P. 1
Lean Manufacturing Overview

Lean Manufacturing Overview

|Views: 1,213|Likes:
Published by narelu

More info:

Published by: narelu on Aug 17, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/21/2013

pdf

text

original

Waste Elimination

Non-Value Adding,but unavoidable
Traditional Focus • Work Longer-Harder-Faster • Add People or Equipment
with current technology or methods. Any work carried out that does not increase product value

Lean Manufacturing • Improve the Value Stream to Eliminate Waste

Value Add

Waste

LEAD TIME
www.beyondlean.com

Incidental Work (NVA) E.g. Inspection
Non-Value Adding,but unavoidable
with current technology or methods. Any work carried out that does not increase product value

QUALITY PRODUCTS
Defects should never be passed on to the following process The idea that defects are the responsibility of inspection specialists at the end of the line does not exist www.beyondlean.com

Value Added (VA) E.g. Good Thinking…. ….Good Products
Employees are not expected to simply routinely do their job but are expected to contribute to the improvement of their own work operations, utilising their own personal experience, knowledge and creativity. On the remaining slides are brief overviews of some of the ‘Lean’ Tools

www.beyondlean.com

Kaizen
Is the Japanese word for continuous improvement & is now a well used word around the world which translates to: “The continuous, incremental improvement of an activity to create more value with less waste, giving quantifiable and sustainable benefit”
Kai Change Zen
for the

Kaizen

 A common approach  Involve everybody in improvement  Continuous innovation and change
7 WASTES

LEAN MANUFACTURE

KAIZEN
WORKPLACE ORGANISATION & HOUSEKEEPING VISUAL MGT & CONTROL STANDARD OPERATIONS

 Simple, common and easily understood measures  Easy to use improvement tools and techniques Building Blocks

Good

The aim of Kaizen

PEOPLE, ORGANISATION & CULTURE

To create an environment of continual improvement, utilising the skills and abilities of all our people to enable quantifiable and sustainable change, whilst focusing on adding value and removing waste to increase customer
STEP 5 REVIEW

Focus in the workplace GEMBA KAIZEN

satisfaction and profitability.
ACT PLAN
STEP 1 PRE DIAGNOSTIC
Kaizen Improvement Board
Project Area Objective Measures Team Members Date Started Measures QCDP Sch Adh Lead Time Concessions Productivity Dist T rav Velocity Tools Used 5C 7W C/E 5W Category of Issue Focus

KAIZEN Improvement Cycle
STEP 4 AUDIT

Current Situation

Future Situation

CHECK

DO
STEP 2 DIAGNOSTIC
Main Causes 1 Action List 2 Facts Counter Measure Proposal Counter Measure Effect Proposed

Results / Benefit

STEP 3 WORKSHOP

3

www.beyondlean.com

5C Workplace Organisation & Housekeeping
The 5C’s are actually steps of the technique that begin with ‘C’ and are utilised to create a workplace suited for visual control and lean production by enabling waste elimination, standardisation and continuous organisation of the workplace. This technique was first developed in Japan by Toyota and used 5S’s. 5C is a foundation for continuous improvement. The aim of 5C is to:Without 5C all other improvements will be lost. Improve the work environment Reduce wasteful activities 5C's 5S's It is all about Encourage visual controls Clear Out Seiri having what Enhance team working Configure Seiton you need to do your job Reduce frustration Clean and check Seiso when you need it. Increase efficiency Conformity Seiketsu No more and no less. Custom and Practice Shitsuke
Tools Jig 5, Stage 56

!
Separate the essential Separate the essential from the non-essential fromthe non-essential

1
2 1

3

2

1.Clear Out

5C

I pm

rov e e tC mn

n

A place for everything A place for everything and everything in its place and everything ew in its place.
iv e R

2.Configure

Clean up the workplace & Check for opportunities to improve
P

3.Clean and Check

K

a iz e

Ensures we don’t do what we always did

Make the other C’s part of everyday life to maintain improvement

www.beyondlean.com

C

4.Conformity

5.Custom and Practice
e

D

na

l

e bl s a in uou nt a e st tin em u n v S co o pr m i

ey lc

o

h

kc

The 7 Wastes
MUDA
is the Japanese word for WASTE. 5 1 4 7 3 2 6
An 8th waste is the wasted potential of people

Seek it out and get rid!

