Growth factor receptor bound protein2 A protein that acts as adaptor molecule between a growth factor receptor and

other signaling proteins. In a key signaling pathway, Grb2 binds an active PDGF receptor and activates a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras protein. Growth factors Proteins that stimulate cell division, proliferation or differentiation. See EGF and PDGF. guanosine triphosphate A small molecule essential to the regulation of signaling pathways in living cells. When a phosphate group is removed, GTP is converted to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). Some signal proteins, such as Ras, are active when bound to GTP, and inactive when bound to GDP. Jun A protein that interacts with the Fos protein to form AP-1, a transcription factor. When active, Fos and Jun bind together via a stretch of leucine amino acids that mesh like teeth in a zipper. The other ends of the proteins bind DNA to begin the transcription of growthpromoting genes. Researchers speculate that mutations in Fos and Jun may make them bind abnormally, activating target genes without responding to the usual controls. Mitogen activating protein kinase These enzymes – sometimes known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) – add phosphates to other proteins to activate or deactivate them. Mutations in these kinases can disrupt cell signaling and cause abnormal cell growth and proliferation. These proteins are good targets for drugs against cancer. Myc A transcription factor that activates growth – promoting genes and repressing the expression of genes that can arrest growth. In cancers such as Burkitt lymphoma, chromosomal rearrangements can make many copies of the myc gene or remove the usual constraints on its expression. P53 A protein that acts as a "checkpoint" in cells, inducing either growth arrest, DNA repair, or cell death when the cell's DNA is damaged. Mutations can occur in many places in the p53 gene (and thus the p53 protein). Cells with mutated p53 tend to be genetically unstable. Most cancer cells have mutations in the p53 protein. Platelet derived growth factor PDGF stimulates growth and division in cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. PDGF is important in tissue repair, activating cells of the immune system and synthesizing

. which releases them from their dependency on growth signals from other cells.components of the extracellular matrix. Some cancer cells produce their own PDGF.

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