# Tables of Common Transform Pairs

2012 by Marc Ph. Stoecklin — marca stoecklin.net — http://www.stoecklin.net/ — 2012-12-20 — version v1.5.3
Engineers and students in communications and mathematics are confronted with transformations such
as the z-Transform, the Fourier transform, or the Laplace transform. Often it is quite hard to quickly
ﬁnd the appropriate transform in a book or the Internet, much less to have a comprehensive overview
of transformation pairs and corresponding properties.
In this document I compiled a handy collection of the most common transform pairs and properties
of the
continuous-time frequency Fourier transform (2πf),
continuous-time pulsation Fourier transform (ω),
z-Transform,
discrete-time Fourier transform DTFT, and
Laplace transform.
Please note that, before including a transformation pair in the table, I veriﬁed its correctness. Nev-
ertheless, it is still possible that you may ﬁnd errors or typos. I am very grateful to everyone dropping
me a line and pointing out any concerns or typos.
Notation, Conventions, and Useful Formulas
Imaginary unit j
2
= −1
Complex conjugate z = a + jb ←→ z

= a −jb
Real part e {f(t)} =
1
2
[f(t) + f

(t)]
Imaginary part m{f(t)} =
1
2j
[f(t) −f

(t)]
Dirac delta/Unit impulse δ[n] =

1, n = 0
0, n = 0
Heaviside step/Unit step u[n] =

1, n ≥ 0
0, n < 0
Sine/Cosine sin (x) =
e
jx
−e
−jx
2j
cos (x) =
e
jx
+e
−jx
2
Sinc function sinc (x) ≡
sin(x)
x
(unnormalized)
Rectangular function rect(
t
T
) =

1 if |t|
T
2
0 if |t| >
T
2
Triangular function triang

t
T

= rect(
t
T
) ∗ rect(
t
T
) =

1 −
|t|
T
|t| T
0 |t| > T
Convolution continuous-time: (f ∗ g)(t) =

+∞
−∞
f(τ) g

(t −τ)dτ
discrete-time: (u ∗ v)[n] =

m=−∞
u[m] v

[n −m]
Parseval theorem general statement:

+∞
−∞
f(t)g

(t)dt =

+∞
−∞
F(f)G

(f)df
continuous-time:

+∞
−∞
|f(t)|
2
dt =

+∞
−∞
|F(f)|
2
df
discrete-time:

+∞
n=−∞
|x[n]|
2
=
1

−π
|X(e

)|
2

Geometric series

k=0
x
k
=
1
1−x

n
k=0
x
k
=
1−x
n+1
1−x
in general:

n
k=m
x
k
=
x
m
−x
n+1
1−x
1
Marc Ph. Stoecklin — TABLES OF TRANSFORM PAIRS — v1.5.3 2
Table of Continuous-time Frequency Fourier Transform Pairs
f(t) = F
−1
{F(f)} =
_
+∞
−∞
f(t)e
j2πft
df
F
⇐==⇒ F(f) = F {f(t)} =
_
+∞
−∞
f(t)e
−j2πft
dt
transform f(t)
F
⇐==⇒ F(f)
time reversal f(−t)
F
⇐==⇒ F(−f) frequency reversal
complex conjugation f

