ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS

Introduction to Heat Transfer (6th Edition)
T.L. Bergman
A.S. Lavine
F.P. Incropera
D.P. DeWitt
CHAPTER 1
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.12
1.13
1.15
1.16
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.30
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.37
1.39
1.40
1.41

14.5 W/m2, 58 W
2667 W
4312 W, $8.28/d
–4.35 °C/m
0.10 W/m⋅K
8400 W
(a) 18.5 × 10-6
19,600 W, 120 W
54 mm
16.6 W/m2, 35.9 W
375 mm
110.40°C, 110.24°C
1.1°C
1400 W/m2, 18,000 W/m2
(a) 22.0 W/m2⋅K; (b) 22.12, 0.6
20 W/m2, 20 W/m2, –20 W/m2
4570 W/m2⋅K, 65 W/m2⋅K
6.3 W/m2⋅K
102.5°C
51.8°C, 3203°C
6.3 m/s
0.35 W, 5.25 W
15 mW
(a) 18,405 W; (b) $12,900
254.7 K
4.3 W
0.42, 264 W
(a) 0.32 W/m2⋅K, 0.32 W/m2⋅K, 2.1 W/m2⋅K
(a) 8.1 W; (b) 0.23 kg/h
(a) 0, 144 W, 144 W, 0; 0, 144 W, 144 W, 0; (b) 2.04×105 W/m3; (c) 39.0 W/m2⋅K
(a) 4.86 MW; (b) 9.22 kW; (c) 4.87 MW; (d) 4.87 MW
(a) 300°C; (b) 3.89 MW; (c) 3.19 kW; (d) 3.89 MW
2.41, 312 W, 1.25, 600 W
(a) 0.223 W; (b) 3.44 W
100°C

1.42
1.43
1.45
1.46
1.47
1.48
1.49
1.51
1.52
1.53
1.54
1.55
1.57
1.58
1.59
1.61
1.62
1.63
1.64
1.65
1.66
1.67
1.69
1.70
1.71
1.72
1.73
1.74
1.75
1.76
1.77
1.78
1.79
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.84
1.85

(a) 643 W; (b) 175 h
512°C, 518°C
(a) 0.052°C/s; (b) 48.4°C
375 W, 1.8 × 10-4 W, 0.065 W
300 J, 1800 J, 9000 J
6380 kWh, $1150 or $383
(a) 1.41×10-3 kg/s
(a) 4180 s; (b) 319 K, 359 K; (c) 830 K
(a) 0.0181 m3/s, 4.7 m/s; (b) 5.97 W
840 kW
2360 W/m2, 6100 W/m2
(a) 32.5 kW/m2, 126 kW/m2, 17.6 K/s, 68.6 K/s
(a) 104 K/s; (b) 1251 K
(b) 383°C
63 kg/s
(a) 700 A
132 J/kg⋅K
$0.0032/day
(a) –0.084 K/s; (b) 439 K
3.2 h
(a) 60.6×10-3 kg/s⋅m2, 121 g/m2; (b) 32.3×10-3 kg/s⋅m2
(a) 1010 W; (b) 1310 W
49°C
(a) 7.13×10-3 m3/s; (b) 70°C
(a) 47.0°C or 39.9°C
(a) 86.7°C; (b) 47°C
(a) –0.044 K/s; (b) 230 W, 230 W
(a) 26°C; (b) 4.0 × 10-5 ℓ/s
12.2 W/m2⋅K, 12.2 W/m2⋅°C
(a) 600 K
375 W/m2⋅K
(a) 5500 W/m2; (b) 87.8°C
(a) 5268 W; (b) 41°C
345°C
(a) 84°C
(a) 190.6 W
(a) 153°C; (b) 16 W/m2⋅K
(a) 386 W/m2; (b) 27.7°C; (c) 55%
CHAPTER 2

2.10 50 W/m⋅K, 5 W/m2⋅K
2.11 (a) –280 K/m, 14.0 kW/m2; (b) 80 K/m, –4.0 kW/m2; (c) 110°C, –8.0 kW/m2; (d) 60°C, 4.0
kW/m2; (e) –20°C, –10.0 kW/m2
2.12 (a) 2000 K/m, –200 kW/m2; (b) –2000 K/m, 200 kW/m2; (c) 2000 K/m, –200 kW/m2
2.14 0, 60 K/m

7°C. 35°C.380 W 2.49 (a) 0.13 3.9 3.20 3. 72. $10 2.1°C 2.18 3.25 1490 W/m2 2.17 (a) 15. (b) 56.53 (a) 25°C.7 3.1 W/m2 1.15 3.9 × 10-3 W/m⋅K. (e) 8. 52. –24. –72.5 W/m2⋅K.1°C 2. 0. (b) 50°C.185 K/W 0.8×106 W/m3. (c) 86.1°C. 2×104 K/m.40%.23 765 J/kg⋅K. (c) 1.11 3.77×107 J/m2 2. 18 W/m2.17 3. 0.000 W/m2.4 3. (d) 24. 30°C.22 0.3°C.000 W/m2.32 (b) 2×105 W/m3.000 W/m2 2.6 W/m2. 31 W/m2 (b) 2830 W/m2 14. 10. 151 W. 182 W/m2. 104 K/m. 10. –105 K/m2. $1920/yr (a) 7. 133.3 W/m2⋅K 2. 36.53 W/m⋅K (b) 86 mm 333 W. 0.8°C.6% 1.18 (b) 5.28 (a) 0. 102 W/m2 1.8 3. (b) 70.98×105 W/m.16 3. (g) 20°C.74 × 10-3 °C.12 3.68 (b) 3. –360 K/m.14 3.34 (a) 106 W/m3. 5050 W/m2. (c) 0.15 14. 4. (c) 0. 37.7 W/m2. 101 W/m2⋅K. (c) 220°C.9°C (a) 1270 W/m2 85.5°C 2. (d) 220°C.4 W (b) 4.173 W/m⋅K.73×106 J/m2. 10.0158 W/m⋅K 2.3 3.56 (c) 18. –105 K/m2.59×105 W/m2 CHAPTER 3 3.30 (a) 2×105 W/m3.31 mm from bottom (a) 996 W/m2⋅K.21 kW.30 × 108 J 0.94×106 J/m2 2. 400 K. (b) 0.8×105 W/m2.025 W/m⋅K.5 3. 1. –2×105 K/m2 2.0 W/m⋅K. 4.19 3.9% (a) 0.1 W.765 W.19 1010 W.8 K/s 2. –144. (c) –4608 W/m2.189 K/W 85.10 3.3°C 3113 W/m⋅K (a) 29.31 (a) 200 W/m2.52 (d) 94. (b) 14.13 . 104 K/m.02°C 2. (d) 25. (b) 22.65 (a) 1. 380 K 2.0 kW/m2. (d) 8.73×106 J/m2 2.50 (d) 133°C.85 K/m 2. (d) 51 W/m2⋅K.2.21 32 mm. $157.2 3. $1050. (f) –2×105 W/m3. (c) –2950 W/m2. 0. (b) 4. 121 W 2. (b) 120°C. (d) 7. 122°C.0 W/m⋅K.18×108 W/m3.553.6 3.380 W. (c) –56.20 m.0 W/m⋅K 2. (b) 0.

44 (a) 48. 0. (b) 23.55 (b) 239°C 3. 151.76 kW 3. 909 W/m.70 × 104 W/m2. (c) 67.53 (a) 4 W/m. 91% 3.37 1495 kg/m3.25 h 3. (c) 37.268 W 3.5 K. 0. 0.77 77.48 2380 W/m 3.789 W/m⋅K 3.81 W/m⋅K 3. 8.6 W/m.75 W.32 (a) 1.69 5.56 (a) 47. 1. 44.29 (a) 762 W 3. (b) 770 W/m.7 W/m 3.60 5 mm 3. 313.97 × 106 K/W 3.28 3. (b) 1153°C.1 K.62 (a) 0.0008 m.1 W/m.963 m.69 m 3. 55. 318°C 3. 0. (c) 55 mm 3.45 (a) 603 W/m 3.6°C 3.9°C . 779°C.3°C 3.3 × 106 K/W.76 (a) 1.068 m 3. 0.5 K.8°C 3.784 m.27 × 106 W/m3.22 (b) 64 m.3. 880 J/kg⋅K.0175 m. (b) 120°C 3.1 K. 40% 3. 420 W/m 3.34 mm 3.6°C.39 (b) 5.70 (a) 489 W.784 m.26 34.5 mW. 13 mm 3.31 590 W 3.015 m. 407 K. (b) 7.59 (a) 3727 W/m.33 (a) 0.26 yr 3.24 (b) 526°C 3.01 m. 313.74 (b) –3000 W/m2 3.23 (a) 0.5 mm.71 13.0414 W/m⋅K 3. (b) 62.72 601 K 3.64 (a) 99.27 (b) 49°C. 0.34 0. (b) 58°C.0265 W/m⋅K.5 W/m.9 mW 3.63 8670 W 3.67 0. 34. 573.4 W.35 0.65 (a) 63.8% 3. 307 kW. 325 K 3. (c) 3. 163 W/m.51 (a) 214 mm.73 (b) 35.47 (a) 70.40 (b) 189 W 3. 33. 0.46 0.200 W/m2 3. (b) 0.5°C.022 3. (c) 135 W. 108. 10.0875 m.3°C 3.36 0. (c) 0.2 W 3.5°C 3.50 (a) 12.58 (a) 779°C.61 (b) 1040 W/m.062 W/m⋅K 3.8°C 3.52 (a) 251 W/m. (b) 573.600 W/m2 3.54 4.