Overproduction

Over Processing
Processing beyond the standard required by the customer.

1 7

To produce sooner,faster or in greater quantities than customer demand.

Inventory

2 3 5 4
Motion

Non right first time. Repetition or correction of a process.

Rework

Raw material, work in progress or finished goods which is not having value added to it.

6

Waiting
People or parts that wait for a work cycle to be completed.

Transportation

Unnecessary movement of people or parts between processes.

Unnecessary movement of people, parts or machines within a process.

www.beyondlean.com

MIFA - Material & Information Flow Analysis
Component / Sub-Assembly forecasts Finished Goods Forecasts Orders

Supplier

Forecast Fax

Company
Production Control Weekly Schedule

Forecast Orders

Customer

Goods Inwards

Process A

I
Days

Process B

I
Days

Process C

I
Days

Process D

Despatch

I
Days
Production Lead Time Processing Time

Days Hrs

Hrs

Hrs

Hrs

Raw Materials

Components

Sub-Assemblies

Final Assembly

www.beyondlean.com

Continuous Flow Processing

X

BATCH MANUFACTURE

ONE PIECE FLOW Inventory is eliminated between processes allowing the product to flow through the value stream

Batch manufacturing is often organised by grouping processes, however this can inhibit material flow
WIP builds up

Process A

Process B

Process C

Process ABC

eg: if the stock between processes is three units the following situation would occur
PROCESS

The introduction of continuous flow significantly reduces Lead Time
PROCESS

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9(Time in hrs)
DELAY DELAY

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Time in hrs)

PARTS WAIT UNTIL PREVIOUS PARTS ARE PROCESSED

LEAD TIME = 7 HOURS

PARTS WAIT UNTIL PREVIOUS PARTS ARE PROCESSED

REDUCEDLEAD TIME = 3 HOURS

Benefits of CFP are:

Reduced work in progress Reduced Lead Time Reduced transportation

Floorspace saving Improved communication

www.beyondlean.com

People and Organisation
i tm en t

Stage 1. Information De nia
us Fr

l
Co

Stage 4 Encouragement
e

Stage 2. Support

Management
Expects
Quality products High productivity Flexibility Job security Good working environment Reasonable salary & benefits

Expects

Workforce

Good Quality Product On time every time Shared Benefits Customer Service Build a Partnership Less firefighting Improved relationships

E

g in lor xp

Stage 3 Direction

Anger

Confusion Time

Looking to the past

Looking to the future

Leadership The WILL DO it! Change
Provide the TOOLS to improve Inspire the BELIEF

Invest in job creation Create a long term future Provide everything for the job Create a change environment Encourage innovation Work together for a common goal Give people more skills Provide the tools to be the best You’re not a failure Create a safer & cleaner if you don’t make it. environment You’re a success because you try. Clear and consistent communications

Change the way you do things, be different - be the best!

Have the skills for the job Involved in problem solving Work smarter not harder Raise & solve problems Create sustainable improvement Less frustration Ownership of cell targets “If we always do what Team working we always did then Innovative culture We’ll always get what we always got”

www.beyondlean.com

Hidden behaviour Open behaviour

Confidence, Morale & Effectiveness

Ac
n

ce pt a

Lean Transformation:Is more than just a new way of manufacturing. It is going to challenge & change the whole organisation. Success depends on the people in the organisation and their acceptance and commitment.

Lean will touch everyone
The Change Curve

m m
io at

nc

tra
t n r ri tio I

Visual Management and Control
Visual Controls are simple, clear and concise visible indicators such as charts, diagrams, lights, measurements, floor markings,locations and signs. Targets A picture paints a 1000 words Always get everyone in the workplace involved Achievements
FUEL GUAGE
MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT

What we can’t see we can’t improve
24
WEEK NO.