(t)
F
⇐==⇒ F

(−f) reversed conjugation
reversed conjugation f

(−t)
F
⇐==⇒ F

(f) complex conjugation
f(t) is purely real
F
⇐==⇒ F(f) = F

(−f) even/symmetry
f(t) is purely imaginary
F
⇐==⇒ F(f) = −F

(−f) odd/antisymmetry
even/symmetry f(t) = f

(−t)
F
⇐==⇒ F(f) is purely real
odd/antisymmetry f(t) = −f

(−t)
F
⇐==⇒ F(f) is purely imaginary
time shifting f(t −t
0
)
F
⇐==⇒ F(f)e
−j2πft
0
f(t)e
j2πf
0
t
F
⇐==⇒ F(f −f
0
) frequency shifting
time scaling f (af)
F
⇐==⇒
1
|a|
F
_
f
a
_
1
|a|
f
_
f
a
_
F
⇐==⇒ F(af) frequency scaling
linearity af(t) +bg(t)
F
⇐==⇒ aF(f) +bG(t)
time multiplication f(t)g(t)
F
⇐==⇒ F(f) ∗ G(f) frequency convolution
frequency convolution f(t) ∗ g(t)
F
⇐==⇒ F(f)G(f) frequency multiplication
delta function δ(t)
F
⇐==⇒ 1
shifted delta function δ(t −t
0
)
F
⇐==⇒ e
−j2πft
0
1
F
⇐==⇒ δ(f) delta function
e
j2πf
0
t
F
⇐==⇒ δ(f −f
0
) shifted delta function
two-sided exponential decay e
−a|t|
a > 0
F
⇐==⇒
2a
a
2
+4π
2
f
2
e
−πt
2 F
⇐==⇒ e
−πf
2
e
jπt
2 F
⇐==⇒ e
jπ(
1
4
−f
2
)
sine sin (2πf
0
t +φ)
F
⇐==⇒
j
2
_
e
−jφ
δ (f +f
0
) −e

δ (f −f
0
)
_
cosine cos (2πf
0
t +φ)
F
⇐==⇒
1
2
_
e
−jφ
δ (f +f
0
) +e

δ (f −f
0
)
_
sine modulation f(t) sin (2πf
0
t)
F
⇐==⇒
j
2
[F (f +f
0
) −F (f −f
0
)]
cosine modulation f(t) cos (2πf
0
t)
F
⇐==⇒
1
2
[F (f +f
0
) +F (f −f
0
)]
squared sine sin
2
(t)
F
⇐==⇒
1
4
_
2δ(f) −δ
_
f −
1
π
_
−δ
_
f +
1
π
__
squared cosine cos
2
(t)
F
⇐==⇒
1
4
_
2δ(f) +δ
_
f −
1
π
_

_
f +
1
π
__
rectangular rect
_
t
T
_
=

1 |t|
T
2
0 |t| >
T
2
F
⇐==⇒ T sinc Tf
triangular triang
_
t
T
_
=

1 −
|t|
T
|t| T
0 |t| > T
F
⇐==⇒ T sinc
2
Tf
step u(t) = 1
[0,+∞]
(t) =

1 t 0
0 t < 0
F
⇐==⇒
1
j2πf
+δ(f)
signum sgn (t) =

1 t 0
−1 t < 0
F
⇐==⇒
1
jπf
sinc sinc (Bt)
F
⇐==⇒
1
B
rect
_
f
B
_
=
1
B
1
[−
B
2
,+
B
2
]
(f)
squared sinc sinc
2
(Bt)
F
⇐==⇒
1
B
triang
_
f
B
_
n-th time derivative
d
n
dt
n
f(t)
F
⇐==⇒ (j2πf)
n
F(f)
n-th frequency derivative t
n
f(t)
F
⇐==⇒
1
(−j2π)
n
d
n
df
n
F(f)
1
1+t
2
F
⇐==⇒ πe
−2π|f|
Marc Ph. Stoecklin — TABLES OF TRANSFORM PAIRS — v1.5.3 3
Table of Continuous-time Pulsation Fourier Transform Pairs
x(t) = F
−1
ω
{X(ω)} =
_
+∞
−∞
x(t)e
jωt

F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(ω) = F
ω
{x(t)} =
_
+∞
−∞
x(t)e
−jωt
dt
transform x(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(ω)
time reversal x(−t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(−ω) frequency reversal
complex conjugation x

(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X

(−ω) reversed conjugation
reversed conjugation x

(−t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X

(ω) complex conjugation
x(t) is purely real
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(f) = X

(−ω) even/symmetry
x(t) is purely imaginary
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(f) = −X