105 3.140 0.52 m⋅K/W. 95. 931 K.139 3.3.127 3.02°C.65 × 106 K/W (a) 305°C.96.37 121 W (a) 0.6 W 24.31 W.134 3. (c) –10.113 3.2 nm 17. (c) 200 W/m2.2.3.2 nm.100 3. (b) 272°C (b) 508 W (c) 0. 160 W/m 510 nm 20. (b) 29% 156.133 3.167 m⋅K/W.0 m. 2. 20.35 × 106 K/W. 0.157 W (b) 60°C.83 3. –11. 0.34 W . 19. 0. (b) –15. (b) 1. (b) 16.85 3. (d) 55°C 212°C 0. 3. 4250 W/m.84 3.82 3. 96. 0. 0. 0.86 3.117 3. 20.2 mm.26°C. 25°C Rectangular fin: 130 W/m.7°C.2 kW (a) 130°C.6°C Case B: 144 W/m. (c) 835°C.129 3. 360°C (a) 50.131 3.124 3. 380°C. 0. 9.98. 0. (b) 192°C (a) 36. (b) 3 × 108 W/m3 (a) 71. 145.333.50 m⋅K/W.1°C (b) 347°C 1. (d) 180°C (a) 530°C. 15.136 3. 65°C.55.5 × 10-5 m2 Triangular fin: 117 W/m.6°C Case B: 144 W/m.110 3. 2. 0. 95. 25°C 35.5°C.0°C (a) Case A: 151 W/m.5 W/m⋅K (a) 1.78 3.240 W.120 3.3 W/m⋅K.2.2°C.0°C Case D: 450 W/m.3°C. (c) 337. 107. 5.104 3.101 3.37 W.6°C.92. 2.04 × 105 W 5.14°C 63.0. 290°C (b) 1458 K (a) 6410 A.96.9°C.0°C. 0.89 3. 0. 96.2 mm.99 3.108 3.7 W/m (a) 4.3 × 10-5 m2 Parabolic fin: 116 W/m. 60.4°C.130 3.138 3.109 3.350 W/m.0°C Case D: 450 W/m.5 × 10-5 m2 (a) 16.2 W. 23. 23. 0.1 mm/min (c) –17.990 W/m.91 3. 0.135 3.8°C.9 mm. 128. 0.98. (b) 129.114 3.47 mm (b) 164. (b) 1. 0. 3. (c) 50°C. 0.7°C (a) 5.0 × 106 W/m3.98 3. 0.81 3.52 m⋅K/W.132 3.0°C (a) 38. 607°C (a) 420%.137 3.115 3. 0.126 3.92. 0.0.2°C 29 A.6 mm.17 m⋅K/W. 51.50 m⋅K/W. 60. 19.5 (a) Case A: 151 W/m. 4. 3890 W/m (a) 938 K.79 3.1. (b) 328°C. 1.96.

381 K 403 K.9 × 105 W/m2.1 mm 3.59 W.3 × 10-5 ℓ/s 3.145 3.82 kW/m 394 K.0 W. 6.7°C 3. 7.8 4.9 4.165 3.9 W 329°C.99. (b) 2.171 2.91. 382 K 3.149 3.8 W. 382 K.7 4.172 3.91 kW/m (a) 0. (c) 1.162 (a) 1.09 W.024.9°C 110 W/m .1. (b) 16.64 × 10-3 W (b) 50. 429 W 3.7 W/m2.155 3.7°C (a) 0. (b) 6.5°C 5. (b) 1.157 3.087.177 (a) 0.30 × 10-3 W.147 3. 384 K.97. 21.44 × 10-3 K/W (a) 31.158 3.3 4. 0. (b) 110. 3990 W.13 4.097.0263 W.2 × 103 W/m2 3. (b) 0.168 (a) 0.22 W 3.166 2341 W/m3 3. 0. (d) 0.159 3. –4278 W (a) 2. (c) 36.11 4.63 W. 8. 392 K. (e) 0.160 56.174 24.6 kW/m 0.146 3.152 3. 381 K 3. 102.7 × 103 W/m2. 383 K.178 (a) 85 µW CHAPTER 4 4. (d) 658 W. (c) 101 W/m2.167 (b) 34. 298°C 4025 W/m (a) 276 W 37. 0.7 W 3.144 3.2 4.7°C 3.8 W/m (a) 12.21.19°C. 7.143 3.12 4.129 W/m⋅K 3. 26.150 3. (c) 0.169 (a) 0.70. 534 K.141 3.7 µm.175 (a) 7. 114 W.161 39.097.480.2°C. 947 K.44 W/m⋅K (c) 2. (b) 87.142 3.156 3.40 W 3. 393 K.173 0. 288 W 94.14 94.8 W 1.3 µW (a) 1.6 W/m⋅K (b) 5995 W. 87.022.9 × 108 W/m2. 405 K. (d) 187 W/m2.3 W 3.170 0.70. 0.300 W/m.21 3.3.0. 1670 K 3.154 3. (b) 0. 68. 3.14°C 92.123 W/m⋅K.6 × 103 W/m2.0 W (b) 2830 W/m 1315% 93. 11.493.

7°C. 156.7°C. 75. 168. 98. 10.0 K.35 (a) 57°C.7°C. 94.54 kg/s 4. (b) 7.65 (a) 272. 206.62 (a) 1.76 (a) 100 W/m. 3.61 (a) 160.29 (a) 745 W/m. 834 W/m 4. 78.7°C.9 W/m 4.2°C.0°C 4.55 (a) 362. (b) 138 W 4.6 K.0°C. 92. 443 K.18 72.5 W/m.3 W.58 (a) 46.28 156.54 3.3 W/m 4.2 K.2°C. 369.6°C. (b) 1. 162. 254°C.25 45.62 kW.33 (a) 1. (b) 1117 W/m.3°C 4. (b) 0. 45.36 (a) 74. 1400 W/m. (c) –1383 W/m 4.32 (a) 4. 207. (b) 3. (b) 4. 81.59 114.66 0. (b) 0.46 W.5°C 4.09 W.1°C 4.2. 78.34 694 W 4.26 W.39 s 4. (b) 93°C 4.0°C.9°C.05 W.3 W.53 (a) 348. (b) 1339 W/m.0°C.5 W/m 4.30 (a) 0.27 (a) 1.473 W/m.5°C.4°C. (b) 156 W/m 4.4 K.50 6711 W/m 4.28 mW 4.19 12.57 (a) 122. 390.64 (a) 118. 390.21 mm 4.8°C.74 (a) 7.60 1220 W/m 4. 48.340 W/m 4. 95.62 kW/m.2°C 4.4°C. 168. 398.61 kW/m 4.78 (b) 1205 W/m .00 kW/m 4.5°C.3°C.1°C. 368. 95.8°C.1°C.4.0 K. 612 W/m 4. (b) 743 W/m 4.38 × 108 W/m3. 47.72L. 79.2°C 4.20 5. 374. (b) 7500 W/m 4.9°C.4 K. 362.23 84 W/m 4.0°C 4.1°C 4. 315°C 4.26 316 kW 4.63 (a) 0. 45.22 5.2°C 4. 156.31 3.6°C.6 K.37 0.8°C.73 1487 W/m 4. 48.71 4. 3.5°C.17 1122 W/m 4.75 94.1°C. 162. 1 4.53 × 108 W/m3 4.6 kW/m.30 kW 4.9 K.16 6. 952 W/m.52 (a) 422 K. 11.15 0.70 W 4. 251°C 4.67 456 W/m 4. (b) 89. 48.215 4. 70.1°C. 49. (b) 271.56 (a) 28 W/m⋅K.2°C.3°C.21 (a) 10.4°C.24 9. (b) 2. (c) 1401 W/m 4.72 kW/m.2 K. (b) 117. 363 K.6°C.

