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PREAMBLE ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION _____________________________________ 4 Comfort ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling ____________________________________________________________________ 5 BASES _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Air-conditioning, cooling and tempering _________________________________________________________________________ 7 Passive and active cooling ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Passive cooling__________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Active cooling ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Heat cooling sources__________________________________________________________________________________________________10 Ground probes _________________________________________________________________________________________________________10 Ground collectors______________________________________________________________________________________________________11 Groundwater ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Air ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Distribution systems __________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Area heating (underfloor) ___________________________________________________________________________________________13 Area heating (ceiling) ________________________________________________________________________________________________13 Fan convectors and ceiling cassettes ______________________________________________________________________________14 H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE ______________________________________________________14 COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS __________________________________________________________17 Sizing ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Operating modes WPF________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Heating mode WPF____________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Passive cooling operation with WPF_______________________________________________________________________________18 Operating modes WPC cool__________________________________________________________________________________________18 Heating mode WPC cool______________________________________________________________________________________________18 Passive cooling operation with WPC cool ________________________________________________________________________18 Active cooling operation WPF and WPC___________________________________________________________________________18 Minimum flow rate for active cooling _____________________________________________________________________________19 Valve positions _________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Passive cooling_________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Active cooling __________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Cooling and DHW demand___________________________________________________________________________________________20 Hydraulics WPF ________________________________________________________________________________________________________21 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1 _______________________________________________________________________________________22 Hydraulics WPC cool __________________________________________________________________________________________________23 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________24 COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS __________________________________________________________25 Sizing ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Operating modes ______________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Heating operation _____________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Passive cooling operation ___________________________________________________________________________________________26 Active cooling operation _____________________________________________________________________________________________26 COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS______________________________________________________________27 SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMI _________________________________________28 Standard settings ______________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Set room temperature ________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Flow temperature _____________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Flow temperature hysteresis________________________________________________________________________________________29 Dynamic (active cooling only)_______________________________________________________________________________________30 Control characteristics of the passive cooling ___________________________________________________________________30 1
7.6.1 7.7 7.7.1 8 9 9.1 9.2 10 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5.1 12 13 14 15
Source pump ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________30 Control characteristics of the active cooling _____________________________________________________________________31 Compressor _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________32 BRINE RESISTANCE _______________________________________________________________________________________33 WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE ________________________________________________________________34 Wiring diagram ________________________________________________________________________________________________________34 Distribution strip/zone valve ________________________________________________________________________________________37 COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS _____________________________________________40 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS _______________________________________________41 VRF systems, air-conditioning systems with direct evaporation_____________________________________________41 Free cooling ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Air duct __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Water wall ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Cost consideration_____________________________________________________________________________________________________42 Recommendations ____________________________________________________________________________________________________43 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM ___________________________________________________________________44 CHECK LIST ________________________________________________________________________________________________45 BIBLIOGRAPHY ____________________________________________________________________________________________46 KEYWORD INDEX _________________________________________________________________________________________47
This manual is designed to provide an overview on the subject of cooling buildings with heat pumps. It is designed for the trade and design engineers and represents a supplement to the technical folder "Heat pumps". In part I, the essential basics are explained, together with the influencing magnitudes of ambient climate and comfort, as well as listing the differences between air-conditioning, cooling and tempering. Furthermore, there will be a brief introduction relating to the h-x diagram and the dew point. The essential characteristics of passive and active cooling are explained, and diverse possible heat sources and distribution systems are introduced. The main part of this manual describes cooling with the various Stiebel Eltron heat pumps and their corresponding WPMi control unit. This overview provides information regarding possible application areas, sizing and design/engineering. Important control variables, setting parameters and the respective hydraulic diagrams are also illustrated. The manual closes with an introduction of alternative systems for ambient cooling and costing samples. The cost consideration includes a comparison of the different cooling systems by way of an example: Active and passive cooling, room air-conditioning units and VRF airconditioning systems.
BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION
BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION
It is important for human beings to maintain a constant body temperature. For this to happen, there must be balance between internal heat production and heat transfer to the ambience. Internal heat production is primarily the result of the so-called activity level. Seated activities, such as writing and reading, for example, represent activity level I. On average, humans generate heat at 100 W. This exerts an influence on the heat added to the ambient climate in much the same way as an installed device or a piece of lighting equipment.
Table 1 Heat production subject to activity in accordance with DIN 1946-2 Activity level I II Basic metabolic rate Seated activity, such as writing or reading Light work whilst standing up, such as laboratory work, typing III IV Moderately heavy physical activity Heavy physical activity >250 >140 200 111 150 83 Activity Heat production per person [W] 79 100 Specific heat production [W/m²] 44 56
The heat transfer to ambience is subject to the climatic conditions of the surroundings and the level of clothing. In the latter case, transfer is effected through radiation, convection, conduction and water vapour diffusion. /2/ To maintain the heat balance, humans possess an effective temperature control system. For example, an increase in blood circulation and dissipation of sweat can substantially increase heat transfer to the ambience. /2/ Humans are able to store chemical energy, for example in the form of fat deposits. However, humans have hardly any thermal storage capacity. Heat is produced constantly and transferred to the ambience. 1.1 Comfort
The conditions at which humans perceive their thermal ambience as pleasant, in other words when there is an equilibrium between the internal heat production and heat transfer, is described as comfortable. Thermal comfort is a subjective perception variable that depends on the ambience and the individual person.
