PREAMBLE ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION _____________________________________ 4 Comfort ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling ____________________________________________________________________ 5 BASES _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Air-conditioning, cooling and tempering _________________________________________________________________________ 7 Passive and active cooling ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Passive cooling__________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Active cooling ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Heat cooling sources__________________________________________________________________________________________________10 Ground probes _________________________________________________________________________________________________________10 Ground collectors______________________________________________________________________________________________________11 Groundwater ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Air ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Distribution systems __________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Area heating (underfloor) ___________________________________________________________________________________________13 Area heating (ceiling) ________________________________________________________________________________________________13 Fan convectors and ceiling cassettes ______________________________________________________________________________14 H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE ______________________________________________________14 COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS __________________________________________________________17 Sizing ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Operating modes WPF________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Heating mode WPF____________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Passive cooling operation with WPF_______________________________________________________________________________18 Operating modes WPC cool__________________________________________________________________________________________18 Heating mode WPC cool______________________________________________________________________________________________18 Passive cooling operation with WPC cool ________________________________________________________________________18 Active cooling operation WPF and WPC___________________________________________________________________________18 Minimum flow rate for active cooling _____________________________________________________________________________19 Valve positions _________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Passive cooling_________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Active cooling __________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Cooling and DHW demand___________________________________________________________________________________________20 Hydraulics WPF ________________________________________________________________________________________________________21 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1 _______________________________________________________________________________________22 Hydraulics WPC cool __________________________________________________________________________________________________23 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________24 COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS __________________________________________________________25 Sizing ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Operating modes ______________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Heating operation _____________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Passive cooling operation ___________________________________________________________________________________________26 Active cooling operation _____________________________________________________________________________________________26 COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS______________________________________________________________27 SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMI _________________________________________28 Standard settings ______________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Set room temperature ________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Flow temperature _____________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Flow temperature hysteresis________________________________________________________________________________________29 Dynamic (active cooling only)_______________________________________________________________________________________30 Control characteristics of the passive cooling ___________________________________________________________________30 1
7.6.1 7.7 7.7.1 8 9 9.1 9.2 10 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5.1 12 13 14 15
Source pump ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________30 Control characteristics of the active cooling _____________________________________________________________________31 Compressor _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________32 BRINE RESISTANCE _______________________________________________________________________________________33 WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE ________________________________________________________________34 Wiring diagram ________________________________________________________________________________________________________34 Distribution strip/zone valve ________________________________________________________________________________________37 COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS _____________________________________________40 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS _______________________________________________41 VRF systems, air-conditioning systems with direct evaporation_____________________________________________41 Free cooling ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Air duct __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Water wall ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Cost consideration_____________________________________________________________________________________________________42 Recommendations ____________________________________________________________________________________________________43 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM ___________________________________________________________________44 CHECK LIST ________________________________________________________________________________________________45 BIBLIOGRAPHY ____________________________________________________________________________________________46 KEYWORD INDEX _________________________________________________________________________________________47
This manual is designed to provide an overview on the subject of cooling buildings with heat pumps. It is designed for the trade and design engineers and represents a supplement to the technical folder "Heat pumps". In part I, the essential basics are explained, together with the influencing magnitudes of ambient climate and comfort, as well as listing the differences between air-conditioning, cooling and tempering. Furthermore, there will be a brief introduction relating to the h-x diagram and the dew point. The essential characteristics of passive and active cooling are explained, and diverse possible heat sources and distribution systems are introduced. The main part of this manual describes cooling with the various Stiebel Eltron heat pumps and their corresponding WPMi control unit. This overview provides information regarding possible application areas, sizing and design/engineering. Important control variables, setting parameters and the respective hydraulic diagrams are also illustrated. The manual closes with an introduction of alternative systems for ambient cooling and costing samples. The cost consideration includes a comparison of the different cooling systems by way of an example: Active and passive cooling, room air-conditioning units and VRF airconditioning systems.
BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION
BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION
It is important for human beings to maintain a constant body temperature. For this to happen, there must be balance between internal heat production and heat transfer to the ambience. Internal heat production is primarily the result of the so-called activity level. Seated activities, such as writing and reading, for example, represent activity level I. On average, humans generate heat at 100 W. This exerts an influence on the heat added to the ambient climate in much the same way as an installed device or a piece of lighting equipment.
Table 1 Heat production subject to activity in accordance with DIN 1946-2 Activity level I II Basic metabolic rate Seated activity, such as writing or reading Light work whilst standing up, such as laboratory work, typing III IV Moderately heavy physical activity Heavy physical activity >250 >140 200 111 150 83 Activity Heat production per person [W] 79 100 Specific heat production [W/m²] 44 56
The heat transfer to ambience is subject to the climatic conditions of the surroundings and the level of clothing. In the latter case, transfer is effected through radiation, convection, conduction and water vapour diffusion. /2/ To maintain the heat balance, humans possess an effective temperature control system. For example, an increase in blood circulation and dissipation of sweat can substantially increase heat transfer to the ambience. /2/ Humans are able to store chemical energy, for example in the form of fat deposits. However, humans have hardly any thermal storage capacity. Heat is produced constantly and transferred to the ambience. 1.1 Comfort
The conditions at which humans perceive their thermal ambience as pleasant, in other words when there is an equilibrium between the internal heat production and heat transfer, is described as comfortable. Thermal comfort is a subjective perception variable that depends on the ambience and the individual person.
BODY TEMPERATURE. He/she would perceive both air conditions as equally pleasant. Where higher temperature differentials persist there would be a risk of catching a cold. see diagram 1. For the annual hours at full utilisation in cooling operation. with cooling. Excessive temperatures can also severely reduce human output/capacity. COMFORT. Consequently.