74 W/m.92 4. 11.64 × 10-3 m⋅K/W (a) 52.81 4.014.5 4S. 12. 0. 0. (g) 50 mm. 0. 10 mm. 7.750 W/m 2.1 × 10-4.0041 m2⋅K/W 5. 0. 1.436.83.8 × 10-4.3 W/m 1477 W/m (c) 25.4 4S.6 kW/m.027. 100°C. 220 W (a) 131 W/m. 4500 W/m CHAPTER 5 5. (b) 0.17 407 × 10-6 s 5. (f) 5 mm. (b) 129 W/m (a) 1683 W/m (a) 205. (c) 47.8 kW/m. 1.69 × 10-2 m⋅K/W.5 mm.53ℓ.70 W/m.86 4. 456°C 5.88 4. (d) 1. 7.8 m 5.95 4.3 4S.0009.0°C 5.15 859 s 5.90 4.82 4.43 s 5.0036. 100 mm.52 kW/m (a) 2.34ℓ 2.43 × 107 W/m3.83 mm.20 (b) 63.6 4S.93 4. (b) 0.6 kW/m2.9 7. (b) 1. 0.600 W/m.12 984 s.8 2.26ℓ.604 W (a) 878 W/m. 2.4.6 kW/m2 (a) 80 mm. 6. 5.79 4. (d) 3. 0.16 968 s.55ℓ. 272.34 kW/m 4.5ℓ.023.13 0. 6975 W/m (a) 7.58ℓ.3.6 kW/m2. (c) 1. 39. 0.2 4S. (b) 805 W/m.045.96 1.94 4.8°C . 45. 6.233 (a) 1.38 × 10-3 m⋅K/W.8 35. 3.0 × 10-4. 245 W/m (a) 50°C.91 4.10 0. 1.18 (a) 84. 0. (c) –1365 W/m (a) 5.19 21.5 (a) 0.70ℓ. 83.63 mm.7 4S. (b) 3. 0.0 W/m. (b) 1706 W/m (b) 2.16 m/s 5.13 m/s.89 4.0 W/m (a) 1010 W/m.48 × 108 W/m3 (b) 1135 W/m. 0. 3.55 kW/m.326. 3. (c) 52.04 h 5.26 mm. 0. (b) 52.85 4. 4. 6 mm.5 5.45 4S.64 W/m.90 mm. 1.84 4.1°C.1 4S.18 mm.9 kW/m 3500 W/m.24 m 4ℓ.83 4.6 1122 s 5.3 W/m2⋅K 5.5°C.5°C 5.11 168 s 5.87 4.0073. 3975 W/m.14 0. (e) 2 mm. 0. (b) 0. 100°C (b) 128 W/m (b) 1. (b) 156.

58 (a) 1100 s 5.1294.8 W/m2∙K1.0 s 5.6 s. 1.32 3.69 m/s 5. 708 s 5.48 (a) 56.5.9684.8°C 5. 8.25 (a) 1 ms 5.1705.57 (a) 63 s.7235.1406. 1220 K 5.9223.3 s 5.3 min.5339.73 × 106 J/m3⋅K 5. (b) 44.71 µs. 6.800 s 5.1447. (c) 19 mm.42 86 ms.50 74 s 5.0 s 5.29 88. 38.84 s 5. 40 s. 0.41 (a) 90 µW.8 s.03 m/s.9 s. 44. –0. (b) 2.53 0. 147 ms 5.45 0.9991. 2.0232 5.1°C.8780. 9.25.6 s.3 min 5.71 µs.63 (a) 194 s 5. 127°C 5.56 × 10-4 s. 105 m.47 (c) –0.2 s. 11. 0. 0. 0.49 861 s 5.08 h. (b) 155°C . 0.9 min 5. (b) 1. –0.30 (b) 825 s.00053 s.8 s. (b) –2.67 h 5. 13.62 (c) –0.59 63.3482. (b) 24. –0.1847.54 m 5.56 (a) 0.1638. 1. –0. 0. 30.5 s. 25 mm 5.4 s.23 (a) 209 s.24 (a) 1190 s. 2. (c) 400 × 106 bits.1255.31 38.613 W/m⋅K.38 2. –0.55 (a) 10.0 s.34 (d) 1.6 × 10-9 m2⋅K/W 5.9652. 51. –0. 199 s.5. 616 s. (c) 21. –0.3 min. 0.1667.64 596 K 5. (b) 0.5 5.9931.26 (a) 0.1250.27 80°C.22 m 5.22 1.28 45.1 s. 367 s 5.21 × 107 J/m2 5. 0. 0. 0.022 J 5.65 (a) 139°C.21 4.31 s 5. 0. –0.35 (a) 34. 0.46 (a) 45. 0.4 s 5.04 h.5.51 (a) 33.43 0.9 s 5.826 h 5.39 (a) 25. 2840 s.44 960 s 5.61 (a) 145 s 5. –0. 0.1672.1 s 5.52 m.7°C. 0. (b) 5.52 491 s 5.1830 5.54 (a) 164 s.1452 5.00072 s.1826.40 (a) 98.1709.25 5. 27. (b) 1. (b) 29.60 (a) 486 K 5. 118.7°C. –0.36 2.8 s.33 (a) 11. 0.37 1. 43. (b) 0.36 × 104 °C/m 5.28 × 10-5 s 5.5 s.

(b) 56 kJ 53.98 5.107 5. –0.88 h.2°C.4 kN 21. (c) 463. (b) 34. (b) 100°C 3.74 5.81 h. 315°C (a) 310 s 365.5°C.81 min.71 5. –0.91 5. 114°C. 71. –0.82 5.8°C.100 s.100 5.76 5.78 5.1°C (a) 882°C.118 5.5 s 1020 s.34 mm.1°C.95 5.92 5.8°C.89 5.42 m 275°C.2 s. (c) 3.5°C (a) 64 s.3°C (a) 100 s (a) 94. 305. 45. (d) 7. (c) 11.1°C.86 5. (d) 3364 J.68 5.77 5.103 5. (c) 7125 W/m2. 124.04 h (b) 230°C 24.7°C.41 W/m⋅K (a) 276°C.1154.123 5. –226.48 × 106 J. 58.13 yr 3.81 5. 300.130 5. 312°C (c) 502.101 5.72 5.1000. 231°C.111 5.99 5.3 s .105 5. 617.87 5. –0.9°C.133 254°C 17 min.67 5. 257. 2. (b) 94 s 87 s 161 s.7°C (a) ~230 s (a) ~14.1 µm (a) 112.80 5.128 5.3 K. 101.2°C. (e) 428 K (b) –0.5°C.43 s 51.69 5.85 5.3°C.99 × 105 J/m2 1793 s (a) 2. (c) –0. –0.1207 (b) 2. 0.88 5.121 5.5.6 s. 16.125 5.4 s 140 s.90 5. 107 s. 1364°C.75 5.1038.96 5. 36 mm/s 34.30 W/m⋅K 3.73 5. 594°C.5°C (a) 42 s.36 mm 1.79 5.0025. 65. (b) 889°C.2°C.1 K (d) 0.126 5. 149 kW 579 s (a) 0. 0.7°C.66 5.9 K (b) 0.1004. 136. 2.5°C (a) 0.1038.6 m 10.117 5. (b) 3.132 5. 3405 J (a) 98. 7.6 s (a) 31.127 5.8 ns 6.0 s 4.1200.9°C 4.000 s.113 5.37 (a) 119. (b) 40 kW (b) 72 s. 112.79.

12 5S. 368.8 K. 0. 20. 410°C. 10. 5. 322.7 K. 29 W (a) 20.95 m.5 m.35 W/m2⋅K (a) ~20 W/m2∙K.13 5S.23 6.17 s ~248 s (a) 66°C. (b) 0. 68. 219 s (a) 54 days.9 × 10-6 m2/s.003 m 30 mm 40 W/m2⋅K 2066 W .6 min (a) 3507 s.4 K CHAPTER 6 6.22 6. 32°C (b) 158°C (a) 54. 924 W/m2∙K.12 6.3 5S. (b) 73 s (b) 806 K. 1.5 W/m2⋅K 600 W/m2.27 6.9 W 229.3 6. 1.8°C.05 m.17 6.1 5S.20 6.7 6.7 K.5 K.11 5S.7 5S. (d) 352. 1. –17.28 –9200 W/m2 705 W/m2⋅K. 0.10 5S.8 mm 7. –171.5.23 m.145 5.4 5S. (b) 54.19 6.148 (b) 550 s (a) 136 s. 0.33 67.060°C/m 2.0 1.75 h 561 K.141 5.1 s.7°C (a) 402. ~10 W/m2∙K. 362.134 5.0 10. 0.4°C/m.135 5. (b) –1.98 × 10-6 m2/s.9 m/s (a) 31.157 m 12.523 m 0. 275 m.8 5S. ~30 W/m2∙K 42.10 6.4 6. 18.11 6.056 m.8 6.3°C 1.146 5.5 6.5 K.9 m. 370.0°C.1 K.16 6.139 5. (b) 13 days 5S. 362. (c) –3. 537°C 96 W/m2⋅K 0.2 5S. 325.4 J (a) 5.4 m. 2. 604 K (a) 402. (c) 5.21 6.14 1170 s. 320 K (a) 260°C ~2.147 5.83 h 434 K.26 6.143 5.0073 m/s 7. 370 s.43 m.99 × 10-6 m2/s.7 K.18 6.5 5S.9 W/m2⋅K.9 5S.049 m (b) 29. (b) 51°C 199°C (a) 12 s.8 K.6 5S.