/2/ /4/ The following comfort diagram by Leusden and Freymark illustrates the relationship between two factors: Relative humidity and ambient temperature. For example. see diagram 1. Consequently. 3 to 6 K below the outside temperature. with cooling. as summer clothing would generally not be suitable for such ambient conditions. Excessive temperatures can also severely reduce human output/capacity.BODY TEMPERATURE. see the following tables. Where higher temperature differentials persist there would be a risk of catching a cold. hospitals. theatres. cinemas. living and working environments should provide a comfortable climate. Figure 1 Comfort field according to Leusden and Freymark 1. The following terms are summarised under the comfort influencing variables: - Activity level Clothing Air temperature Temperature of the surface areas enclosing the ambient space Relative humidity Air velocity Air purity These different variables have lead to the assessment and evaluation of the ambient climate being generally based on the comfort field developed by Leusden and Freymark. Generally. For the annual hours at full utilisation in cooling operation. one person may not discern any substantial loss in comfort at an ambient temperature of 22 °C and a relative humidity between 30 % and 70 %. as well as hotels and apartments. COMFORT. He/she would perceive both air conditions as equally pleasant.2 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling Buildings that require a higher cooling demand include offices. 5 . the internal temperature should only be reduced by approx. HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION Human comfort decreases with ambient temperatures that are too low or too high. buildings for wholesalers and retailers.
HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION Table 2 Hours at full utilisation /7/ Type of building Office building Hospitals Department stores Trade fairs Theatre/Cinema Hotels Apartments Hours at full utilisation [h/p.] cooling operation 300 .400 800 600 .500 100 .300 400 .a.200 6 .800 500 .BODY TEMPERATURE. COMFORT.600 200 .
In addition. for example via wall or underfloor heating systems or cooling ceilings. the heating circuit contains a water:glycol mixture (brine). a humidifier and a heater. At low energy consumption. i. cooling and tempering Air-conditioning of rooms means that the air temperature. 18 °C for underfloor heating systems and 7 to 13 °C with fan convectors. In cooling mode. However. The main difference between these methods is the operation with (active) or without (passive) a compressor. we differentiate between passive and active cooling. this is only done in centralised air-conditioning systems. For this. these provide excellent ambient comfort in most cases. 2. Passive cooling is only possible when the heat source temperature lies below the required cooling temperature. 7 . air. refrigerant distribution systems are generally filled with antifreeze.BASES 2 BASES The increasing demand for comfort has resulted in an increasing number of apartments being equipped with cooling systems.e. as well as the relative humidity. where air acts as heat transfer medium. cooling ceiling or fan convectors. That is possible with heat transfer above the dew point temperatures. fan convectors and ceiling cassettes with condensate drain are used. area heating. Where there is no risk of frost with passive cooling.1 Air-conditioning. the heat transfer operates in reverse. Systems for the cooling of rooms to a specified temperature level generally only require the air to be dehumidified. Conventionally. where the water contained in the air condenses on the cooling surfaces. is regulated. This can be assumed to be approx. In heating mode. heat pumps extract the heat stored in the environment (underground.2 Passive and active cooling When cooling a building with heat pumps. 2. Tempering describes the lowering or raising of the ambient temperature by a few Kelvin. this does not result in any dehumidification. Controlling the relative humidity requires a humidifying/de-humidifying system. water flows through the refrigerant distribution systems. groundwater or surface water) and raise that energy by means of a compressor to a higher temperature level that makes it useful for DHW heating or for heating the building. With active cooling. Heat pumps enable both heating and cooling. Heat is extracted from the building and transferred to the environment. In apartment buildings and smaller commercial operations. where the air is regulated to the required parameters using a cooler. cooling and tempering are the conventional method for increasing comfort levels.
25 to 50 W/m². The refrigerant circuit can be reversed. In practical applications.e. it is "active". heat is transferred from the cool source via heat exchanger to the area heating system or the fan convectors. The heating circuit is routed to the heat pump evaporator and the source circuit to the heat pump condenser. All supply lines entering the house must be insulated in a vapour diffusion-proof manner to prevent the formation of condensate. With area cooling.BASES Active cooling is required when the heat source temperature lies above the required cooling temperature.2. Only pipes and fittings made from corrosion-resistant materials may be used. active cooling as dynamic cooling.1 Passive cooling With passive cooling. Active cooling can be brought about by two different means: Method 1: Swapping the connections of the heating and heat source circuit at the heat pump evaporator and condenser via suitable hydraulic equipment. Table 3 Main characteristics of passive and active cooling Passive cooling Compressor OFF Water in the distribution system Heat source temperature lower than the required cooling temperature Active cooling Compressor ON Water:glycol mixture (brine) in the distribution system Passive cooling is also referred to as quiet or natural cooling. 15 to 20 °C.2 Active cooling The active cooling operates according to a principle similar to air-conditioning systems. the cooling water temperature must be above the dew point temperature. For this. i. The flow temperature is approx. the flow direction of the refrigerant is crucial. The heat pump compressor will be started. The position of a 4-2-way valve determines the order of the components through which the flow 8 . this can only be brought about with brine|water heat pumps. The heat pump can be changed over between heating and cooling via corresponding diverter valves. 2. 2. Method 2: Reversing the refrigerant circuit (reversible heat pumps). Otherwise condensate may form on the heat exchanger surfaces. and the possible cooling capacity is limited to approx.2. where the heat from within a building is extracted via the active refrigerant circuit and is then transferred to low temperature "heat sink".
the evaporator and condenser functions are swapped. The cooling capacity will not be rated at more than 60 W per m² heat transfer surface due to considerations of personal comfort. For example. cooling ceilings should not be operated with flow temperatures below 15 °C.2. By changing the valve position.1 Comparison between active cooling using hydraulic changeover and a reversible heat pump The advantages and disadvantages of these two types of active cooling with heat pumps are compared in the following table. 9 . and the operating mode changed between generating heat and cooling.2. 2.BASES is routed. Cooling ceilings and area heating systems are unsuitable for active cooling due to the low flow temperatures. Figure 2 Operating mode of a brine|water heat pump with passive and active cooling function Possible cooling distribution systems are fan convectors and ceiling cassettes.