Figure 1 Comfort field according to Leusden and Freymark
1. Generally. see the following tables. as well as hotels and apartments. /2/ /4/ The following comfort diagram by Leusden and Freymark illustrates the relationship between two factors: Relative humidity and ambient temperature.2
Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling
Buildings that require a higher cooling demand include offices. HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION
Human comfort decreases with ambient temperatures that are too low or too high. one person may not discern any substantial loss in comfort at an ambient temperature of 22 °C and a relative humidity between 30 % and 70 %. theatres.
. For example. as summer clothing would generally not be suitable for such ambient conditions. living and working environments should provide a comfortable climate. hospitals. 3 to 6 K below the outside temperature. buildings for wholesalers and retailers. the internal temperature should only be reduced by approx. The following terms are summarised under the comfort influencing variables:
Activity level Clothing Air temperature Temperature of the surface areas enclosing the ambient space Relative humidity Air velocity Air purity
These different variables have lead to the assessment and evaluation of the ambient climate being generally based on the comfort field developed by Leusden and Freymark. cinemas.
400 800 600 . HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION
Table 2 Hours at full utilisation /7/ Type of building Office building Hospitals Department stores Trade fairs Theatre/Cinema Hotels Apartments Hours at full utilisation [h/p.] cooling operation 300 .800 500 . COMFORT.600 200 .a.500 100 .300 400 .BODY TEMPERATURE.200
Heat is extracted from the building and transferred to the environment. 2. fan convectors and ceiling cassettes with condensate drain are used. where the air is regulated to the required parameters using a cooler.1 Air-conditioning. the heating circuit contains a water:glycol mixture (brine). Passive cooling is only possible when the heat source temperature lies below the required cooling temperature. In apartment buildings and smaller commercial operations.
. where the water contained in the air condenses on the cooling surfaces. refrigerant distribution systems are generally filled with antifreeze. the heat transfer operates in reverse. heat pumps extract the heat stored in the environment (underground. For this. water flows through the refrigerant distribution systems. groundwater or surface water) and raise that energy by means of a compressor to a higher temperature level that makes it useful for DHW heating or for heating the building. we differentiate between passive and active cooling. cooling and tempering are the conventional method for increasing comfort levels. That is possible with heat transfer above the dew point temperatures. i. The main difference between these methods is the operation with (active) or without (passive) a compressor. a humidifier and a heater. Controlling the relative humidity requires a humidifying/de-humidifying system. is regulated. Systems for the cooling of rooms to a specified temperature level generally only require the air to be dehumidified.e. these provide excellent ambient comfort in most cases. Heat pumps enable both heating and cooling. for example via wall or underfloor heating systems or cooling ceilings. However. In heating mode.2 Passive and active cooling
When cooling a building with heat pumps. In cooling mode. area heating. At low energy consumption. where air acts as heat transfer medium. Tempering describes the lowering or raising of the ambient temperature by a few Kelvin. this is only done in centralised air-conditioning systems.BASES
The increasing demand for comfort has resulted in an increasing number of apartments being equipped with cooling systems. With active cooling. Conventionally. as well as the relative humidity. 2. 18 °C for underfloor heating systems and 7 to 13 °C with fan convectors. This can be assumed to be approx. In addition. Where there is no risk of frost with passive cooling. cooling ceiling or fan convectors. cooling and tempering
Air-conditioning of rooms means that the air temperature. this does not result in any dehumidification. air.
The position of a 4-2-way valve determines the order of the components through which the flow
. active cooling as dynamic cooling. Method 2: Reversing the refrigerant circuit (reversible heat pumps). The refrigerant circuit can be reversed. Only pipes and fittings made from corrosion-resistant materials may be used. All supply lines entering the house must be insulated in a vapour diffusion-proof manner to prevent the formation of condensate. Otherwise condensate may form on the heat exchanger surfaces. 15 to 20 °C. In practical applications. The heating circuit is routed to the heat pump evaporator and the source circuit to the heat pump condenser.1 Passive cooling
With passive cooling. The flow temperature is approx. this can only be brought about with brine|water heat pumps. With area cooling. Active cooling can be brought about by two different means: Method 1: Swapping the connections of the heating and heat source circuit at the heat pump evaporator and condenser via suitable hydraulic equipment.2. and the possible cooling capacity is limited to approx. the flow direction of the refrigerant is crucial. it is "active". heat is transferred from the cool source via heat exchanger to the area heating system or the fan convectors. 25 to 50 W/m².2 Active cooling
The active cooling operates according to a principle similar to air-conditioning systems. i.BASES
Active cooling is required when the heat source temperature lies above the required cooling temperature. the cooling water temperature must be above the dew point temperature. The heat pump compressor will be started. The heat pump can be changed over between heating and cooling via corresponding diverter valves.2. 2. For this.e. where the heat from within a building is extracted via the active refrigerant circuit and is then transferred to low temperature "heat sink". 2.
Table 3 Main characteristics of passive and active cooling Passive cooling Compressor OFF Water in the distribution system Heat source temperature lower than the required cooling temperature Active cooling Compressor ON Water:glycol mixture (brine) in the distribution system
Passive cooling is also referred to as quiet or natural cooling.
By changing the valve position. 2.2.2. For example.BASES
is routed. and the operating mode changed between generating heat and cooling.
. Cooling ceilings and area heating systems are unsuitable for active cooling due to the low flow temperatures. the evaporator and condenser functions are swapped. cooling ceilings should not be operated with flow temperatures below 15 °C.1 Comparison between active cooling using hydraulic changeover and a reversible heat pump The advantages and disadvantages of these two types of active cooling with heat pumps are compared in the following table. The cooling capacity will not be rated at more than 60 W per m² heat transfer surface due to considerations of personal comfort.
