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Published by: Renuka Renu on Nov 25, 2013
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INTRODUCTION :Inappropriate functioning of the metabolic processes results in disorders manifested by changes in both physical and chemical structure of the bone. Disorders that alter bony equilibrium and affect bone turnover can be due to estrogen deficiency, parathyroid gland abnormalities, vitamin deficiency, malabsorption, or physical inactivity. Black board

What are the causes of bone disorders

Explain Osteoporosis

MEANING :2min Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Lecture many parts of the world and its scope will increase as the cum population ages. It affects about 20% of the postmenopausal discussion women and one of the every two women will experience a fracture at some point during her life. Even women and men are also at risk for osteoporotic fractures. 3min DEFINITION :Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disorder Lecture characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an cum increased risk of fracture. discussion - Joyce M Black ETIOLOGY :Many factors , both genetic and environmental , are Lecture involved in the development of osteoporosis. Bone mass, which is cum measured by bone densitometry and reported as Bone Mineral discussion Content (BMC) or Bone Mineral Density (BMD), is an important risk factor in osteoporosis. For osteoporosis value for BMD is


What do you mean by osteoporosis ?

Define osteoporosis

Writing notes

OHP chart

Define osteoporosis?

5min List out etiology and risk factors of

Active listening

Flash cards

List out the etiology and risk factors of

Low weight and body mass index .Alcohol and caffeine consumption in modernization . coexisting medical conditions (eg.Diets low in calcium and vitamin D .Contributing.Smoking cessation . corticosteroids.Increased dietary calcium and vitamin D intake .Use of alcohol and/or caffeine .bearing exercise regimen . race.Lack of weight-bearing exercise .Walk or exercise out of doors osteoporosis Explain the pathophysio logy of 8min PATHOPHYSIOLOGY :Normal bone remodeling in the adult results in gradually increased bone mass until the early 30s.Regular weight. anticonvulsant medications)  Lifestyle risk factors .Estrogen deficiency or menopause . celiac disease ) and medications ( eg.osteoporosis . cum Writing notes Model Explain . aging.Lack of exposure to sunshine  Risk – lowering strategies . Lecture genetics. Risk factors for Osteoporosis : Individual Risk Factors .Low initial bone mass .Increased age . nutrition. Gender.Female .Cigarette smoking . more than 2.Family history . low body weight and body mass index.5 SD below the young adult mean value.

Age-related loss begins soon after the peak bone mass is achieved. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS:Lecture cum  Mostly diagnosis of osteoporosis is made after a fracture . Secondary osteoporosis is associated with many disease states. decreases with aging. Loss of bone mass is a universal phenomenon associated with aging. When the therapy is discontinued or the metabolic problem is corrected. is decreased. which inhibits bone breakdown. Women develop osteoporosis more frequently and more extensively than men because of lower peak bone mass and the effect of estrogen loss during menopause. The consequence of these changes is net loss of bone mass over time. antiseizure medications. hyperthyroidism ) contribute to bone loss and the development of osteoporosis. lifestyle choices and physical activity influence peak bone mass discussion and the development of osteoporosis. discussion often a vertebral compression fracture . parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases with aging. but restoration of lost bone mass usually does not occur. The withdrawal of estrogens at menopause or with oopherectomy causes an accelerated bone resorption that continues during the postmenopausal years. renal failure. Coexisting medical conditions ( malabsorption syndrome. On the other hand. which inhibits bone resorption and promotes bone formation. Medications ( eg. Calcitonin. Know the 5min clinical manifestation What are clinical manifestat- . and medications. increasing bone turnover and resorption. the progression of osteoporosis is halted. corticosteroids. Clinical Active PPT listening and writing notes briefly the pathophysio Logy of osteoporosis. heparin .osteoporosis. Estrogen.tetracycline ) affect the body’s use and metabolism therapy. nutritional deficiencies. liver failure.