resulting in a drop of the available cooling capacity. to a limited extent. result from the presence of many occupants in the 10 . For cooling operation it is recommended to drill for shorter probes (max. When cooling with reversible heat pumps. Ground probes are suitable for passive and active cooling. size the probe for the heating or cooling case. groundwater. higher efficiency Simultaneous cooling and DHW heating possible Marginally better efficiency in the refrigerant circuit Standard device can be used. air or groundwater can be used as heat source/sink. Sources for active cooling are ground probes. optional retrofitting (do not forget the thermal insulation of existing pipe runs!) Lower pressure drop in the heating circuit Lower investment outlay - - - - Disadvantages - More material required (four diverter valves). 100 m). Subject to application. 10 °C) of the ground at greater depths.+35 °C 8 – 12 °C 0 – 15 °C 2.3. For passive cooling. for example.Hydraulic changeover and reversible heat pump Cooling via hydraulic changeover Advantages - Reversible heat pump - Passive cooling is also possible. the probes will be sized for 80% of the cooling extract capacity.3 Heat cooling sources Groundwater and ground probes are likely heat sources/heat sinks for passive cooling. consequently more susceptible Higher pressure drop in the heating circuit Significantly higher installation effort and space requirement - Only active cooling is possible Either cooling or DHW heating - 2. Table 5 Conventional natural heat sink systems for cooling with heat pumps  Passive cooling Ground probe Groundwater 8 – 12 °C 8 – 12 °C Active cooling Ground probe Ground collector Outside air -20 . The cooling capacity is sufficient for conventional residential buildings and the assumption of a few cooling days per annum.BASES Table 4 Advantages and disadvantages . ground collectors and. Where high cooling loads are present. the temperature underground gradually rises.1 Ground probes Passive cooling with ground probes utilises the constant temperature (approx. In particular with high internal cooling loads that may.
3 15. The collector will be sized only for the heating operation.5 16. Active cooling is possible. the ground heats up quickly reducing the temperature differential between the ground temperature and the room temperature to an unacceptable level.5 19.2 8.5 Urban area 9. the ground temperature near the surface is substantially dependent on the outside temperature. Furthermore. the CoP is higher than with systems using air as heat sink.5 18.5 10. thereby enabling the limit temperatures (10 .8 16.2 Ground collectors Ground collectors have only a limited use for passive cooling.7 12.5 17.0 11.2 2.5 11.5 14.7 9. the ground has a substantially lower temperature than the ambient air. Should the temperature there exceed 15 °C. With passive cooling.5 15.8 13.5 Height 3.5 13.2 11.3 12. The collector is well suited to active cooling. the cooling demand may be greater than the heating energy demand.0 12.0 15. The drying out of the ground would be one disadvantage when using ground collectors for active cooling. passive cooling could no longer be achieved (see Figure 3).BASES building. as in cooling mode.3.60 °C) to be maintained without difficulties. In addition.5 12.0 8.5 13. Table 6 Average temperatures underground Drilling depth Average temperatures underground [°C] [m] Exposed site 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 9.5 14. 11 . Cooling with ground probes in summer also regenerates the heat source for winter.
In heating mode. the outside air can be used as heat sink.3. this is generally supplied constantly in series with the condenser whilst the pump is running.BASES Figure 3 Temperature progression underground 2.4 Air With a reversible air|water heat pump. Heat is dissipated via an additional heat exchanger that. Table 7 Application limits reversible air|water heat pump Outside air temp. 35 °C 40 °C Flow temp. Observe that the groundwater returned underground must not exceed a temperature of 20 °C. For this. 2. receives a flow of brine via a three-way valve.3. The heat source temperature determines the limits. in cooling mode.4 Distribution systems The cooling operation is possible via an area (underfloor heating system. Active cooling is generally not required because of the low and stable temperature. A water analysis should also verify that the water is compatible with the heat exchanger material. the cooled air is transferred to the rooms to be cooled via fan convectors.3 Groundwater Both passive and active cooling are possible with groundwater as heat source. 10 to 15 °C. Min. Heating Cooling –20 °C 15 °C Max. ceiling) or via fan convectors (with condensate drain). Min. 60 °C 20 °C 2. 12 . The average groundwater temperature in cooling mode is approx. There are no further requirements of the source side. 18 °C 7 °C Max.
As a result. to prevent the formation of condensate on the cooling surfaces.1 Area heating (underfloor) The cooling capacity for cooling with area heating systems can be up to 25 W/m². However. The following applies to both heating and cooling cases: The better the thermal insulation of the building the higher the pipe spacing can be with identical flow temperatures.1 m height when operating an underfloor heating system in cooling mode. whether this kind of floor surface is compatible with a cooling operation. a room temperature should not exceed 21 °C at 0. this may be significantly higher if the area heating system is subject to direct solar irradiation. the cooling capacity of a cooling ceiling can be substantially higher than that of an underfloor heating system used for cooling. for example. according to DIN 1946-2. living and bedrooms. Rooms requiring cooling include: Working. The following summarises a number of climatic. select a smaller pipe spacing than would be conventional for heating purposes.BASES Apart from selecting the distribution system it requires careful consideration which rooms actually require cooling in summer. economic and architectural benefits of area cooling: - High comfort level No draughts Quiet operation Low investment outlay Low operating costs Unrestricted interior design Monitoring the relative humidity is beneficial. Check with the respective parquet manufacturer. /6/ When sizing the underfloor heating system for cooling.2 Area heating (ceiling) No minimum air temperatures need to be taken into consideration. toilet and kitchen into the cooling cycle. The cooling capacity is limited since. 2.4. Consequently. conventional not to include the bathroom. specific cooling capacities between 40 and 100 W/m² are 13 . It is.4. Figure 4 Method of laying an underfloor heating system 2.