(−ω) odd/antisymmetry
even/symmetry x(t) = x

(−t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(ω) is purely real
odd/antisymmetry x(t) = −x

(−t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(ω) is purely imaginary
time shifting x(t −t
0
)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(ω)e
−jωt
0
x(t)e

0
t
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(ω −ω
0
) frequency shifting
time scaling x(af)
F
ω
⇐==⇒
1
|a|
X
_
ω
a
_
1
|a|
x
_
f
a
_
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X(aω) frequency scaling
linearity ax
1
(t) +bx
2
(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ aX
1
(ω) +bX
2
(ω)
time multiplication x
1
(t)x
2
(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒
1

X
1
(ω) ∗ X
2
(ω) frequency convolution
frequency convolution x
1
(t) ∗ x
2
(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ X
1
(ω)X
2
(ω) frequency multiplication
delta function δ(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ 1
shifted delta function δ(t −t
0
)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ e
−jωt
0
1
F
ω
⇐==⇒ 2πδ(ω) delta function
e

0
t
F
ω
⇐==⇒ 2πδ(ω −ω
0
) shifted delta function
two-sided exponential decay e
−a|t|
a > 0
F
ω
⇐==⇒
2a
a
2

2
exponential decay e
−at
u(t) {a} > 0
F
ω
⇐==⇒
1
a+jω
reversed exponential decay e
−at
u(−t) {a} > 0
F
ω
⇐==⇒
1
a−jω
e
t
2

2
F
ω
⇐==⇒ σ

2πe

σ
2
ω
2
2
sine sin (ω
0
t +φ)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ jπ
_
e
−jφ
δ (ω +ω
0
) −e

δ (ω −ω
0
)
_
cosine cos (ω
0
t +φ)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ π
_
e
−jφ
δ (ω +ω
0
) +e

δ (ω −ω
0
)
_
sine modulation x(t) sin (ω
0
t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒
j
2
[X (ω +ω
0
) −X (ω −ω
0
)]
cosine modulation x(t) cos (ω
0
t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒
1
2
[X (ω +ω
0
) +X (ω −ω
0
)]
squared sine sin
2

0
t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ π
2
[2δ(f) −δ (ω −ω
0
) −δ (ω +ω
0
)]
squared cosine cos
2

0
t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ π
2
[2δ(ω) +δ (ω −ω
0
) +δ (ω +ω
0
)]
rectangular rect
_
t
T
_
=

1 |t|
T
2
0 |t| >
T
2
F
ω
⇐==⇒ T sinc
_
ωT
2
_
triangular triang
_
t
T
_
=

1 −
|t|
T
|t| T
0 |t| > T
F
ω
⇐==⇒ T sinc
2
_
ωT
2
_
step u(t) = 1
[0,+∞]
(t) =

1 t 0
0 t < 0
F
ω
⇐==⇒ πδ(f) +
1

signum sgn (t) =

1 t 0
−1 t < 0
F
ω
⇐==⇒
2

sinc sinc (Tt)
F
ω
⇐==⇒
1
T
rect
_
ω
2πT
_
=
1
T
1
[−πT,+πT]
(f)
squared sinc sinc
2
(Tt)
F
ω
⇐==⇒
1
T
triang
_
ω
2πT
_
n-th time derivative
d
n
dt
n
f(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ (jω)
n
X(ω)
n-th frequency derivative t
n
f(t)
F
ω
⇐==⇒ j
n d
n
df
n
X(ω)
time inverse
1
t
F
ω
⇐==⇒ −jπsgn(ω)
Marc Ph. Stoecklin — TABLES OF TRANSFORM PAIRS — v1.5.3 4
Table of z-Transform Pairs
x[n] = Z
−1
{X(z)} =
1
2πj
_
X(z)z
n−1
dz
Z
⇐==⇒ X(z) = Z {x[n]} =