Figure 2 Operating mode of a brine|water heat pump with passive and active cooling function
Possible cooling distribution systems are fan convectors and ceiling cassettes.
Sources for active cooling are ground probes. size the probe for the heating or cooling case. Where high cooling loads are present. 10 °C) of the ground at greater depths. resulting in a drop of the available cooling capacity. to a limited extent. For cooling operation it is recommended to drill for shorter probes (max. Ground probes are suitable for passive and active cooling. In particular with high internal cooling loads that may.Hydraulic changeover and reversible heat pump Cooling via hydraulic changeover Advantages
Reversible heat pump
Passive cooling is also possible.3
Heat cooling sources
Groundwater and ground probes are likely heat sources/heat sinks for passive cooling. consequently more susceptible Higher pressure drop in the heating circuit Significantly higher installation effort and space requirement
Only active cooling is possible Either cooling or DHW heating
2. air or groundwater can be used as heat source/sink. Subject to application. The cooling capacity is sufficient for conventional residential buildings and the assumption of a few cooling days per annum. optional retrofitting (do not forget the thermal insulation of existing pipe runs!)
Lower pressure drop in the heating circuit Lower investment outlay
More material required (four diverter valves).3.1
Passive cooling with ground probes utilises the constant temperature (approx.BASES
Table 4 Advantages and disadvantages . result from the presence of many occupants in the
. for example.
Table 5 Conventional natural heat sink systems for cooling with heat pumps  Passive cooling Ground probe Groundwater 8 – 12 °C 8 – 12 °C Active cooling Ground probe Ground collector Outside air -20 . When cooling with reversible heat pumps. For passive cooling. the probes will be sized for 80% of the cooling extract capacity. higher efficiency Simultaneous cooling and DHW heating possible Marginally better efficiency in the refrigerant circuit Standard device can be used. groundwater. 100 m). ground collectors and. the temperature underground gradually rises.+35 °C 8 – 12 °C 0 – 15 °C
Cooling with ground probes in summer also regenerates the heat source for winter.5 11.0 15.5 12.
Table 6 Average temperatures underground Drilling depth Average temperatures underground [°C] [m] Exposed site 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 9.2
2.5 19.5 14.5 10.5 16. passive cooling could no longer be achieved (see Figure 3). The drying out of the ground would be one disadvantage when using ground collectors for active cooling.5 13.5 17. as in cooling mode.2 11.5 15.5 13.0 11. the cooling demand may be greater than the heating energy demand.8 16.7 12. The collector will be sized only for the heating operation. Furthermore. the ground temperature near the surface is substantially dependent on the outside temperature. Should the temperature there exceed 15 °C.60 °C) to be maintained without difficulties.0 8. the CoP is higher than with systems using air as heat sink.5 Urban area 9. the ground has a substantially lower temperature than the ambient air. thereby enabling the limit temperatures (10 . In addition.3 15.0 12.
Ground collectors have only a limited use for passive cooling.BASES
building.7 9. the ground heats up quickly reducing the temperature differential between the ground temperature and the room temperature to an unacceptable level. The collector is well suited to active cooling.2 8.8 13.3 12. Active cooling is possible.5 18.5 14.5 Height 3. With passive cooling.
. in cooling mode. In heating mode. Min. this is generally supplied constantly in series with the condenser whilst the pump is running. Heat is dissipated via an additional heat exchanger that. 18 °C 7 °C Max. 2. There are no further requirements of the source side. The heat source temperature determines the limits. receives a flow of brine via a three-way valve.4 Air
With a reversible air|water heat pump. 35 °C 40 °C Flow temp. Observe that the groundwater returned underground must not exceed a temperature of 20 °C. Active cooling is generally not required because of the low and stable temperature. the cooled air is transferred to the rooms to be cooled via fan convectors.BASES
Figure 3 Temperature progression underground
2. The average groundwater temperature in cooling mode is approx.
Table 7 Application limits reversible air|water heat pump Outside air temp. the outside air can be used as heat sink. A water analysis should also verify that the water is compatible with the heat exchanger material. Min. 10 to 15 °C.4
The cooling operation is possible via an area (underfloor heating system. ceiling) or via fan convectors (with condensate drain).3. Heating Cooling –20 °C 15 °C Max.3
Both passive and active cooling are possible with groundwater as heat source. 60 °C 20 °C
2. For this.3.
to prevent the formation of condensate on the cooling surfaces. Consequently. living and bedrooms. a room temperature should not exceed 21 °C at 0. Rooms requiring cooling include: Working. It is. 2.2
Area heating (ceiling)
No minimum air temperatures need to be taken into consideration. according to DIN 1946-2.4.BASES
Apart from selecting the distribution system it requires careful consideration which rooms actually require cooling in summer. However. Check with the respective parquet manufacturer. the cooling capacity of a cooling ceiling can be substantially higher than that of an underfloor heating system used for cooling. toilet and kitchen into the cooling cycle. The cooling capacity is limited since.1 m height when operating an underfloor heating system in cooling mode.1 Area heating (underfloor)
The cooling capacity for cooling with area heating systems can be up to 25 W/m². As a result. select a smaller pipe spacing than would be conventional for heating purposes.
Figure 4 Method of laying an underfloor heating system
2. specific cooling capacities between 40 and 100 W/m² are
. The following applies to both heating and cooling cases: The better the thermal insulation of the building the higher the pipe spacing can be with identical flow temperatures. conventional not to include the bathroom.4. economic and architectural benefits of area cooling:
High comfort level No draughts Quiet operation Low investment outlay Low operating costs Unrestricted interior design
Monitoring the relative humidity is beneficial. The following summarises a number of climatic. this may be significantly higher if the area heating system is subject to direct solar irradiation. whether this kind of floor surface is compatible with a cooling operation. for example. /6/ When sizing the underfloor heating system for cooling.