Figure 5 Fan convector and ceiling cassette The distribution system for active cooling with fan convectors or ceiling cassettes is filled with water:glycol mixture (brine). but also the air flow rate and the air velocity. temperature. Pipelines embedded into walls cannot be used for connection to fan convectors as they are not vapour diffusion-proof.3 Fan convectors and ceiling cassettes The cooling capacity of fan convectors and ceiling cassettes is subject to the size of the building.4. The larger and more powerful the device. In the following simplified diagram. Please note: It is prohibited that the heating circuit is filled with potassium carbonate. Consequently. relative humidity and absolute humidity are depicted. the cooling capacity should be between 30 and 60 W per m² heat transfer surface of the fan convector. whereby the flow temperature represents the limiting variable. The pipelines for the fan convectors and ceiling cassettes must be installed vapour diffusionproof. the resistance of the individual components to brine must be checked out. Figure 5 System image.H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE possible. 14 . The minimum flow temperature for cooling ceilings is 15 °C (manufacturer's details). the higher its cooling capacity. the air flow rate and the cooling water temperature. Brine can only be topped up as ready-mixed solution. To prevent the comfort limits specified by the DIN 1946 being exceeded. cooling ceilings 2. 3 H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE Mollier best depicts the change in condition non-cooled rooms/cooled rooms in the so-called h-x diagram.
If the room is cooled by. for example 4 K by passive or active cooling (cooling to above the dew point = above the saturation line).H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE It is assumed that the non-cooled room has a temperature of 26 °C and a relative humidity of 65 % (point 1). a different condition occurs and condensate is produced. If the cooling reaches below the saturation line. This demonstrates clearly that the relative humidity increases when the room is cooled. draw a vertical line down from point 1 to the 22 °C isothermal line1 (point 2). Figure 6 Change of condition room cooling /3/ 1 Isothermal lines: Lines of constant temperature 15 . Now the temperature of the cooled room is 22 °C with a relative humidity of 80 %.
H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE The dew point temperature subject to the air temperature and relative humidity can also be checked in the h-x diagram. The dew point temperature for condition 2 can be checked on the Y-axis.4 °C. Table 8 Dew point temperature 16 . Working with the following table enables a precise and more convenient determination of the dew point temperature. In that case it is 18. if the vertical line from point 1 to point 2 is extended to the saturation line.
0 7.2 9. 55 W/m extraction capacity.1 WPF operating modes Heating mode WPF Environmental energy is extracted from the ground via the heat exchanger on the heat source side.5 1 pce.6 4. The absorbed energy together with the energy used to drive the compressor is transferred to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side.2 4.9 No. The domestic hot water is heated via the indirect coil integrated into the DHW cylinder.2. WPC 5 cool WPC 7 cool WPC 10 cool WPC 13 cool WPF 5 WPF 7 WPF 10 WPF 13 WPF 16 5.2 3. 3 pce.4 7. 2 pce.8 9. 17 .7 10. The resulting cooling capacity is illustrated in the following table.4 5. 2 pce.8 9. 1 pce.1 Sizing The ground probes are sized according to the heat pump heating output. 1 pce.2 4.5 6. Where higher cooling capacities are required.9 Depth [m] 82 109 70 94 82 109 70 94 84 3.5 6.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4 COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.3 4.3 12.7 10.2 5.2 5.8 7.9 13.8 7.2 4.9 13.4 7. 2 pce. Table 9 Sizing table ground probe Heat pump type Heating output (0/35) [kW] Refrigeration capacity [kW] Ground probe 32 x 2. 2 pce.1 4.0 7. 2 Condition: Approx. 1 pce.4 16. Ground probe 2 Cooling capacity [kW] 32 x 2. install a correspondingly greater number of probes.
COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required. 18 . together with the energy drawn by the compressor drive.2 Passive cooling operation with WPF The brine circulates in cooling mode via the additional heat exchanger. The water at the higher temperature flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder. after cooling at stage 1 for 30 minutes. The DHW is heated via the internal indirect coil inside the DHW cylinder. The cooling operation remains switched off during DHW heating. The DHW cylinder is integrated into the WPC cool.4 Active cooling operation WPF and WPC Active cooling requires the cooling module WPAC 1 (with integral brine circulation pump) or WPAC 2 (without integral brine circulation pump). to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side. heat is transferred from the hotter to the colder medium. Cooling with the WPAC is controlled in two stages from passive to active cooling. Any energy extracted is transferred. Stage: Cooling though running source pump and running compressor.3 4. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required. 4. the actual flow temperature is still higher than the required flow temperature. Stage: Cooling through running source pump. 1. 4. Consequently.1 WPC cool operating modes Heating mode WPC cool Environmental heat is extracted from the ground via the heat exchanger on the heat source side. The heating water of the area heating system or cooling ceiling cooled by this process flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled. Stage 2 will be added if. passive and active cooling subject to demand. 2.3. The water at the higher temperature level flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder.3.2. 4. The cooling operation remains switched off during DHW heating. The modules are comprised of the following: Four 3-2-way valves switch the circulation over between heating. Heat is transferred from the hot to the cold medium. The heating water of the area heating system or the cooling ceiling cooled by this method flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled and thereby lowers the area temperature of the floor/ceiling.2 Passive cooling operation with WPC cool The brine circulates in cooling mode via the additional heat exchanger. thereby lowering the temperature of the floor/ceiling.
