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INTRODUCTION :Inappropriate functioning of the metabolic processes results in disorders manifested by changes in both physical and chemical structure of the bone. Disorders that alter bony equilibrium and affect bone turnover can be due to estrogen deficiency, parathyroid gland abnormalities, vitamin deficiency, malabsorption, or physical inactivity. Black board

What are the causes of bone disorders

Explain Osteoporosis

MEANING :2min Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Lecture many parts of the world and its scope will increase as the cum population ages. It affects about 20% of the postmenopausal discussion women and one of the every two women will experience a fracture at some point during her life. Even women and men are also at risk for osteoporotic fractures. 3min DEFINITION :Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disorder Lecture characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an cum increased risk of fracture. discussion - Joyce M Black ETIOLOGY :Many factors , both genetic and environmental , are Lecture involved in the development of osteoporosis. Bone mass, which is cum measured by bone densitometry and reported as Bone Mineral discussion Content (BMC) or Bone Mineral Density (BMD), is an important risk factor in osteoporosis. For osteoporosis value for BMD is


What do you mean by osteoporosis ?

Define osteoporosis

Writing notes

OHP chart

Define osteoporosis?

5min List out etiology and risk factors of

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List out the etiology and risk factors of

5 SD below the young adult mean value. more than 2. nutrition.bearing exercise regimen .Lack of weight-bearing exercise .Smoking cessation . anticonvulsant medications)  Lifestyle risk factors .Female . corticosteroids.Increased age . low body weight and body mass index.osteoporosis . race.Estrogen deficiency or menopause . Lecture genetics.Family history . aging.Low initial bone mass . cum Writing notes Model Explain .Lack of exposure to sunshine  Risk – lowering strategies .Contributing. Gender.Walk or exercise out of doors osteoporosis Explain the pathophysio logy of 8min PATHOPHYSIOLOGY :Normal bone remodeling in the adult results in gradually increased bone mass until the early 30s.Cigarette smoking .Alcohol and caffeine consumption in modernization . Risk factors for Osteoporosis : Individual Risk Factors .Diets low in calcium and vitamin D .Low weight and body mass index . coexisting medical conditions (eg. celiac disease ) and medications ( eg.Use of alcohol and/or caffeine .Regular weight.Increased dietary calcium and vitamin D intake .

and medications. discussion often a vertebral compression fracture .tetracycline ) affect the body’s use and metabolism therapy. renal failure. increasing bone turnover and resorption. liver failure. which inhibits bone resorption and promotes bone formation. Secondary osteoporosis is associated with many disease states. the progression of osteoporosis is halted. hyperthyroidism ) contribute to bone loss and the development of osteoporosis. antiseizure medications. When the therapy is discontinued or the metabolic problem is corrected. decreases with aging. but restoration of lost bone mass usually does not occur. which inhibits bone breakdown. The withdrawal of estrogens at menopause or with oopherectomy causes an accelerated bone resorption that continues during the postmenopausal years. On the other hand. Clinical Active PPT listening and writing notes briefly the pathophysio Logy of osteoporosis. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS:Lecture cum  Mostly diagnosis of osteoporosis is made after a fracture . Age-related loss begins soon after the peak bone mass is achieved.osteoporosis. nutritional deficiencies. lifestyle choices and physical activity influence peak bone mass discussion and the development of osteoporosis. The consequence of these changes is net loss of bone mass over time. Coexisting medical conditions ( malabsorption syndrome. Women develop osteoporosis more frequently and more extensively than men because of lower peak bone mass and the effect of estrogen loss during menopause. Medications ( eg. Loss of bone mass is a universal phenomenon associated with aging. heparin . Estrogen. parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases with aging. Calcitonin. is decreased. corticosteroids. Know the 5min clinical manifestation What are clinical manifestat- .