38 6S.34 mm.738 N/m2. 0.785 N 4260 W/m2 14.2 N/m2.71.48 mm. (c) 0. 465 W⋅s0.13 W/m2⋅K. 0. 7.2 × 105.3 W/m2⋅K. 0.400. (b) 1. 8.2°C to 32. –5200 W/m 7.053 m/s 7. (b) 6.147 m. 4.61 N/m2.600 W/m. 1.167 m/s.10 13.30 6.068 (a) 5.17 mm 7.600 W/m2⋅K.0842 N/m2.1 W.48 6. (b) 0. 28.07 N/m2. 2.83.100 W 7.3 W 7. (b) 1.0°C.44 6.99 mm.8 (a) 8.0°C.66 × 107 W/m3.0056.11 3802. (b) 1460 W.227 N.2 40. 4. 6840 W/m2. 1.52 mm.50 6. 250 K 240 W 2.0 6. 1.126 mm.0 N/m2 0. 180. 5070 W/m2⋅K 7. 3440 W.4°C 7. 0.3 W/m2⋅K 16. 12.2°C.5°C 6S.714 N.42 6. 14.700 N.36 6. 9050 W/m2⋅K. 13. 30.29 6.1°C 7. 0.022. 0. 5430 W.7°C to 30.46 6.51 (a) 34.87 2.95 × 104 W/m3. 1950 W. 0. 0. (c) 81. 0.7 (b) 117°C 6S.45 6. 12.337 N/m.92 N/m2. 0.5°C (a) 47. 453 kg/s2⋅m 6S.4.89.7⋅K 1.399 mm. 0.43 6.620 N.5 × 106 7.2 m 42. (b) 3. 25°C. 23. 1.700 281.38 6.659 N 26.71 × 105 W/m3.528 m/s. 303°C CHAPTER 7 7.5 (a) 0.14 (c) 4110 W/m2⋅K. 4.13 (a) 0. 13.0028.83°C 6S.2°C. 11.17 (a) 17. (c) 34. 0. (b) 143.7 W.16 (a) 25°C.1 W .6 mm.18 (a) 44.93 mm.37 × 106 W/m3.32 6. 25°C.39 6.4 (a) 34.0143 m.5 mm. 141 mm.2°C. 0.262 mm.29×104.6 W 7.31 6. 255.49 6. (b) 38.0 W/m2⋅K 167.2 m/s 88.40 6.6 W. (b) 158.0°C.2 (a) 0. 0.0 m. 4490 W/m2⋅K. 0.3 W.66 kW 0. 9780 W/m. 30.33 6. 15. 64.34 6.35 6.9 (a) 51. (b) –1300 W/m2.85/m2. (b) 59. 5530 W/m 7.8 (a) 6. 1.16 W/m2⋅K.69 (a) 4.3 (b) 1510 W/m.6. 30.15 3.2 W. 8.47 6. (b) 13.27 mm.3 W 6S.257 N. 148 W/m2.3 (a) 0. 0. 284. 0. 6.6 38.1 (a) 3. 0.7°C.

379 N. (b) $0.2°C 7.58 (b) 97 m/s 7.59 (b) 195 mA 7.4 mm.57 613 s 7.12 kW. 7.02 mm 7.8 W/m2⋅K.41 (a) ∞.1 W/m2⋅K 7.21 1570 W 7.7 W/m2⋅K. 1640 W/m 7.56 (a) $0.39 (a) 98.1°C 7.54 (a) 235 W/m2⋅K.47 K/s. (b) 77°C 7.6 kW 7. (b) 68.34 (a) 1253 W/m2⋅K.32 –0.5 W/m2⋅K 7. (d) 4024 W/m2⋅K.24 N/m.46 (a) 71. 52% 7. 2. 105 W.99 K/s.47.53 (a) 2. 1014°C 7. (c) 6. 72. 0.62 5.22 W/m2⋅K. (b) 675 W. 14. 0.44 0.74 W/m2⋅K. 1.26 (a) 5830 W/m 7. 3.8°C.5 W/m2⋅K.61 W/m2⋅K.27 29°C 7. (b) 86. 11. 20. 2.6. 28. –1.8°C.02 W 7. (c) 210°C 7.63 (a) 7.35 (a) 27°C. (b) 4.633.80 × 104 W/m2.23 (b) ±4% 7. (b) 27. 797 W. (b) 271 W.33 (b) 0. ∞.30 W. 2.60 W 7.26°C/s 7.20 m/s. 1.77 W.097 N.66 W.41 W/m2⋅K 7. 56. 5.29 46.3°C.5°C 7.84 m/s 7.20 (a) 33. 520 W/m 7.110 N.52 70.47 3.615 N 7.3°C .73 W 7. (c) 1.55 (a) 1012°C. (b) 6. 8050 W.7.9°C 7.65 (a) 27. (b) 1372 W/m2⋅K.6 m/s 7.415/m⋅d.6°C 7. (c) 3562 W/m2⋅K.37 3158 7. (c) 90.6°C. 0. (c) 89. (b) 37.73 W/m2⋅K. 0. 17.48 (a) 185 W/kg.25 (a) 8.87 W. (b) 0. (c) 0.4 kW/m. (d) 435% 7.49 (a) 603 K. 1.61 (a) 0.28 (b) 213°C 7. 125. –0.31 (b) 256°C. (b) 200 s 7.45 0.38 42.19 W.1 W/m. (b) 2.81 W 7.42 3.43 (a) 55 W.74 kW.22 48.84 W.24 6780 W. (b) 0.66 (a) 45.3 W.51 kW.20 W.47 7.4 W 7.363/m⋅d 7. (b) 39 W 7. (b) 155 s 7.50 (a) 562 K.1 W/m2⋅K. 5.36 (a) 64°C.19 (a) 14. 2.91 m 7.6°C. 0.40 (a) 30.30 (a) 23.2°C. 200°C 7.4 W.555 7. (b) 236 W/kg 7.

(c) 760°C. (b) 35.85 (a) 6.81 1. 6. 1. 1. (b) 48 s 7.27 mm.24 K/W. (b) 1314°C 7. 510 W. 2.7 mm 7.99 K/W.00993 bar.0149 bar.45 K/s 7.94 (a) 39°C. 230 s 7.78 (a) 2 m/s.1 m/s.8 × 10-4 s 7. (b) 40.107 1189 s 7. 333 W.59 W 7.90 58.41 K/W.68 W 7. 0.8°C 7.0154 kg/s .5 kW. 2453 W 7.0173 kg/s 7.77 (a) 18.108 65.80 K/W.3 m 7. (b) 0.2°C.5°C. 2.83 s. 7. 0. 1.87 (a) 726 K.70 (b) 18.26 kW 7.98 mm 7. (b) 6.91 16. 7.75 (a) 0. 1.92 –532 kW/m 7.7. (b) 936 K 7. 2.72 (b) 340°C. 1.2 K 7.86 mm 7.25 × 10-3 m3 7.6°C.112 (a) 41. 3.79 (a) 737°C.26 kW 7.7 m/s. 10. 1.88 (a) 20. (b) 45.400 W/m2⋅K. 2. 0. 0.452 × 10-3 N.86 K/W.2°C.86 (b) 337°C 7.102 118 K 7.95 K/W.74 (a) 0.110 (a) 10.489 N.1 m/s.0°C. 0.179 kg/s 7.88 K/W.68 (a) 3640 W/m 7.84 (a) 0.0168 kg/s.16 K/W.4 kW/m 7.96 (a) 435 W/m2⋅K. 47. (b) 0.100 1.95 (a) 37°C. 140 W 7.011 N. 0.71 (a) 12. 166. (b) 3.11 mm.93 (a) 7670 W. (b) 3.0134 kg/s 7.76 (a) 67 s.73 (a) 3. (b) 1.8 s 7.1 s 7.83 180 mm 7.111 (a) 7. 2. (b) 672°C 7. (c) 1.63 K/W. 5.106 (a) 470. (c) 309°C 7. 0.24 K/W.14 W 7. 1. (b) 321 K. 684 N/m2 7.5 W/m2⋅K. (b) 274 s.74 K/W.7 kW 7.9 × 10-3 bar 7.48 K/W.8°C. 1.190 kg/s 7.07 K/W.98 (a) 363 K.89 234 W/m2⋅K.69 452. (b) 1.924 W 7.67 (a) 0.0011 s. (b) 195 N/m2. 2.82 (a) 0. 56 W 7.6 m 7.103 (c) 0. (b) 359 N/m2. (b) 355 kW.99 (a) 0.105 11.80 2. (b) 735 K 7. 28. (b) 0.101 1.109 (a) 941°C.3 m/s.06 K/W.600 W.4.163 m.70 K/W. 2.