In the following simplified diagram. Brine can only be topped up as ready-mixed solution. The pipelines for the fan convectors and ceiling cassettes must be installed vapour diffusionproof.
Figure 5 Fan convector and ceiling cassette
The distribution system for active cooling with fan convectors or ceiling cassettes is filled with water:glycol mixture (brine). temperature. relative humidity and absolute humidity are depicted. Consequently. To prevent the comfort limits specified by the DIN 1946 being exceeded. The minimum flow temperature for cooling ceilings is 15 °C (manufacturer's details). the air flow rate and the cooling water temperature. the resistance of the individual components to brine must be checked out.H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
possible. the higher its cooling capacity. cooling ceilings
Figure 5 System image.3
Fan convectors and ceiling cassettes
The cooling capacity of fan convectors and ceiling cassettes is subject to the size of the building.
H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
Mollier best depicts the change in condition non-cooled rooms/cooled rooms in the so-called h-x diagram. whereby the flow temperature represents the limiting variable. Pipelines embedded into walls cannot be used for connection to fan convectors as they are not vapour diffusion-proof. the cooling capacity should be between 30 and 60 W per m² heat transfer surface of the fan convector. but also the air flow rate and the air velocity. Please note: It is prohibited that the heating circuit is filled with potassium carbonate. The larger and more powerful the device.
If the cooling reaches below the saturation line.
Figure 6 Change of condition room cooling /3/
Isothermal lines: Lines of constant temperature 15
. Now the temperature of the cooled room is 22 °C with a relative humidity of 80 %. a different condition occurs and condensate is produced. for example 4 K by passive or active cooling (cooling to above the dew point = above the saturation line). This demonstrates clearly that the relative humidity increases when the room is cooled. If the room is cooled by. draw a vertical line down from point 1 to the 22 °C isothermal line1 (point 2).H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
It is assumed that the non-cooled room has a temperature of 26 °C and a relative humidity of 65 % (point 1).
Table 8 Dew point temperature
. The dew point temperature for condition 2 can be checked on the Y-axis. Working with the following table enables a precise and more convenient determination of the dew point temperature.H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
The dew point temperature subject to the air temperature and relative humidity can also be checked in the h-x diagram. if the vertical line from point 1 to point 2 is extended to the saturation line. In that case it is 18.4 °C.
Table 9 Sizing table ground probe Heat pump type Heating output (0/35) [kW] Refrigeration capacity [kW] Ground probe 32 x 2.9 No. 2 pce.2 3. 55 W/m extraction capacity. 2 pce. WPC 5 cool WPC 7 cool WPC 10 cool WPC 13 cool WPF 5 WPF 7 WPF 10 WPF 13 WPF 16 5.1 4.8 9.7 10.9 13. 1 pce.9 13.4 5.4 7.2 4. 17
WPF operating modes Heating mode WPF
Environmental energy is extracted from the ground via the heat exchanger on the heat source side.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
The ground probes are sized according to the heat pump heating output.7 10.3 12.5 6. The absorbed energy together with the energy used to drive the compressor is transferred to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side. The resulting cooling capacity is illustrated in the following table.2 9.5 1 pce.4 7.8 7. The domestic hot water is heated via the indirect coil integrated into the DHW cylinder.2 4.0 7.9 Depth [m] 82 109 70 94 82 109 70 94 84
3. 2 pce.2 4. 2 pce. install a correspondingly greater number of probes.6
4.2 5.4 16. Where higher cooling capacities are required.2 5.0 7.8 9. 1 pce.
Condition: Approx. 3 pce. Ground probe
Cooling capacity [kW]
32 x 2.3 4. 1 pce.5 6.
The cooling operation remains switched off during DHW heating. Stage: Cooling through running source pump. 4. 4. The DHW is heated via the internal indirect coil inside the DHW cylinder. The water at the higher temperature level flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder. passive and active cooling subject to demand. The cooling operation remains switched off during DHW heating. 1.2 Passive cooling operation with WPC cool
The brine circulates in cooling mode via the additional heat exchanger. The DHW cylinder is integrated into the WPC cool. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required.4 Active cooling operation WPF and WPC
Active cooling requires the cooling module WPAC 1 (with integral brine circulation pump) or WPAC 2 (without integral brine circulation pump).
. The heating water of the area heating system or cooling ceiling cooled by this process flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required. after cooling at stage 1 for 30 minutes.3. the actual flow temperature is still higher than the required flow temperature. heat is transferred from the hotter to the colder medium.1 WPC cool operating modes Heating mode WPC cool
Environmental heat is extracted from the ground via the heat exchanger on the heat source side. thereby lowering the temperature of the floor/ceiling. Cooling with the WPAC is controlled in two stages from passive to active cooling. together with the energy drawn by the compressor drive. The water at the higher temperature flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder. Any energy extracted is transferred. 2.2
Passive cooling operation with WPF
The brine circulates in cooling mode via the additional heat exchanger. The modules are comprised of the following: Four 3-2-way valves switch the circulation over between heating. 4.3 4.3. The heating water of the area heating system or the cooling ceiling cooled by this method flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled and thereby lowers the area temperature of the floor/ceiling. Stage: Cooling though running source pump and running compressor.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
4. Heat is transferred from the hot to the cold medium. Consequently. Stage 2 will be added if.2. to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side.
COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
Figure 6 WPAC 1 layout for WPF (l. relative to the minimum flow rate on the source side in heating mode.5. The return from the fan convectors is routed through the condenser back outside again into the ground probes.cooling = V min. The heating water leaving the fan convector must be routed through the evaporator to extract the heat from the heat transfer medium.5 4. additional source pump or a low loss header is required.1 Minimum flow rate for active cooling
The minimum flow rate on the side to be cooled corresponds to the minimum flow rate in heating mode. 4.) and WPAC 2 for WPC (r.h.4. brine is routed via changing the valve positions so that the brine cooled by the ground flows directly into the fan convector. cooling = 0. a second. Active cooling is currently only possible with fan convectors or ceiling cassettes.