SUN

PLANNED

10 10

10 9

10 11

10 10

10

10

10

ACTUAL

% COMPLETE 0 25 50 75 100

Poka Yoke

The aim of all these indicators is to make it immediately obvious to everyone the current situation or desired status of a machine, resource, assembly or cell and to expose the ABNORMAL undesired status so that action can be taken to rectify it immediately.
Assembly Barchart
Aircraft No. Schedule Start: Schedule Finish: DAY 1 12/10 13/10 DAY 2 13/10 14/10 DAY 3 14/10 15/10 DAY 4 15/10 16/10
REMOVE SUBASSY

Visibility of parts status,quantity & order level. 20
20 14

Colour coding SHADOWBOARD
A2 Vice A 1234 A1 Handle A 1234 (H)
A5

42 0 :-1 4 0- 2 in :- o : M ax N t Mr Pa

Build Sequence
Operators Assembly Operator No.1 Date Actual

DAY 5 16/10 17/10
FIT COVER

DAY 6 19/10 20/10
REMO VE FROM JIG

DAY 7 20/10 21/10

Plate BXY2

A 3

Assembly Operator No.2 Assembly Operator No.3 Assembly Operator No.4
PO SITION PLATES DISMANTLE AND DEBURR

LOAD MOUNTING

RIVET BLOCKS

Empty

A6

1 FIT GUIDES

Every day use of lights being used to display actions, allowing you to take control your situation.

FINAL INSPECT

Spanner AB

A4

Mandrel ABC

5C driven initiative

www.beyondlean.com

Ord er C

0 43 :-1 0- 2 in :- 4 : M axt No Mar P
ar d

Problem Solving
Brainstorming
This technique can be used to pool together a list of views, opinions, facts or feelings about a particular issue, or to generate new ideas that can promote unconventional ‘creative thinking’. All team members have the opportunity to share their ideas, which are written down for discussion after the brainstorming session has finished. Brainstorming helps out of the box thinking which can often lead to being the most innovative ideas for improvement, or solving a problem.
Repairs

Cause & Effect Analysis
Measurement
Wrong Specification

Method

Machinery
Poor Lighting Spindle Speed

Method Sheet

After sales service

In process measuring Method sheets do not No plant maintenance contain inspection node instructions Gauges not calibrated No visual standards Lack of Training Shift Changeover New measuring Careless checking equipment Replacements M/c capability

No Budget

measuring equip' ineffective Overloaded

Out of specification parts on CNC103

Out of date clamping devices New Operator

‘Out of the box’ thinking

Money

Manpower

Materials

Foreign bodies found on Raw Matl'/ M/c

The 5

Why’s

Pareto Analysis
Pareto Analysis is a simple but effective problem prioritisation tool. Simply a frequency distribution of attribute data arranged by category. Commonly known as "ABC Analysis" or "the 80 / 20 Rule". 580% of the wealth is owned by 20 % of the people A B C 5 80% of holidays are taken during 20% of the year 5 80% of overtime is worked by 20% of the workers
12 0 10 0 80 60 40 20 0

The 5 Why’s is simply a way of finding the root cause of a problem. The technique is essentially a questioning attitude which aims to get to root cause quickly and simply by asking ‘Why’ 5 times in succession
Why, Why, Why, Why, Why????

5 Never accept the first answer given when questioning to solve a problem, probe by asking ‘WHY’ at least 5 times……….. 5 Children are very good at this technique as they are forever asking WHY? And it makes you think and answer.

Benefits 5 Its one of the most effective yet simple tools available. 5 An effective ongoing improvement tool. 5 Identifies the most significant problems to be worked on first. 5 Has varying applications for use in manufacturing.

www.beyondlean.com

Standardised Operations
Standard Operations enable our daily life to become: SIMPLE & SAFE A method of ensuring manufacturing consistency, using less effort and less time to become more productive and reduce waste.