56 m.2 0. 1.49 (a) 323 K.1°C 8. 5.1 K.2°C.2°C 8. 0.97 m.3 m. 28.7 367 K 8. 153.38 99°C.700 W/m2 8. 1.1 0.25 (a) 35°C.8 m 8. (b) 0.6 m 8.1°C 8. 150.32 (b) 1266 s 8.7°C 8.33 (a) 1. 20°C.0215 bar 8.0059 kg/s.03 N/m2 8.19 W 8.11 m 8.0056 kg/s.680 W/m2. 52. 73. 20.1 m. 113.037 m/s.3°C. (b) 369 W 8.033 m/s. (b) 302. 7500 W.18 (a) 471 W. 90.9 0.411/m⋅d 8.84 MPa.39 m 8.3 (a) 0.45 0.28 90 kg/h. (b) 0.2°C 8. ~5 atm.97 kW 8.2°C.73.464 m.6°C 8. 0.46°C 8.CHAPTER 8 8.1 m 8. (c) 8.402 bar. 146 W 8.025 m.0063 kg/s. 3. 2.72 m. 0.21 8 8.72 m. 65. 1. 16. 0.65 m. (b) 66.5°C.46 MW. 1.8 bar.16 W 8. (b) 353 W.31 13. 10.9°C.29 26. -0.289 bar.1 K 8. 0.86 × 10-5 bar/m 8.0°C 8.12 (b) 44.50 (a) 585°C .12 m/s.5°C.24 (c) 6018 W 8.7 m.41 (a) 63°C.14 × 10-3 kg/s 8.3°C. (b) 52.40 (a) 81. 1.03 m. 1360 W 8.5 (c) 96. 44. 4.10 (c) 0.36 $0.47 (a) 42.46°C 8.4 (a) 53. 0.4°C.29 h. 7040 W/m2 8. 1. (b) 0. (b) 9.42 kW. 0.73 mm. (b) 325 K 8.34 (a) 466 kW/m2.3 days 8. 2. 60°C.35 (a) 10.50 m/s.8 0.27 12. 30.6 (a) 0.37 (a) 8. (d) 2.7°C.20 (b) 308 K 8.1 × 10-4 bars. 38 mm. 2.87 m.3 m.17 (b) 60. 1332 8. 4.30 (a) 7.077 W 8.000 W 8. 0.038 m/s.. 121°C.324 h 8. -1212 W. 64. 0.041 m/s.1 m.9°C.48 (a) 506.74 m 8.8°C 8.43 1 m.44 0. 0.46 7840 W/m2.5°C.42 (a) 29. 0.26 (a) 28.19 (a) 376 W. 0. (b) 201°C.

4 m (a) 409 W/m2⋅K. 0. 224 N/m2 (a) 3.54. 379 N/m2.104 (a) 1400 K.085 W.72 8.35 kW.92 8.9°C 33. 661 W (a) 100 kW.25.205 Pa. 1087 K.8 mm (a) 35.7°C.1°C.4 W/m2⋅K.2°C 379 K.126 W.463.59 8. (b) 93.74 8. (c) 76. (b) 3.7 kW (a) 53. (b) 33.1°C.1°C.5°C (a) 9.76 8.73 8.8°C.85 8.42 6. (d) 2. 415 W (a) 85. (b) 69 s 510 W/m2 19. 1.25 × 10-3 kg/s 1. 406 K (a) 0.98 8.86 8. 5.485 W. (b) 18.89 8.38 × 10-3 kg/s 2.58 8.22 × 10-2 kg/s.1 W/m2⋅K. (b) 95. 0.78 8.4°C (a) 37.51 8.96 8.90 × 10-2 kg/s.4°C (a) 98.1°C. 1.93 8. (b) 195°C. (b) 2. (b) 0.102 8. 71 N/m2.5 K.75 8.100 8. (b) 47. 9. 312 K (a) 2850 W/m (a) 1.97 8.51 m.8.6°C. 890 K (a) 198°C. 1960 W/m2⋅K 30.1°C (a) 20. 1.5 m.77 m.67 kW 343 W/m 80.91 8.62 8. (c) 775 N/m2. 388°C (a) 704. 1. 438 W (b) 244 W/m.700 W/m2. 119 N/m2.90.68 8.142 33.52 8.71 8.6°C.90 8.400 W/m2 2720 W.94 8.7 m. (c) 0.5°C. 53 mm 1.79 8. 2. 308.101 8. 1. (b) 159 mm.6 m (b) 111°C. 33. 300 K (a) ~25. 67.99 8.57 8. (b) 10.1 × 106 W (a) 35.88 8.3 K (b) 53°C 85°C.56 8.420.3 K. (c) 96. 44.3 W/m (a) 543°C.3 m 15. 187°C 0. 1.80 8.5°C.753 W.60 8.53 8.6°C. 15°C 9.9°C. (b) 5.8°C 43. (b) 123.6°C (a) 10 kW. 221 W.70 8.116.66 8.67 8. 232°C 81.02 Pa (b) 305.2°C . (b) 683 K.84 8. 15. (c) 21.61 8.103 8.65 8.9 m 9330 W/m2⋅K.82 8.4 m 116.81 8.79 m. ~5 atm. 1.63 8. 1575 W/m2 58.

307.881 (a) 17. (d) 0.6 K.18 9. 308. 92% (a) 72. 1650 s 8. 0. 0.6 mm (b) 1154 s 4.3 W (a) 74.8.3°C 8.1 K.8 W 12.110 0. (b) 2.78.4°C. $0. (b) 2365 s (a) 347 W/m2⋅K (a) 364.51 W/m2⋅K (b) –0.63 km. 108. 663.03 W/m2⋅K.34 300. (c) 15.42 W/m2⋅K.8 W 274.116 2.21 9. (b) 71.31 9.3 W/m2⋅K.7 W (b) 223 W.13 9.8°C.8. (d) 1.2 K. (b) 43.16 9. (b) 46.8 K. 168.60 m 0.01 × 106 5.12 9. 3.783 kg/m3. 1225 W.7 K.241.19 9.113 (a) 0.0 W 8. 4.6 9.94 µm.9 × 10-6 K-1 727.111 (a) 298.2 9.105 (a) 3190 W. 3.9 × 106 Pa.5 mm.7 W 153 W (a) 4010 W.8 9. 1.764 kg/m3 8.115 (a) 52 mm.9°C. 3.8°C. 16. 45 W.88 × 10-5 kg/s.6°C 8.7 0. -8065 W 8.109 (a) 307. 0.654 (a) 34 mm. (b) 349.4 K.8 W 11.346 mm.621.100 kg/m3.5°C.94 W/m2⋅K 45. 0. 1.6°C. 0.15 9.106 (a) 81.20 9.17 9.117 (a) 1. 209 5. (b) 16.8 W/m2 74°C. (b) 2.22 9.4% (a) 118 kW/m3 24. 373 W. 68°C (a) 35.237 mm. 307. 0.25 9. (c) 4.5 mm. 49. (b) 483 W .27 9.099 K/s 6.60 × 10-5 kg/s.8°C. 418 W 8.9 9. (b) 316 K.9 K. 273.26 9.534. -2039 W.4 9.99 µm 8. (b) 0.3 9.36 × 10-5 kg/s.5 9. (b) 704 W 8.28 9.7 9.33 9.107 310 K.7 W.30 9. (b) 28.920 mm 8.48°C.13 × 106 W.10 9.9 K.5 W/m2⋅K (a) 3.24 9. 27.5.5°C (a) 94.108 0. 307. 1262 W (a) 2.29 9.47 m/s.14 9.96/day 273.55 × 10-5 kg/s.8 K.20. 23. (b) 9197 W. 174. (c) 68.2 W.7K CHAPTER 9 9. 12. 2. 0.32 9. 512.

12 mm.36 9.1 4 (c) 0.72 9.22 (a) 28. (b) ~855 s.8°C (b) 8 W/m2⋅K. 20.80 9.71 W/m2⋅K.53 × 104 W.51 9. 54.7 W/m2⋅K.42 9.43 9.3°C. 12.0°C (a) 18.71 9.2 × 10-3 K/W 45. 264 K 90.0 min (a) 4. 21.8 W (a) 7. 70. (b) 1335 W. (c) 0.57 9.64 9. (b) 11. 44.3°C.44 9.49 9. 183 s (a) 207 W/m2⋅K.04 W.953.70 9. 9.46 W/m2⋅K.8 W 8.82 9. 0.97 W $0.0 W 7. $0. (b) 60.6 W/m.2 W/m 468 W (a) 237 W/m 0. 4.83 9.3 W/m 21. 50. 26.69 9. (b) 19.37 9. (c) 7.62 9.35 9. 1463 K. 4.0 W/m.52 9.79 9. (d) 245 s (a) 163 W/m.7°C. (b) 56. 0. 52.00185 m/s (a) 1. 19.75 9.30 K/W.9 W. 41.1 W/m2⋅K. (d) 45.9. (b) 387 W/m2⋅K (b) ~1. (c) 4.560 W/m⋅K.2°C.3 kW.56 K/W. 380 W (a) 18. 19.56 9.5°C.13 mm.8 W/m (a) 45.2 W 56. (b) 2340 W/m.74 9. 7 (a) 33.07 kg (a) 13. 3.49 W/m2⋅K.17 m/s.815 (a) 7.1°C.76 9.47 9.5 W/m.54 9.91 × 105 W.5.77 9.84 W/m2⋅K.6 W/m2⋅K.27 h 103 W/m (a) 50. (c) 187 W/m (a) 56. (b) 179 s (a) 42.50 9.2 W/m2⋅K. (c) 221 s.40 9. 34.1 h (a) 9. (b) 70. 0. (c) 57.66 9.63 9.58 9.2 W/m (a) 2. 30.7°C.41 9. (b) 4. (b) 3.61 9.48 9. 20.8 m.46 9.59 9. (b) 1.68 9.53/m⋅d 581°C.73 9.9 min.0 W/m2⋅K.19 W/m2⋅K. (b) 187 W.7°C. (b) 174°C (a) 3.55 W.1 W 91.8 W/m.7°C. 1007 W (a) 2.50 W/m2⋅K. (b) 8. 18.30 K/W.53 9.13 m (a) 251 W.8°C.45 9.0 W/m.60 9.39 9.9 W/m.6 kW 57°C 780 W/m 698 W/m 395 K (a) 929 W/m.2 W. (b) 32.5 W/m (a) 19.81 9.38 9.8°C.0 W.6 mm . 0. 4. 63.3°C.84 85. (b) 8. 27.948 79°C 64. 0.