& & The following applies: Cooling side (inside the building): V min. The evaporator must receive a volume flow on account of the pipework. The source pump is adequate for cooling operation up to the brine|water heat pump WPF 13. the valves are positioned so that the heating water leaving the fan convector is routed through the evaporator and the brine circuit of the ground probes through the condenser.1
Valve positions Passive cooling
During passive cooling.
. For heat pumps with a higher output range.5. without the compressor running.heating & & Source side: V min. heating
4. The compressor will be running. The minimum flow rate on the source side in cooling mode must be halved. 4.h.5 ⋅ Vmin.2 Active cooling
With active cooling.)
The WPMi heat pump manager controls the system.
only switched off if the required flow temperature and the set room temperature are achieved.3
Cooling and DHW demand
For active cooling.5. and DHW heating is activated if the system is in cooling mode stage 1 (source pump ON. The cooling output is. In cooling mode stage 2 (source pump ON. cooling and DHW heating can operate in parallel.
Figure 7 Operating mode of a brine|water heat pump with passive and active cooling function
. we need to differentiate between the two possible cooling stages. compressor OFF). The cooling output is immediately switched off in case of DHW demand.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
4. compressor ON). in that case.
Heating with WPF without WPAC 1
Figure 9 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
4.Passive cooling with WPF without WPAC 1
Legend: TA = Temperature sensor outside TA = Temperature sensor flow TA = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FEK = remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor
Figure 8 Hydraulic diagram .
Active cooling with WPF and WPAC 1
.Passive cooling with WPF and WPAC 1
Figure 12 Hydraulic diagram .Heating with WPF and WPAC 1
Figure 11 Hydraulic diagram .7
Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1
Legend: TA = Temperature sensor outside TM = Temperature sensor mixer TR = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FE7 = Remote control with room temperature sensor FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor
Figure 10 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
Hydraulics WPC cool
Figure 13 Hydraulic diagram .Heating and cooling with WPC cool without WPAC 2
Key: TA = Temperature sensor outside FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor
Passive cooling with WPC and WPAC 2
Figure 16 Hydraulic diagram .Active cooling with WPC and WPAC 2
.Heating with WPC and WPAC 2
Figure 15 Hydraulic diagram .9
Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2
Key: TA = Temperature sensor outside TM = Temperature sensor mixer TR = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FE7 = Remote control with room temperature sensor FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor
Figure 14 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS
to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side.5 m³/h 2.1
The volume of groundwater that can be utilised to remove heat is determined in accordance with the volume of groundwater required by the heat pump. The temperature differential between the groundwater and the cooling water is approx. 25
1. Any energy extracted is transferred.4 m³/h 4.COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS
COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS
5.1 m³/h 2.2 5.
The system will be sized for heating operation. a higher cooling capacity can be achieved with a
larger well pump. The heating water is routed via the buffer cylinder into the underfloor heating system and the indirect coil in the DHW cylinder. 15 °C.6 m³/h 3.1
Operating modes Heating operation
Heat is extracted from the groundwater via the heat pump heat exchanger on the heat source side.2 kW 14. 5 K.9 kW 8. The average groundwater temperature in cooling mode is approx.2. together with the energy drawn by the compressor drive.4 m³/h
Table 9 Sizing table groundwater Heat pump type Cooling output Groundwater volume WPW 7 WPW 10 WPW 13 WPW 18 WPW 22 M 5. If required.2 kW 10.1 kW 18.
. The cooled heating water can also be routed through a fan convector or ceiling cassettes.COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS
5. Heat is transferred from the hotter to the colder medium.2.3 Active cooling operation
Theoretically at least. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required. The cooling operation is switched off during DHW heating. The heating water of the area heating system or cooling ceiling cooled by this process flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled. active cooling is possible with a reversible water|water heat pump. Active cooling using hydraulic changeover is not feasible.2
Passive cooling operation
The cool groundwater is routed through the additional heat exchanger when cooling is required. 5. The water at the higher temperature flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder. thereby lowering the temperature of the floor/ceiling.2.
operating modes and the hydraulic layout for active cooling with reversible air|water heat pumps will be available mid 2007.
.COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS
COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS
Information regarding the sizing.
Figure 17 FE 7 and FEK (from left to right)
For cooling. WPC cool. Three adjustable parameters are available for the summer mode. In this mode. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 72 hours. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 48 hours. if the heat pump stops and restarts again straight away after the outside temperature value has been changed. The heat pump automatically changes over to summer mode if the average outside temperature is higher than 20 °C. the WPM II offers no cooling function. Summer mode 1 for lightly built constructions. Cooling via heating surfaces is only possible with the FEK. can be reduced by up to 1 °C. the operation requires the analog remote control unit with room temperature sensor FE 7 or the digital remote control unit FEK with room temperature sensor and humidity sensor. In this mode. The freely selectable standard setting was factory-set to summer mode 1 and a changeover at 20 °C. In this mode. The changeover from heating mode to summer mode is subject to the outside temperature. In addition. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 24 hours. The heat pump manager is in summer mode. The WPMi is fitted as standard to the following heat pumps: WPC. The outside temperature from which the changeover from heating to summer mode occurs. A separate remote control unit is required for each circuit in systems with two heating circuits. This enables a check during commissioning whether the changeover from winter to summer mode functions correctly. the heat pump manager WPMi must be in Summer mode. For this.