+∞
n=−∞
x[n]z
−n
ROC
transform x[n]
Z
⇐==⇒ X(z) R
x
time reversal x[−n]
Z
⇐==⇒ X(
1
z
)
1
R
x
complex conjugation x

[n]
Z
⇐==⇒ X

(z

) R
x
reversed conjugation x

[−n]
Z
⇐==⇒ X

(
1
z

)
1
R
x
real part e{x[n]}
Z
⇐==⇒
1
2
[X(z) +X

(z

)] R
x
imaginary part m{x[n]}
Z
⇐==⇒
1
2j
[X(z) −X

(z

)] R
x
time shifting x[n −n
0
]
Z
⇐==⇒ z
−n
0
X(z) R
x
scaling in Z a
n
x[n]
Z
⇐==⇒ X
_
z
a
_
|a|R
x
downsampling by N x[Nn], N ∈ N
0
Z
⇐==⇒
1
N

N−1
k=0
X
_
W
k
N
z
1
N
_
W
N
= e

j2ω
N R
x
linearity ax
1
[n] +bx
2
[n]
Z
⇐==⇒ aX
1
(z) +bX
2
(z) R
x
∩ R
y
time multiplication x
1
[n]x
2
[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
1
2πj
_
X
1
(u)X
2
_
z
u
_
u
−1
du R
x
∩ R
y
frequency convolution x
1
[n] ∗ x
2
[n]
Z
⇐==⇒ X
1
(z)X
2
(t) R
x
∩ R
y
delta function δ[n]
Z
⇐==⇒ 1 ∀ z
shifted delta function δ[n −n
0
]
Z
⇐==⇒ z
−n
0
∀ z
step u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z
z−1
|z| > 1
−u[−n −1]
Z
⇐==⇒
z
z−1
|z| < 1
ramp nu[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z
(z−1)
2
|z| > 1
n
2
u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z(z+1)
(z−1)
3
|z| > 1
−n
2
u[−n −1]
Z
⇐==⇒
z(z+1)
(z−1)
3
|z| < 1
n
3
u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z(z
2
+4z+1)
(z−1)
4
|z| > 1
−n
3
u[−n −1]
Z
⇐==⇒
z(z
2
+4z+1)
(z−1)
4
|z| < 1
(−1)
n
Z
⇐==⇒
z
z+1
|z| < 1
exponential a
n
u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z
z−a
|z| > |a|
−a
n
u[−n −1]
Z
⇐==⇒
z
z−a
|z| < |a|
a
n−1
u[n −1]
Z
⇐==⇒
1
z−a
|z| > |a|
na
n
u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
az
(z−a)
2
|z| > |a|
n
2
a
n
u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
az(z+a
(z−a)
3
|z| > |a|
e
−an
u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z
z−e
−a
|z| > |e
−a
|
exp. interval
_
a
n
n = 0, . . . , N −1
0 otherwise
Z
⇐==⇒
1−a
N
z
−N
1−az
−1
|z| > 0
sine sin (ω
0
n) u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z sin(ω
0
)
z
2
−2 cos(ω
0
)z+1
|z| > 1
cosine cos (ω
0
n) u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z(z−cos(ω
0
))
z
2
−2 cos(ω
0
)z+1
|z| > 1
a
n
sin (ω
0
n) u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
za sin(ω
0
)
z
2
−2a cos(ω
0
)z+a
2
|z| > a
a
n
cos (ω
0
n) u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z(z−a cos(ω
0
))
z
2
−2a cos(ω
0
)z+a
2
|z| > a
diﬀerentiation in Z nx[n]
Z
⇐==⇒ −z
dX(z)
dz
R
x
integration in Z
x[n]
n
Z
⇐==⇒ −
_
z
0
X(z)
z
dz R
x

m
i=1
(n−i+1)
a
m
m!
a
m
u[n]
Z
⇐==⇒
z
(z−a)
m+1
Note:
z
z −1
=
1
1 −z
−1
Marc Ph. Stoecklin — TABLES OF TRANSFORM PAIRS — v1.5.3 5
Table of Common Discrete Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) Pairs
x[n] =
1