1 Valve positions Passive cooling During passive cooling.h. The compressor will be running. & & The following applies: Cooling side (inside the building): V min. 19 . The source pump is adequate for cooling operation up to the brine|water heat pump WPF 13. heating 4. a second.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS Figure 6 WPAC 1 layout for WPF (l. For heat pumps with a higher output range.) The WPMi heat pump manager controls the system.1 Minimum flow rate for active cooling The minimum flow rate on the side to be cooled corresponds to the minimum flow rate in heating mode. 4.cooling = V min. The heating water leaving the fan convector must be routed through the evaporator to extract the heat from the heat transfer medium.5 ⋅ Vmin. The minimum flow rate on the source side in cooling mode must be halved. cooling = 0. brine is routed via changing the valve positions so that the brine cooled by the ground flows directly into the fan convector. The return from the fan convectors is routed through the condenser back outside again into the ground probes. Active cooling is currently only possible with fan convectors or ceiling cassettes. The evaporator must receive a volume flow on account of the pipework.5. without the compressor running.h.5 4. the valves are positioned so that the heating water leaving the fan convector is routed through the evaporator and the brine circuit of the ground probes through the condenser.4.5.) and WPAC 2 for WPC (r. relative to the minimum flow rate on the source side in heating mode.heating & & Source side: V min. additional source pump or a low loss header is required.2 Active cooling With active cooling. 4.
cooling and DHW heating can operate in parallel. compressor OFF).3 Cooling and DHW demand For active cooling. The cooling output is. In cooling mode stage 2 (source pump ON. Figure 7 Operating mode of a brine|water heat pump with passive and active cooling function 20 . The cooling output is immediately switched off in case of DHW demand. we need to differentiate between the two possible cooling stages.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4. only switched off if the required flow temperature and the set room temperature are achieved. and DHW heating is activated if the system is in cooling mode stage 1 (source pump ON. in that case.5. compressor ON).
Heating with WPF without WPAC 1 Figure 9 Hydraulic diagram .Passive cooling with WPF without WPAC 1 21 .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.6 Hydraulics WPF Legend: TA = Temperature sensor outside TA = Temperature sensor flow TA = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FEK = remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor Figure 8 Hydraulic diagram .
Passive cooling with WPF and WPAC 1 Figure 12 Hydraulic diagram .Active cooling with WPF and WPAC 1 22 .7 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1 Legend: TA = Temperature sensor outside TM = Temperature sensor mixer TR = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FE7 = Remote control with room temperature sensor FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor Figure 10 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.Heating with WPF and WPAC 1 Figure 11 Hydraulic diagram .
Heating and cooling with WPC cool without WPAC 2 Key: TA = Temperature sensor outside FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor 23 .8 Hydraulics WPC cool Figure 13 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.
Passive cooling with WPC and WPAC 2 Figure 16 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.Active cooling with WPC and WPAC 2 24 .9 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2 Key: TA = Temperature sensor outside TM = Temperature sensor mixer TR = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FE7 = Remote control with room temperature sensor FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor Figure 14 Hydraulic diagram .Heating with WPC and WPAC 2 Figure 15 Hydraulic diagram .
1 Operating modes Heating operation Heat is extracted from the groundwater via the heat pump heat exchanger on the heat source side.2. 5 K.2 kW 10.1 kW 18.4 m³/h 5. 15 °C. to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side. 25 .1 Sizing The volume of groundwater that can be utilised to remove heat is determined in accordance with the volume of groundwater required by the heat pump.1 m³/h 2. together with the energy drawn by the compressor drive. The average groundwater temperature in cooling mode is approx. 3 The system will be sized for heating operation.2 5.9 kW 8.5 m³/h 2.2 kW 3 1. If required.6 m³/h 3. a higher cooling capacity can be achieved with a larger well pump. The temperature differential between the groundwater and the cooling water is approx. Any energy extracted is transferred. Table 9 Sizing table groundwater Heat pump type Cooling output Groundwater volume WPW 7 WPW 10 WPW 13 WPW 18 WPW 22 M 5. The heating water is routed via the buffer cylinder into the underfloor heating system and the indirect coil in the DHW cylinder.4 m³/h 4.COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS 5 COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS 5.2 kW 14.
5.COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS 5. The cooling operation is switched off during DHW heating. thereby lowering the temperature of the floor/ceiling. The water at the higher temperature flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required. Active cooling using hydraulic changeover is not feasible.2 Passive cooling operation The cool groundwater is routed through the additional heat exchanger when cooling is required. Heat is transferred from the hotter to the colder medium.2. 26 .2. The cooled heating water can also be routed through a fan convector or ceiling cassettes. The heating water of the area heating system or cooling ceiling cooled by this process flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled.3 Active cooling operation Theoretically at least. active cooling is possible with a reversible water|water heat pump.
operating modes and the hydraulic layout for active cooling with reversible air|water heat pumps will be available mid 2007.COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS 6 COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS Information regarding the sizing. 27 .
the operation requires the analog remote control unit with room temperature sensor FE 7 or the digital remote control unit FEK with room temperature sensor and humidity sensor. The heat pump automatically changes over to summer mode if the average outside temperature is higher than 20 °C. WPC cool. The outside temperature from which the changeover from heating to summer mode occurs. For this. the WPM II offers no cooling function. This enables a check during commissioning whether the changeover from winter to summer mode functions correctly. Currently. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 72 hours. The WPMi is fitted as standard to the following heat pumps: WPC. The changeover from heating mode to summer mode is subject to the outside temperature. In this mode. The freely selectable standard setting was factory-set to summer mode 1 and a changeover at 20 °C. In addition. if the heat pump stops and restarts again straight away after the outside temperature value has been changed. In this mode. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 24 hours. the outside temperature must be higher than the selected value. Cooling via heating surfaces is only possible with the FEK.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 7 SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi The cooling operation can only be regulated with the heat pump manager WPMi. A separate remote control unit is required for each circuit in systems with two heating circuits. can be reduced by up to 1 °C. 28 . the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 48 hours. The heat pump manager is in summer mode. Three adjustable parameters are available for the summer mode. Summer mode 1 for lightly built constructions. Figure 17 FE 7 and FEK (from left to right) For cooling. WPF with integral controller and WPW with integral controller. the heat pump manager WPMi must be in Summer mode. In this mode.