STANDARD OPERATIONS CHART Raw Material Finished Goods OP 1 OP 2 OP3 OP4 OP5
Step

WORK INSTRUCTION CHART
Work Instruction Notes Care Points Photo

1 2 3 H&S Quality Knack

The standard operations chart defines the motion and sequence of operations

Standard Operation sequence help to bring order out of chaos
productivity
operations

quality

www.beyondlean.com

workplace

Clear Consistent

High

training

processes

Good

Standard Operation Sequence

High quality Safe operations Good productivity Consistent processes Orderly workplace Clear training

Orderly

Safe

Levelled Production
Continuous Flow Processing

C

The pre-requisite of Just in Time working. Levelled production maximises the benefits of Just in Time Pull F P System by smoothing both the quantity and variety of parts over a Takt time production period. Levelled Production Cycle time 30 Mins 20 Non-Levelled Production Levelled Production 10 Overworked Product Mins 60 Under-utilised

Mins 60

Product

Product

Avoids overburdening through even distribution of work Benefits of Production Levelling are:Consistent production supporting customer demand Improved labour effectiveness

www.beyondlean.com

Pull System
Pull systems rely Supplier on the customer order ‘pulling’ Raw material through materials the production system when it is required.
Process A

Manufacturing site

Customer
Finished Goods

Fill-up Pull
Despatch Area Levelling Board Customer

KANBAN

The system can be thought of as a chain reaction,initiated by the customer withdrawing parts.

Process B

PI

PW

PI

PW

Kanban is not a system, but a means of communicating customer orders through the manufacturing process. There are 3 main types:Production Instruction Kanban Parts Withdrawal Kanban Tablet Kanban T PW PI Factors for type of pull
High product variety Large product size Short shelf life Manuf LT > Cust LT High variable demand Unreliable process High piece cost

all parts are available in this system (like a supermarket) kanbans are used to authorise replenishment and control build sequence the rate of production is controlled through the levelling board

Sequential Pull

Process A

Process B

Despatch Area Levelling Board

Customer

Sequential Pull Fill-up Pull

T

T

T

T

Sequence List

Production Control

x x

x x x x

OK

BEST

parts are built to order. Customer lead time must exceed production lead time production is triggered at the point at which the variant is defined, via a sequence list tablet kanban is used to authorise production or withdrawal, but does not specify variant FIFO principles must be used to ensure production sequence equals demand sequence

www.beyondlean.com

Takt Time
‘Takt is the German word for ‘beat’ and represents the pace at which the customer requires the product. Takt is therefore used to determine the rate which parts have to be produced throughout the shift. Takt Time = Total production time available* Total customer demand eg: Total time available = 5 Hrs Customer demand = 10 units Therefore = 5 x 60mins takt time 10 units
*(does not include breaks, meetings & clean up time)

= 300 mins 10 units

= 30 mins

This means that each process needs to complete one unit every 30 mins to satisfy the customer demand of 10 units in 5 hours. Mins 30 20 10 0 Current ‘Takt’ Time
Work Balancing

Mins 30 20 10 0

Future

‘Takt’ Time

Takt allows the work to be balanced, which frees up machines and operators.

A B C

Process

D E F

A B C D E
Process

F

Benefits of Takt time are:

Easily managed processes Employee safety Consistent quality Improved efficiency Employee accountability

www.beyondlean.com

Just In Time
What is Just In Time?

Just In Time is:“Manufacturing and conveying what is needed, when it is needed, in the amount that is needed, at the quality required and in the shortest possible lead time”

Continuous Flow Processing

C F P

Takt time

Pull System

JIT has 3 parts, based on one pre-requisite.

Levelled Production
www.beyondlean.com

“Vision without action is merely a dream. Action without vision just passes the time. Vision with action can change the world.” Author: Joel Barker “When the winds of change come, some people build walls, others build windmills.” Author: Brian Mayne

www.beyondlean.com

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->