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CHAPTER 4 : ALGEBRAIC FORMULAE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A variable is a quantity where its value is not fixed. A constant is a quantity where its value is fixed. An algebraic formula is an equation that relates several variables with constants. The subject of an algebraic formula is a variable expressed as a term in terms of other variables. An algebraic formula can be rearranged to let another variable to be the subject of the formula. The process involves: (a) change the operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; (b) change roots and square roots (c) combined operations and determination of roots and power.

A.

VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS. Exercise: 1) The age of your parents. Constant.

State whether each of the following quantities is a variable or a constant. Example: The number of sides of a pentagon.

2) The number of colours of the rainbow. 3) The daily sales of PTA Stationaries.

**State the possible values for each of the following variables.
**

Algebraic Formulae

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Module PMR

Example: The mass (m) of a watermelon, in kg. 2.5 kg

Exercise: 4) The volume of food (V) consume by your friends, everyday, in g.

5)

The number of students who scored A’s in Mathematics in the PMR.

6)

The water charges (q) per month of a school, in RM.

B.

FORMULAE

Write formulae based on statements and situations. An iron pipe measures 95 cm long while a PVC pipe is 7.5 m long. Write a formula for the total length L, in m, of b iron pipes and p PVC pipes. Errors L = 95b + 7.5p Unit in m Correct Steps L = 0.95b + 7.5p

Algebraic Formulae

43

Correct because unit is in m

Units are in m Incorrect because unit is in cm

Module PMR

Example:

Exercise:

The entrance fees to a museum are 1) Saiful has RMp. After spending RM(q RM4 for an adult and RM3 for a child. + 2) per day for a week, the remainder If, on a certain day, p adults and q is RM18. Find a formula for p. children visited the museum, write a formula for the total collection of that day. Solution: Let A = Total collection (in RM) A = (Number of adults × 4) + (Number of children × 3) A = 4p + 3q

Algebraic Formulae

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Module PMR

Example:

4)

Write a formula relating m and n 2) Syafik is b years old. His mother WriteThe price of a bicycleand n based on 3) a formula relating m is RM500. Write based on thehis sister’s age. If Syafik the table below. is twice table below. down a formula for the new price, N, if M is 5 years younger than his 5 1 2 3 4 m the1price is2increased by r%. 3 4 5 sister, writeValues of m are substituted here n a formula 9 the sum for 11 N 3 5 7 3 6 9 12 15 (S) of their ages. Solution: Solution: From the table: m = 1 => n = 2(1) + 1 = 3 m = 2 => n = 2(2) + 1 = 3 m = 3 => n = 2(3) + 1 = 3

׃ ׃ ׃ ׃ ׃ ׃

Hence; n = 2m + 1

5) Write a formula relating m and n based on the table below. m -1 0 1 2 3 n -3 -2 -1 0 1 Solution:

6) Write a formula relating m and n based on the table below. M 0 1 2 3 4 n -5 -3 -1 1 3 Solution:

Algebraic Formulae

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Module PMR

C. Change the subject 1) Given that 3m – 2n = 1, express m in terms of n. 3 Common Errors Error 3m – 2n =1 3 3m = 3 + 2n m= 3 + 2n 3 3m – Correct Steps 2n =1 3 9m = 3 + 2n m= 3 + 2n 9

3m – 2n = 3

9m – 2n = 3

Incorrect because 3m is not multiplied by 3

2) Given

1 1 1 + = , express u in terms of v u v 5 Common Error Errors Correct Steps 1 1 1 + = u v 5 v+u 1 = uv 5 5v + 5u = uv uv – 5u = 5v u(v – 5) = 5v u= 5v v−5

1 1 1 + = u v 5 u+v=5 u=5–v

Incorrect because the concept of LCM is not applied

3)

Given that a2 – b2 = 9c2, express a in terms of b and c. 46

Algebraic Formulae

Module PMR

Common Error Error a2 – b2 = 9c2 a2 = 9c2+ b2 a = 3c + b Correct Steps a2 – b2 = 9c2 a2 = 9c2+ b2 a = 9c 2 + b 2

Incorrect because

√(9c2+ b2) ≠ √9c2 + √ b2

4)

**Given that 2 h + k = 3m, express h in terms of k and m. Error 2 h + k = 3m 2(h + k) = (3m)2 (3m) 2 (h + k) = 2 h= (3m) −k 2
**

2

Correct Steps 2 h + k = 3m [2 h + k ]2 = [3m]2 4(h + k) = 9m2 (h + k) = h= 9m 2 4 9m 2 −k 4

Exercise: 1) Express a in terms of w, if w= 2 − 3a a

Algebraic Formulae

Incorrect because 2 should be squared

2) Given a = a and c

b , express b in terms of b+c

47

Module PMR

3)

Given p =

v−w , express w in w

4) Given 2k – of k and n.

m = m, express m in terms 2n

terms of p and v

5)

Given 3(x – z) = 4xy, express x in terms of y and z.

