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Fumihiro Chiba∗ February 7, 2012

Abstract For the second order time evolution equation with a general dissipation term, we introduce a recurrence relation of Newmark’s method. Deriving an energy inequality from this relation, we obtain the stability and the convergence theories of Newmark’s method. Detail of proofs for theorems and their application are stated in Chiba-Kako[2].

keywords convergence, stability, newmark, dissipation term, recurrence relation, energy inequality, second order time evolution equation

1

Introduction of Newmark’s method

We recall the basic ideas of Newmark’s method[7],[11] for the second order time evolution equation in the d-dimensional complex Euclidean space Cd . Let M , C and K be d×d Hermitian matrices on Cd which are constant in time, and let f (t) be a given Cd -valued function on [0, ∞). We use the usual Hermitian scalar product (·, ·) and the corresponding norm ∥ · ∥ in Cd . Throughout this chapter, we assume that M is positive deﬁnite: (M x, x) > 0 for x ∈ Cd with x ̸= 0, which is equivalent to the condition: (M x, x) ≥ m(x, x) for x ∈ Cd , (2) (1)

with a positive constant m. The identity matrix on Cd is denoted by I. We consider the approximation method for the following initial value problem of the second order time evolution equation for an Cd -valued function u(t): M

d2 u (t) dt2

+ C du (t) + Ku(t) = f (t), dt

u(0) = u0 ,

du (0) dt

= v0 .

(3)

Let an , vn and un be approximations of ( d2 / dt2 )u(t), ( d/ dt)u(t) and u(t) respectively at t = τ n with a positive time step τ and an integer n, and let fn = f (τ n). Then Newmark’s method for (3) is deﬁned through the following relations: M an + Cvn + Kun = fn , un+1 = un + τ vn + 1 τ 2 an + βτ 2 (an+1 − an ), (4) 2 vn+1 = vn + τ an + γτ (an+1 − an ).

∗

chibaf@mac.com, http://math.digi2.jp/

1

The ﬁrst relation corresponds to the equation (3), and the second and the third relations correspond to the Taylor expansions of u(t + τ ) and v(t + τ ) at t = τ n respectively. Here, β and γ are positive tuning parameters of the method. An interpretation of the parameter β related to the acceleration ( d2 / dt2 )u(t) can be seen in [7]: The case β = 1/6 corresponds to the approximation where the acceleration is a linear function of t in each time interval; the case β = 1/4 corresponds to the approximation of the acceleration to be a constant function during the time interval which is equal to the mean value of the initial and ﬁnal values of acceleration; the case β = 1/8 corresponds to the case where the acceleration is a step function with the initial value for the ﬁrst half of each time interval and the ﬁnal value for the second half of the interval. It is often the case that γ is equal to 1/2.

2

Iteration scheme of Newmark’s method

Based on the formulas in (4), Newmark’s method generates the approximation sequence un , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N by the following iteration scheme: Step 1. For n = 0, compute a0 from the initial data u0 and v0 : a0 = M −1 (f0 − Cv0 − Ku0 ). Step 2. Compute an+1 from fn+1 , un , vn and an solving a linear equation: an+1 = (M + γτ C + βτ 2 K)−1 { } 1 2 × −Kun − (C + τ K)vn + {(γ − 1)τ C + (β − )τ K}an + fn+1 . 2 Step 3. Compute un+1 from un , vn , an and an+1 : un+1 = un + τ vn + ( 1 − β)τ 2 an + βτ 2 an+1 . 2 Step 4. Compute vn+1 from vn , an and an+1 : vn+1 = vn + (1 − γ)τ an + γτ an+1 . Step 5. Replace n by n + 1, and return to Step 2. Here, Step 1 is nothing but the ﬁrst relation of (4) with n = 0. The expression of an+1 in Step 2 is obtained by eliminating un+1 and vn+1 from the second and the third equalities in (4) together with the ﬁrst equality in (4) with n replaced by n + 1: M an+1 + Cvn+1 + Kun+1 = fn+1 . Step 3 and Step 4 are from the second and the third relations of (4).

3

Recurrence relation of Newmark’s method

Newmark’s method (4) for the second order equation (3) is reformulated as follows in the recurrence relation([1] and [10]). Eliminating vn and an from (4) by a series of lengthy computations, we have (M + βτ 2 K)Dτ τ un + γCDτ un + {(1 − γ)C + τ (γ − 1 )K}Dτ un + Kun ¯ ¯ 2 1 2 = {I + τ (γ − 2 )Dτ + βτ Dτ τ }fn , ¯ ¯ 2 (5)

where

Dτ un = (un+1 − un )/τ, Dτ un = (un − un−1 )/τ, ¯ Dτ τ un = (Dτ un − Dτ un )/τ. ¯ ¯

We conﬁrmed this result by a formula manipulation software NCAlgebra [5] on Mathematica[9]. Especially, in the case γ = 1/2, we have: (M + βτ 2 K)Dτ τ un + 1 C(Dτ + Dτ )un + Kun = (I + βτ 2 Dτ τ )fn . ¯ ¯ ¯ 2 (6)

These recurrence relations are useful for the stability and error analyses of Newmark’s method. See [6] and [8] for the case with C ≡ 0.