105 kW/m2. (d) 235 W/m (a) 55. 119.02 m/s (a) 54.98 9.112 9.85 9.91 9.6 W/m.2 10.000 W/m2∙K. (b) 72.103 9.000 W/m2∙K.107 9.87 9.102 9. 0.116 26.10 10.89 × 10-4 kg/s.12 10.026 ~10.3 W (a) 466 W (a) 44. (b) 105 × 106 J.26 MW/m2 110.104 9.9 W/m.4°C 43.3 W/m.101 9.15 10. 14 kg/h. 28.13 10.9 W. 6. 118°C 164°C. (c) 101 W/m2 (a) 9.14 10.18 5413 W/m2.1°C 8.99 9.114 9. (b) 109°C (a) 3.17 10.106 9. 229 kW/m2 (c) 0.8 10.022 kg/s 2. 0. 1200 W/m2∙K.6 10.384.6°C. (b) 47.4 kg (a) 124 W/m2.11 10.111 9. 210 W/m2∙K.28°C/s 43.512 MW/m2.043 × 106 W/m2.5 W.1°C. 0.105 9.110 9.93 9.4 W/m 28. 0.88 9.95 9. 439 kW/m2 (b) 89°C 1.690 W/m2⋅K 20.9.3 kW/m 7 mm 61 W 75. 0. (c) 70. 1. 47.15 m (a) 38.685 µm/s 260 mm 463 W/m 2.86 9.9 mm (a) 30.102.2 kW.96 9.9 W.7°C.90 9.017 13.57 (a) 525 W/m2. 30°C (a) 110°C. 35. -0.3 W/m 43.6°C 73 kW/m2.89 9.600 W/m2⋅K. 232 kW/m2. (b) 0.032 mm 1300 W/m2∙K.1°C.16 10.9 10. (c) 26 W/m2 (a) 1.281 MW/m2. -9. 0. (b) 4.7 W (a) 74%.3 10. 10. 47.88 h 0.7 W/m. 35.5 W/m 84 W/m2 (a) 429 kg. (c) 33. 1.92 9.97 9.9 W CHAPTER 10 10.1°C 7. (b) 0. (b) 146 W/m2.7 10.5 10.55 kW. 167°C 175 A .34 MW/m2. -19°C 559 W.4 10.

62 10. 82°C.6°C. 283. 55.43 × 10-3 kg/s (a) 637 kW/m. (b) 107.65 10. 0. 0. 1. 9.3 kW/m.6°C.11 × 10-3 kg/s 6. 1. 8.45 10. 2.23 m 2.55 10. (b) 144.26 10.30 10.67 10. (b) 50.29× 10-3 kg. 8990 W/m2⋅K.57 10.91 × 10-5 kg 0. 38.49 10.900 W/m2⋅K. 0. 0.1 kW.19 10.03 mm. (b) 54.1 × 10-3 kg/s 40.43 mm 1. 1.8°C. 0. W/m. 0.51 kg/s⋅m (a) 48.31 10.16 × 104 W/m2 0. (b) -79°C 2.0080 kg/s.98 × 10-3 kg/s.69 mm.067.63 10.7 × 10-3 kg/s (a) 78°C (a) 1.7× 10-2 kg 16. 182.38 10.0 × 10-3 kg/s⋅m (a) 43.0131. 1.52 10.54 10.60 10.0086 kg/s.41 10. (b) 1.39 × 10-3 kg/s 28.61 10.4°C (a) 73.3 MW/m. 7.0 s.402 kg/s 2.04 MW.28 10. 70. (b) 300°C 835 W (a) 858 kW/m 1.0020 kg/s.78 × 10-3 kg/s 2.24 10.43 10. 2.6°C.8 MW/m2 55.33 10.4°C.300 W/m2∙K.64 10.13 × 105 W/m2 0.27× 10-2 kg/s∙m.58 10.72 4. 0.0 s 68.16 × 10-2 kg/s⋅m 1. 0. 7.475 MW/m (a) 146 kW/m2 4. 0.34 10.19× 10-3 kg/s∙m 144.0018 kg/s⋅m 19.44 10. 1.4°C.81 MW/m2 (a) 0.36 10.11 W.42 10. (c) 6. 17.8°C (a) 0.1°C (a) 180 W/m2⋅K.14 mm.96 MW. 30. 23.4 kg/h⋅m.0 kW/m (a) 197°C.9 kW/m.47 10.37 10.46 10.40 10.200 W/m2⋅K.0 kW.59 10.0546 kg/s∙m (a) 2570 W/m2∙K.93 mm.65 mm. 3.0014 kg/s 7100 W/m2⋅K.32 10.6°C. 0.267 kg/s⋅m 6. 1.69 10.4 kg/h⋅m (b) 82% 0.71 10.70 10.10. 9% (a) 144 mm (a) 530 kg/h⋅m 24. (b) 0.56 × 10-4 kg/s (a) 89.23 10.18 s.033 m2 .50 10. 3.0118 kg/s.0°C 3.672.70 MW/m2. 7.6°C. 2.35 10.3 kW. (b) 691°C (a) 35.51 10.34 MW/m2.20 kW. 4270 W/m. 2048 K (a) 907 W/m.68 10. 9.435 kg/s.20 10. 4. 0.66 10.

33 11.31 11.16 11.64 m2.1 m2 (a) 130 m.70 × 10-4 kg/s (a) 399 K. (d) 0.5 m (a) 7600 W. 2. (b) 379.13 11. (b) 80. (b) 33.39 11.42 (a) 92 W/m2⋅K.77 (a) 114.58 m2 (a) 357 K. (b) 3. 8.34 11.10. (c) 0.15 11.8 K.5 W/m2⋅K 12.4°C.11 11. (e) 1 5.0 m.089 kg/s. (c) 132 W/m2⋅K. (b) 690 W/m2⋅K (a) 1.17 11.4 K (a) 1.8°C. 0. (d) 5.52. 338 W/m2⋅K. 9.1°C.74 liter/min.6 W/m2⋅K 3. (c) 0.09 m2.29 11. 517 kW 456.14 11. 2.1°C.19 kg/s. 3.85 kg/s (a) 344. (b) 1800 W/m2⋅K.185 kg/s (a) 3930 W.9°C.41 11.2 11.18 11. 327. (b) $440. (b) 40 m 0.8 (a) 135 W/m2∙K.6 11.23 11. 1.35 11. (b) 30.7 K.25 11. 55.89 kg/s . 2. 300 K CHAPTER 11 11.4 mm (a) 0.304.75 m2 5.3 K.8 K.97 m.7 11. (b) 0.5°C.75 10. (b) 512 W/m2⋅K 168 W/m2⋅K 29. 340. 48.74 10. 1140 W/m2⋅K 11. 515 K.4°C (a) 12 m2. (b) 24°C 76.10 11.7 W/m2⋅K (a) 785 W/K.0 mm.90.8% (a) 74%.9 11.73 10.800 W/m 920 W/m (a) 2255 W/m2⋅K.0°C.27 11.32 11.4°C (a) 469.0°C. 325 K. 2.10 249 W/m2⋅K.8 11.6 × 10-4 kg/s (a) 79.20 11.4°C (a) 98 W/m2⋅K. (b) 16.9 K. 5.84 m2 4. 0. 70 33.5 11.59 × 10-4 m2⋅K/W (a) 48°C.7 W.30 11. 627 kW.26 11.40 11. (b) 1985 W/m2⋅K. (c) 31.3 11.37 11.0029 m2⋅K/W (a) 1.4 11. 145°C. 41. 37.8.28 11. 651 kW 0.22 11.286 kg/s.64 × 10-4 m2⋅K/W 0.38 11.24 11.27 bar (a) 1870 W.24 m2 (a) 3550 W/m2⋅K. 37. (c) 29. (b) 2250 W.5 m 79.36 11. (b) 18.000/yr (a) 9.83 m2.2°C (a) 0. 2.