.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi
SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi
The cooling operation can only be regulated with the heat pump manager WPMi. WPF with integral controller and WPW with integral controller. Currently. the outside temperature must be higher than the selected value.
Generally. with cooling. 7. the set room temperature should be changed subject to the outside temperature. For a system with slow responses. the recommended setting of the hysteresis subject to the heat transfer coefficient is: Small hysteresis (2 K).4 Flow temperature hysteresis
The control circuit requires a hysteresis to prevent a counter-action when minute control deviations occur. and large hysteresis (5 K) for a system with quicker responses. 3 to 6 K below the outside temperature (relative to a setting range of 22 . in this example of heating water to the floor surface. Recommendation:
Floor tiles.30 °C 10 °C – 25 °C +1 K – +5 K 1 .26 °C). flow temperature 20 °C. Carpet.
. The heat transfer coefficient describes the resistance of a material to thermal conduction and is therefore a measure for the speed of the heat transfer.3 Flow temperature
Apart from the set room temperature.2
Set room temperature
For cooling. as the heat transfer coefficient of carpeted floors is lower than that of tiles. the customer can also change the flow temperature. The hysteresis specifies the possible deviation from the set value.1
Control unit setting parameters for cooling:
Set room temperature Flow temperature Flow temperature hysteresis (in this case a "+ hysteresis") Dynamic
Table 10 Standard setting and setting ranges for the WPMi Standard setting Set room temperature Flow temperature Flow temperature hysteresis Dynamic 25 °C 15 °C 5K 10 Setting range 20 °C . 7. flow temperature 15 °C.10
7.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi
7. the internal temperatures should only be approx.
A lower flow temperature must be selected for fitted carpets.
switches the compressor ON as soon as the source pump has been running for 10 minutes and the current flow temperature is higher than the selected flow temperature plus the flow temperature hysteresis plus 0. only the heating circuit pump is enabled.5 K (hysteresis for the dynamic of value 1). Slow reacting system The dynamic set to 10 switches the compressor ON after the source pump has been running for 30 minutes and the current flow temperature is higher than the selected flow temperature plus the flow temperature hysteresis plus 2 K (hysteresis for the dynamic of value 10). The control variable is different for each distribution system.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi
Table 11 Recommended values for flow temperature and flow temperature hysteresis Flow temp. The heating circuit pump and the control unit cooling output are switched ON. set to 1.6 Control characteristics of the passive cooling
The cooling mode is started when the actual room temperature is ≥ 25 °C. Values between 1 and 10 can be selected.5
Dynamic (active cooling only)
The dynamic parameter enables a choice to be made as to how quickly the compressor is started in case of active cooling. Quick reacting system The dynamic. For the first 60 seconds. 7. Interpolation is applied between the values 1 and 10.6. [°C] Parquet Laminate Natural stone Carpet Cork Marble Clay 15 15 20 20 2 1 5 4 15 15 20 Hysteresis [K] 2 2 4
7.1 Source pump
The source pumps starts when the control variable is smaller than the actual flow temperature.
4 °C < 20 °C: Control variable = selected flow temperature + hysteresis = 20 °C Case 2: Relative humidity in the room: 90 % This results in a dew point temperature at 20 °C and 90 % relative humidity of 18. Control variable = selected flow temperature if the selected flow temperature + hysteresis > dew point temperature + 2 K (see example case 1) Control variable = dew point temperature + 2 K if the selected flow temperature + hysteresis < dew point temperature + 2 K (see example case 2) Here is an example by way of an explanation: The user has selected a flow temperature of 15 °C plus a flow temperature hysteresis of 5 K. Case 1: Relative humidity in the room: 75 % The dew point temperature at 20 °C and a relative humidity of 75 % is 15.2 Heating surfaces The dew point of the heating surfaces is also monitored. 7.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi
7.1. the source pump switches OFF subject to the standard settings. If.4 °C 16.6.4 °C + 2 K = 16. DHW heating is demanded.3 °C Independent of the flow temperature. At a flow temperature < 15 °C. 18.3 °C + 2 K = 20.1.7 Control characteristics of the active cooling
The active cooling is controlled in the same way as passive cooling and is only supplemented by starting of the compressor and a simultaneous changeover of the valves.3 °C 20.6.
. This ensures that at least once. The following applies: Control variable = selected flow temperature 7. the cooling mode immediately switches over to DHW heating.3 °C > 20 °C: Control variable = dew point temperature + 2 K + hysteresis = 18. As a result a flow temperature of 20 °C is calculated. 15. the control variable is equal to the selected flow temperature.4 °C (see Table 8).3 °C + 2 K + 5 K = 25. only cool water enters the cooling system to achieve a cooling effect at all.1 Fan convectors For fan convectors. the source pump must run for at least 5 minutes. during this minimum runtime of 5 minutes.3 °C.
The compressor switches OFF if the room temperature is lower than the set room temperature – 2 K.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi
7. after 30 minutes of passive cooling (the source pump has been running for 30 minutes). In this case. the actual flow temperature is still higher than the control variable plus hysteresis.1
.7. the 2 K is a fixed control hysteresis that should not be confused with the flow temperature hysteresis. the compressor starts and the valves change over.
the seals of which are made from PTFE.BRINE RESISTANCE
With active cooling. then the following components from the Stiebel Eltron product range are brine resistant:
Pumps Valves Expansion vessels Safety valves
Overflow valves.5-fold pressure drop.