4

Derivation of an energy inequality

Taking a scalar product of (5) and (Dτ + Dτ )un , we can derive an energy inequality for New¯ mark’s method. From this inequality, we obtain the stability conditions for Newmark’s method. From now on, let T be a ﬁxed positive number and N be a positive integer, and deﬁne τ := T /N and n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N . Let C be nonnegative: (Cx, x) ≥ 0, K be positive deﬁnite: (Kx, x) ≥ k(x, x) with k > 0, and m > 0 be the smallest eigenvalue of M . We also assume that γ ≥ 1 . We have the following theorem for the energy inequality. 2 Theorem 4.1 Let {un }N be a sequence generated by the scheme in Section 2. Then for n=0 a positive constant τ0 determined as below, there exists a positive constant C0 such that the inequality: ∥M 1/2 Dτ un ∥2 + τ 2 {β − 1 (γ − 1 ) − 1 α}∥K 1/2 Dτ un ∥2 + (1 − 2 2 2 γ , 2

1 )∥K 1/2 un ∥2 2α

≤ C0 ,

(7)

holds for all τ ≤ τ0 and an arbitrary positive constant α, where τ0 is determined either as τ0 > 0 when β ≥ or as 0 < τ0 < √ (1γ 2 (8)

m γ when 0 ≤ β < . 2 − β)∥K∥

(9)

Remark 4.1 The constant C0 is deﬁned as follows: )−1 [ ( { }2 ] T 1 w0 + δ2 (4β + 2γ) sup0≤t≤T ∥f (t)∥ C0 := 1 − 2 δτ0 ( ( )−1 ) 1 T , × exp δ 1 − δτ0 2 where { ( )} w0 = ∥M 1/2 Dτ u0 ∥2 + τ 2 β − 1 γ − 1 ∥K 1/2 Dτ u0 ∥2 2 2 1 +Re{τ (KDτ u0 , u0 )} + ∥K 1/2 u0 ∥2 + τ (γ − 2 )∥C 1/2 Dτ u0 ∥2 , 0 < δ ≤ m, in the case (8), or

2 0 < δ ≤ m − τ0

(10)

(11)

and δ in (11) is deﬁned as: (12) (13) (1

2

) γ − β ∥K∥, in the case (9). 3

Remark 4.2 When C = 0, γ = 1/2 and f (t) ≡ 0, the following equality holds. ((M + βτ 2 K)Dτ un , Dτ un ) + (Kun+1 , un ) = ((M + βτ 2 K)Dτ u0 , Dτ u0 ) + (Ku1 , u0 ). Remark 4.3 The constant C0 in the theorem depends primarily on the coeﬃcient matrices M , C and K, and secondarily on the tuning parameters β and γ and it also depends on the initial values u0 and v0 and the inhomogeneous term f , and ﬁnally on τ0 in the way described above. Remark 4.4 In the case C is negative or K is not positive, we consider v(t) := e−λt u(t) instead of u(t). By choice of appropriate λ > 0, we may obtain new matrices satisfying the condition in Theorem 4.1 as coeﬃcients of equation of v(t).

5

Stability and convergence conditions for Newmark’s method

In this section, using the energy inequality (7) we derive stability conditions for Newmark’s method. With respect to a parameter β, we divide the stability condition into two cases and lead to the next theorem.

5.1

Stability theorem

Theorem 5.1 Let M and K be positive deﬁnite and C be nonnegative. Let m and k be the smallest eigenvalues of M and K. Assume γ ≥ 1/2. Then, Newmark’s method for (3) in a time interval [0, T ] is stable in the following two cases with respect to β: Case 1: If 1 γ < β, then with τ0 > 0 and δ given in (12) and (13) we have, for τ < τ0 and 2 N = T /τ , √ (14) ∥un ∥ ≤ (4β−2γ+1) C0 , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N. (4β−2γ)k Case 2: If 0 ≤ β ≤ 1 γ, then for τ0 satisfying 2 0 < τ0 < √

m , ( 1 γ−β)∥K∥ 2

(15)

**we have for τ ≤ τ0 and N = T /τ √ ∥un ∥ ≤ ∥u0 ∥ + m−τ 2 ( 1C0 τ n, γ−β)∥K∥
**

0 2

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N.

(16)

Here, in both cases, C0 is given by (10) together with (11). Remark 5.1 H. Fujii investigated in [3] and [4] the stability condition for the Rayleigh damping case with C = aK + bM, a, b ∈ R.