6)

Given f and v.

1 1 1 − = , express u in terms of f u v

7)

Given 5pq = qr – 2p, express p in terms of q and r.

8) 48

Given 2π l

l = T, express g in terms g

Algebraic Formulae

Module PMR

of T and

9)

Given v =

8 , express x in x+2

10)

Given 5 m − n = t, express n in terms of m and t.

terms of v.

D Finding the value of a variable. Example: Given that W = 3a – 1 b , find 2 Exercise: 1) Given p = 3q + 5r, find the values of (a) p when q = 4 and r = 3 (b) q when p = 7 and r = 1 Solution:

(a) W when a = 2 and b = 4, (b) b when a = 3 and W = 5. Solution: W = 3a – (a) 1 b 2

Substitute a = 2 and b = 4 into 1 (4) 2

the formula W = 3(2) – =6–2 =4 (b) 5 = 3(3) – 1 b 2

**1 b =9–5 2 b=4×2 =8 2) Given k = 2m – 3n2, find the values of (a) k when m = 3 and n = -2 (b) m when k = -5 and n = 3
**

Algebraic Formulae

3) Given y = 2r – 3s + 6t, find the values of (a) y when r = 3, s = -2 and t = 49 1 2

Module PMR

Solution:

(b) t when y = 4, s = 3 and r = -1 Solution:

**PMR past year questions 2003 1). Given that 3h = 5k + 4, express k in terms of h. 2004 2). Given that terms of k.
**

2(p− 3) = 5, k

express p in

**[2 marks] 2005 3). Given of p. 4y - 3 = 2 , express y in terms y+p 2006 4). Given F = F and k.
**

3n- nk , 5

[2 marks]

express n in terms of

[2 marks] 2007 5). Given that r2 + 7 = p, express r in terms of p. 2008

[2 marks] 6). Given qr + s = p, express r in terms of p , q and s.

Algebraic Formulae

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Module PMR

[2 marks]

[2 marks]

CHAPTER 4 : ALGEBRAIC FORMULAE ANSWERS A. Variable and Constant 1) Variable 3) Variable 51 2) 4) Constant 15cm3

Algebraic Formulae

Module PMR

5)

20 students

6) 2) 4) 6) 2)

RM300 S = 4b + 15 n = 3m n = 2m – 5 ac 1− a

B. Formulae 1) p = 7(q + 2) + 18 3) 5) N = 500 + 5r n=m–2

C. Change The Subject 1) 2 a= w+3 3) 5) w= v p +1 3z x= 3− 4y p= qr 5q + 2 8 2v v

b=

4) 6)

4kn 2n + 1 vf u= v− f 4 2l g 2 T n m t2 25

7)

8)

9)

x

10)

D Finding the value of a variable 1) a) P= 27 b) q = 2/3 3) Y=15 T= 5 2 2) a) k=-6 b) m=11

**PMR past year questions 2003 1). 5k = 3h - 4 3h 4 k= 5 2004 2). 2p - 6 = 5k
**

Algebraic Formulae

1 1 1 52

Module PMR

2p p

= 5k + 6 5k 6 = 2

1 1 1 1 1

2005 3). 4y - 3 = 2y + 2p 2y = 2p + 3 y = 2p 3 2

2006 4). 5F = 3n - nk n(3 - k) = 5F 5F n = 3 k 2007 5). r 2 = p - 7 r = p7 2008 6). qr = p - s ps r= q

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Algebraic Formulae

53

- Presentation 17
- Presentation 16
- Presentation 15
- Presentation 14
- Presentation 13
- Presentation 12
- Presentation 11
- Presentation 10
- Presentation 9
- Presentation 8
- Presentation 7
- Presentation 6
- Presentation 5
- Presentation 4
- Presentation 3
- Presentation 2
- Presentation 1
- Presentation 18
- Chapter 6 Indices
- Chapter 5 Linear Inequalities
- Chapter 3 Linear Equations
- Chapter 7 Algebraaic Expressions
- Chapter 2 Square Square Roots Cubes & Cubes Roots
- Chapter 1 Directed Numbers

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