_

−π
X(e

)e
jωn

DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e

) =

+∞
n=−∞
x[n]e
−jωn
transform x[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e

)
time reversal x[−n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e
−jω
)
complex conjugation x

[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X

(e
−jω
)
reversed conjugation x

[−n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X

(e

)
x[n] is purely real
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e

) = X

(e
−jω
) even/symmetry
x[n] is purely imaginary
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e

) = −X

(e
−jω
) odd/antisymmetry
even/symmetry x[n] = x

[−n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e

) is purely real
odd/antisymmetry x[n] = −x

[−n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e

) is purely imaginary
time shifting x[n −n
0
]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e

)e
−jωn
0
x[n]e

0
n
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e
j(ω−ω
0
)
) frequency shifting
downsampling by N x[Nn] N ∈ N
0
DTFT
⇐==⇒
1
N

N−1
k=0
X(e
j
ω−2πk
N )
upsampling by N

x
_
n
N
_
n = kN
0 otherwise
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X(e
jNω
)
linearity ax
1
[n] +bx
2
[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ aX
1
(e

) +bX
2
(e

)
time multiplication x
1
[n]x
2
[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X
1
(e

) ∗ X
2
(e

) = frequency convolution
1

_

−π
X
1
(e
j(ω−σ)
)X
2
(e

)dσ
frequency convolution x
1
[n] ∗ x
2
[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ X
1
(e

)X
2
(e

) frequency multiplication
delta function δ[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ 1
shifted delta function δ[n −n
0
]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ e
−jωn
0
1
DTFT
⇐==⇒
˜
δ(ω) delta function
e

0
n
DTFT
⇐==⇒
˜
δ(ω −ω
0
) shifted delta function
sine sin (ω
0
n +φ)
DTFT
⇐==⇒
j
2
[e
−jφ˜
δ (ω +ω
0
+ 2πk) −e
+jφ˜
δ (ω −ω
0
+ 2πk)]
cosine cos (ω
0
n +φ)
DTFT
⇐==⇒
1
2
[e
−jφ˜
δ (ω +ω
0
+ 2πk) +e
+jφ˜
δ (ω −ω
0
+ 2πk)]
rectangular rect
_
n
M
_
=

1 |n| M
0 otherwise
DTFT
⇐==⇒
sin[ω(M+
1
2
)]
sin(ω/2)
step u[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒
1
1−e
−jω
+
1
2
˜
δ(ω)
decaying step a
n
u[n] (|a| < 1)
DTFT
⇐==⇒
1
1−ae
−jω
special decaying step (n + 1)a
n
u[n] (|a| < 1)
DTFT
⇐==⇒
1
(1−ae
−jω
)
2
sinc
sin(ω
c
n)
πn
=
ω
c
π
sinc (ω
c
n)
DTFT
⇐==⇒
˜
rect
_
ω
ω
c
_
=

1 |ω| < ω
c
0 ω
c
< |ω| < π
MA rect
_
n
M

1
2
_
=

1 0 n M
0 otherwise
DTFT
⇐==⇒
sin[ω(M+1)/2]
sin(ω/2)
e
−jωM/2
MA rect
_
n
M−1

1
2
_
=

1 0 n M −1
0 otherwise
DTFT
⇐==⇒
sin[ωM/2]
sin(ω/2)
e
−jω(M−1)/2
derivation nx[n]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ j
d