5.2

Convergence theorem

Using the recurrence relation (5) and the stability theorem, we can show in this section the convergence of Newmark’s method together with its convergence order. Let u(t) be the solution of (3) and un (n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N ) be the solution of Newmark’s method for (3). We assume that M and K are positive deﬁnite and C is nonnegative. The discretization error en is deﬁned as en := u(τ n) − un . Then we have the following theorem. 4

Theorem 5.2 We assume that f ∈ C 2 ([0, T ]), then we have the estimate ∥en ∥ = O(τ l ), where l = 2 for γ = 1 , 2 l = 1 for γ > 1 . 2

5.3

Energy inequality and discrete energy

Related to an energy inequality, we deﬁne the following quantity.: ( ) wn := (M Dτ un , Dτ un ) + τ γ − 1 (CDτ un , Dτ un ) 2 { ( )} 1 1 2 +Re{τ β − γ− (KDτ un , Dτ un )} + Re{(Kun+1 , un )} 2 2 ( ) ( ( )) 1 1 1 2 = ((M + τ γ − C +τ β− γ− K)Dτ un , Dτ un ) 2 2 2 +Re{(Kun+1 , un )} = (MDτ un , Dτ un ) + Re{(Kun+1 , un )}, where ( ) ( )) ( 1 M := M + τ γ − 1 C + τ 2 β − 1 γ − 2 K ≅ M. 2 2

′ wn := (M Dτ un , Dτ un ) + (Kun , un ),

(17)

′ ′′ We call wn a discrete energy. We also deﬁne other quantities wn and wn :

(18)

and

′′ wn := (M vn , vn ) + (Kun , un ),

(19)

where vn is a velocity given in Newmark’s method together with un . These are discrete analogues of the continuous energy: ) ( d d (20) E(t) := M dt u(t), dt u(t) + (Ku(t), u(t)). The diﬀerence quotient Dτ un approximates the derivative of u at t = τ n + τ /2 with the second order in τ . So the average of (MDτ un , Dτ un ) and (MDτ un−1 , Dτ un−1 ) is a second d d order approximation of (M dt u, dt u) at t = τ n. The average of (Kun+1 , un ) and (Kun , un−1 ) is represented as follows:

1 {(Kun+1 , un ) 2

+ (Kun , un−1 )} = (Kun , 1 {un+1 + un−1 }), 2

1 where we use the assumption that K is Hermitian. Since 2 {un+1 + un−1 } is a second order 1 approximation in τ of un at t = τ n, 2 {(Kun+1 , un ) + (Kun , un−1 )} is a second order approximation of (Ku, u) at t = τ n. Now we deﬁne the following quantity Wn as a second order approximation in τ of (20) at t = τ n: { w0 for n = 0, Wn := 1 (wn + wn−1 ) for n ≥ 1. 2

5.4

Convergence theorem of Wn

Theorem 5.3 For a ﬁxed T > 0, the convergence order of E(T )−WN with T = τ N is estimated as follows: { 1 O(τ 2 ) for γ = 2 , |E(T ) − WN | = 1 O(τ ) for γ > 2 . 5

References

[1] Chiba, F., and Kako, T. On the stability of newmark’s β method. Research Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University 1040 (1998), 39–44. [2] Chiba, F., and Kako, T. Newmark’s method and discrete energy applied to resistive mhd equation. Vietnam Journal of Mathematics 30, SI (2002), 501–520. [3] Fujii, H. Finite-Element Galerkin Method for Mixed Initial-Boundary Value Problems in Elasticity Theory. PhD thesis, Center for Numerical Analysis, The University of Texas, Austin, 1971. [4] Fujii, H. A note on ﬁnite element approximation of evolution equations. RIMS Kˆkyˆroku o u 202 (1974), 96–117. [5] Helton, J. W., and Miller, R. L. NCAlgebra. Department of Mathematics, University of California San Diego, http://math.ucsd.edu/˜ncalg/, 2005. [6] Matsuki, M., and Ushijima, T. Error estimation of newmark method for conservative second order linear evolution. Proc. Japan Acad Ser. A. 69 (1993), 219–223. [7] Newmark, N. M. A method of computation for structural dynamics. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division 85, EM 3 (1959), 67–94. [8] Raviart, P. A., and Thomas, J. M. Introduction ` l’Analyse Num´rique des Equations a e aux D´riv´es Partielles. Masson, Paris, 1983. e e [9] Wolfram, S. The Mathematica Book, ﬁfth ed. Wolfram Media Inc, Illinois, 2003. [10] Wood, W. L. A further look at newmark, houbolt, etc., time-stepping formulate. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 20 (1984), 1009–1017. [11] Wood, W. L. Practical Time-Stepping Schemes. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990.

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