(c) 0.79 11.66 11. 800 K. 61°C.858 m.55 11.0354 m or 0.6°C. (b) 0.87 11. 0. (b) 1994 kg/s 2.4°C.11 m3.58 11.52 11.4°C (a) 9.67 11.11 m.61 11. 30.1 W.11. 135.64 11.700 m2 137. (b) 2.49 11. (b) 8°C.07 m2.43 kW (a) 335 K.56 m (a) 73. (b) 0.2°C (a) 29. 0. (b) 10.6 m (a) 508 W/m2⋅K.100 W.5°C (a) 204 kW.75 11.76 11.50 36.56 11. 143.576 m2. (b) 27.775.6°C.55 (a) 11. (b) 2300 W/m2⋅K. (b) 27. 7.81 11.59 11. (b) 0. (c) 0.8 K 810 W .5°C. 390 m2.2°C.71 11. 0.69 11.5 kW/K (a) 44.86 11. 42. 1.65 11.3°C 373 W. 19.5 kg/s (a) 86. (b) 17. (d) 74. (b) 0.95 m (a) 243 kg/s. (c) $1767 808 W/m2⋅K (a) 61 W/m2⋅K.64.9°C.752 m2.57 11. (b) 1.6 kW.89 m/s. 0.45 11. 369 K (a) 104°C (a) 8. (c) 46.9 W/m2⋅K. (c) 0.9 m2. 11. 0. 0.82 11.92 11.89 11.3%.1°C 36.47 34.60 11.936 kg/s (b) 0.8°C (a) 2 × 105 W.65.53 × 105 W.723 m2. (c) 16. 0.53 11. 1.0855 kg/s.0 °C. 57.0 m (a) 55. 307.63 11.72 11. 61.54 11.55 (a) 0. (b) 0.666 (a) 30.34 m 41 m2 (a) 26.62 11.77 11.1 m (a) 71 m2 (a) 0.7°C. 514 K. 37. 20.3°C.50 11.4% 1014 K.78 11.51 11. 19.43 11.5°C 241 m2 36.70 68.7 MW (a) 1.83 kg/s (a) 189.261 m. 317 K (a) 0.46 11.900 m2 23. (b) 496 K. 33.90 11.672 kW.513 m (a) 41.4°C 46. (b) 8.74 11.83 11.85 11.33 m (a) 0.8°C.7 kg/s.48 11.47 11. 24.200 m2.6°C 4. (b) 29.84 11. 41.5°C 50°C.7°C (a) 3.7°C.6°C.70 11.93 (a) 720.0 kg/s (a) 661 W.44 11.

13 0.74 × 10-5 sr. 1750 K.628 W 12. (b) 1273 W/m2⋅sr.020 K .25 12.16 285 K 11S.7 mW/m2 12. (d) 0.082 m3.54 m 11S.393 m 12. ~13. (c) 47.5 (a) 1. 76 W.8 W/m2 12. -0.21 (a) 6.50 12.4 W 11S.8 m 11S. 963 W/m2.15 0. (c) 0. 90 mW/m2.8 (a) 60 mW.3 4.1 W/m2.74 × 10-4 m2⋅K/W 11S.11 167.15 3 11S. (b) 23.1 0.6 33.8 (a) 11.970 K.3 1963 W/m2.03 × 107 W/m2⋅sr 12.7 (a) 9. 0.4 7000 W/m2.16 (a) 2000 W/m2.94 12.23 (a) 15.5 m2 11S. 37.1 m2 11S. (b) 637 W/m2⋅sr. 0.8 µW 12. 5.6 × 10-7 W.10 W. (b) 2. (b) -200 W/m2.100 m2.38 × 10-3 W.378 K/s 12.12 66.10 W. 127 mW/m2. 0. 2761 W.2 (a) 0. (c) 1200 W/m2 12.026 m3 11S.34.18 564 K CHAPTER 12 12.54 µm 12. -700 W/m2 12.14 56.6 W/m2⋅K 11S.9 878 W/m2⋅K 11S.5 W/m2⋅sr.032 W/m2 12.80.19 (a) 133 W.22 7348 W/m2 12.11.17 (a) 0.9 1086 W/m2 12.09 × 10-7 W. (c) 0.76 W/m2 12. (b) 1994 kg/s 11S.7 W. 19.75 m2 11S. (f) 5. (e) 3. (g) 63.4 5. 485 K.18 789 K. 0.6 m 11S.6 (a) 1.10 243 m2 11S.37 × 107 W/m2.3 W/m2⋅K 11S. (b) 2.1 160 W/m2⋅K 11S. 1700 W/m2. (b) 940 W/m2 12.7 (a) 193 mm.50 µm. 0. (b) 95. (b) 5790 K.20 (a) 6. 22 W. 232 W.2 29. ~11.94 58.6 W/m2 12. 28.13 (a) 0.0 W/m2.17 ~11 11S.60.10 (a) 1446 W/m2 12. 1606 K. (d) 279 K 12.11 4.5 12.2 W/m2⋅K.14 (a) 0.

10 12.30 (a) 9.28 0. 0.958.24 kW/m2 12.78 K/s. (b) 443 kW/m2 12. (c) 0. 9. 0.85. 952 W/m2⋅K 12.16 µm.50.47 0.50 µm. (d) 0.25. (b) 8.383.225.086.62 × 105 W/m2.68 (a) 0.62 (a) 0. (c) 0. (d) 10. 3.132 12.599.41 1.5. 0.750 W/m2 12. 48.51 × 10-6 W 12. 7. (c) 111 kW/m2.45 (c) 995.59 (a) 0.84 kW/m2.240 12.50 (a) 0. 344 K 12. 3164 W 12. 0.32 278. 0.8 kW/m2 12. 1991 W/m2.74 29.7 kW/m2 12.39 0.10.3.93 µm. 0.217 12. (b) 0. 1.67 (a) 0.297.3 µm 12. (b) 0.636. (b) 0. (b) 0. 0.689 µm. (d) 176 kW/m2 12.70 (a) 0. (c) 429 W/m2 12. (b) 106 12.126 W/m2⋅µm.9 × 106 W/m2. 0. (c) 1.25 279 K 12. (b) 74.6 × 106 W/m2. (b) 6.33 (b) 0.3%. 0.51 (a) 0.27 (a) < 1%.38 (a) 66.2 W.6 × 106 W/m2. (c) 402 W/m2 . 1.76 × 10-4 W.55 1479 µW 12.28. (b) 0.45 12.745.376.46 (a) 3.44 0. (b) 0. 0. 76.303. 137 W/m2.106.75 (a) 0.142. 1.388.61 (a) 0. 0.3 µm. (c) 0.3%.31 (a) 0. 0.44 × 105 W/m2.56 (a) 0.24 498 K 12.9 kW/m2 12.65 0. 0. (c) -60.1 12. (b) 0.295. 577.64 (b) 0. (c) -22.49 (b) 7500 W/m2.42 × 105 W/m2 12. (b) 0.29 (a) 0.60 (a) 1.774.50 µm.30 12.311. 630 W/m2. (b) 10% 12. (d) 0.127 µm.69 0. (d) –615 W/m2 12. 5.720.12.4 W 12. (c) 5600 W/m2. -5.57 (a) 0.839. (b) 29. 6500 W/m2 12. 1306 W/m2. 0.6°C. (b) < 8% 12.750 W/m2 12.669. 4.26 3.76 µm 12.45.37 (a) 0.54 2. (c) -11.90 K.71 (b) 1.72 (a) 0. 4.85.568.60. (c) 2250 W/m2. 0.6 × 106 W/m2.48 34.5 12. 0.40 300 K 12.38 × 106 W/m2 12.756.89. 1.574.373.509 12.7.145. 606 W/m2.52 515 W/m2.1 K 12.56. 0. 4.861 12.539 12.0137.3 K 12. (b) 0.73 (a) 0.384 × 10-4 W 12.359.681. 0. (b) 0.00099.329.93 MW 12. 0.315. (b) 3. 311 s 12. (b) 0. 0. 0. (b) 0.366.4 K.58 (a) 0.2 W/m2. 0.27 × 105 W/m2 12.750 W/m2.748.53 (a) 90.125. 2.89. 0. 5.

122 (b) 295. 0. 75. 329 K. 793 K 12. (b) 538.536.101 32.77 (a) 22.87 571 m/s. 0.20.5°C 12.95 (a) 2. (b) 9. (b) 930 K.704. (c) 537 s 12. 146 m.87 × 105 W/m2. (b) 1.702.887 W. (b) 0.60 × 107 W.96 (a) 1425 K. 0. -15.90 762 K 12.83 (a) 1.106 (a) 0.108 279 K. (b) 0.68.8. 0. (b) 44.25.98 796 K. 39. (c) 0. 373 µV 12.124 (a) 0.2 K 12. 8. 3.200.88 (a) 134 K 12.117 0. (b) 233 kW/m2.8% 12.625. 0.713.121 (a) 8.799.127 96.51 µm. (c) 8.99 (a) 0. (b) 0.103 (a) 0.93 W/m⋅K 12.75 K/s.95 × 10-5 W 12.113 (a) 0. (e) 119 s 12. (c) 855 s 12.93 (a) 0.07 W/m2⋅K 12.15 µW. (c) 413 s 12.82 8.33 µm.84 3.85 (a) 1718 µV.5 s 12. (b) 0. (d) 73.59.92 (a) 0.2 K.5°C 12.111 329.79 (a) 19.118 (a) 1.643. 225 K 12. (b) 352 K 12.81 999 K 12.105 (a) 0.5 m/s.78 (a) 25°C 12.91 (a) 5441 W/m2 12. 0. 28. 9.49.256 s 12.38 × 10-7 W 12.94 (b) 20 K/s 12. (c) 24.129 m.4°C 12.68. 878 µV.5°C 12.08 × 10-8 W 12.47 µW 12. (b) 11. (b) 0.6°C 12.126 (a) 4. (c) 43.10 µW 12.16 × 105 W/m2 12. (c) 460 W/m2 12.9°C 12.5 kW/m2 12.2°C.7°C. (c) 704 W 12. (d) 82 s 12. 1.47 W 12.20.80 (a) 145 W/m2.86 (a) 23°C. (c) 850 K 12.7 K/s.2°C 12. (b) 770 K.23 µW. 0. (b) 5. (c) 6. (c) 0.120 (b) 35.12.100 (a) 839 K. (b) 35.634.109 139°C. (c) 0.102 (a) 126 W/m2⋅K 12.112 (a) 0. (c) 1382 µV.66.2 K.536. (b) 871 K 12.125 (a) 55.116 25.375.104 (a) 763 W.80.1% 12.107 (a) 48. 0.5 W/m2 . (c) 1646 kW/m2.8 W.375 12.30.76 (a) 117°C 12.97 (a) 314 µW.5 W 12.