erythrocyte sedimentation rate). This acute pain usually subsides within 2 to 6 weeks. Bone loss can also occur in the mandible which may lead loss of teeth or poorly fitting dentures as well as changes in the appearance of the face.  Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry ( DEXA) .  Quantitative ultrasound studies (QUS) of the heel also are used to diagnose osteoporosis and to predict the risk of the hip and non vertebral fracture. Respiration may also be impaired by restricted lung expansion. Explain the medical management 8min Active listening Chart Briefly explain the .  Laboratory studies ( Eg.ns of osteoporosis. serum phosphate. hematocrit. Shortened stature and progressive dorsal kyphosis Abdominal distension and bloating as lower ribs eventually rest on the iliac crests and causes downward pressure on viscera. urine calcium excretion . serum alkaline phosphate. Lecture MEDICAL MANAGEMENT :cum The goal of medical management is to prevent bone loss discussion and fragility fractures. Writing notes Ppt ions of osteoporosis ? List out the diagnostic findings of osteoporosis 3 min Lecture DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS : Routine X-Rays when there has been 25% to 40 % cum discussion demineralization.     manifestations of it include sudden onset of severe back pain that worsens on movement and is relieved by rest. which provides information about the BMD at Spine and Hip. Life style changes focused on dietary List out the diagnostic findings of osteoporosis. serum calcium. urinary hydroxyproline excretion.

Calcium can also be obtained from the wide range of calcium fortified foods . The inactivity of older people increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of hip fracture. In has been suggested that regular exercise by older people would reduce the risk of the hip fracture by atleast half. Other Several interventions include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D and regular weight bearing exercises and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol abuse. alendronate. raloxifene. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is considered for women who are peri menopausal .  Pharmaceutical prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis :Medications include HRT.  Alcohol and tobacco :Alcohol abuse and smoking cigarettes increase the risk of osteoporosis.  Exercise :Weight bearing exercise such as walking and running.of osteoporosis intake of adequate calcium and vitamin D and weight bearing exercise are prescribed to prevent bone loss. risedronate. calcitonine and teriparatide.  Preventing loss of bone mass :Strategies for prevention are most effective when they are started in childhood to maximize peak bone and to establish life long bone healthy behaviors. . is necessary for maintaining bone mass. Clients receiving drug therapy for osteoporosis should be taught medical management of osteoporosis.  Calcium and vitamin D intake :The major sources of calcium include diary products.

onset of menopause and use of corticosteroids as well as alcohol. hip pinning.  Fracture management :Fractures of the hip are managed surgically by joint replacement or by closed or open reduction with internal fixation eg. . exercise pattern. identification of people at risk for discussion osteoporosis. Writing notes Hand out Write in detail the nursing management of osteoporosis.Risk for injury: additional fractures related to osteoporosis . . intensive physical therapy. .Physical examination may disclose fracture .Risk for constipation related to immobility or development of ileus ( intestinal obstruction).Acute pain related to fracture and muscle spasm .Any symptoms such as back pain . . and recognition of problems associated with osteoporosis form the basis for nursing assessment. previous fractures.Health promotion. Surgery . and caffeine intake. .The heath history include family history.Deficient knowledge about the osteoporotic process and treatment regimen. dietary consumption of calcium . Nursing diagnosis :. kyphosis of the thoracic spine or shortened stature. early ambulation. constipation or altered body image are explored. smoking . and adequate nutrition result in decreased morbidity and improved outcomes. NURSING MANAGEMENT :Discuss the nursing management of osteoporosis 8min Lecture cum Assessment :.about the importance of dietary intake and activity.

CONCLUSION :By the end of the class students will gain knowledge about Osteoporosis.Elseiver Publication. 2007. 2004. “ MEDICALSURGICAL NURSING”. . medical and nursing management. clinical manifestations. “ MEDICAL – SURGICAL NURSING”. etiology. BIBLIOGRAPHY :. pathophysiology. Page no : 2057-2061.Joyce M Black & Jane Hokanson Hawks. diagnostic findings. 7TH edition. . -VOLUME -1. 10TH edition.Conclude the topic. its definition.Brunner & Suddarth. Page no : 564. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publications.597.


Sc Nursing 1ST year. . M.LESSON PLAN ON OSTEOPOROSIS Submitted By: Ms. Owaisi college of Nursing. Ruby Kuriakose.

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