology. and a common framework for thinking about strategic planning in the business. The process brings together people from different parts of the business. ‘know-what’. A key benefit of roadmapping is the sharing of knowledge and the development of a common vision of where the company is going. ‘know-who’. which is the most effective means of supporting communication. However. rather than the roadmap itself. q Roadmaps should be multi-layered. software alone cannot deliver good roadmaps. with the roadmap having the potential to drive the strategic planning process.

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