0.32 (c) 17 kW/m2. 4720 W. 279 K.424.781. (b) –35. 0.9°C.0343.132 0. (b) 13. (b) 1. (e) 0.16 (a) 354 mW/m2.131 439 K 12.18 0.637 13.9 (a) 0.163 13. 178 K 12.900 W 13. (d) 635 µW 13.162 W 13.1 (a) 1.25 544 K.19 W.48 µW . (b) 211 K.34 (a) 1. 180 W. 3459 K.141 (a) 57. (c) –30.286.0767.29 1. (b) 1.140 (a) 0 or ∞. 295 K.26 (a) 255 W. 9565 W 12. (d) 0. 0.139 (a) 394.12.50. 828 K 13.10 (b) 0.7°C. 1026 W 12. (b) 1312 W 13. 310. (f) 1. (b) 353 K. 145 K 12.0492 kg/s⋅m 13. (b) 0.1 K. 837. 205 K.4 K 12.28 2515 K.62 13.6 (b) 0.22 406 K 13.31 11.25.137 (a) 308 K.41 13. 1502 K 13.463.6°C.3°C 12.637.5 × 106 s 12.12 0.8 W/m2 13. (b) –7.363.5.58 × 104 W/m2 13. (c) 80°C.9°C. (b) 341 K 12. (b) 1700 W 13.136 714 W/m2 12.133 (a) 837 W.2 (c) ~0. 0.33 63.23 13.6°C. (g) 0. (d) 0.19 (a) 0.134 (a) 30. 2452 K.4°C CHAPTER 13 13.129 380 K.57 µm. 0.50. (b) 970 K.741 13.800 13. (b) 1695 mW/m2 13.01 13.69 × 105 W/m 13. (b) 0.553. 0.64.21 456 K 13.30 0.17 36. (c) 0.24 (a) 413 K.110. (b) 71.50 µm 12. 656 K 12.0.707. 6825 W/m2 13.87 kW 13. (e) 0. 0.4 (b) 0.125.20 1.130 (a) 197 K.94 12. 0.50.0.15 27.23 (a) 13.09 13.7 µW/m2 13.4 W.5 K 13.13 0.128 (a) 77. (c) 0.138 (b) ~5. 0.11 (a) 0. 2746 W.135 (a) 1.038. 0.

7 kW/m2.79 13. 0.8 s 1680 W/m.2 kW/m2. (d) 1085 W/m2 (a) 507 K (a) 308 K 774 K (a) 48. (b) 98. (b) 30.986 133 W/m2. –49% 472°C 1225 K.61 13.65 W.83 (a) 8520 W/m. 0.2 W/m 66. 986 K. 75. 1167 K (a) 896 K.76 W/m2.6 kW/m2 (a) 9870 W/m.092.5 kW/m2 (a) 1.045 mm.2 W/m (a) 30. 103.74 13.8 K/s.963 (a) 0.58 13.0 s.2 kW/m2.63 13.059 mm. (d) 42.2% (b) 1.56 13.83 (a) 69 mW.38 13.40 13.7 W/m.13 W.80 13. 1. (c) 31. 12.5 W/m.73 13.2 W/kg.43 13.78 13.53 13.6 s. 300 K. (b) 934.60 13.58 W. (b) 1320 K (a) 1.81 13.6 kW/m2 3295 W (a) 169 kW/m.6 kW/m2.44 13. 79. 2508 W/m.77 13. 110.052 30.64 13. 389 K.41 13.4°C.033 mm. (b) 950 K.68 13.39 13.71 13.1 kW/m (a) 10.51 13. (c) 983 W.52 13. (b) 15 s.50 13.1 W/m.36 13. (b) 732 K 12.55 13.4°C 69°C 1.105.75 13.138 (a) 338 K.46 13.5 W/m2. (b) 1117 K (b) 43. (c) 0. 990 K 423 K 10. 488 K 1046 W (a) 37 W/m. (b) 853 K (a) 25.5% 548 K. (b) 0.32 W . (b) 0.62 13. (b) 25.66 13. 71.69 13. 6.72 13. (c) 14.67 13.2 kW (a) 1228 K. (c) 1085 W/m2. (b) 9.48 13.8 W/kg.50 W/m. 16.8 kW.76 13. 7. (c) 14.3 W/m2 90 mW 9 0.42 13.14 × 10-4 kg/s (a) 1995 W.3 kW.41 W. 916 K (a) 109. (b) 191 W. (d) 55. 474 K 0.35 13.8 W/m (a) 14.31 W/m2 46.13. (b) 56.70 13. (b) 18.1 W/kg (a) 15. 3.45 13.82 13. 764 K 266 W/m 0.54 13.49 13.2 kW/m2.814 (a) 0. 0.65 13.37 13.

0.94 (a) –1153 W. (c) 361.38.140 kg/s 13.105 526 K 13. (b) 0.115 (a) 131 W/m 13. 0. 97.5 W/m.1 W/m2 13. (b) 156 W/m.95 (b) 842. (b) 1346 K. 792 K.8°C.6°C 13. 25.118 (a) 54.55 kW 13. 10.0471.85 –538 W.850 W/m2 13.97 (a) 14.45 m.120 (a) 8075 W/m.3 kW. (b) 0. (b) 441 W/m.83 W 13.0°C. 89 W/m 13. (b) 796 K. –7. 0.102 (a) 29.129 15.124 (b) 1295 K.3 W/m2. 8.130 21. 0. 156 W/m2 13. (c) 122.2 W/m2.127 (a) 0.709 13. (c) 165 W/m2.3 W 13.3 m-1. 83. (b) 783.098 kg/s.5 K 13. (b) 1188 K. 783 K 13. 482 K.5°C. (b) 388.92 (a) 41. 199 W/m2 13. 0. 5037 W. 1.123 (a) 3.121 (a) 19. 0. –4799 W.13.117 (a) 466 W. (d) 502 K 13. (c) 576 W/m.84 (a) 1842 W.93 (a) 1/6.35 W.42 × 104 W 13.84.116 59. (b) 100. 1.7 kW/m 13.113 (a) 8.2 W 13.91 1.953.99 (a) 373 K. (c) 3120 W 13. 1088 W 13. 0 W. (b) 306 W/m2. 1920 W/m2.88 611 K 13.2 K.191. (b) 413 K 13. 52.89 W/m2.104 (a) 792.6 K.111 19. 543 K.5 W/m2. 1141 W 13. 108 kW 13.98 (a) 54 kW/m. (b) 1840 W 13.125 (b) 1213 W/m.59. 10 kW/m 13.89 –200 W.001. (b) 6.57 K/s.4°C. 656 K 13.762. 91.126 (a) 178 W/m2⋅K.103 (a) 35 W/m2⋅K. 64 W/m2⋅K 13. (c) 8 kW/m 13. 0. (b) 0.88 m 13.128 (a) 4. 66.999.5 W/m2. (b) 376.96 65. 0.4 W/m2. –20 W 13.112 (a) 145 W/m2.109 (b) 366 K. (c) 715 K 13. (b) 0. 0.9 kW/m .76.0471. 5/6.1 W.023 kg/s 13.6 W. (b) 484 K 13.6 W/m2.87 31. 82.0197.7 W/m2 13.2 W/m2.108 (a) 289.122 0.4 K.106 6. –603 W.2 K.110 5700 K/W 13.40 13.1 kW 13. (b) 825 K. 0.101 106 W/m2.114 669 W/m2. (c) 328.107 (a) 577 K. 67. 498 K.90 317 W 13.7 W/m2 13. 352 K 13.119 (a) 30 W/m2 13. 598 K.001 13. 0.100 4600 W. 0 W 13.

135 0. 89.132 135 kW/m2 13. 42.133 380 K.13.8 kW/m2.515 kg/s .134 46.6 kW/m2 13.6 kW/m2 13.131 98 kW/m 13.

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