26 °C).1 Standard settings Control unit setting parameters for cooling: - Set room temperature Flow temperature Flow temperature hysteresis (in this case a "+ hysteresis") Dynamic Table 10 Standard setting and setting ranges for the WPMi Standard setting Set room temperature Flow temperature Flow temperature hysteresis Dynamic 25 °C 15 °C 5K 10 Setting range 20 °C .SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 7. the customer can also change the flow temperature. Carpet. and large hysteresis (5 K) for a system with quicker responses. the recommended setting of the hysteresis subject to the heat transfer coefficient is: Small hysteresis (2 K). The hysteresis specifies the possible deviation from the set value.4 Flow temperature hysteresis The control circuit requires a hysteresis to prevent a counter-action when minute control deviations occur. as the heat transfer coefficient of carpeted floors is lower than that of tiles. 29 . The heat transfer coefficient describes the resistance of a material to thermal conduction and is therefore a measure for the speed of the heat transfer.2 Set room temperature For cooling. with cooling. 7. A lower flow temperature must be selected for fitted carpets. Recommendation: - Floor tiles. flow temperature 20 °C. 7.3 Flow temperature Apart from the set room temperature.30 °C 10 °C – 25 °C +1 K – +5 K 1 . the set room temperature should be changed subject to the outside temperature. the internal temperatures should only be approx. For a system with slow responses. in this example of heating water to the floor surface. 3 to 6 K below the outside temperature (relative to a setting range of 22 .10 7. Generally. flow temperature 15 °C.
Values between 1 and 10 can be selected. set to 1. switches the compressor ON as soon as the source pump has been running for 10 minutes and the current flow temperature is higher than the selected flow temperature plus the flow temperature hysteresis plus 0. Interpolation is applied between the values 1 and 10. 30 . 7.5 K (hysteresis for the dynamic of value 1). [°C] Parquet Laminate Natural stone Carpet Cork Marble Clay 15 15 20 20 2 1 5 4 15 15 20 Hysteresis [K] 2 2 4 7.6 Control characteristics of the passive cooling The cooling mode is started when the actual room temperature is ≥ 25 °C. 7.1 Source pump The source pumps starts when the control variable is smaller than the actual flow temperature. Slow reacting system The dynamic set to 10 switches the compressor ON after the source pump has been running for 30 minutes and the current flow temperature is higher than the selected flow temperature plus the flow temperature hysteresis plus 2 K (hysteresis for the dynamic of value 10).6.5 Dynamic (active cooling only) The dynamic parameter enables a choice to be made as to how quickly the compressor is started in case of active cooling. For the first 60 seconds. only the heating circuit pump is enabled. The heating circuit pump and the control unit cooling output are switched ON.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi Table 11 Recommended values for flow temperature and flow temperature hysteresis Flow temp. Quick reacting system The dynamic. The control variable is different for each distribution system.
7 Control characteristics of the active cooling The active cooling is controlled in the same way as passive cooling and is only supplemented by starting of the compressor and a simultaneous changeover of the valves. 7. 15. the control variable is equal to the selected flow temperature. The following applies: Control variable = selected flow temperature 7. the source pump switches OFF subject to the standard settings.3 °C 20.4 °C (see Table 8).1.3 °C Independent of the flow temperature.2 Heating surfaces The dew point of the heating surfaces is also monitored. Control variable = selected flow temperature if the selected flow temperature + hysteresis > dew point temperature + 2 K (see example case 1) Control variable = dew point temperature + 2 K if the selected flow temperature + hysteresis < dew point temperature + 2 K (see example case 2) Here is an example by way of an explanation: The user has selected a flow temperature of 15 °C plus a flow temperature hysteresis of 5 K.1 Fan convectors For fan convectors.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 184.108.40.206.4 °C + 2 K = 16.3 °C + 2 K + 5 K = 25. the source pump must run for at least 5 minutes.3 °C + 2 K = 20.3 °C > 20 °C: Control variable = dew point temperature + 2 K + hysteresis = 18. 18.3 °C. If. the cooling mode immediately switches over to DHW heating. Case 1: Relative humidity in the room: 75 % The dew point temperature at 20 °C and a relative humidity of 75 % is 15. DHW heating is demanded. This ensures that at least once. during this minimum runtime of 5 minutes. At a flow temperature < 15 °C.4 °C < 20 °C: Control variable = selected flow temperature + hysteresis = 20 °C Case 2: Relative humidity in the room: 90 % This results in a dew point temperature at 20 °C and 90 % relative humidity of 18. As a result a flow temperature of 20 °C is calculated. only cool water enters the cooling system to achieve a cooling effect at all. 31 .4 °C 16.
32 . the actual flow temperature is still higher than the control variable plus hysteresis.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 7.1 Compressor If. the 2 K is a fixed control hysteresis that should not be confused with the flow temperature hysteresis. In this case. The compressor switches OFF if the room temperature is lower than the set room temperature – 2 K. the compressor starts and the valves change over.7. after 30 minutes of passive cooling (the source pump has been running for 30 minutes).
If the correct glycol:water concentration was filled into the system and the brine contains corrosion inhibitors (25 to 33 %). fill the distribution system with a water:glycol mixture (brine). are suitable for water:glycol mixtures without restrictions. Therefore ensure that the individual components concerned are resistant to brine. If the system is run with brine expect a 1. Brine must only be topped up with a ready-mixed solution. the seals of which are made from PTFE. When selecting the pump. Table 12 Possible temperature differentials during heating and cooling Temperature differentials Heating Passive cooling Active cooling 5 – 15 °C 5 – 25 °C 5 – 50 °C 33 . ensure that only cast pumps (condensate forming between the casing and the stator) or rotary pumps are used.5-fold pressure drop. The expansion vessel on the brine side may possibly be sized larger in brine|water heat pumps in cooling mode on account of the temperature differentials.BRINE RESISTANCE 8 BRINE RESISTANCE With active cooling. then the following components from the Stiebel Eltron product range are brine resistant: - Pumps Valves Expansion vessels Safety valves Overflow valves.