Life style changes focused on dietary List out the diagnostic findings of osteoporosis. Respiration may also be impaired by restricted lung expansion. serum phosphate. This acute pain usually subsides within 2 to 6 weeks. urine calcium excretion . serum calcium. Lecture MEDICAL MANAGEMENT :cum The goal of medical management is to prevent bone loss discussion and fragility fractures. which provides information about the BMD at Spine and Hip.     manifestations of it include sudden onset of severe back pain that worsens on movement and is relieved by rest. serum alkaline phosphate. Writing notes Ppt ions of osteoporosis ? List out the diagnostic findings of osteoporosis 3 min Lecture DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS : Routine X-Rays when there has been 25% to 40 % cum discussion demineralization. Shortened stature and progressive dorsal kyphosis Abdominal distension and bloating as lower ribs eventually rest on the iliac crests and causes downward pressure on viscera.  Laboratory studies ( Eg. hematocrit. Bone loss can also occur in the mandible which may lead loss of teeth or poorly fitting dentures as well as changes in the appearance of the face. Explain the medical management 8min Active listening Chart Briefly explain the .ns of osteoporosis.  Quantitative ultrasound studies (QUS) of the heel also are used to diagnose osteoporosis and to predict the risk of the hip and non vertebral fracture. erythrocyte sedimentation rate).  Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry ( DEXA) . urinary hydroxyproline excretion.

 Pharmaceutical prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis :Medications include HRT.  Calcium and vitamin D intake :The major sources of calcium include diary products. is necessary for maintaining bone mass.  Alcohol and tobacco :Alcohol abuse and smoking cigarettes increase the risk of osteoporosis. In has been suggested that regular exercise by older people would reduce the risk of the hip fracture by atleast half. The inactivity of older people increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of hip fracture. . Calcium can also be obtained from the wide range of calcium fortified foods .  Preventing loss of bone mass :Strategies for prevention are most effective when they are started in childhood to maximize peak bone and to establish life long bone healthy behaviors. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is considered for women who are peri menopausal . risedronate. raloxifene.of osteoporosis intake of adequate calcium and vitamin D and weight bearing exercise are prescribed to prevent bone loss.  Exercise :Weight bearing exercise such as walking and running. Other Several interventions include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D and regular weight bearing exercises and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol abuse. Clients receiving drug therapy for osteoporosis should be taught medical management of osteoporosis. alendronate. calcitonine and teriparatide.

. and recognition of problems associated with osteoporosis form the basis for nursing assessment.Any symptoms such as back pain . constipation or altered body image are explored. exercise pattern. identification of people at risk for discussion osteoporosis. and caffeine intake. onset of menopause and use of corticosteroids as well as alcohol. and adequate nutrition result in decreased morbidity and improved outcomes.Physical examination may disclose fracture . dietary consumption of calcium . Surgery . . kyphosis of the thoracic spine or shortened stature.Risk for constipation related to immobility or development of ileus ( intestinal obstruction). Writing notes Hand out Write in detail the nursing management of osteoporosis. smoking . intensive physical therapy.  Fracture management :Fractures of the hip are managed surgically by joint replacement or by closed or open reduction with internal fixation eg. Nursing diagnosis :.The heath history include family history. hip pinning. previous fractures. .Deficient knowledge about the osteoporotic process and treatment regimen. .Acute pain related to fracture and muscle spasm . . early ambulation. NURSING MANAGEMENT :Discuss the nursing management of osteoporosis 8min Lecture cum Assessment :.about the importance of dietary intake and activity.Health promotion.Risk for injury: additional fractures related to osteoporosis .

CONCLUSION :By the end of the class students will gain knowledge about Osteoporosis. Page no : 2057-2061. diagnostic findings.Joyce M Black & Jane Hokanson Hawks. medical and nursing management. -VOLUME -1. 2004. 7TH edition. etiology. “ MEDICALSURGICAL NURSING”. BIBLIOGRAPHY :. 10TH edition. . 2007.Brunner & Suddarth.Conclude the topic. . “ MEDICAL – SURGICAL NURSING”. pathophysiology. Page no : 564. its definition. clinical manifestations.597. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publications.Elseiver Publication.


Owaisi college of Nursing. .LESSON PLAN ON OSTEOPOROSIS Submitted By: Ms.Sc Nursing 1ST year. Ruby Kuriakose. M.

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