Table 12 Possible temperature differentials during heating and cooling Temperature differentials Heating Passive cooling Active cooling 5 – 15 °C 5 – 25 °C 5 – 50 °C
. If the system is run with brine expect a 1. Therefore ensure that the individual components concerned are resistant to brine. fill the distribution system with a water:glycol mixture (brine). The expansion vessel on the brine side may possibly be sized larger in brine|water heat pumps in cooling mode on account of the temperature differentials. When selecting the pump. ensure that only cast pumps (condensate forming between the casing and the stator) or rotary pumps are used. are suitable for water:glycol mixtures without restrictions. If the correct glycol:water concentration was filled into the system and the brine contains corrosion inhibitors (25 to 33 %). Brine must only be topped up with a ready-mixed solution.
WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE
WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE
Figure 18 Hydraulic diagram WPF
Figure 19 Connection diagram WPF
WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE
Figure 20 Hydraulic diagram WPC cool
Figure 21 Connection diagram WPC cool
Cooling WPF with WPAC 1
Figure 23 Connection diagram .WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE
Figure 22 Hydraulic diagram .WPF with WPAC 1
Figure 24 Distribution strip heating/cooling
The following overviews explain how the wiring of the rooms that require cooling and those that do not should be carried out. In addition.
Distribution strip/zone valve
For the changeover from heating to cooling mode with area heating systems and the associated opening of actuator valves in the heating circuits in the rooms to be cooled. they are equipped with an input for changing over between cooling and heating mode. special distribution strips are available.WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE
9. Such distribution strips enable the connection of room temperature controllers and actuators in the individual rooms.
WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE
Figure 25 Connection diagram for the wiring of the distribution strip with room thermostat 1 2 3 K H L N Room thermostat. heating only Room thermostat. room 1 Cooling Heating Phase Neutral conductor
. heating and cooling Valves.
heating only Single room thermostat (on site) FEK digital remote control Heating circuit distributor WPMi heat pump manager
. heating and cooling Room 3.WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE
Figure 26 Example of a connection diagram for the wiring of the distribution strip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SP cool distributor strip Room 1. heating and cooling Room 2.
Table 13 Overview of the advantages and disadvantages Brine|Water heat pump Advantages
Water|Water heat pump
Reversible Air|Water heat pump
Passive and active cooling are possible Low flow temperature possible (active cooling)
Passive cooling adequate due to constant heat source temperature
Low installation costs for the heat source Flow temperatures up to 7 °C possible
Constant flow temperature Low operating costs as only the well pump operates (in passive cooling)
Low operating costs as only the brine circulation pump operates (in passive cooling)
High installation costs for the heat source Flow temperature subject to the ground probe temperature (in passive cooling)
High installation costs for the heat source Check the heat exchanger compatibility with groundwater
Cooling only possible from outside temperatures of 15 °C
Only active cooling is possible High operating costs as pumps and compressor operate
In summary it can be said that. With reversible air|water heat pumps. with a brine|water heat pump passive and active cooling is feasibly. passive cooling may frequently be adequate.COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS
10 COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS
The advantages and disadvantages of the heat pump types for use in passive and active cooling are compared in the following table. only active cooling is technically feasible. With a water|water heat pump.
The specific cooling capacity is approx.5 W/(m³/h). In other words. wall outlets). This can be easily realised if the room to be cooled is equipped with ventilation openings in opposing walls (windows. 11. One problem. these units are serviced regularly. 1. /5/ Free ventilation is easily achieved with domestic ventilation systems. In such equipment. particularly on hot days. Also. this must be drained away. A classic office air-conditioning system. The cooling capacity is hampered by the low temperature differential between day and night temperatures. If the circulating water is cooled below the dew point.
. ventilation flaps). a corresponding heat exchanger can be integrated into the central ventilation unit. making the water wall suitable for dehumidification and cooling. which is not required for cooling with an existing area heating system. There are units for humidifying and dehumidifying the air as well as those for boosting the heating.3 Air duct Apart from fan convectors or area heating systems there is the possibility of utilising air ducts in existing domestic ventilation systems as an alternative distribution system for cooling purposes. Cooling/tempering is therefore unacceptable for hygienic reasons. where the offices are air-conditioned with treated air. air-conditioning with dehumidification would be feasible. 11. For this.1 VRF systems. is that pure cooling raises the relative humidity.ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS
11 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS
11. However. condensate is created on the water surface. This enables effective night ventilation by cross venting.2 Free cooling Free cooling represents an alternative that requires no mechanical drive for cooling the buildings. 11. air-conditioning systems with direct evaporation Split air-conditioning units are an alternative to the extraction of cooling loads. condensate is created when cooling the air.5 to 2. One disadvantage is the additional installation effort (internal and external equipment.4 Water wall Water walls represent a simple option for reducing the room temperature in summer. resulting in the temperature falling below the dew point and consequently in condensation. however. these units do not provide a simple cooling of the air. contains several banks for treating the air.
The additional use for cooling or tempering is attractive because of the low level of addition costs for the cooling systems and the very low costs for generating the cooling capacity. chillers or VRF systems (variable refrigerant flow).5 Cost consideration Today. as the ground probe significantly regenerates the ground in summer. The combined use for cooling and heating improves the efficiency of heat pumps with ground probes in heating mode. 150 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example 2: Office building 300 m² (cooling load 25 kW. 700 hours full cooling utilisation) Cooling foodstuffs with active or passive cooling is not feasible due to the limits of use. off periods and control equipment. these are also shown in Table 14. The following cost consideration compares three typical application examples for cooling. i.ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS
11. 400 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example 3: Shop 500 m² (cooling 45 kW.
.e. buildings are almost always cooled with split air-conditioning units. The alternative. 15 rooms. the use of heat pumps for cooling purposes. The heat pump has become a favourite heating system since oil and gas prices have constantly risen in cost. has come to be considered recently as heat pumps have found increasing favour as heating system. Example 1: Residential building 150 m² (cooling load 6 kW. 4 rooms.