1 WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Wiring diagram Figure 18 Hydraulic diagram WPF Figure 19 Connection diagram WPF 34 .WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE 9 9.
WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 20 Hydraulic diagram WPC cool Figure 21 Connection diagram WPC cool 35 .
WPF with WPAC 1 36 .WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 22 Hydraulic diagram .Cooling WPF with WPAC 1 Figure 23 Connection diagram .
Figure 24 Distribution strip heating/cooling The following overviews explain how the wiring of the rooms that require cooling and those that do not should be carried out. special distribution strips are available.WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE 9. they are equipped with an input for changing over between cooling and heating mode. 37 . Such distribution strips enable the connection of room temperature controllers and actuators in the individual rooms. In addition.2 Distribution strip/zone valve For the changeover from heating to cooling mode with area heating systems and the associated opening of actuator valves in the heating circuits in the rooms to be cooled.
room 1 Cooling Heating Phase Neutral conductor 38 . heating and cooling Valves.WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 25 Connection diagram for the wiring of the distribution strip with room thermostat 1 2 3 K H L N Room thermostat. heating only Room thermostat.
WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 26 Example of a connection diagram for the wiring of the distribution strip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SP cool distributor strip Room 1. heating only Single room thermostat (on site) FEK digital remote control Heating circuit distributor WPMi heat pump manager 39 . heating and cooling Room 3. heating and cooling Room 2.
COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS 10 COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS The advantages and disadvantages of the heat pump types for use in passive and active cooling are compared in the following table. with a brine|water heat pump passive and active cooling is feasibly. With reversible air|water heat pumps. passive cooling may frequently be adequate. Table 13 Overview of the advantages and disadvantages Brine|Water heat pump Advantages - Water|Water heat pump - Reversible Air|Water heat pump - Passive and active cooling are possible Low flow temperature possible (active cooling) Passive cooling adequate due to constant heat source temperature Low installation costs for the heat source Flow temperatures up to 7 °C possible - - - Constant flow temperature Low operating costs as only the well pump operates (in passive cooling) - Low operating costs as only the brine circulation pump operates (in passive cooling) - Disadvantages - High installation costs for the heat source Flow temperature subject to the ground probe temperature (in passive cooling) - High installation costs for the heat source Check the heat exchanger compatibility with groundwater - Cooling only possible from outside temperatures of 15 °C - - - Only active cooling is possible High operating costs as pumps and compressor operate - In summary it can be said that. With a water|water heat pump. only active cooling is technically feasible. 40 .
ventilation flaps). 41 . For this. air-conditioning systems with direct evaporation Split air-conditioning units are an alternative to the extraction of cooling loads. which is not required for cooling with an existing area heating system. 11. One problem. condensate is created when cooling the air. these units do not provide a simple cooling of the air. 11. these units are serviced regularly. The specific cooling capacity is approx. contains several banks for treating the air. If the circulating water is cooled below the dew point. 11. air-conditioning with dehumidification would be feasible. A classic office air-conditioning system. The cooling capacity is hampered by the low temperature differential between day and night temperatures. In such equipment. Cooling/tempering is therefore unacceptable for hygienic reasons.5 W/(m³/h).3 Air duct Apart from fan convectors or area heating systems there is the possibility of utilising air ducts in existing domestic ventilation systems as an alternative distribution system for cooling purposes. However. this must be drained away. 1. where the offices are air-conditioned with treated air. This can be easily realised if the room to be cooled is equipped with ventilation openings in opposing walls (windows.5 to 2. condensate is created on the water surface. particularly on hot days. a corresponding heat exchanger can be integrated into the central ventilation unit. resulting in the temperature falling below the dew point and consequently in condensation. In other words. Also.1 VRF systems. making the water wall suitable for dehumidification and cooling. This enables effective night ventilation by cross venting.2 Free cooling Free cooling represents an alternative that requires no mechanical drive for cooling the buildings. One disadvantage is the additional installation effort (internal and external equipment. is that pure cooling raises the relative humidity. however. There are units for humidifying and dehumidifying the air as well as those for boosting the heating.4 Water wall Water walls represent a simple option for reducing the room temperature in summer. wall outlets).ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS 11 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS 11. /5/ Free ventilation is easily achieved with domestic ventilation systems.
buildings are almost always cooled with split air-conditioning units. The additional use for cooling or tempering is attractive because of the low level of addition costs for the cooling systems and the very low costs for generating the cooling capacity.5 Cost consideration Today. 400 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example 3: Shop 500 m² (cooling 45 kW. these are also shown in Table 14. 42 . the use of heat pumps for cooling purposes. Example 1: Residential building 150 m² (cooling load 6 kW. 700 hours full cooling utilisation) Cooling foodstuffs with active or passive cooling is not feasible due to the limits of use.ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS 11. The alternative. 4 rooms. 15 rooms. 150 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example 2: Office building 300 m² (cooling load 25 kW. as the ground probe significantly regenerates the ground in summer. The combined use for cooling and heating improves the efficiency of heat pumps with ground probes in heating mode. off periods and control equipment. The heat pump has become a favourite heating system since oil and gas prices have constantly risen in cost. has come to be considered recently as heat pumps have found increasing favour as heating system.e. chillers or VRF systems (variable refrigerant flow). The following cost consideration compares three typical application examples for cooling. i.