X(e

)
diﬀerence x[n] −x[n −1]
DTFT
⇐==⇒ (1 −e
−jω
)X(e

)
a
n
sin[ω
0
(n+1)]
sin ω
0
u[n] |a| < 1
DTFT
⇐==⇒
1
1−2a cos(ω
0
e
−jω
)+a
2
e
−j2ω
Note:
˜
δ(ω) =
+∞

k=−∞
δ(ω + 2πk)
˜
rect(ω) =
+∞

k=−∞
rect(ω + 2πk)
Parseval:
+∞

n=−∞
|x[n]|
2
=
1

_

−π
|X(e

)|
2

Marc Ph. Stoecklin — TABLES OF TRANSFORM PAIRS — v1.5.3 6
Table of Laplace Transform Pairs
f(t) = L
−1
{F(s)} =
1
2πj
lim
T→∞
_
c+jT
c−jT
F(s)e
st
ds
L
⇐==⇒ F(s) = L{f(t)} =
_
+∞
−∞
f(t)e
−st
dt
transform f(t)
L
⇐==⇒ F(s)
complex conjugation f

(t)
L
⇐==⇒ F

(s

)
time shifting f(t −a) t a > 0
L
⇐==⇒ a
−as
F(s)
e
−at
f(t)
L
⇐==⇒ F(s +a) frequency shifting
time scaling f(at)
L
⇐==⇒
1
|a|
F(
s
a
)
linearity af
1
(t) +bf
2
(t)
L
⇐==⇒ aF
1
(s) +bF
2
(s)
time multiplication f
1
(t)f
2
(t)
L
⇐==⇒ F
1
(s) ∗ F
2
(s) frequency convolution
time convolution f
1
(t) ∗ f
2
(t)
L
⇐==⇒ F
1
(s)F
2
(s) frequency product
delta function δ(t)
L
⇐==⇒ 1
shifted delta function δ(t −a)
L
⇐==⇒ e
−as
exponential decay
unit step u(t)
L
⇐==⇒
1
s
ramp tu(t)
L
⇐==⇒
1
s
2
parabola t
2
u(t)
L
⇐==⇒
2
s
3
n-th power t
n
L
⇐==⇒
n!
s
n+1
exponential decay e
−at
L
⇐==⇒
1
s+a
two-sided exponential decay e
−a|t|
L
⇐==⇒
2a
a
2
−s
2
te
−at
L
⇐==⇒
1
(s+a)
2
(1 −at)e
−at
L
⇐==⇒
s
(s+a)
2
exponential approach 1 −e
−at
L
⇐==⇒
a
s(s+a)
sine sin (ωt)
L
⇐==⇒
ω
s
2

2
cosine cos (ωt)
L
⇐==⇒
s
s
2

2
hyperbolic sine sinh (ωt)
L
⇐==⇒
ω
s
2
−ω
2
hyperbolic cosine cosh (ωt)
L
⇐==⇒
s
s
2
−ω
2
exponentially decaying sine e
−at
sin (ωt)
L
⇐==⇒
ω
(s+a)
2

2
exponentially decaying cosine e
−at
cos (ωt)
L
⇐==⇒
s+a
(s+a)
2

2
frequency diﬀerentiation tf(t)
L
⇐==⇒ −F

(s)
frequency n-th diﬀerentiation t
n
f(t)
L
⇐==⇒ (−1)
n
F
(n)
(s)
time diﬀerentiation f

(t) =
d
dt
f(t)
L
⇐==⇒ sF(s) −f(0)
time 2nd diﬀerentiation f

(t) =
d
2
dt
2
f(t)
L
⇐==⇒ s
2
F(s) −sf(0) −f

(0)
time n-th diﬀerentiation f
(n)
(t) =
d
n
dt
n
f(t)
L
⇐==⇒ s
n
F(s) −s
n−1
f(0) −. . . −f
(n−1)
(0)
time integration
_
t
0
f(τ)dτ = (u ∗ f)(t)
L
⇐==⇒
1
s
F(s)
frequency integration
1
t
f(t)
L
⇐==⇒
_

s
F(u)du
time inverse f
−1
(t)
L
⇐==⇒
F(s)−f
−1
s
time diﬀerentiation f
−n
(t)
L
⇐==⇒
F(s)
s
n
+
f
−1
(0)
s
n
+
f
−2
(0)
s
n−1
+. . . +
f
−n
(0)
s