€618.5.000 €1243. 150 hours at full cooling €2.a.3/p.a. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs Additional investment. an office building and a shop /1/
Heat pump Passive cooling Active cooling 5.0/p.8
Performance factors in cooling mode 15. Unusual
Example: Office building 300 m² (cooling load 25 kW. we recommend the use primarily of passive cooling in detached houses.a.000 €693.15/kWh.000 €45.0/p. €1210.0 utilisation) Additional investment. 400 hours at full cooling utilisation)
Example: Shop 500 m² (cooling 45 kW.
11.a.000 €19. €7.5/p. €6423. €45.a. €27. passive and active cooling and in small businesses primarily the active cooling is recommended. In office buildings. The electricity tariff for active cooling with heat pump is €0.5/p. €6222.
Only the pump operation for the brine and heating circuit are taken into account. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs -
Example: Residential building 150 m² (cooling load 6 kW.a. €5.000 €220.000 €100.a.5/p.0/p.a.8/p.0/p. 4 rooms.a. The electricity tariff for passive cooling with heat pump and cooling with room air-conditioning units and VRF systems is €0.
.0/p. 15 rooms.000 €315.a.a.a.1 Recommendations Given the energy and annual cooling costs. €4189.a. 700 hours full cooling utilisation)
Assumptions for the cost consideration The investment outlay for the devices is based on manufacturer's details plus conventional installation costs.ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS
Cost comparison for different cooling systems using the examples of a residential building. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs Additional investment. €25.a. €268.0 Room airconditioning units 3. €4385.000 €500. €962.0/p.a. €926. €4.000 €395.a.5/p. Unusual €9.0/p.a. The annuity with an annuity factor of 12. as well as the different cooling loads.a. For the additional costs in connection with the cooling with heat pumps it is assumed that a heat pump heating systems with ground probes is already installed.5/p.0/p.000 €9. €3457. as the compressor operation is not required.95 % is based on an amortisation period of 10 years with an interest rate of 5 %.a.0/p.11/kWh.0/p.a. €40. €30.0 VRF-controlled air-conditioning systems 3.0/p.0/p.0/p.
COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM
Table 15 Overview application options passive/active cooling Passive cooling Detached house Office building Active cooling Office building Small business
12 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM
The cooling load activation form enables an estimate of the cooling load for one room respectively to be made. skylights and doors Cooling load due to external and internal walls and floors Cooling load due to the ceiling Cooling load due to electrical devices Cooling load due to occupants
. The following influencing factors are taken into consideration:
Cooling load due to solar irradiation through windows.
& & The following applies: Cooling side (inside the building): V min. Topping up with brine only as ready-mixed solution. heating
. active cooling: On the cooling side: The same minimum flow rate as for heating. What cooling source is available? Check the compatibility of the heat exchanger when cooling with a water|water heat pump. allow for a 1. Are all components resistant to brine? Are all pipe runs insulated in a vapour diffusion-proof manner? Must application limits be taken into consideration? The brine increases the pressure drop. on the source side: ½ the minimum flow rate as for heating. Minimum flow rates. cooling = 0. cooling = Vmin.5-fold pressure drop. heating & & Source side: V min. The expansion vessel on the brine side may need to be sized larger for cooling since the temperature differentials are greater.5 ⋅ Vmin. All lines and fittings must be made from corrosion resistant material. This must be taken into account when sizing the pumps.CHECK LIST
13 CHECK LIST
What is the purpose of the heat pump? What heat source is to be used with the heat pump? What is the required cooling capacity? Carry out a cooling load calculation. Use only a circulation pumps that are resistant to brine and condensate.
Hilligweg. Schramek. Protokollband 31
/6/ Recknagel. Freymark. http://www. Taschenbuch für Heizung und Klimatechnik. Krone.
Energieeffiziente Raumkühlung.3-7 Kombinierter Kühl. Rainer. Der Gesundheitsingenieur. 1951 /5/ Pfluger. Christian. 1 Grundlagen.bosy-online. Technologien zur energieeffizienten Raumkühlung: passiv-hybrid-aktiv. Müller GmbH. 72. publisher C. energetische und wirtschaftliche Bewertung passiver und
aktiver Kühlsysteme mit Sole/Wasser-Wärmepumpen.F. vol. TGA Fachplaner 4-2003
. 2005/2006 72nd issue.2. chapter 3 Physiologische Grundlagen p.und Heizboden /7/ Sponsel.pdf (11/06) /4/ Leusden. Sprenger. No.BIBLIOGRAPHY
/1/ Brugmann. Technische. Behaglichkeitsfeld. 1134 3.de/hx-diag. 62 /3/ h-x diagram. Berlin /2/ Handbuch der Klimatechnik. Oldenbourg Industrieverlag Munich 2005. Arnd. Karlsruhe 1989. Wirtschaftlichkeit von Eisspeichern. p. published 4th Forum Wärmepumpen
14 Comfort. 4 Comparison of cooling with different heat pumps. 12 Air-conditioning. 31 Fan convectors. 40 Cooling load calculation form. 26 Distribution strip/zone valve. 14 Ground collectors. 17 Passive cooling. 13 Area heating (underfloor). 8 Reversible heat pump. 17 Cooling with water|water heat pumps. 13 Brine resistance. 23 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2. 8 Air. 28 Cooling with brine|water heat pumps. 5 h-x diagram and dew point temperature. 29
15 KEYWORD INDEX
Active cooling. 22 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1. 10 Groundwater. 11 Ground probes. 34 Ceiling cassettes. 7 Area heating (ceiling). 38 Dynamic. 44 Cooling via hydraulic changeover. 24 Hydraulics WPF. cooling and tempering. 14 Hydraulics WPC cool. 10 WPMi. 18 Operating modes WPF. 12 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling. 25 Operating modes WPC cool. 10 Cooling with air|water heat pumps.