€6222.a.0/p.000 €500.5/p.000 €19.0 utilisation) Additional investment. €27. €45. €4385. €30. €268.a.0/p. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs Additional investment. as the compressor operation is not required.0/p. passive and active cooling and in small businesses primarily the active cooling is recommended.0/p. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs - 4 Example: Residential building 150 m² (cooling load 6 kW.1 Recommendations Given the energy and annual cooling costs. €4. 700 hours full cooling utilisation) Assumptions for the cost consideration The investment outlay for the devices is based on manufacturer's details plus conventional installation costs. €25.000 €45.0/p. In office buildings. Unusual €9.95 % is based on an amortisation period of 10 years with an interest rate of 5 %.a. 400 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example: Shop 500 m² (cooling 45 kW.a.5/p. €7. we recommend the use primarily of passive cooling in detached houses.000 €395. 150 hours at full cooling €2.a.5/p.000 €9.0/p. 4 Only the pump operation for the brine and heating circuit are taken into account.0/p. as well as the different cooling loads.000 €100.a. €962. an office building and a shop /1/ Heat pump Passive cooling Active cooling 5.a. €5. 43 .3/p.0/p.0/p.a.a.a. 15 rooms.000 €315.a.8/p. €618.a.ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS Table 14 Cost comparison for different cooling systems using the examples of a residential building.000 €220.0/p.5/p.a.000 €1243.0/p.0/p.5. The electricity tariff for active cooling with heat pump is €0.a. 4 rooms.a. The electricity tariff for passive cooling with heat pump and cooling with room air-conditioning units and VRF systems is €0. 11. €6423.15/kWh. €40. €926.a. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs Additional investment.0 Room airconditioning units 3.11/kWh.000 €693.0 VRF-controlled air-conditioning systems 3.5/p.8 Performance factors in cooling mode 15. €4189.a.a. For the additional costs in connection with the cooling with heat pumps it is assumed that a heat pump heating systems with ground probes is already installed.a.0/p. €3457.a. Unusual Example: Office building 300 m² (cooling load 25 kW. The annuity with an annuity factor of 12. €1210.
skylights and doors Cooling load due to external and internal walls and floors Cooling load due to the ceiling Cooling load due to electrical devices Cooling load due to occupants 44 . The following influencing factors are taken into consideration: - Cooling load due to solar irradiation through windows.COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM Table 15 Overview application options passive/active cooling Passive cooling Detached house Office building Active cooling Office building Small business 12 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM The cooling load activation form enables an estimate of the cooling load for one room respectively to be made.
Topping up with brine only as ready-mixed solution.5-fold pressure drop.CHECK LIST 13 CHECK LIST - What is the purpose of the heat pump? What heat source is to be used with the heat pump? What is the required cooling capacity? Carry out a cooling load calculation.5 ⋅ Vmin. All lines and fittings must be made from corrosion resistant material. allow for a 1. Use only a circulation pumps that are resistant to brine and condensate. on the source side: ½ the minimum flow rate as for heating. The expansion vessel on the brine side may need to be sized larger for cooling since the temperature differentials are greater. Minimum flow rates. heating & & Source side: V min. heating - - - 45 . & & The following applies: Cooling side (inside the building): V min. Are all components resistant to brine? Are all pipe runs insulated in a vapour diffusion-proof manner? Must application limits be taken into consideration? The brine increases the pressure drop. cooling = 0. cooling = Vmin. What cooling source is available? Check the compatibility of the heat exchanger when cooling with a water|water heat pump. active cooling: On the cooling side: The same minimum flow rate as for heating. This must be taken into account when sizing the pumps.
Freymark.und Heizboden /7/ Sponsel.bosy-online. Taschenbuch für Heizung und Klimatechnik. Wirtschaftlichkeit von Eisspeichern. Berlin /2/ Handbuch der Klimatechnik. Protokollband 31 /6/ Recknagel. energetische und wirtschaftliche Bewertung passiver und aktiver Kühlsysteme mit Sole/Wasser-Wärmepumpen. chapter 3 Physiologische Grundlagen p.F. vol.3-7 Kombinierter Kühl. Arnd. TGA Fachplaner 4-2003 46 . Sprenger. Der Gesundheitsingenieur. p.2. Christian. Hilligweg.de/hx-diag. http://www. Schramek. No. publisher C. Müller GmbH. 2005/2006 72nd issue.BIBLIOGRAPHY 14 BIBLIOGRAPHY /1/ Brugmann.pdf (11/06) /4/ Leusden. 1951 /5/ Pfluger. Energieeffiziente Raumkühlung. Karlsruhe 1989. 1 Grundlagen. published 4th Forum Wärmepumpen 2006. Technische. Krone. Behaglichkeitsfeld. 1134 3. Rainer. 72. 62 /3/ h-x diagram. Oldenbourg Industrieverlag Munich 2005. Technologien zur energieeffizienten Raumkühlung: passiv-hybrid-aktiv.
14 Comfort. 38 Dynamic. 25 Operating modes WPC cool. 12 Air-conditioning. 10 Cooling with air|water heat pumps. 5 h-x diagram and dew point temperature. 8 Air.KEYWORD INDEX 15 KEYWORD INDEX Active cooling. 11 Ground probes. 34 Ceiling cassettes. 13 Area heating (underfloor). 8 Reversible heat pump. 10 Groundwater. 29 47 . 24 Hydraulics WPF. 44 Cooling via hydraulic changeover. 28 Cooling with brine|water heat pumps. 40 Cooling load calculation form. 22 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1. 14 Hydraulics WPC cool. 7 Area heating (ceiling). 14 Ground collectors. cooling and tempering. 26 Distribution strip/zone valve. 4 Comparison of cooling with different heat pumps. 18 Operating modes WPF. 13 Brine resistance. 31 Fan convectors. 17 Cooling with water|water heat pumps. 17 Passive cooling. 12 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling. 23 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2. 10 WPMi.